WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying electrical utility

  1. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  2. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  3. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  4. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  5. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal as applied to electrical utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal (FBC), specifically as applied to base-load generation of electrical energy by utilities. The public health impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) plants are expected to be quite similar to those for Low Sulfur Coal (LSC) and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants because all appear to be able to meet Federal emission standards; however, there are emissions not covered by standards. Hydrocarbon emissions are higher and trace element emissions are lower for FBC than for conventional technologies. For FBC, based on an analytical model and a single emission data point, the polycyclic organic material decreases the anticipated lifespan of the highly exposed public very slightly. Added health protection due to lower trace element emissions is not known. Although there is a large quantity of solid wastes from the generating plant, the environmental impact of the FBC technology due to solid residue appears lower than for FGD, where sludge management requires larger land areas and presents problems due to the environmentally noxious calcium sulfite in the waste. Fixing the sludge may become a requirement that increases the cost of wet-limestone FGD but makes that system more acceptable. The potential for aquatic or terrestrial impacts from hydrocarbon emissions is low. If application of AFBC technology increases the use of local high-sulfur coals to the detriment of western low-sulfur coal, a sociological benefit could accrue to the FBC (or FGD) technology, because impacts caused by western boom towns would decrease. The infrastructure of areas that mine high-sulfur coal in the Midwest are better equipped to handle increased mining than the West.

  6. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  7. Reliability impact of solar electric generation upon electric utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. T.; Hobbs, W. J.

    1982-08-01

    The introduction of solar electric systems into an electric utility grid brings new considerations in the assessment of the utility's power supply reliability. This paper summarizes a methodology for estimating the reliability impact of solar electric technologies upon electric utilities for value assessment and planning purposes. Utility expansion and operating impacts are considered. Sample results from photovoltaic analysis show that solar electric plants can increase the reliable load-carrying capability of a utility system. However, the load-carrying capability of the incremental power tends to decrease, particularly at significant capacity penetration levels. Other factors influencing reliability impact are identified.

  8. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  9. Inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced inter-utility cooperation could have a profound effect on the future of the electricity supply industry. Coordinated planning, development, and operations of electric power systems have the potential to reduce the cost of electricity to consumers and to lessen the impact of electricity supply on the environment. These effects could be achieved by being able to supply electricity from lower cost and more environmentally benign sources located over wider geographic areas, and having to install less new generating capacity. Access to transmission and wheeling services would be an important factor in allowing increased inter-utility cooperation to occur. Canada's National Energy Board conducted a review to identify measures that can be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity, to encourage greater cooperation between electric utilities in the areas of systems planning and development, and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain access to available transmission capacity through intervening provinces for wheeling purposes. The work undertaken by the Board during that review is described. A total estimated economic benefit of $23-32.5 billion was identified, mainly from long-term firm sales and from seasonal diversity exchanges. Four options were developed that appear to be available to encourage and achieve enhanced inter-utility cooperation. These are continuation of voluntary cooperation, voluntary cooperation with federal monitoring, establishing voluntary regional planning entities, and establishing regional planning entities with mandated federal power

  10. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches

  11. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  12. Applying CPR to a gas utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest management tool to hit the United States over the past five years is Core Process Re-engineering (CPR). Though not as radical a procedure as the well-known rescue method it shares an abbreviation with, it is viewed as the radical thinking of a business process. CPR has helped breathe new life into gas and electric utilities in recent years, which have been using it to find ways to increase customer satisfaction, decrease operating costs, reduce process time and/or increase quality. The first phase of a typical project identifies and reviews current processes and obtains information that can point out re-engineering opportunities. The second phase involves the actual redesign of the current process. In this phase new teams may be formed, since the skill requirements are different (creative thinking becomes very important, for instance). Once alternatives are finalized and approved, the actual change process begins. Implementing all the recommendations can take several years, primarily because of labor and regulatory implications; therefore, planning the implementation is the most important part of the project. First, develop an overall implementation strategy. This overall strategy should address four major questions: What to implement? Who will implement? When to implement? How to implement? CPR is not an automatic solution to a problem. Any company wanting to expedite a CPR effort should consider the following factors: Align the CPR objectives to the overall company objectives; Ensure that senior management is actively involved and supports the CPR activities; Select the right team of people and ensure they are committed to the project; Develop a case for change and instill a sense of urgency in all the stakeholders; Focus on business results and not on specific activities; and Communicate, communicate, communicate

  13. Electrical utilities model for determining electrical distribution capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, R. L.

    1997-09-03

    In its simplest form, this model was to obtain meaningful data on the current state of the Site`s electrical transmission and distribution assets, and turn this vast collection of data into useful information. The resulting product is an Electrical Utilities Model for Determining Electrical Distribution Capacity which provides: current state of the electrical transmission and distribution systems; critical Hanford Site needs based on outyear planning documents; decision factor model. This model will enable Electrical Utilities management to improve forecasting requirements for service levels, budget, schedule, scope, and staffing, and recommend the best path forward to satisfy customer demands at the minimum risk and least cost to the government. A dynamic document, the model will be updated annually to reflect changes in Hanford Site activities.

  14. Optical fibre cable selection for electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The report provides an assessment of the range of optical fibre cable solutions available, by type e.g. OPGW, ADSS, rather than by design. it also examines the key issues which will influence an electricity utilities decisions and proposes a method of evaluating the options to identify the one which most closely matches the utility's critical needs, with measurements against time, cost and quality targets. (author)

  15. Fiber optic transmissions in electrical utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Louis

    2000-12-01

    The application of optic and photonic technology in electric networks in many cases is subject to constraints that differ from telecommunication or commercial applications. Starting by an overview of the quality of service (QoS) needed, in the first part of this paper we summarise some issues that confronted Hydro-Quebec in applying fibre optic technologies to its network. We explore by presenting lab and field trials some issues related to optical ground wires (OPGW) design and network architecture. We present temperature, vibration, ageing and short circuit current effects. We submit the results and analysis of a first field trial of and OC-48 link over a 265 km OPGW line, PMD measurements and an overview of the final design that is being implemented presently using Raman amplification. In the last section of the paper, we will discuss shortly of non-conventional photonic based technologies, local and distributed sensors and optical phenomenon that are used or have been discovered in utilities optical networks.

  16. Shaping the future of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 14, 1992, Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric Company (CG ampersand E) and PSI Resources, Inc. announced an agreement to merge the two companies into a newly formed company, CINergy Corp. In announcing the proposed merger, James E. Rogers Jr., chairman, president, and chief executive officer of PSI said, Our companies have chosen to shape our future and our industry. This is an ideal partnership, since our strengths complement each other and our vision of the future is the same. Will this merger be the first of many that will shape the future of the electric utility in the United States? What is the vision of the future for the industry? About five years ago, a well-known Wall Street utility analyst traveled around the country talking about the anticipated consolidation of electric utility companies in the US His motto was Fifty in Five, meaning widespread consolidation that would reduce the number of independent investor-owned utilities from more than 100 to 50 within a five-year period. He even developed a map showing the mergers/consolidations he looked for and actually named names. More than five years have passed, and only a handful of utility mergers have taken place. But, looking forward from 1992, restructuring of the utility industry is very much a vision of the future. What is the driving force? The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides the legislative framework for the electric utility industry in the US in future years. While the specific rules that will govern the industry are yet to be promulgated, the intent to allow (even promote) competition is evident in the Act itself. But it appears the vision of the future is market driven

  17. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of electric deregulation are and will continue to be pervasive and significant. Not only will the fundamental monopoly regulatory concepts of managing electric utilities change but deregulation will have a profound and dramatic impact on the way electric generating plants are managed and operated. In the past, under the various approaches to financial regulation, the economic benefits normally attributed to competition or that would have otherwise been derived from competitive or open market forces, were assumed to be embodied in and inherent to the various processes, methods and principles of financial oversight of utility companies by regional, state and municipal regulatory authorities. Traditionally, under the various forms of regulated monopolies, a utility company, in exchange for an exclusive franchise to produce and sell electricity in a particular region, was obligated to provide an adequate supply to all consumers wanting it, at a price that was 'just and reasonable'. The determination of adequate supply and reasonable price was a matter of interpretation by utility companies and their regulators. In essence, the ultimate economic benefits, normally attributed to price equilibrium, in balance with supply, demand and other market forces, were expected to be achieved through a complex, political process of financial regulatory oversight, in which utility companies were usually reimbursed for all annual expenses or their 'cost of service' and additionally allowed to earn a 'reasonable' rate of return on plant investments. The result was often escalating electric prices, over supplies of electric capacity, by justifying unnecessarily high reserve margins based on long planning horizons (typically 20 years or greater) with extrapolated demand requirements that were generally in excess of what actually occurred over time. Although the regulatory process varied from country or country and region-to-region, the fundamental principles, which

  18. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  19. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  20. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  1. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  2. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  3. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues

  4. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  5. Financial statistics of major investor-owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Financial Statistics of major Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues

  6. Reserving corridors for electrical utility infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, B. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Gamble, D. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Given long lead times for building the electric system, the risk of having insufficient property rights is significant. The problem is exacerbated by long lead times necessary for the regulatory approval and permitting processes. As electricity demand increases and land use requirements change, it is getting more difficult to secure property for necessary infrastructure. There is danger that if property is not reserved in advance of need, it may not be available in the future. This presentation discussed reserving corridors for electrical utility infrastructure. Several illustrations and photographs of the congested landscape were included. A project was initiated by BC Hydro and the British Columbia Transmission Corporation (BCTC) 2008 to investigate the benefits and risks of a process for reserving transmission and distribution properties in advance of need. The project structure was defined and business opportunities and issues were described. A survey and literature search as well as an overview of the BC Hydro and BCTC transmission and distribution planning were discussed. The presentation concluded with a discussion of integration with other initiatives and an options analysis. The recommended option was to proceed with the pilot project approach. Three types of projects were recommended, notably urban land, rural land, and lands affected by First Nation treaty settlement negotiations. figs.

  7. Electrical engineering is an applied mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti; Sambasri, Susanto; Widodo, Rohani Jahja

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents developments and applications of Electrical Engieering (EE) as an Applied Mathematic (AM). Several characteristics of EE can be linked to human behavior. EE can "think" in the sense that they can replace to some extent, human operation. It is a concept or principle that seems to fundamental in nature and not necessarily peculiar to engineering. EE theory can be discussed from four viewpoints as: an intellectual discipline within science and the philosophy of science, a part of engineering, with industrial applications and Social Systems (SS) of the present and the future. In global communication, developed countries and developing countries should build several attractive and sound symbiosis bridges, to prevent loss of universe balances. EE applications have social impacts not only in developed countries but also in developing countries.

  8. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  9. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  10. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data

  11. 29 CFR 1910.302 - Electric utilization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors of other circuits § 1910.308(f)—Solar photovoltaic systems (c) Applicability of requirements for... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric utilization systems. 1910.302 Section 1910.302... Electrical Systems § 1910.302 Electric utilization systems. Sections 1910.302 through 1910.308 contain...

  12. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  13. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  14. The Ursern electricity utility - Positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this interview with Markus Russi, head of an electricity utility in the Swiss Alps, recent Swiss legislation such as the Energy law and the cost-covering remuneration of power from renewable energy sources is discussed. The production of the power generation facilities belonging to the utility - hydropower and wind energy - is discussed and future refurbishment and expansion work noted. The situation in the electricity market and co-operation with other local electricity utilities are also discussed and various disadvantages of the new Swiss electricity market legislation are noted. Future partnerships with other utilities with similar business strategies are discussed.

  15. Utilization of electric properties of granular and powdery materials

    OpenAIRE

    Z. HlaváÄÂová

    2005-01-01

    Determination of electrical properties is utilized in a wide range of disciplines and industries. A brief compendium of electrical properties utilization of granular and powdery agricultural and food materials is presented in this paper. Electrical properties of granular and powdery materials are influenced by various factors. The most important are moisture content and its distribution in materials, temperature, density, volume or bulk density. The relationships between the resistivity, cond...

  16. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  17. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  18. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  19. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Hector, E-mail: hcampbellr@gmail.com [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Lambert, Alejandro [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. - Highlights: > We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. > Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. > Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. > Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. > Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  20. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Alternative Regulation for North American Electric Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade of favorable operating conditions, utilities find themselves faced with accelerating prices for key inputs and a growing need for new capacity. These pressures are likely to prompt increasingly frequent, and perhaps more contentious, rate cases. Steady progress in the development of alternative regulation provides hope that the utility industry will respond to these challenges much better than in 1975-85. (author)

  2. Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

    2006-09-01

    Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

  3. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The focus on reduction of fossil fuelled electricity generation has increased the attention on exploitation of low grade heat as the energy source for electricity producing power plants. Low grade heat is heat, which isavailable at a low temperature, e.g. from waste heat from marine diesel engines...... and industrial processes orfrom geothermal and solar heat sources. Utilization of such heat sources makes it possible to produce electricity with no additional burning of fossil fuel, and does therefore represent an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel based electricity production. Utilization...

  4. Peak load pricing in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenders, J.T.

    In the electric utility industry, cost minimization requires that heterogeneous electric generation technologies be used to produce electricity demands of different durations. In contrast to the conclusions of traditional peak-load pricing theory, the existence of a heterogeneous capital stock means that off-peak marginal cost prices almost always should include some marginal capacity costs, and that the profit maximizing regulated electric utility may set peak price above marginal cost and off-peak price below marginal cost in order to encourage the expansion of capital-intensive base load generating capacity. (auth)

  5. A generalization information management system applied to electrical distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, K.I.; Neumann, S.A.; Nielsen, T.D.; Bower, P.K. (Empros Systems International (US)); Hughes, B.A.

    1990-07-01

    This article presents a system solution approach that meets the requirements being imposed by industry trends and the electric utility customer. Specifically, the solution addresses electric distribution management systems. Electrical distribution management is a particularly well suited area of application because it involves a high diversity of tasks, which are currently supported by a proliferation of automated islands. Islands of automation which currently exist include (among others) distribution operations, load management, automated mapping, facility management, work order processing, and planning.

  6. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  7. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  8. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  9. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  10. Network governance in electricity distribution: Public utility or commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the question whether the operation and management of electricity distribution networks in a liberalized market environment evolves into a market driven commodity business or might be perceived as a genuine public utility task. A framework is developed to classify and compare different institutional arrangements according to the public utility model and the commodity model. These models are exemplified for the case of the Dutch electricity sector. It appears that the institutional organization of electricity distribution networks is at the crossroads of two very different institutional development paths. They develop towards commercial business if the system characteristics of the electricity sector remain basically unchanged to the traditional situation. If however innovative technological developments allow for a decentralization and decomposition of the electricity system, distribution networks might be operated as public utilities while other energy services are exploited commercially. (Author)

  11. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  12. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  13. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  14. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ''business as usual,'' ''technotopia future,'' and ''fortress state'' -and three electric utility scenarios- ''frozen in headlights,'' ''megaelectric,'' and ''discomania.'' The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest

  15. Remote Educational Experiment Applied To Electrical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mota Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of an architecture for a remote educational experiment concerning the speed control applied to a direct current motor. The proposed architecture is based on the use of an Arduino Uno and Ethernet Shield, whose function is to interface between the experiment and the Internet. The user can access the control experiment through an application developed in Java, which allows the students to choose the model of the controller (P, PI and PID they want to study, change its parameters and the system response visualization through graphics and webcam. Results show the potential of the application of such architecture to remote experimentation context concerning engineering, mainly to the specific area of control systems.

  16. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  17. Reshaping the electric utility industry: Competitive implications for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper briefly outlines some of the issues in the electric power industry restructuring. In addition, the impacts of these changes on the energy marketplace are discussed. Federal policy initiatives, state regulatory response, and utility management response are each described. Management skills are identified as the critical success factor for competition in the utility market.

  18. Value analysis of wind energy systems to electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, D.; Harper, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the value of utility-operated wind energy systems to electric utilities. The analysis is performed by a package of computer models that interface with most conventional utility planning models. Weather data are converted to wind turbine output powers, which are used to modify the utility load representation. Execution of the utility planning models with both the original and modified load representation yields the gross and marginal value ($/rated kW/) of the added wind energy systems. This value is then compared with cost estimates to determine if for economic reasons the wind energy system should be included in future generation plans.

  19. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  20. Essays in Applied Microeconomics With Application to Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three parts dealing with both game theoretic and general equilibrium models, which were originally motivated by research questions regarding liberalized electricity markets. However, the model frameworks developed can more or less be applied to other industries as well. In Chapter 2, I study two electricity markets connected by a fixed amount of crossborder capacity. The total amount of capacity is known to all electricity traders and allocated via an auction. The c...

  1. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility`s ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term `DSM` is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility`s system. Depending on one`s perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility`s ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy.

  4. Review of inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, Canada's National Energy Board released two discussion papers on inter-utility trade. Responses to the papers were received from utilities, government agencies, and other interested parties with regard to questions concerning measures that could be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain commercial access to available transmission capacity through intermediate provinces for wheeling purposes. The Board's review had estimated long-term net benefits from enhanced inter-utility cooperation at $23-32.5 billion by the year 2000 from such types of transactions as seasonal diversity exchanges and long-term firm sales. Seven types of options to achieve enhanced inter-utility trade were identified. Most of the respondent utilities and provinces that have direct access to external markets tended to prefer the status quo, opposing mandated solutions but supporting (or at least not opposing) federal monitoring of progress on enhanced inter-utility cooperation. Provinces and utilities without direct access to external markets tended to support (as a last resort) mandated solutions to disputes concerning electricity trade. Since the Board review, important events in the North American electricity supply industry have occurred; these are described, focusing on the US Energy Policy Act that gives powers to order transmission access. The formation by US utilities of regional transmission groups (RTGs) with federal encouragement is discussed, along with the implications for Canadian utilities that may want to become members of particular RTGs. The advantages and drawbacks of selecting the various options for enhancing inter-utility trade are then summarized. 1 tab

  5. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for 1991 and 1990 receipts and costs for fossil fuels discussed in the Executive Summary are displayed in Tables ES1 through ES7. These data are for electric generating plants with a total steam-electric and combined-cycle nameplate capacity of 50 or more megawatts. Data presented in the Executive Summary on generation, consumption, and stocks of fossil fuels at electric utilities are based on data collected on the Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-759, ''Monthly Power Plant Report.'' These data cover all electric generating plants. The average delivered cost of coal, petroleum, and gas each decreased in 1991 from 1990 levels. Overall, the average annual cost of fossil fuels delivered to electric utilities in 1991 was $1.60 per million Btu, a decrease of $0.09 per million Btu from 1990. This was the lowest average annual cost since 1978 and was the result of the abundant supply of coal, petroleum, and gas available to electric utilities. US net generation of electricity by all electric utilities in 1991 increased by less than I percent--the smallest increase since the decline that occurred in 1982.3 Coal and gas-fired steam net generation, each, decreased by less than I percent and petroleum-fired steam net generation by nearly 5 percent. Nuclear-powered net generation, however, increased by 6 percent. Fossil fuels accounted for 68 percent of all generation; nuclear, 22 percent; and hydroelectric, 10 percent. Sales of electricity to ultimate consumers in 1991 were 2 percent higher than during 1990

  6. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  7. (Electric utility consumer protection on island of Guam). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-30

    This report describes the establishment and operation of the Guam Office of Consumer Services, created in 1977 for representing consumers in electric utility matters. Much of the initial effort of the staff was to assist the newly created Guam Public Utilities Commission to become a viable entity. Electric service on the island of Guam is provided jointly by the Guam Power Authority, an autonomous agency of the Government of Guam and the United States Navy. For many years, customers have suffered from frequent outages, severe voltage fluctuation, and high rates. This Office spent nearly two years preparing a case on behalf of electric consumers in an effort to bring about changes in the utility. The hearing took seven months to complete. Our case focused on inequities in the rate structure and operating inefficiencies.

  8. [Study on dewatering of activated sludge under applied electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Li; Feng, Jing

    2012-12-01

    For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge (AS), the effect of pH and conductivity of AS, flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field (voltage magnitude, method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated, and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained. The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value (6.93) and conductivity (1.46 mS x cm(-1)). CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process, whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate. The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes, while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes. The delay of applying the electric field had an inhibition effect on the AS electro-dewatering rate. Moreover, the optimum conditions for AS electro-dewatering were followed: CPAM dose of 9 g x kg(-1), electric field strength of 600 V x m(-1), distance between the two plates of 40 mm, dehydration time of 60 minutes. Under above optimum conditions the AS electro-dewatering rate could approach to 85.33% and the moisture content in AS decreased from 99.30% to 95.15% accordingly.

  9. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  10. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan's regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  11. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility's ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term 'DSM' is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility's system. Depending on one's perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility's ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy

  12. Ownership, Regulation, and Managerial Monitoring in the Electric Utility Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Geddes, R. Richard

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses three issues. First, the sensitivity of managerial turnover in investor owned electric utilities to changes in owner and customer wealth is examined Accounting measures of firm performance, allowed returns, and changes in outputs are included. A logit model is estimated to test the hypothesis that managers in regulated utilities are monitored by owners on the basis of regulatory rent-seeking behavior, versus a "regulatory slack" hypothesis. The evidence: presented here ...

  13. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  14. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  15. The EU's major electricity and gas utilities since market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. Contents: Executive Summary. Introduction. Seven Case Studies of Changing Strategies of Major European Energy Utilities since Market Liberalization (E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, RWE, Iberdrola, Vattenfall, Other European Utilities). Overview of Major National and Regional Electricity and Gas Market in the EU (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Nordic, Belgium and the Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe). Conclusions. Annex. Bibliography

  16. The rural utility response to Colorado's electricity mandates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to incorporate more renewable energy sources into their electricity mix. This was evident by the state's support for Amendment 37, which was passed due to strong support in the Denver metro area-representing nearly half of the state's population. Support for the bill was poor in the rest of the state. Nevertheless, in 2007, the state expanded up Amendment 37 by forcing the utilities in rural communities to diversify their electricity mix. This study surveyed the managers at the state's various rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in an effort to gage their attitudes concerning: carbon legislation, conservation and efficiency programs, and their plans for making the transition away from fossil fuel generation. - Highlights: → Communities served by rural utilities opposed Colorado's state-wide RPS, but were forced to adhere anyway. → Most rural utilities are very concerned about the economic impacts of trying to diversify their energy portfolios. → Many of these unregulated utilities were already pushing DSM programs to promote conservation and improve efficiency.

  17. The future of the electric utility industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of future changes in the electric power utility industry in Canada was presented. The impacts of deregulation were considered, including increased competition, and reduced profits resulting from it. Restructuring measures taken by BC Hydro to prepare for industry changes were described. Competition was not only expected to result from new electric utilities, but also gas utilities that are establishing themselves in the home heating business. Emphasis was placed on making the utilities' priorities, the same as their customers'. Flexibility of rate scheduling and increased dependence on customer-owned generation were needed to remain competitive. Exportation of surplus electricity and development of power utilities in developing nations was considered as a potentially lucrative development strategy. It was suggested that making use of strategic alliances within Canada and worldwide, will help to keep utilities ahead of the competition. A warning was issued to the effect that environmental concerns must always be considered well in advance of regulations since they are continually becoming more stringent. Making common cause with customers, and continuous improvement were considered to be the most important keys to future success for the industry

  18. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  19. The Effect of Market Power on Electricity Storage Utilization: The Case of Pumped Hydro Storage in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter; Kemfert, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the game-theoretic electricity market model ElStorM that includes the possibility of strategic electricity storage. We apply the model to the German electricity market and analyze different realistic and counterfactual cases of strategic and non-strategic pumped hydro storage utilization by different players. We find that the utilization of storage capacities depends on the operator and its ability to exert market power both regarding storage and conventional generat...

  20. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price

  1. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  2. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  3. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  4. Survey of electric utility demand for coal. [1972-1992; by utility and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Caruso, J.V.; Kouvalis, A.; Maslowski, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for coal in the United States. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases during the period July 1972 through December 1978 and (2) direct telephone survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1992. Price and quantity data for coal used in existing plants are presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual coal-consuming states during recent years. Coal source, quality, quantity, and transportation data are reported for existing and planned generating plants.

  5. Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Ysbrand John

    This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

  6. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can become strategically rigid in terms of adoption of newer technologies. The reluctance or delay in the adoption of new technology can be characterized as strategic rigidness, brought upon as a result of a firm's core competence or core capability in the other, more conventional technology arrangement. This paper explores the implications of such rigidness on the performance of a firm and consequently on the energy eco-system. The paper substantiates the results by emphasizing the case of Iberdrola S.A., an incumbent firm as a wind energy developer and its adoption decision behavior. We illustrate that the very routines that create competitive advantage for firms in the electric utility industry are vulnerable as they might also develop as sources of competitive disadvantage, when firms confront environmental change and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Present a firm-level perspective on technology adoption behavior among electric utilities. • Firms with mature technology can become rigid towards newer technologies. • Case study analysis of a major electric utility firm. • Implications of ‘technology rigidness’ on the energy eco-system

  7. Impacts and Utilization of Electric Vehicles Integration Into Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUZechun; SONG Yonghua; XU Zhiwei; LUO Zhuowei; ZHAN Kaiqiao; JIA Long

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of electric vehicles (EVs) penetration in power grids, the charging of EVs will have significant impacts on power system planning and operation. It is necessary to note that the majority of EVs are not in use in most of the time in a day. Therefore, the onboard batteries can be utilized as energy storage devices. This article reviews and discusses the current related research in the following areas.

  8. Toxics Release Inventory reporting: Focus on the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biden, D.; Cain, R.D.; Hoone, D.; Duncan, M.F.; O' Reilly, M.J.; Dodson, S.; Koch, L.L.; Novitsky, W.M.; Ogitis, R.S.; Farkas, S.M.

    1999-07-01

    The look of EPA's annual Toxics Release Inventory Report (TRI) is about to change. Starting in the 1998 reporting year seven new industries are required to report TRI releases. The electric utility industry will join the chemical industry and others who have reported under TRI rules for the last ten years. A major change to EPA's report will be the top ten chemical list. The TRI releases that the electric utility sector will report are of a different chemical composition than those from manufacturing. Because of the layout of the TRI database, the large quantities of utility releases will shift the public focus away from organic constituents to that of less familiar combustion by-products. The resulting shift of reported chemicals could rekindle and intensify interest in air related issues such as acid rain, global warming, and deforestation, and result in public confusion over the health and safety implications associated with releases generated by coal combustion. The nature of the electric generation marketplace will also make year-to-year and company-to-company chemical release comparisons difficult with the present framework of EPA's publication of TRI data.

  9. Liberalisation and green patent registrations of electric utilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a study of the influence of reforms which introduce a liberalisation of energy markets on the innovation behaviour of electric utilities in some countries. Within a context of concentration of this sector, the hypothesis of a negative impact on patent registration by electric utilities is tested by the authors. They first define the notion of environmental innovation and its evolution in the electric energy sector as the climate and environment issues are nowadays extremely important for the energy sector. R and D here addresses micro-generation, fuel cells, tidal turbine systems, energy production by using solar energy, and biomass gasification. They discuss numbers of pattern registrations by European utilities before and after laws on energy market reform. They present an econometric model and data used to test the hypothesis and comment the obtained results. The model comprises a knowledge production function, and various explicative variables (firm size and R and D, reforms, technological opportunities, energy mix, and influence of demand)

  10. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  11. Effect of applied DC electric fields in flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of applied DC electric fields on the flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire. The flame-spread rates over electrical wire with negative and positive DC electric fields from 0 to ±7 kV were measured and analyzed. We compared the results for DC electric fields with previous results for AC electric fields. We explored whether or not various flame shapes could be obtained with DC electric fields and the main reason for the flame-spread acceleration, particularly at the end of the electrical wire, for AC electric fields. We found that DC electric fields do not significantly affect the flame-spread rates. However, the flame shape is mildly altered by the ionic wind effect even for DC electric fields. The flame-spread rate is relevant to the flame shape and the slanted direction in spite of the mild impact. A possible explanation for the flame spread is given by a thermal-balance mechanism and fuel-vapor jet. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  12. How to develop a world class electrical utility for the free markets of electrical energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity distribution in Finland is going to the new stage where the electrical energy market will be gradually free from competition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of the world class utility. A feasibility study was made to research the condition in logistics and suitable methods for the implementation. Some ideas have been piloted to verify and find acceptable approaches of the implementation to practice. Utilities improved the cost efficiency and strategical business logistics in a customer oriented and flexible way. The methods and findings can be used on other public and industrial areas, too

  13. Electrical equipment distributors assuming greater role as suppliers to electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted of Canada's largest distributors of electrical equipment to the utility market. Summaries are presented of the views of the major respondents concerning market trends and future challenges. Distributors have emerged as a supply source to utilities over the past two decades. Before then, electric utilities did virtually all their business directly with the manufacturers and rarely with distributors. One reason for this situation was that direct dealing with manufacturers was perceived by the utilites as providing better access to technical advice. Distributors have grown significantly since then and many have their own expert technical staff and provide full support for their products. Various advantages for utilities in dealing with distributors are noted: ability to supply most needs relatively rapidly from stock, simplification of ordering, improved inventory management, and savings in brokerage and other costs associated with imported equipment

  14. Response strategies for electric utilities to an uncertain climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precautionary principle is being applied by legislators in formulating policy responses to the predictions of an enhanced greenhouse effect. Global commitments have been made under the Framework Convention on Climate Change to take measures aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Electricity production from fossil fuels is a significant global source of carbon dioxide and a focus for emission reduction efforts. The decisions of policy-makers will impact on the electricity sector. However, the size and structure of this sector imply that substantial impositions cannot be placed on it in the short term without severe economic and social consequences. What is required of policy-makers is a pragmatic approach, since there are no simple or unique solutions. A rational attitude to energy use must be fostered which recognizes the special role of electricity in a modern economy

  15. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  16. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B Vosika

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1 Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2 Cole equation, and 3 Constant Phase Element (CPE. These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  17. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  18. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  19. Charged Polymers Transport under Applied Electric Fields in Periodic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nedelcu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the transport of charged polymers in applied electric fields in confining environments, which were straight cylinders of uniform or non-uniform diameter. In the simulations, the solvent was modeled explicitly and, also, the counterions and coions of added salt. The electrophoretic velocities of charged chains in relation to electrolyte friction, hydrodynamic effects due to the solvent, and surface friction were calculated. We found that the velocities were higher if counterions were moved away from the polymeric domain, which led to a decrease in hydrodynamic friction. The topology of the surface played a key role in retarding the motion of the polyelectrolyte and, even more so, in the presence of transverse electric fields. The present study showed that a possible way of improving separation resolution is by controlling the motion of counterions or electrolyte friction effects.

  20. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Many regulators, utilities, customer groups, and other stakeholders are reevaluating existing regulatory models and the roles and financial implications for electric utilities in the context of today’s environment of increasing distributed energy resource (DER) penetrations, forecasts of significant T&D investment, and relatively flat or negative utility sales growth. When this is coupled with predictions about fewer grid-connected customers (i.e., customer defection), there is growing concern about the potential for serious negative impacts on the regulated utility business model. Among states engaged in these issues, the range of topics under consideration is broad. Most of these states are considering whether approaches that have been applied historically to mitigate the impacts of previous “disruptions” to the regulated utility business model (e.g., energy efficiency) as well as to align utility financial interests with increased adoption of such “disruptive technologies” (e.g., shareholder incentive mechanisms, lost revenue mechanisms) are appropriate and effective in the present context. A handful of states are presently considering more fundamental changes to regulatory models and the role of regulated utilities in the ownership, management, and operation of electric delivery systems (e.g., New York “Reforming the Energy Vision” proceeding).

  1. The Municipal Electrical Utilities' role in buying and selling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's Municipal Electrical Utilities (MEUs) are the front-line providers of electricity services for most of the consumers in Ontario. MEUs serve 2.8 million customers (about 70 per cent of all power sold in Ontario). The new regulatory regime resulting from Ontario's Energy Competition Act (1998) will significantly impact MEUs. The changes aim to consolidate and rationalize the point of sale provision of power to Ontario customers and increase the efficiency of the sector. The Energy Competition Act (1998) creates a competitive electricity marketplace and provides mechanisms for its operation, but it is the MEUs which will bear the risk of market failures. Some of the changes which will be most important to MEUs are: (1) incorporation, (2) default supplier, and (3) oversight by the OEB. It is the author's view that the move towards open markets in electricity is unlikely to enlarge the decision making power of MEUs. On the contrary, the legislative scheme creates a complex regulatory environment wherein the distribution corporation must strictly comply with the OEB's requirements and public policy concerns in exercising its functions. As the MEUs essentially serve as a buffer in the newly opened retail markets, they must find ways to minimize their risk of market failures or spread the cost so as to remain viable commercial entities. They must also devise new information systems prior to the opening of the new market to deal with customer and default consumer pricing, billing and transfer of customers to and from retailers. Municipal utilities will also have to consider restructuring of their own operations, including determining which businesses should be pursued through competitive affiliates

  2. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar, Arsalan; Palacios Fernández, Miguel; Ruiz Lopez, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can be...

  3. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  4. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. Overview of U.S. electric utilities: Transmission and distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.D. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Inc., Winchester, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    I hope this brief description of the US electric utility industry has been interesting and informative. No doubt many characteristics, concerns, and research efforts mirror those of the electric utility industry in South Korea. It is hoped that through workshops such as this that electric utilities, manufacturers and consultants may learn from each other for the mutual benefit of all.

  6. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities....

  7. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  8. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  9. Applying Utility Functions to Adaptation Planning for Home Automation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratskas, Pyrros; Paspallis, Nearchos; Kakousis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, George A.

    A pervasive computing environment typically comprises multiple embedded devices that may interact together and with mobile users. These users are part of the environment, and they experience it through a variety of devices embedded in the environment. This perception involves technologies which may be heterogeneous, pervasive, and dynamic. Due to the highly dynamic properties of such environments, the software systems running on them have to face problems such as user mobility, service failures, or resource and goal changes which may happen in an unpredictable manner. To cope with these problems, such systems must be autonomous and self-managed. In this chapter we deal with a special kind of a ubiquitous environment, a smart home environment, and introduce a user-preference-based model for adaptation planning. The model, which dynamically forms a set of configuration plans for resources, reasons automatically and autonomously, based on utility functions, on which plan is likely to best achieve the user's goals with respect to resource availability and user needs.

  10. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  11. Ancillary-service costs for 12 US electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1996-03-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC divided these services into three categories: ``actions taken to effect the transaction (such as scheduling and dispatching services) , services that are necessary to maintain the integrity of the transmission system [and] services needed to correct for the effects associated with undertaking a transaction.`` In March 1995, FERC published a proposed rule to ensure open and comparable access to transmission networks throughout the country. The rule defined six ancillary services and developed pro forma tariffs for these services: scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, energy imbalance, loss compensation, and reactive power/voltage control.

  12. Managing the GPS/GIS function in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new period of higher significance has arrived for the GPS/GIS function at electric utilities such that to a degree never seen before, utility managers are looking to their GIS programs, filled with increasingly accurate data collected by GPS technology, before making many decisions. With this capability comes an expectation for GPS/GIS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management of their data collection process. At Duke Power in Charlotte, North Carolina, managers rely on GPS mapping to fill their data collection equipment needs. When the city of Charlotte requested a more detailed billing system, Duke Power co-sponsored the street lighting inventory project, a comprehensive program implemented to fully account for street lighting facilities within the billing area. One of the key projects to be kept in mind was the creation of a common data base viewable by GIS from which a bill could be created and as well reveal data. A billing calculation routine can be run against the data base to generate a bill or use MapInfo to see a graphical picture. Prior to the creation of this data base capability, the difference between the data base as a display tool and billing system was a potential source of discrepancy, which is eliminated now. Creating the data base allows more than just creating a bill for the city, it allows Duke Power to work better with the city by improving its billing accountability and provides better service as well

  13. Shutdown risk management applied at Philadelphia Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and implementation of an effective risk management program requires basic risk or safety knowledge and the conversion of such information into effective management tools. ERIN Engineering and Research, Inc., under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has developed an effective program. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM), to provide plant and management personnel with understandable results of shutdown risk studies. With this tool, the impact of plans and decision options can be readily determined and displayed for the decision maker. This paper describes these methods and their application to the Limerick Nuclear Station of Philadelphia Electric Company. It also sets forth a broader application of these methods to include support of management decisions at-power and following forced outages. The result is an integrated risk management framework which can allow management and technical personnel to utilize readily available and understandable risk insights to optimize each activity. This paper addresses the resolution of several key issues in detail: How was the ORAM risk management method employed to represent the existing plant shutdown procedures and policies? How did the ORAM risk management method enhance the decision-making ability of the outage management staff? How was the ORAM software efficiently integrated with the outage scheduling software? How is quantitative risk information generated and used for outage planning and control? The ORAM risk management philosophy utilizes a series of colors to depict various risk configurations. Each such configuration has associated with it clear guidance. By modifying the conditions existing in the plant it is possible to impact the type of risk being encountered as well as the guidance which is appropriate for that period. In addition, the duration of a particular configuration can be effectively managed to reduce the overall risk impact. These are achieved with minimal

  14. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  15. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electric or gas utility companies. 250.7 Section 250.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.7 Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies....

  16. The physical demands of electrical utilities work in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Lauzon, Martin; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the physical demands associated with electrical utilities work in North America and how they influence the level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced. Three common job categories were monitored as they are normally performed in thirty-two electrical utility workers: (i) Ground Work (n = 11), (ii) Bucket Work (n = 9), and (iii) Manual Pole Work (n = 12). Video analysis was performed to determine the proportion of the work monitoring period (duration: 187 ± 104 min) spent at different levels of physical effort (i.e., rest as well as light, moderate and heavy effort). Core and skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously. On average, workers spent 35.9 ± 15.9, 36.8 ± 17.8, 24.7 ± 12.8, and 2.6 ± 3.3% of the work period at rest and performing work classified as light, moderate, and heavy physical effort, respectively. Moreover, a greater proportion of the work period was spent performing heavy work in Ground Work (1.6 ± 1.4%) relative to Bucket Work (0.0 ± 0.0%; Pwork job (both P≤0.03). Furthermore, the proportion of time spent during work classified as heavy physical effort was positively correlated to the mean (r = 0.51, Pwork period as well as the mean heart rate response (presented as a percentage of heart rate reserve; r = 0.40, P = 0.03). Finally, mean and peak core temperatures and mean heart rate responses increased from the first to the second half of the work shift; however, no differences in the proportion of the work spent at the different intensity classifications were observed. We show that Manual Pole Work is associated with greater levels of physical effort compared to Ground or Bucket Work. Moreover, we suggest that the proportion of time spent performing work classified as heavy physical exertion is related to the level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced and that workers may not be employing self-pacing as a strategy to manage their level of physiological strain.

  17. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  18. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-11-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably.

  19. Examination of Electric Utility CEO Compensation 2000-2011 and its significance to Company Earnings, Company Revenue, Company Stock and the Dow Jones Utility Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitch, Andrew

    This dissertation examined electric utility CEO compensation during the years 2000 through 2011 for United States owned and operated companies. To determine the extent to which agency theory may apply to electric utility CEO compensation, this examination segmented the industry by four types of company financial metrics: revenue, earnings, stock price and the Dow Jones Utility Average; by five categories of CEO compensation: base salary, bonus, stock grants, all other compensation and total compensation; and by four categories of company size as measured by revenue: large, medium, small and the industry as a whole. Electric utility CEO compensation data was analyzed with the financial metrics to determine correlations. No type of compensation was highly correlated to any of the financial metrics for any size industry segment indicating that there was little agency. CEO compensation in large electric utility companies was higher than compensation in medium and smaller companies even though the CEOs at larger companies earned less per dollar of revenue and per dollar of earnings than their counterparts in smaller companies.

  20. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-05-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  1. ORFIN: An electric utility financial and production simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.

    1996-03-01

    With the coming changes in the electrical industry, there is a broad need to understand the impacts of restructuring on customers, existing utilities, and other stakeholders. Retail wheeling; performance-based regulation; unbundling of generation, transmission, and distribution; and the impact of stranded commitments are all key issues in the discussions of the future of the industry. To quantify these issues, financial and production cost models are required. The authors have created a smaller and faster finance and operations model call the Oak Ridge Financial Model (ORFIN) to help analyze the ramifications of the issues identified above. It combines detailed pricing and financial analysis with an economic dispatch model over a multi-year period. Several types of ratemaking are modeled, as well as the wholesale market and retail wheeling. Multiple plants and purchased power contracts are modeled for economic dispatch, and separate financial accounts are kept for each. Transmission, distribution, and other functions are also broken out. Regulatory assets such as deferred tax credits and demand-side management (DSM) programs are also included in the income statement and balance sheet. This report describes some of the key features of the model. Examples of the financial reports are shown, with a description of their formulation. Some of the ways these results can be used in analyzing various issues are provided.

  2. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  3. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  4. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  5. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  6. Why do electricity utilities cooperate with coal suppliers? A theoretical and empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetry of Chinese coal and electricity pricing reforms leads to serious conflict between coal suppliers and electricity utilities. Electricity utilities experience significant losses as a result of conflict: severe coal price fluctuations, and uncertainty in the quantity and quality of coal supplies. This paper explores whether establishing cooperative relationships between coal suppliers and electricity utilities can resolve conflicts. We begin with a discussion of the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms, and then conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting to provide a new perspective on the drivers behind the establishment of cooperative relationships between the two parties. Finally, we empirically investigate the role of cooperative relationships and the establishment of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of electricity utilities. The results show that relational contracting between electricity utilities and coal suppliers improves the market performance of electricity utilities; meanwhile, the transportation cost savings derived from mine-mouth power plants are of importance in improving the performance of electricity utilities. - Highlights: ► We discuss the history of coal and electricity pricing reforms. ► The roots of conflicts between electricity and coal firms are presented. ► We conduct a theoretical analysis of relational contracting. ► The role of mine-mouth power plants on the performance of power firms is examined.

  7. Applying mathematical finance tools to the competitive Nordic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis models competitive electricity markets using the methods of mathematical finance. Fundamental problems of finance are market price modelling, derivative pricing, and optimal portfolio selection. The same questions arise in competitive electricity markets. The thesis presents an electricity spot price model based on the fundamental stochastic factors that affect electricity prices. The resulting price model has sound economic foundations, is able to explain spot market price movements, and offers a computationally efficient way of simulating spot prices. The thesis shows that the connection between spot prices and electricity forward prices is nontrivial because electricity is a commodity that must be consumed immediately. Consequently, forward prices of different times are based on the supply-demand conditions at those times. This thesis introduces a statistical model that captures the main characteristics of observed forward price movements. The thesis presents the pricing problems relating to the common Nordic electricity derivatives, as well as the pricing relations between electricity derivatives. The special characteristics of electricity make spot electricity market incomplete. The thesis assumes the existence of a risk-neutral martingale measure so that formal pricing results can be obtained. Some concepts introduced in financial markets are directly usable in the electricity markets. The risk management application in this thesis uses a static optimal portfolio selection framework where Monte Carlo simulation provides quantitative results. The application of mathematical finance requires careful consideration of the special characteristics of the electricity markets. Economic theory and reasoning have to be taken into account when constructing financial models in competitive electricity markets. (orig.)

  8. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

  10. The Contribution of Electric Force to Sintering Ⅱ.Natures of the Applied Electric Field for Driving lonic Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIShang-zhao

    1994-01-01

    Through discussion on the acting forces of the applied electric field on the ionic system,it was shown that a periordical field with both even and odd components is to be applied.The suitable wavelengty,the extent of the field intensity and electric potential and the application of the selected field were suggested.

  11. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  12. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

  13. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired...

  14. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  15. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  16. Study of thermoelectric systems applied to electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A.; Vian, J.G.; Astrain, D.; Martinez, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de Materiales, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    A computational model has been developed in order to simulate the thermal and electric behavior of thermoelectric generators. This model solves the nonlinear system of equations of the thermoelectric and heat transfer equations. The inputs of the program are the thermoelectric parameters as a function of temperature and the boundary conditions, (room temperature and residual heat flux). The outputs are the temperature values of all the elements forming the thermoelectric generator, (performance, electric power, voltage and electric current generated). The model solves the equation system using the finite difference method and semi-empirical expressions for the convection coefficients. A thermoelectric electric power generation test bench has been built in order to validate and determine the accuracy of the computational model, which maximum error is lower than 5%. The objective of this study is to create a design tool that allows us to solve the system of equations involved in the electric generation process without needing to impose boundary conditions that are not known in the design phase, such as the temperature of the Peltier modules. With the computational model, we study the influence of the heat flux supplied as well as the room temperature on the electric power generated. (author)

  17. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  18. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  19. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1997 edition of the ''Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities'' publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ''Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.'' Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs

  20. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  1. Utility planning for customer generation of electricity: principles of economics and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Today, the long-standing economic monopoly of electric utilities is eroding as customers increasingly respond to high utility costs by developing their own generating capability. A dominant technology allowing customer generation is cogeneration, the sequential production of two useful energy streams using one fuel source. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 marked a major turning point for the industry by requiring electric utilities to purchase power generated by others. Development of customer-generated electricity can occur in two modes. In the first mode, customer generated electricity is sold to the utility, displacing utility generation but not reducing the utility's total sales. In the second mode, electricity is generated by the customer and is used on site to bypass the utility. These two modes, while relying on the same basic technologies, create dissimilar planning problems and require distinct policies for utilities and their regulators. In both cases, the increased competition affords opportunities for deregulation, as the possibility of monopolistic pricing practices diminishes. This dissertation examines some of the fundamental characteristics of utility planning and customer generation which need to be addressed in developing both utility and regulatory policy.

  2. Mechanism of Carbon Nanotubes Aligning along Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shao-Jie; GUO Wan-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTS)aligning in the direction of external electric field is studied by quantum mechanics calculations.The rotational torque on the carbon nanotubes is proportional to the difference between the longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities and varies with the angle of SWCNTs to the external electric field.The longitudinal polarizability increases with second power of length,while the transverse polarizability increases linearly with length.A zigzag SWCNT has larger longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities than an armchair SWCNT with the same diameter and the discrepancy becomes larger for longer tubes.

  3. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  4. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  5. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  6. Mechanical Decoupling Algorithm Applied to Electric Drive Test Bed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    New approach and analysis are proposed in this paper to enhance the steady and rapidity of the electric drive test bed. Based on a basic drive motor dynamometer system (DMDS) test bed, detailed mathematical model and process control are established and analyzed. Relative gain array (RGA) method and diagonal matrix method are used to analyze the mechanical coupling caused by mechanical connection on the DMDS test bed, and the structure and algorithm of dynamic decoupling are proposed. Simulati...

  7. Applying a Splitting Technique to Estimate Electrical Grid Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Wadman, Wander; Crommelin, Daan; Frank, Jason; Pasupathy, R.; Kim, S.-H.; Tolk, A.; Hill, R; Kuhl, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    As intermittent renewable energy penetrates electrical power grids more and more, assessing grid reliability is of increasing concern for grid operators. Monte Carlo simulation is a robust and popular technique to estimate indices for grid reliability, but the involved computational intensity may be too high for typical reliability analyses. We show that various reliability indices can be expressed as expectations depending on the rare event probability of a so-called power curtailment, and e...

  8. An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-06

    Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

  9. Removal of alum from Iron-Age wooden objects by an applied electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper removal of potassium, sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is described. An electric DC field was applied across the wood for 4-20 days. At the end of the experiments sulfate had moved as expected towards the anode...... was not obtained in the experiments reported here, but the high conductivity and the transport of the measured ions due to the electric field indicates that an applied electric field as a method for removal of alum and other unwanted ions from treated wooden objects warrants further investigation....

  10. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  11. Demand-side management pricing options in electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 Ontario Hydro implemented optional time-of-use (TOU) rates at the wholesale level for all municipal utilities in the province. At the same time, mandatory TOU rates were implemented for large users (customers with loads in excess of 5 MW) served by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro's direct customers. To fully explore the potential of rate structures as demand-side management (DSM) tools, Ontario Hydro retained a consulting firm to carry out a survey of innovative rate structures in other jurisdications. The survey was intended to identify: the status quo of rate structures in other jurisdictions that were designed specifically to encourage DSM; a profile of the cost basis of the rate structures, for example whether traditional embedded cost of service analyses or contentious methods such as marginal cost pricing were used; whether innovative rates have been successful, and customer reactions and attitudes; and how innovative rates fit into the overall strategy of the utilities. It was found that TOU, interruptible and end-use targeted rates are the rate structures of choice for many utilities. Most are concerned with deferring capacity, reducing peak demand, and shifting load out of peak periods. Most utilities report success with their programs and satisfaction with the present form of the programs. 5 tabs

  12. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  13. Frequency domain methods applied to forecasting electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes taking place in electricity markets during the last two decades have produced an increased interest in the problem of forecasting, either load demand or prices. Many forecasting methodologies are available in the literature nowadays with mixed conclusions about which method is most convenient. This paper focuses on the modeling of electricity market time series sampled hourly in order to produce short-term (1 to 24 h ahead) forecasts. The main features of the system are that (1) models are of an Unobserved Component class that allow for signal extraction of trend, diurnal, weekly and irregular components; (2) its application is automatic, in the sense that there is no need for human intervention via any sort of identification stage; (3) the models are estimated in the frequency domain; and (4) the robustness of the method makes possible its direct use on both load demand and price time series. The approach is thoroughly tested on the PJM interconnection market and the results improve on classical ARIMA models. (author)

  14. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  15. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  16. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  17. Energetic Macroscopic Representation Applied To An Electrical Urban Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia POPESCU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available An energetic description of the electric transport urban system ASTRAIK 415T is proposed according to a specific formalism. This is used to simulate the trolleybus system, equipped with a chopper and a direct current series motor. DC series motor is still used for trolleybus and metro, driven by a GTO or IGBT chopper µC-controlled, which allows the implementation of command algorithms. From this synthetically representation a complete model of the electromechanical system was implemented using the Matlab-Simulink simulation environment. A control structure was deduced through model inversion. This will allow the study of the transient phenomena and the implementation of different command laws taking into account the minimum energy losses

  18. Electrically Small Folded Slot Antenna Utilizing Capacitive Loaded Slot Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Merritt, Shane; Minor, John S.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an electrically small, coplanar waveguide fed, folded slot antenna that uses capacitive loading. Several antennas are fabricated with and without capacitive loading to demonstrate the ability of this design approach to reduce the resonant frequency of the antenna, which is analogous to reducing the antenna size. The antennas are fabricated on Cu-clad Rogers Duriod(TM) 6006 with multilayer chip capacitors to load the antennas. Simulated and measured results show close agreement, thus, validating the approach. The electrically small antennas have a measured return loss greater than 15 dB and a gain of 5.4, 5.6, and 2.7 dBi at 4.3, 3.95, and 3.65 GHz, respectively.

  19. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  20. Electric utilities, fiscal illusion and the provision of local public services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Paula Elizabeth Kay

    2000-10-01

    Restructuring activity in the electric utility industry is threatening a once stable and significant source of revenue for local governments. Potentially declining revenues from electric utilities leaves local policymakers with the unpopular decision of raising taxes or reducing the level of public services provided. This has led to pressure on state governments to introduce legislation aimed at mitigating potential revenue loss for local government due to restructuring activity. However, before imposing such legislation, a better understanding of the potential distortionary effects of internal subsidization by electric utilities is needed. Two models of the demand for local public services--a structural model using the Stone-Geary utility framework and a reduced form model--are developed in an attempt to model the behavioral responses of local public expenditures to revenue contributions from electric utilities. Empirical analysis of both models is conducted using a panel data set for 242 municipalities in Tennessee from 1988 to 1998. Aggregate spending and expenditures on four specific service functions are examined. The results provide evidence of a positive flypaper effect. Furthermore, the source of the flypaper effect is attributed to fiscal illusion caused by price distortions. The stimulative effect of electric utility revenue contributions on the level of local public services indicate that a 1.00 change in electric utility subsidies results in a change in local expenditures ranging from 0.22 to 1.32 for the structural model and 1.97 to 2.51 for the reduced form model. The amount of the marginal effect directly attributed to price illusion is estimated to range from 0.04 to $0.85. In addition, the elasticities of electric utility revenue contributions are estimated to range from 0.05 to 0.90. The results raise a number of interesting issues regarding municipal ownership of utilities and legislation regarding tax treatment of utilities after restructuring

  1. Statistical recoupling: A new way to break the link between electric-utility sales and revenues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1993-09-01

    In 1991, US electric utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on demand-side management (DSM) programs. These programs cut peak demands 5% and reduced electricity sales 1% that year. Utility projections suggest that these reductions will increase to 9% and 3%, respectively, by the year 2001. However, utility DSM efforts vary enormously across the country, concentrated in a few states along the east and west coasts and the upper midwest. To some extent, this concentration is a function of regulatory reforms that remove disincentives to utility shareholders for investments in DSM programs. A key component of these reforms is recovery of the net lost revenues caused by utility DSM programs. These lost revenues occur between rate cases when a utility encourages its customers to improve energy efficiency and cut demand. The reduction in sales means that the utility has less revenue to cover its fixed costs. This report describes a new method, statistical recoupling (SR), that addresses this net-lost-revenue problem. Like other decoupling approaches, SR breaks the link between electric-utility revenues and sales. Unlike other approaches, SR minimizes changes from traditional regulation. In particular, the risks of revenue swings associated with year-to-year changes in weather and the economy remain with the utility under SR. Statistical recoupling uses statistical models, based on historical data, that explain retail electricity sales as functions of the number of utility customers, winter and summer weather, the condition of the local economy, electricity price, and perhaps a few other key variables. These models, along with the actual values of the explanatory variables, are then used to estimate ``allowed`` electricity sales and revenues in future years.

  2. Who cares about a financially healthy electric utility industry. Finding future answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forecasts on the rate of growth of electricity supply and demand were given. Emphasis was placed on the economic stability of electric utilities and their ability to raise necessary capital. The role of nuclear power in America's future was also discussed

  3. Influence of soil moisture on uptake and utilization of applied nitrogen in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted with pot-grown young tea plants to study N uptake under different soil moisture regime. Labelled urea nitrogen was found effectively utilized under rainfed conditions. However, N loss through percolation/leaching in response to saturated moisture was as high as 33.3%. Plants grown under controlled conditions utilized less amount of applied N and the rest was retained in the soil. Unaccounted loss, in both the cases, was approximately 9%. Fertilizer-use efficiency of young tea plants under rain fed conditions was about 35% while it was 15% under moisture deficient conditions. Results on N balance in tea soils are discussed. (author)

  4. Dealing with the paradox of energy efficiency promotion by electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility-based Demand-Side Management (DSM) programmes started after the oil crises of the 70's and were adopted by utilities as a standard practice. However, deregulation of the electricity industry threatened DSM. More recent concerns regarding energy dependence and environmental impact of energy use caused renewed attention on the utilities role in energy efficiency fostering. EE is presently a cross-cutting issue, influencing energy policy definition and regulatory activity worldwide. Some instruments for influencing the behaviour of electric utilities in the market are used by regulators, corresponding to both impositions and stimuli, such as defining savings targets or decoupling profits from energy sales. The paper addresses categories of regulatory instruments and refers to examples of countries and regions using these identified categories of instruments. Although some cases show voluntary involvement of utilities in EE promotion on the grounds of customer retention strategies, there is a clear prevalence of regulatory constrained markets where utilities rationally engage in energy efficiency promotion

  5. Overview assessment of potential small electric utility applications of wind energy systems. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayadev, T.S.; Perkins, F.; Percival, D.

    1978-11-01

    A survey of small municipal and rural electric cooperative (REC) utilities was accomplished. The relationship between these small utilities and the mean wind power at their locations was found by locating them on appropriate maps of mean wind power density. Some of the safety, systems and economic implications of WECS deployment by these utilities were discussed. It is concluded that certain financing advantages and geographical considerations make the Great Plains region a strong candidate for the early commercialization of WECS.

  6. Willingness to Pay for Renewable Electricity: A Review of Utility Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    1999-09-09

    As competition in the electric utility industry has become more widespread and federal legislation deregulating the utility industry more likely, utilities have become more concerned about actions they can take to help ensure the loyalty of their customers. National polls have, for 20 years, found majority preferences for renewable energy over other energy sources. This issue brief compiles and analyzes recent market research conducted by utility companies on customer interest in and willingness to pay for renewable electricity. Findings in the areas examined in this review are: Customers are favorable toward renewable sources of electricity, although they know little about them; Solar and wind are the most favored sources of electricity generation; Majorities of 52% to nearly 100% of residential customers said they were willing to pay at least a modest amount more per month on their electric bills for green power; their responses follow a predictable curve showing that percentages willing to pay more decline as cost increases. The residential market for green pricing is approximately 2% near program rollout at a $5/month price increment, and should increase slowly but steadily over time; Customers may view with favor, and be more willing to purchase electricity from, utilities that provide green power.

  7. Utility subroutine package used by Applied Physics Division export codes. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.H.; Derstine, K.L.; Henryson, H. II; Hosteny, R.P.; Toppel, B.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report describes the current state of the utility subroutine package used with codes being developed by the staff of the Applied Physics Division. The package provides a variety of useful functions for BCD input processing, dynamic core-storage allocation and managemnt, binary I/0 and data manipulation. The routines were written to conform to coding standards which facilitate the exchange of programs between different computers.

  8. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs

  9. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  10. Environmental assessment for the electric utility system distribution, replacements and upgrades at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental effects resulting from the distribution of new electrical service, replacement of inadequate or aging equipment, and upgrade of the existing electrical utility system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The projects assessed herein do not impact cultural or historic resources, sensitive habitats or wetlands and are not a source of air emissions. The potential environmental effects that do result from the action are fugitive dust and noise from construction and the disposal of potentially contaminated soil removed from certain limited areas of the LLNL site as a result of trenching for underground transmission lines. The actions described in this assessment represent an improved safety and reliability to the existing utility system. Inherent in the increased reliability and upgrades is a net increase in electrical capacity, with future expansion reserve. As with any electrical device, the electrical utility system has associated electric and magnetic fields that present a potential source of personnel exposure. The potential is not increased, however, beyond that which already exists for the present electrical utility system

  11. The case for indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indexed price caps are a promising alternative to traditional, cost-of-service utility rate regulation. In just a decade, they have sprung from the drawing boards of economists to use by major utilities in a number of industries. Several authors have discussed the merits of indexed price caps for U.S. electric utilities. Despite their efforts, many parties to electric utility policy making are unfamiliar with the subject. This is unsurprising given the policy controversies that already embroil the industry. It is also unfortunate, since indexed price caps may help solve some of the problems that prompt these controversies. Indexed price caps can improve electric utility rate regulation in two ways. Utilities would have strong incentives to improve performance without the micromanagement that increasingly characterizes state-level regulation. Utilities could also be granted more extensive marketing freedoms, since indexes can protect customers from cross-subsidization. Two areas of concern about indexed price cap plans have emerged in recent discussions that the author has held with officials of electric utilities, intervenor groups, and regulatory agencies. Officials are often unclear on plan details, and therefore may not appreciate the degree of flexibility that is possible in plan design. Confusion over the available options in price cap adjustment indexes and the logic behind them is especially widespread. Officials also desire a clearer expression of how indexed price caps can coexist with current regulatory initiatives. This article details the major attributes of index plans, provides a brief history of indexing, discusses index design options in depth, and concludes with a vision of how indexed price caps can be made operational in today's electric utility industry

  12. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  13. Feasibility of optimizing large utility electricity customers on a distribution feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Mammoli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The cost of electricity for a building can be lowered by applying optimization strategies that provide optimal purchasing schedules for the building operation under a variable electricity price. From the DSO perspective, this introduces benefits to the grid. The optimal schedule better follows th...

  14. Crystallization Behavior of Anatase Films in Applied Electric Field Heating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this research the TiO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating. The crystallization of the films in the applied electric field heating process was thoroughly studied by many technique, differential thermal analysis (DTA), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). Furthermore the phase formation, microstructure and photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 film were studied under the condition of an electric field heating-treatment. It is found that the existence of applied electric field promotes the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. Studies on photo-catalytic degradation show that the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 thin films in an applied electric field is higher.

  15. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  16. Electricity hubs and market centers: A new business tool for electric utilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallen, M.A.; Sharp, L.S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    There are many complexities clouding the use of hubs and market centers in the electricity market, but lessons learned in the natural gas industry can save a lot of unnecessary reinvention. The bottom line: Electricity hubs and market centers will allow the markets to work most efficiently. This article will describe how regional trading hubs may function in the competitive electricity market, using the experiences of the natural gas market to illustrate the principles involved. Part I will define the typical characteristics of hubs and market centers and describe the dey success factors needed to develop a new market center. Part II will describe the types of products and services that an electricity hub or marketing center will need to offer to succeed.

  17. Experimental Study on Downwardly Spreading Flame over Inclined Polyethylene-insulated Electrical Wire with Applied AC Electric Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung Jae

    2014-12-30

    An experimental study on downwardly spreading flame over slanted electrical wire, which is insulated by Polyethylene (PE), was conducted with applied AC electric fields. The result showed that the flame spread rate decreased initially with increase in inclination angle of wire and then became nearly constant. The flame shape was modified significantly with applied AC electric field due to the effect of ionic wind. Such a variation in flame spread rate could be explained by a thermal balance mechanism, depending on flame shape and slanted direction of flame. Extinction of the spreading flame was not related to angle of inclination, and was described well by a functional dependency upon the frequency and voltage at extinction.

  18. Electric-utility DSM-program costs and effects, 1991 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years (1989, 1990, and 1991), all US electric utilities that sell more than 120 GWh/year have been required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a rich and uniquely comprehensive picture of electric-utility DSM programs in the United States. Altogether, 890 utilities (of about 3250 in the United States) ran DSM programs in 1991; of these, 439 sold more than 120 GWh and reported details on their DSM programs. These 439 utilities represent more than 80% of total US electricity sales and revenues. Altogether, these utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on DSM programs in 1991, equal to 1.0% of total utility revenues that year. In return for these (and prior-year) expenditures, utility DSM programs cut potential peak demand by 26,700 MW (4.8% of the national total) and cut annual electricity use by 23,300 GWh (0.9% of the national total). These 1991 numbers represent substantial increases over the 1989 and 1990 numbers on utility DSM programs. Specifically, utility DSM expenditures doubled, energy savings increased by almost 50%, and demand reductions increased by one-third between 1989 and 1991. Utilities differed enormously in their DSM-program expenditures and effects. Almost 12% of the reporting utilities spent more than 2% of total revenues on DSM programs in 1991, while almost 60% spent less than 0.5% of revenues on DSM. Utility estimates of future DSM-program expenditures and benefits show continuing growth. By the year 2001, US utilities expect to spend 1.2% of revenues on DSM and to cut demand by 8.8% and annual sales by 2.7%. Here, too, expectations vary by region. Utilities in the West and Northwest plan to spend more than 2% of revenues on DSM that year, while utilities in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southwest, Central, and North Central regions plan to spend less than 1% of revenues on DSM.

  19. An automated system for the measurement of magnetostriction in electrical steel sheet under applied stress

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, P I; Stanbury, H J

    2000-01-01

    The design of an automated system for the rapid assessment of the AC magnetostriction in electrical steel sheet under linear applied stress in the range +-10 MPa is described in detail. Typical results are presented showing the effect of induction on the unstressed material together with plots of the harmonics of magnetostriction and specific total loss versus applied stress.

  20. Impact of different utilization scenarios of electric vehicles on the German grid in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, N.; Oezdemir, E.D. [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Electric vehicles are commonly seen as one of the alternatives to reduce the oil dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of different electric vehicle charging strategies on the national grid including the storage utilization of electric vehicles (V2G-vehicle to grid). Furthermore, an economic analysis of electric vehicle utilization is performed and the results are compared with the conventional diesel vehicle. To accomplish this aim the availability of passenger cars in Germany to be plugged into the grid showed to be high at any time over the day (>89%), which is advantageous for the V2G concept. The impact of the different electric vehicle charging strategies is investigated by employing three scenarios. The first scenario (unmanaged charging) shows that 1 mil. electric vehicles only impacts slightly on the daily peak electricity demand. In the second scenario (Grid stabilizing storage use) a maximum reductions of grid fluctuations of 16% can be achieved with the use of 1 mil. electric vehicles as storage. The last scenario (profit maximization by power trading) the maximum daily revenues from V2G activities are calculated to be 0.68 EUR{sub 2009}. (author)

  1. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development of vitreous ceramic tiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritwik Sarkar; Nar Singh; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Steel melting through electric arc furnace route is gaining popularity due to its many advantages, but generates a new waste, electric arc furnace slag, which is getting accumulated and land/mine filling and road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to develop vitreous ceramic tiles. Slag, to the extent of 30–40 wt% with other conventional raw materials, were used for the development in the temperature range 1100–1150°C. The fired products showed relatively higher density with shorter firing range and good strength properties. Microstructural and EDAX studies were also done to evaluate the developed products.

  2. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  3. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  4. Decision factors affecting transmission and distribution efficiency improvements by Northwest electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Darwin, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal objective of this report was to assess and document the attitude of Northwest electric utilities toward possible BPA conservation acquisition programs that may provide incentive(s) to reduce losses on T and D lines. Secondary objectives were to examine existing incentives for making such improvements, to categorize prior T and D efficiency improvements, and to examine factors affecting the decision-making process for system improvements. Much of the information presented in the report is derived from a survey administered during personal interviews at 29 Northwest electric utilities between November 1984 and January 1985.

  5. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  6. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  7. How integrated resource planning for US electric utilities affects shareholder interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) seeks to identify the mix of resources that can best meet the future energy-service needs of customers. These resources include new sources, types, and owners of power plants plus demand-side management (DSM) programs. However, little explicit attention is given to utility shareholders in the typical resource-planning proceeding. Because of the complexity of state regulatory practices and tax policies, it seems unlikely that different resources that provide comparable services to customers will yield comparable returns to shareholders. This study examines a typical US investor-owned utility's financial operations and performance using a spreadsheet model we developed for this project. The model simulates an electric utility's financial operations, and produces an annual income statement, balance sheet, and cash-flow statement. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility's operating environment. Given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we examined shareholder returns for these resources in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price. (author)

  8. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  9. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  10. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  11. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near-term electric utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    Promising thermal energy storage systems for midterm applications in conventional electric utilities for peaking power generation are evaluated. Conceptual designs of selected thermal energy storage systems integrated with conventional utilities are considered including characteristics of alternate systems for peaking power generation, viz gas turbines and coal fired cycling plants. Competitive benefit analysis of thermal energy storage systems with alternate systems for peaking power generation and recommendations for development and field test of thermal energy storage with a conventional utility are included. Results indicate that thermal energy storage is only marginally competitive with coal fired cycling power plants and gas turbines for peaking power generation.

  12. Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T E [Pacific Energy Group, Stanford, CA (United States); Parsons, B [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and investment reversibility are discussed. Incorporating some of these attributes into an economic evaluation is illustrated using a municipal utility`s decision to invest in either wind generation or natural gas based generation. The research concludes that wind and other modular renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaics, have the potential to provide decision makers with physical risk-management investments.

  13. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  14. Survey of electric utility demand for western coal. [1972-6 actual; 1976-1985 estimated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Kim, H.R.; Kouvalis, A.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for western coal. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Power Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases covering the period July 1972 through June 1976 and (2) direct survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1985. Price and quantity data for western coal consumed in existing plants have been assembled and presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual consuming regions over recent years. Coal source, quality, and quantity data are presented for existing and planned generating plants.

  15. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  16. Electricity Today's annual year-in-review: Canadian electric utilities discuss events of 1992 and plans for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the 1992 activities and strategic directions of the major electric utilities in Canada: British Columbia Hydro, Alberta Power, Edmonton Power, TransAlta Utilities, SaskPower, Manitoba Hydro, Ontario Hydro, Hydro-Quebec, and New Brunswick Power. Activities reported include sales, customer growth, exports, training programs, investments, workforce restructuring, energy efficiency programs, cogeneration projects, new power stations and transmission facilities, environmental programs, revisions in rate structures, and modifications to existing facilities. Future plans include increased hiring of aboriginals, aggressive marketing of utility expertise abroad, examining the feasibility of district energy systems, pursuing goals related to sustainable development, cutting back on plans for new installations, and finding ways to save more energy

  17. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Extent of Utilizing Electrical Equipment in Poultry Production in Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogba, E. I.; Ogbu, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent of utilizing electrical equipment in poultry production in the rural areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 46 respondents comprising 16 Extension agents and 30 Poultry farmers.…

  19. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  20. Commute time distance transformation applied to spectral imagery and its utilization in material clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, James A.; Messinger, David W.; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2012-07-01

    Spectral image analysis problems often begin by applying a transformation that generates an alternative representation of the spectral data with the intention of exposing hidden features not discernable in the original space. We introduce and demonstrate a transformation based on a Markov-chain model of a random walk on a graph via application to spectral image clustering. The random walk is quantified by a measure known as the average commute time distance (CTD), which is the average length that a random walker takes, when starting at one node, to transition to another and return to the starting node. This distance metric has the important characteristic of increasing when the number of paths between two nodes decreases and/or the lengths of those paths increase. Once a similarity graph is built on the spectral data, a transformation based on an eigendecomposition of the graph Laplacian matrix is applied that embeds the nodes of the graph into a Euclidean space with the separation between nodes equal to the square-root of the average commute time distance. This is referred to as the Commute Time Distance transformation. As an example of the utility of this data transformation, results are shown for standard clustering algorithms applied to hyperspectral data sets.

  1. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. W.; Hausz, W.; Anand, R.; Lamarche, N.; Oplinger, J.; Katzer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Potential concepts for near term electric utility applications were identified. The most promising ones for conceptual design were evaluated for their economic feasibility and cost benefits. The screening process resulted in selecting two coal-fired and two nuclear plants for detailed conceptual design. The coal plants utilized peaking turbines and the nuclear plants varied the feedwater extraction to change power output. It was shown that the performance and costs of even the best of these systems could not compete in near term utility applications with cycling coal plants and typical gas turbines available for peaking power. Lower electricity costs, greater flexibility of operation, and other benefits can be provided by cycling coal plants for greater than 1500 hours of peaking or by gas turbines for less than 1500 hours if oil is available and its cost does not increase significantly.

  2. Deregulation of ESI and privatization of state electric utilities in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surapong Chirarattananon; Supattana Nirukkanaporn [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2006-11-15

    In Thailand, electric supply services have all been taken over by the state and operated under state enterprises since 1968. Under a law empowering its monopoly, state utilities accumulated assets and built up their manpower to expand and operate the power system to serve the whole country. During the time of high growth in power demand in the early 1990s, the government initiated a move to privatize state electric utilities, the pace of which was firmed up after 1997, the year of the financial crash. Engagement of independent power producers (IPPs) through the use of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) for supply of electric power into the system operated by state electric utilities was also initiated from the mid 1990s. Total capacity of IPPs and Small Power Producers (SPPs) that sell excess power from cogeneration on to the system, rose and by the late 1990s started to create a constraint on system economic dispatch. In 1999 the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) approved a recommendation of international consultants to transform the electric supply industry into a structure similar to the system in the United Kingdom. The transformation was proposed to precede corporatization and privatization of state electric utilities. The objectives of deregulation were to revoke the monopoly in ESI, to improve transparency in electricity pricing, to reduce debts of state enterprises, and to improve economic efficiency. Industry participants have voiced strong objection to the industry model proposed. With the change of market structure in UK to the New Electricity Trading Arrangement (NETA), the secretariat of NEPC also proposed a new structure similar to NETA. More acceptance from industry participants have been received for the new structure. However, it has been assumed that the proposed structure would bring improvement in system reliability, drawing investment into power generation in a manner that would be efficient. Tariff has also been expected to become

  3. Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

  4. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  5. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Finite element modeling and analysis of piezo-integrated composite structures under large applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Tarun, S.; Schmidt, R.; Schröder, K.-U.

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we focus on static finite element (FE) simulation of piezoelectric laminated composite plates and shells, considering the nonlinear constitutive behavior of piezoelectric materials under large applied electric fields. Under the assumptions of small strains and large electric fields, the second-order nonlinear constitutive equations are used in the variational principle approach, to develop a nonlinear FE model. Numerical simulations are performed to study the effect of material nonlinearity for piezoelectric bimorph and laminated composite plates as well as cylindrical shells. In comparison to the experimental investigations existing in the literature, the results predicted by the present model agree very well. The importance of the present nonlinear model is highlighted especially in large applied electric fields, and it is shown that the difference between the results simulated by linear and nonlinear constitutive FE models cannot be omitted.

  7. Lack of effect of an externally applied electric field on bacterial adhesion to glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, AT; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Deposition to glass of Streptococcus salivarius HB-C12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis 3399 in a parallel plate flow chamber in the absence and presence of an externally applied electric field has been studied experimentally. No effect on bacterial adhesion, including initial deposition rates, number

  8. Tension moderation and fluctuation spectrum in simulated lipid membranes under an applied electric potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loubet, Bastien; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an applied electric potential on the mechanics of a coarse grained POPC bilayer under tension. The size and duration of our simulations allow for a detailed and accurate study of the fluctuations. Effects on the fluctuation spectrum, tension, bending rigidity, and bil......We investigate the effect of an applied electric potential on the mechanics of a coarse grained POPC bilayer under tension. The size and duration of our simulations allow for a detailed and accurate study of the fluctuations. Effects on the fluctuation spectrum, tension, bending rigidity......, and bilayer thickness are investigated in detail. In particular, the least square fitting technique is used to calculate the fluctuation spectra. The simulations confirm a recently proposed theory that the effect of an applied electric potential on the membrane will be moderated by the elastic properties...... fluctuations. The effect of the applied electric potential on the bending rigidity is non-existent within error bars. However, when the membrane is stretched there is a point where the bending rigidity is lowered due to a decrease of the thickness of the membrane. All these effects should prove important...

  9. Tariffs and subsidies in Zimbabwe's reforming electricity industry: steering a utility through turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the Government of Zimbabwe adopted a public enterprise reform strategy as part of a World Bank driven Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP). For the electricity sector, the Government adopted a two-pronged programme of reform - a performance improvement programme (PIP) for the national utility, the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), and a legal and regulatory reform programme for the electricity sector in general. Ten years later, significant success has been achieved in improving the utility's performance in technical operations and customer service. However, there has been very little progress on the legal and regulatory front. This has adversely affected the utility's financial performance, as well as frustrating the Government's efforts in attracting private sector investment. The centrality of the tariff question reflects the importance of the customer or end-user to the power sector reform process. This article outlines the power sector reform experiences in Zimbabwe with special focus on the tariff question. The paper suggests, from the perspective of a utility executive, reasons for the mixed results at ZESA, and lessons for other countries in the region undertaking similar reforms. (Author)

  10. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  11. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  13. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  14. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  15. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This document, Glossary, is the first in a series of reports to identify, describe, and apply techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric utility concepts. This report was developed with a focus on the currently evolving issues of ratemaking, especially as they might be expected to arise under Sections 101, 111, 113, 114, 131, 132, and 210 of the P.U.R.P.A. of 1978. Because the evolutionary process of ratemaking has led to multiple proceedings and changes of inference in some terms, the glossary attempts to delineate these changes where appropriate. Definitions not uniquely related to ratemaking are included if they are likely to be used in ratemaking proceedings. To avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and expense, the compilers relied heavily on previously developed, publicly available glossaries and definitions developed by organizations such as Edison Electric Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Existing definitions were revised and new ones were developed as appropriate.

  16. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential for the application of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (a field of interconnected WTGs denoted in this report by the acronym WECS) in a specific utility contest to gain advance information concerning their economic feasibility; their optional problems; the criteria and procedures for site selection; environmental impacts; legal, social, and other problems; and the balance of cost and benefits from the point of view of the consumer and the utility. This study addresses the circumstances of the Hawaiian Electric Company operations onthe Island of Oahu.

  17. Development of a database for use in electric power utilities in the electric power distribution area; Desenvolvimento de um banco de dados para uso em concessionarias de energia eletrica na area de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Alexandre Barreiros

    1996-07-01

    The electric energy distribution system dimension together with the involved diverging elements. requires a constant updated information system. The dynamics and the reliability of the information implies in the use of modern technology, as well as data updating and control. There is a constant need of improving the utilities information system and its lack may put into risk not only the quality of the services but also consumer satisfaction. Utilities technical systems should therefore follow this need allowing for a quick response needed in order to keep the system under control and consequently to maintain the quality of the services. This work proposes a basic information technology model for technical areas and for an electric utility that can be applied to manage any data bank at any platform. To have it demonstrated, a Visual Basic application was developed applying X base data structure, which shows the use of alpha numerical data with G S (Geographic Information System). (author)

  18. Electronic and Shallow Impurity States in Semiconductor Heterostructures Under an Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai-Yang; GU Shi-Wei; SHI Yao-Ming

    2005-01-01

    With the use of variational method to solve the effective mass equation, we have studied the electronic and shallow impurity states in semiconductor heterostructures under an applied electric field. The electron energy levels are calculated exactly and the impurity binding energies are calculated with the variational approach. It is found that the behaviors of electronic and shallow impurity states in heterostructures under an applied electric field are analogous to that of quantum wells. Our results show that with the increasing strength of electric field, the electron confinement energies increase, and the impurity binding energy increases also when the impurity is on the surface, while the impurity binding energy increases at first, to a peak value, then decreases to a value which is related to the impurity position when the impurity is away from the surface. In the absence of electric field, the result tends to the Levine's ground state energy (-1/4 effective Rydberg) when the impurity is on the surface, and the ground impurity binding energy tends to that in the bulk when the impurity is far away from the surface. The dependence of the impurity binding energy on the impurity position for different electric field is also discussed.

  19. Alternatives for electric utility gas supply risk management. Final report, May 1991-March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of potential barriers to using natural gas in the electric utility industry. These include price risk, regulatory barriers and load management problems. Sharing techniques for mitigating these risks will aid strategic planning and the successful commercialization of new technologies. Long-term, 15-year, gas supply contracts have been used extensively to mitigate price risk for project-financed combined cycle facilities. Most electric utilities have preferred price risk to paying the premium necessary to reduce this risk. Price risk is less important for dual fired gas and residual fuel oil and gas cofiring in coal plants because of the alternate fuel capability of these facilities and lower incremental capital cost of conversions compared to the cost of a new combined cycle facility. A number of methods for dealing with gas load management problems caused by combustion turbines were identified. Regulators need to be educated concerning the cost and value of risk mitigation

  20. The influence of local authorities on semi-public electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented by this book has been developed from a legal expert opinion and analyses from the legal point of view the initiatives taken by the VKA (association of local authorities as shareholders) in the field of energy policy in their capacity as shareholders of the semi-public utility RWE (AG). The local authorities of the VKA association are holders of registered shares with a twentyfold voting right, thus commanding the majority of votes in the general meeting of shareholders of the RWE utility (Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG). The energy political initiatives are intended to establish VKA's influence on the conduct of business of RWE, the main goal being to create the political and procedural conditions for a change of energy policy towards abandonment of nuclear power for electricity generation, and towards enhanced environmental protection in the non-nuclear electricity generation by RWE. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  2. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  3. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morris

    Full Text Available An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

  4. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  5. Utilization of zinc in powders from electric arc furnaces in steel production

    OpenAIRE

    Boyanov B.S.; Baev T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The processing of waste powders from steel production in electric arc furnaces is a world problem. The presence of Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc. in the powders makes them a valuable source for these metals. Zinc is the metal that is most often utilized, which leads to reduction of environmental pollution. The greatest problem in this connection is the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the powders, which influences the electroextraction of zinc in a significantly negative way. The presented paper sh...

  6. The U.S. utility renewable resource association's perspective regarding wind generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative research was conducted during 1991 to determine the perspective of U.S. utility managers who have an interest in developing power from renewables. Wind was seen as the most promising source of renewable energy as well as a major CLEAN energy source. Further, wind was believed to be more cost effective than either Solar or Nuclear. Unreliability (of wind rather than of wind turbines) was seen as the greatest disadvantage of wind generated electricity. (au)

  7. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  8. Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impossible? The case of the electricity utility industry

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Diego Paredes-Gazquez; José Miguel Rodriguez-Fernandez; Marta de la Cuesta-Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept that is often measured using diverse indicators. Composite indices can aggregate these single indicators into one measurement. This article aims to identify the key challenges in constructing a composite index for measuring corporate social responsibility. The process is illustrated by the construction of a composite index for measuring social outcomes in the electricity utility industry. The sample consisted of seventy-four compan...

  9. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  10. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1990 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1990 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. The report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1990 time period, and gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1990. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell annually to four sectors. Data is provided on each retail customer sector and also on the customers Bonneville serves directly: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. 21 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  12. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  13. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  14. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities' cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  15. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  16. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  17. Optical Conductivity of Impurity-Doped Parabolic Quantum Wells in an Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Kang-Xian; CHEN Chuan-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The optical conductivity of impurity-doped parabolic quantum wells in an applied electric field is investigated with the memory-function approach, and the analytic expression for the optical conductivity is derived. With characteristic parameters pertaining to GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs parabolic quantum wells, the numerical results are presented.It is shown that, the smaller the well width, the larger the peak intensity of the optical conductivity, and the more asymmetric the shape of the optical conductivity; the optical conductivity is more sensitive to the electric field, the electric field enhances the optical conductivity; when the dimension of the quantum well increases, the optical conductivity increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then decreases.

  18. An Analysis of Electrical Impedance Measurements Applied for Plant N Status Estimation in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Muñoz-Huerta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status.

  19. Lorentz factor determination for local electric fields in semiconductor devices utilizing hyper-thin dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, J. W., E-mail: mcpherson.reliability@yahoo.com [McPherson Reliability Consulting LLC, 2805 Shelton Way, Plano, Texas 75093 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    The local electric field (the field that distorts, polarizes, and weakens polar molecular bonds in dielectrics) has been investigated for hyper-thin dielectrics. Hyper-thin dielectrics are currently required for advanced semiconductor devices. In the work presented, it is shown that the common practice of using a Lorentz factor of L = 1/3, to describe the local electric field in a dielectric layer, remains valid for hyper-thin dielectrics. However, at the very edge of device structures, a rise in the macroscopic/Maxwell electric field E{sub diel} occurs and this causes a sharp rise in the effective Lorentz factor L{sub eff}. At capacitor and transistor edges, L{sub eff} is found to increase to a value 2/3 < L{sub eff} < 1. The increase in L{sub eff} results in a local electric field, at device edge, that is 50%–100% greater than in the bulk of the dielectric. This increase in local electric field serves to weaken polar bonds thus making them more susceptible to breakage by standard Boltzmann and/or current-driven processes. This has important time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) implications for all electronic devices utilizing polar materials, including GaN devices that suffer from device-edge TDDB.

  20. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  1. Analytical Master Plan for the analysis of the data from the electric utility rate demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The Federal Energy Administration (now the US Department of Energy), in cooperation with state public utility commissions and participating utilities, has initiated 16 electric utility rate demonstration projects. The primary purpose of these projects was to evaluate experimentally the effects of time-of-use pricing of electricity for residential customers. The time-of-use rate most frequently employed was a time-of-day (TOD) rate. The method employed by the states to evaluate TOD rates was to select a subset of the residential population, place these people on TOD rates, and with special meters, monitor their temporal use of electricity. As might be expected, with the varying objectives of the states, available resources, and background in load management studies, a variety of approaches were employed, and a variety of data generated by the projects. Also, the received and expected analyses of the data vary considerably among the projects due to the differing interests of the states, available resources, and the composition of the project teams. The three purposes of this Analytical Master Plan (AMP) are: to ensure the data derived from the FEA projects and from related sources are subjected to econometric and statistical analysis that is both rigorous and as highly sophisticated as the state of the art will permit; to ensure that the results of the analysis are organized and displayed in a manner useful to utility and regulatory decision-makers; and to ensure that the analytical effort is conducted on a timely and professional basis. This report identifies the alternative analytical approaches, project specific analyses, project-pooled analyses and organization and management plan for completing the study. Synopses of all the demonstration projects are presented in the appendixes which are bound separately in Volume II.

  2. Sulfur utilization by rice and Crotalaria juncea from sulfate - 34S applied to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivelin Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical soils with intensive agriculture an increasing sulfur deficiency has been verified in several crops. The low available S in these soils is caused by the continuous use of concentrated NPK fertilizers. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization by rice (Oriza sativa L. and crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L. of sulfur applied to the soil, under greenhouse conditions. Pots with 3 kg of an Argisol (Paleudalf were used to test the isotopic technique with the stable isotope 34S, adding a solution of sodium sulfate labeled with 34S (14.30 ± 0.05 atom % of 34S to the soil (70 mg SO4-S per kg-1 of soil 18 days after sowing both species. The shoots of the crotalaria and rice were harvested, respectively on the 72nd and 122nd days after S fertilization. The concentration and the amount of sulfur in the crotalaria were higher than in rice, due to the higher legume requirement for this nutrient. The sulfur requirement and the short time interval between fertilization and harvest of the crotalaria resulted in a small amount of native SO4-S mineralized in the soil and a small quantity of 34SO4 immobilized by soil microorganisms. Thus, the percentage of sulfur in the crotalaria derived from the fertilizer (Sdff was higher than in the rice (%Sdff crotalaria = 91.3 ± 3.5%; %Sdff rice = 66.3 ± 0.8%. The expressive values of %Sdff indicate a low rate of mineralization of SO4-S probably as a consequence of the low available sulfur content in the soil.

  3. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  4. Extensional flow of nematic liquid crystal with an applied electric field

    KAUST Repository

    CUMMINGS, L. J.

    2013-10-17

    Systematic asymptotic methods are used to formulate a model for the extensional flow of a thin sheet of nematic liquid crystal. With no external body forces applied, the model is found to be equivalent to the so-called Trouton model for Newtonian sheets (and fibres), albeit with a modified \\'Trouton ratio\\'. However, with a symmetry-breaking electric field gradient applied, behaviour deviates from the Newtonian case, and the sheet can undergo finite-time breakup if a suitable destabilizing field is applied. Some simple exact solutions are presented to illustrate the results in certain idealized limits, as well as sample numerical results to the full model equations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  5. Conference Proceedings: Effectively utilizing energy derivatives in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was devoted to a discussion about the likely impacts of deregulation on electricity markets in North America. Many of the presentations emphasized price risk in a competitive open access energy market. It was noted that deregulation is frequently associated with the creation of larger companies, higher risks and lower costs. Some of the individual topics addressed by the speakers included discussion of : (1) how underlying physical markets will work in Ontario, (2) experiences in derivative trading in the natural gas industry, (3) how to create value through multiple commodity risk management products, (4) trading with energy derivatives in the U.S. (5) how derivatives can add value for municipal electrical utilities, and (6) risk management mechanisms for energy derivative trading. refs., tabs., figs

  6. The Nuclear option for U.S. electrical generating capacity additions utilizing boiling water reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology status of the Advanced Boiling Water (ABWR) and Simplified Boiling Water (SBWR) reactors are presented along with an analysis of the economic potential of advanced nuclear power generation systems based on BWR technology to meet the projected domestic electrical generating capacity need through 2005. The forecasted capacity needs are determined for each domestic North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Extensive data sets detailing each NERC region's specific generation and load characteristics, and capital and fuel cost parameters are utilized in the economic analysis of the optimal generation additions to meet this need by use of an expansion planning model. In addition to a reference case, several sensitivity cases are performed with regard to capital costs and fuel price escalation

  7. Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A 16,000-A HTS lead has been designed and is being constructed. An evaluation program for component performance was conducted to confirm performance predictions and/or to qualify the design features for construction. Performance of the current lead assemblies will be evaluated in a test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of the evaluations to date are presented.

  8. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 μm and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  9. Electric utility power system management and telecommunications engineering uses. Netzleit- und Telekommunikationstechnik in der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, M. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG, Abt. Informationstechnik, Dortmund (Germany)); Maerz, W. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG, Abt. Planung und Betriebsfuehrung, Dortmund (Germany))

    1992-05-15

    Power system management and telecommunications engineering are indispensable to the operation and management of large-scale power transmission systems. Both these fields are undergoing major changes, profiting by the progress of basic technologies such as microelectronics and optical telecommunications, and by improved methods and novel standards. The rapid development which produces ever more efficient techniques at shorter intervals of innovation is expected to continue for an indefinite time. The profitable and efficient use of new technologies, and their further development are a challenge to the electric utilities. The present state and the prospects of the technological development of power system management and telecommunications engineering are described. (orig.).

  10. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  11. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine

  12. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  13. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  14. Giant electrocaloric effect in PZT bilayer thin films by utilizing the electric field engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiandong; Li, Weili; Cao, Wenping; Hou, Yafei; Yu, Yang; Fei, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The enhancement of the electrocaloric effect (ECE) was achieved by the amplifying effect of applied electric field through devising the thin films' structure. The PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 bilayer structured thin films were fabricated on a Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate using sol-gel method. The ΔS = 20.5 J K-1 kg-1 and ΔT = 24.8 K for bilayer thin films is achieved around 125 °C much below Tc, which is caused by the amplifying electric field induced phase transition of OAFE/RFE in PZr0.95Ti0.05O3 layer. It is also worth mentioning that the films exhibit outstanding ECE at room temperature; ΔS = 11.9 J K-1 kg-1 and ΔT = 10.7 K are observed, which are attributed to the effect of amplifying electric field in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 layer and RFE/TFE at morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) in PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 layer. This result indicates that to amplify the local electric field engineering and to maximize the number of coexisting phases in heterostructures or multilayer thin films may be an effective way for cooling applications.

  15. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  16. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  17. Optical nonlinearities associated to applied electric fields in parabolic two-dimensional quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.M., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-11-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as the linear and nonlinear corrections to the refractive index are calculated in a disc shaped quantum dot under the effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. The exact solutions for the two-dimensional motion of the conduction band electrons are used as the basis for a perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of a static applied electric field. In general terms, the variation of one of the different potential energy parameters – for a fixed configuration of the remaining ones – leads to either blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks as well as to distinct rates of change for their amplitudes. -- Highlights: • Optical absorption and corrections to the refractive in quantum dots. • Electric and magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square potentials. • Perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of the electric field. • Induced blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks are studied. • Evolution of rates of change for amplitudes of resonant peaks.

  18. Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  19. Operating and impact of the compensation mechanism of the electric utility charges on the energy offer in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the law of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electric utility, the France adopted a mechanism aiming to compensate the costs subjected by EDF and other suppliers providing a public utility mission in the domain of the electricity production and distribution. This document takes stock on the organization, the evaluation and the economical and environmental consequences of the implementing of a compensation system of costs bond to the electricity production in non connected areas. (A.L.B.)

  20. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  1. The cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue methodology for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation amd maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  2. The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, John Arthur

    Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states

  3. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  4. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  5. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  6. Utilization of zinc in powders from electric arc furnaces in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyanov B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of waste powders from steel production in electric arc furnaces is a world problem. The presence of Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc. in the powders makes them a valuable source for these metals. Zinc is the metal that is most often utilized, which leads to reduction of environmental pollution. The greatest problem in this connection is the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the powders, which influences the electroextraction of zinc in a significantly negative way. The presented paper shows the results from the study of the possibilities for zinc leaching from powders obtained in the steel production in Bulgaria. A detailed characterization of the powders was made using chemical analysis, XRD, DTA and TGA and Mösbauer spectroscopy. The results from the powder leaching with different solvents give the reason to recommend a technological scheme for the complete and total processing of the waste powders from steel production.

  7. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  8. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets in Europe is in progress. The expressed goal is to promote efficiency through commercial competition, with lower energy prices for consumers as a consequence. This priority raises some complex questions in relation to the desire of creating a sustainable energy...... development.Commercial competition has a short time horizon and a goal function of profit maximizing. In contrast to this, creation of a sustainable development requires long time horizons and comprehensive societal planning and regulation.This paper analyses the possibilities and barriers for promoting...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  9. Possible utilization of superconducting magnetic energy accumulators by the Czechoslovak electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible utilization is described of nonconventional cryogenic equipment - superconducting magnetic energy accumulators - for improving the transient stability of the electric system. A computation of the hypothetical effect of a superconducting magnetic energy accumulator connected across the 24-kV buses of a SKODA 1000 MW turbine-generator set was performed for the Temelin Nuclear Power Station under conditions of faulty operation. Particularly it involved a three-phase short circuit across 400-kV buses beyond the generator transformer. The computed time-dependence values are presented of the 1000 MW turbine-generator set relative load angle as well as the operating characteristics of the superconducting magnetic energy accumulator during a transient electromechanical event. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  10. [Effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer additive on rice yield and rice plant nitrogen uptake, translocation, and utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Yong-qiu; Yang, Xiao-yun; Guo, Miao; Yan, Xiao-yuan

    2011-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of southern Jiangsu to study the effects of applying nitrogen (N) fertilizer and fertilizer additive on the rice yield and the rice plant N uptake, translocation, and utilization. Applying N fertilizer had significant positive effects on the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N at all growth stages and at each growth stage, and N translocation rate after anthesis (P 0.05). The N translocation rate after anthesis and the N fertilizer use efficiency decreased with increasing N application rate. Applying fertilizer additive further improved the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N, N translocation rate after anthesis, and N fertilizer use efficiency, and this effect was more evident when the N application rate was equal to or greater than 200 kg x hm(-2). Relatively high rice yield and N use efficiency were achieved when applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N fertilizer without the application of fertilizer additive.

  11. Improving Data Analysis in Second Language Acquisition by Utilizing Modern Developments in Applied Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Herrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this article we introduce language acquisition researchers to two broad areas of applied statistics that can improve the way data are analyzed. First we argue that visual summaries of information are as vital as numerical ones, and suggest ways to improve them. Specifically, we recommend choosing boxplots over barplots and adding locally…

  12. The liberalization of the electric market from the view of a public utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competition associated with the liberalization of the electric power-supply markets and the altered customers behavior will require a fundamental reorientation in all commercial areas of the energy supply companies (ESC).The companies will only master these new challenges if they react promptly and in an appropriate flexible manner as well as with the demanded orientation attached to the market and to the customers. The strategy of reorientation of the ESC will be determined more and more by the customers and by demand less by supply and technology. The competition on the power-supply market will take predominately place in production and in commercialization. Thereby the commercialization of demand oriented products will be of increasing importance. On the partial markets of 'Industrial' and 'Contract'-customers and electric power trade the energy-suppliers must operate with different strategies. For the power-supplier the following results as consequences of the environment's change: trend to competition is irreversible, areas of creation of economic values are more important than supply stages, the net remains monopoly, new market participants will appear, the competition in the production will increase. The management-orientated way of the Grazer StadtwerkeAG as a public utility is to read as follows: increase the competence for competition, focus on the customer. (author)

  13. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  14. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  15. Applied electric field to fabricate colloidal crystals with the photonic band-gap in communication waveband

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hai-Tao; Wang Ming; Ge Yi-Xian; Yu Ping

    2009-01-01

    The macropore silica colloidal crystal templates were assembled orderly in a capillary glass tube by an applied electric field method to control silica deposition. In order to achieve the photonic band gap (PBG) of colloidal crystal in optical communication waveband, the diameter of silica microspheres is selected by Bragg diffraction formula. An experiment was designed to test the bandgap of the silica crystal templates. This paper discusses the formation process and the close-packed fashion of the silica colloidal crystal templates was discussed. The surface morphology of the templates was also analyzed. The results showed that the close-packed fashion of silica array templates was face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The agreement is very good between the experimental data and the theoretical calculation.

  16. Applying Nitrogen Site-Specifically Using Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps and Precision Agriculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lund

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower’s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  17. Ionization at a solid-water interface in an applied electric field: Charge regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2016-09-01

    We investigate ionization at a solid-water interface in an applied electric field. We attach an electrode to a dielectric film bearing silanol or carboxyl groups with an areal density Γ0, where the degree of dissociation α is determined by the proton density in water close to the film. We show how α depends on the density n0 of NaOH in water and the surface charge density σm on the electrode. For σm > 0, the protons are expelled away from the film, leading to an increase in α. In particular, in the range 0 < σm < eΓ0, self-regulation occurs to realize α ≅ σm/eΓ0 for n0 ≪ nc, where nc is 0.01 mol/L for silica surfaces and is 2 × 10-5 mol/L for carboxyl-bearing surfaces. We also examine the charge regulation with decreasing the cell thickness H below the Debye length κ-1, where a crossover occurs at the Gouy-Chapman length. In particular, when σm ˜ eΓ0 and H ≪ κ-1, the surface charges remain only partially screened by ions, leading to a nonvanishing electric field in the interior.

  18. Quality-factor amplification in piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying an all-electrical feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An all-electrical velocity feedback control to enhance the quality factor of piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN)-based microcantilevers and microbridges was implemented. Two alternatives to obtain a velocity-proportional signal were demonstrated depending on the top electrode configuration. For a straightforward electrode design in one-port configuration (i.e. self-actuation and self-sensing), a velocity signal, proportional to the piezoelectric current, was used in the feedback loop by cancelling out the dielectric current electronically. For top electrodes allowing a two-port configuration (i.e. one for actuation and one for sensing), the piezoelectric current is directly extracted and its relationship with velocity is analysed taking the symmetry of the modal shape into account. Standard operational amplifier-based configurations for the feedback circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board. Quality factors were determined from the transient electrical response of the devices. Comparable results were obtained from the displacement spectrum applying a laser Doppler vibrometer. Quality factors as high as 2 × 105, corresponding to an enhancement factor of about 200, were achieved in air for the lowest gain margin achievable before the circuit becomes unstable, making this kind of device more competitive for mass sensor applications due to enhanced spectral resolution.

  19. Effects of Electric Stimulations Applied During Absolute Refractory Period on Ventricular Muscle from Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海柱; 崔长琮; 赵晓静; 周忠

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To investigatethe influences of electric signals applied during absoluterefractory period(ARP)on the contractility of isolatedpapilary muscle from rabbits.Methods Papillarymuscle was exercised from the right yentricle and waspaced at 1 Hz.Biphasic square wave current pulse wasdelivered during the absolute refractory period(calledCCM)in isolated,superfused,isometrically contractil-ity rabbit papillary muscle.The peak tension(PT)ofpapillary muscle,as well as maximum positive tensionchange(+dT/dtmax),were observed.ResultsCompared with the baseline,both PT and+dT/dtmaxsignificantly increased during CCM stimulation by18.2%and 21.4%respectively(P<0.05).In ad-dition,PT increased significantly with one or two beatsfollowing CCM signal application and reached a newsteady state level after a few beats.Once the CCM signals were turned off,the PT returned to the approximatelv baseline level(P<0.05).Moreover,the effectof CCM on PT was dose-response to voltage.Theobvious effect was at higher voltage.No effect was ob-served at lower voltage.Conclusions Electric signalsdelivered during the absolute refractory period canrapidly enhance the contractility of myocardium,whichsuggests that CCM signal is a novel potent method forcontractility modulation.

  20. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita M. Rochlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26% received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes.

  1. A simple methodology to assess the energy and electricity utilization of a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Giraldi–Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple methodology was developed to assess the efficiency of resource utilization in the energy sector. This was made possible by grouping several variables related to the same general concept into one parameter. Similar at tempts have been made in the case of the Human Development Index created by the United Nations, and in a more elaborate concept related to the Sustainable Development Index developed by the University of Yale and the University of Columbia. A comparison is done, and possible correlations are analyzed between these indexes and that developed in this work. Results show that when one variable has a very favorable value in the energy context of the country, the index is greatly influenced. This can be observed by the fact that the proposed index improves in the case of countries with a surplus of energy resources. Despite the general approach of the developed method, the obtained index can be a first hand tool to evaluate the energy and electricity utilization of a country. This index can be properly integrated with similar indexes to achieve a more precise diagnosis of the situation of the country in question.

  2. Summary of the research and development effort on steam plants for electric-utility service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1981-06-01

    The development of steam power plants for electric utility service over the past century is reviewed with particular emphasis on the prime problems and their solution. Increases in steam pressure and temperature made possible by developments in metallurgy led to an increase in thermal efficiency by a factor of 8 between 1880 and 1955. Further improvements have not been made because the use of still more expensive alloys is not economically justified, even with the much higher fuel prices of the latter 1970's. In fact, EPA regulations on waste heat and sulfur emissions have led to the use of cooling towers and wet limestone stack gas scrubbers that cause a degradation in plant thermal efficiency. The various possibilities for further improvements in efficiency and their problems are examined. The development of steam power plants in the past has been carried out in sufficiently small steps that the utilities and the equipment manufacturers have been able to assume the financial risk involved; but the fluidized-bed combustion system, which appears to be the most promising area, presents such a large step with major uncertainties that U.S. government financial support of the research and development effort appears to be required. The potential benefits appear to justify the research and development cost many times over.

  3. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  4. Electronic structures of stacked layers quantum dots: influence of the non-perfect alignment and the applied electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Bo-Yong; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Liu Yu-Min; Han Li-Hong; Yao Wen-Jie; Feng Hao; Ye Han

    2011-01-01

    Electronic structures of the artificial molecule comprising two truncated pyramidal quantum dots vertically coupled and embedded in the matrix are theoretically analysed via the finite element method. When the quantum dots are completely aligned, the electron energy levels decrease with the horizontally applied electric field. However, energy levels may have the maxima at non-zero electric field if the dots are staggered by a distance of several nanometers in the same direction of the electric field. In addition to shifting the energy levels, the electric field can also manipulate the electron wavefunctions confined in the quantum dots, in company with the non-perfect alignment.

  5. Study on applying technology of utilizing long-term materials for corrosion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Chul; Park, Young Kyu; Baek, Soo Gon; Lee, Jong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Suk [Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rhyo Seong [Hankuk Aviation, University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays, as the pollution in seawater is escalating rapidly because of fast industrialization, corrosion rate and repairing frequency of seawater facilities in power plant are increasing. In addition, new construction is restricted with narrow limits due to the deterioration of social condition, asking for extension of facility life and repairing frequency. The objectives of this study are to select the appropriate new high corrosion resistance materials and apply them in the field, to make the corrosion data base in accordance with their usage conditions and to predict the remaining life and optimum repairing period by predicting the life of facilities. (author). 77 refs., 54 figs.

  6. A Novel Adaptive Elite-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to VAR Optimization in Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization (PSO has been successfully applied to solve many practical engineering problems. However, more efficient strategies are needed to coordinate global and local searches in the solution space when the studied problem is extremely nonlinear and highly dimensional. This work proposes a novel adaptive elite-based PSO approach. The adaptive elite strategies involve the following two tasks: (1 appending the mean search to the original approach and (2 pruning/cloning particles. The mean search, leading to stable convergence, helps the iterative process coordinate between the global and local searches. The mean of the particles and standard deviation of the distances between pairs of particles are utilized to prune distant particles. The best particle is cloned and it replaces the pruned distant particles in the elite strategy. To evaluate the performance and generality of the proposed method, four benchmark functions were tested by traditional PSO, chaotic PSO, differential evolution, and genetic algorithm. Finally, a realistic loss minimization problem in an electric power system is studied to show the robustness of the proposed method.

  7. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given

  8. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  9. Rolling Stability Control Utilizing Rollover Index for In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Hori, Yoichi

    In this paper, a novel integrated stability program (ISP) based on robust rolling stability control (RSC) for in-wheel electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate, (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely, (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel, and (4) a motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable a high-performance three-dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. Rolling stability is important for all classes of light-vehicles, especially, for EVs that have narrow tread and high center of gravity. In this study, RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. However, as the drivability of the vehicle will be changed significantly if only RSC is applied, vehicle rolling motion should be controlled depending on the rolling state. Therefore, variable weight-ISP and variable reference-ISP are proposed using rolling state information. For detecting rolling state, rollover index (RI) is introduced. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by the simulation and the experimental results.

  10. New insight into direct electrical characterization of graphene utilizing cleavage-based micro four probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renxin; Zhang, Hongze; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Yushi; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Wei; Li, Zhihong

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the electrical properties of arbitrarily shaped small graphene flakes in a direct way, a kind of cleavage-based micro four probe (C-M4P) is developed and a finite element analysis (FEA)-aided approximation method is subsequently proposed. The cleavage process is put forward in the manufacturing of C-M4Ps, which fulfills the releasing of the C-M4P in an ingenious manner. Specifically, we investigate the cleavage process based on simulation and the scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Furthermore, the FEA-aided approximation method brings new insight into the conductivity characterization of arbitrarily shaped small graphene flakes when the geographic correction factor is non-negligible but complicated to figure out. The electrical properties of monolayer graphene flakes applied with back gate voltage are detected by the C-M4P and analyzed through the FEA-aided approximation method, which are proved to be competent for small graphene flake characterization.

  11. Reducing uncertainty – responses for electricity utilities to severe solar storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaunt Charles Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, electricity utilities in mid- and low-latitude regions believed that solar storms had no (or only insignificant effect on their power systems. Then it was noticed that the onset of damage in several large transformers, leading to their failure, correlated very closely with the Halloween storm of 2003. Since then engineers have started to appreciate that a very severe storm could have serious consequences outside the high-latitude regions. There are many uncertainties in predicting the effects of solar storms on electrical systems. The severity and time of arrival of a storm are difficult to model; so are the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs expected to flow in the power networks. Published information about the responses of different types of transformers to GICs is contradictory. Measurements of the abnormal power flows in networks during solar storms generally do not take into account the effects of the current distortion and unbalance, potentially giving misleading signals to the operators. The normal requirement for optimum system management, while allowing for the possibility of faults caused by lightning, birds and other causes, limits the capacity of system operators to respond to the threats of GICs, which are not assessed easily by the N − 1 reliability criterion. A utility’s response to the threat of damage by GICs depends on the expected frequency and magnitude of solar storms. Approaches to formulating a response are located in a system model incorporating space physics, network analysis, transformer engineering, network reliability and decision support and the benefits are identified. Approaches adopted in high-latitude regions might not be appropriate where fewer storms are expected to reach damaging levels. The risks of an extreme storm cannot be ignored, and understanding the response mechanisms suitable for low-latitude regions has the capacity to inform and reduce the uncertainty for power systems

  12. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) Applied to Karst Carbonate Aquifers: Case Study from Amdoun, Northwestern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhaounia, Belgacem; Ilondo, Batobo Ountsche; Gabtni, Hakim; Sami, Khomsi; Bédir, Mourad

    2016-04-01

    The Amdoun region is characterized by a high degree of karstification due to the climate impact (±1500 mm year-1) and the development of fracture network. Survey using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is deployed to provide a cost-effective characterization of the subsurface karst environments. A total of seven ERT profiles with lengths of 315 m were evaluated at the Béja governorate (NW Tunisia). The area represents a small syncline of Boudabbous limestone rocks (Lower Eocene), which is covered by a thin layer of clay. In this study, an ERT survey was conducted to examine the spatial distribution and shape of underground cavities in the karst area in Jebel Sabah anticline and Aïn Sallem-Zahret Medien syncline. In this study, geological, hydro-geological and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods were applied to determine the geometry of the perched aquifer in the Amdoun region (NW Tunisia). The area is characterized by fractured and karstic limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous (Abiod Fm.) and Lower Eocene (Boudabbous Fm.). The aquifers have a karstic functioning and drain aquifers of economical interest, despite some wells exploiting them. Seven resistivity profiles were conducted along the survey area at three sites. The orientation, extension and the degree of inclination of those profiles are shown in the location map. The correct resistivity data were interpreted using Earth Imager 2D software. The results of the interpreted geo-electrical sections showed that the resistivity of the carbonate aquifer varied between 2.5 to over 5794 Ωm. The thickness of the perched aquifer ranged from 15 to 50 m, while its depth from the surface lies between 10 and 60 m. The ERT not only provided precise near surface information, but was also very useful for establishing the 3D geometry and the position of several potential cavities and karts. The results show the presence of small to large isolated cavities at various depths. The low resistivity of cavities

  13. Intelligent techniques applied in identifying fraudsters industrial consumers of electricity; Tecnicas inteligentes aplicadas na identificacao de consumidores industriais fraudadores de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Caio C.O.; Souza, Andre N. de; Pereira, Lucas I.; Gastaldello, Danilo S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: caioramos@gmail.com, andrejau@feb.unesp.br, ra510611@feb.unesp.br, danilosg@feb.unesp.br; Zago, Maria G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil) Escola Politecnica], Email: mgzago@usp.br; Papa, Joao P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. da Computacao], Email: papa.joaopaulo@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The development of a computational intelligent tools based on neural network to identify commercial losses or fraud (theft energy), considering information from a database electric utility, is presented.

  14. Electrical utility generating system reliability analysis code, SYSREL. Social cost studies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hub, K.; Conley, L.; Buehring, W.; Rowland, B.; Stephenson, M.

    1975-09-01

    The system reliability code, SYSREL, is a system planning tool that can be used to assess the reliability and economic performance of alternative expansion patterns of electric utility generation systems. Given input information such as capacity, forced-outage rate, number of weeks of annual scheduled maintenance, and economic data for individual units along with the expected load characteristics, the code produces estimates of the mean time between system failures, required reserve capacity to meet a specified system-failure-frequency criterion, expected energy generation from each unit, and system energy cost. The categories of calculations performed by the code are maintenance scheduling, reliability, capacity requirement, energy production allocation, and energy cost. The code is designed to examine alternative generating units and system expansion patterns based on the constraints and general economic conditions imposed by the investigator. The computer running time to execute a study is short and many system alternatives can be examined at a relatively low cost. The report contains a technical description of the code, list of input data requirements, program listing, sample execution, and parameter studies. (auth)

  15. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition

  16. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? 792.218 Section 792.218 Administrative... law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The...

  17. Qualitative operational value at risk for an electric utility based on the guidelines of the basel committee

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Torres, Dionicio; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Solana Perez, Pablo; Portela García-Miguel, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for determining value at operational risk ?OpVaR? in electric utilities, with the aim to confirm the versatility of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) proposals. The model intends to open a new methodological approach in risk management, paying special attention to underlying operational sources of risk.

  18. The politics of power : the political economy of rent-seeking in electric utilities in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnain, Zahid; Matsuda, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of unique intra-country variation in the Philippines power sector to examine under what conditions politicians have an incentive to "capture" an electric utility and use it for the purposes of rent-seeking. The authors hypothesize that the level of capture is determined by the incentives of, and the interactions between, local and national politicians, where the ...

  19. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameter...

  20. Energy R and D in private and state-owned utilities: An analysis of the major world electric companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two decades have witnessed a staggering decline of R and D investment in the fields of energy and electricity. This paper contends that this widespread phenomenon is mainly ascribable to the processes of liberalization and privatization of electricity markets, which have induced electric utilities to dramatically reduce R and D expenditures. A closer inspection to recent data concerned with ten major electric companies of the world shows that the drop of research expenditures was particularly strong among the private or newly-privatized companies. Instead, those that remained under public control did not reduce remarkably their R and D efforts. According to the widely recognized need of a surge of energy R and D, the policy implications of the above findings are discussed. - Highlights: ► The last two decades have witnessed a staggering reduction of energy R and D. ► This was due to the liberalization of electricity markets. ► The R and D cuts have been particularly intense in private utilities. ► Instead, state-owned utilities have maintained an adequate research capacity. ► The above market failure is calling for urgent policy measures.

  1. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

  2. The Philippine electricity sector reform and the urban question: How metro Manila's utility is tackling urban poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 2000s, the Philippine government reformed its electricity sector following neoliberal principles: unbundling of the power industry, privatisation of assets and commodification of electricity. This paper shows that the reform was primarily driven by the need to secure electricity supply and cut down tariffs. These national objectives ousted other issues, and notably those that find their expression at the urban level, among which the question of access to electricity in Metro Manila's urban poor communities. The central state withdrew its attention from the issue of electrification, and local actors had to react as they were confronted to social tensions and practices of pilferage. As a consequence, city governments and local administrations are getting involved in this issue, which opens the way to participation of civil society. This paper shows how the “rolling back” of the central state led to new partnerships and arrangements between the distribution utility, local governments and community organisations. This movement points to an urbanisation of energy issues, which could bring positive results for end-users provided that it is accompanied by a clearer regulatory framework. - Highlights: • The electricity reform did not take the urban poor into consideration. • The state retreated from issues of electrification. • Decentralisation favoured the emergence of new, local actors for this aspect of energy policy. • The distribution utility is left with an increased power over issues of access to electricity. • Territorially and qualitatively, electrification programs are more diverse

  3. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Transmittance fluctuations and non-linearity in random chains in the presence of applied electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out numerical investigations of transmittance fluctuations in disordered chains in the presence of external electric fields. We have obtained an almost constant fluctuation in a length scale smaller than the localization length. However, the value of the fluctuation in the plateau region is dependent on the external electric field and strength of disorder. We have also studied the transmittance autocorrelation as a function of external electric field to probe non-linearity in transmittance. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs

  5. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  6. La regulación de los servicios de electricidad en Argentina y Brasil (1890-1962 Electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil (1890-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de la regulación del sector eléctrico en Argentina y Brasil entre 1890 y 1960. Desde la instalación de las primeras usinas eléctricas a fines del siglo diecinueve hasta los años treinta, el control de las empresas concesionarias estuvo a cargo de las autoridades municipales en ambos países. No obstante, la similar estructura de los sistemas eléctricos en Argentina y en Brasil, la participación del estado en la regulación de este sector estratégico para el desarrollo económico, se produjo en diferentes coyunturas. Como resultado de la crisis de 1930, el gobierno brasileño transformó los principios jurídicos que reglamentaban la gestión de la electricidad aplicando un criterio de regulación discrecional; mientras que el estado argentino intervino una década más tarde, nacionalizando las empresas. Mediante la comparación de las trayectorias regulatorias en ambos países, se identifican las divergencias en las políticas eléctricas y su impacto en los sistemas eléctricos en los años de la segunda posguerra.This article compares the evolution of electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil between 1890 and 1960. From the installation of electrical systems in the 19th century until the 1930s, electrical utility companies were controlled by the local authorities in both countries. The structure of electrical systems was similar in Argentina and Brazil, however the state regulation of electric utilities took place at different times. As a result of the 1930's crisis, the Brazilian government introduced a new legal approach by applying a discretionary regulation. On the other hand, the Argentinean government intervened one decade later, nationalizing the companies. By comparing both regulatory trajectories, the divergences as well as the effects of each policy on the electrical utility systems in the second postward period, are identified.

  7. Feasibility assessment of path-planning for pipeline system construction of electric utilities network enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C.; Huang, S.J. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposed an algorithm to improve the power transmission network in Taiwan which has experienced increased competition since the addition of competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC) into the telecommunication market. Recently, the CLECs requested to rent pipelines from the original incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and from the Taiwan Power Company. The Taiwan Power Company not only builds transmission lines, but also telecommunication networks using different kinds of fiber optic cables, including Optical Power Ground Wire (OPGW), All-Dielectric Self-Supporting (ADSS), and Wrapped types (WOC). This paper also discussed the integration of pipeline rent-out work with AM/FM/geographic information system software. The Java-based software determines a shortest path-planning method for the piping layout to help improve the pipeline system and the construction of an electricity network. The method is expected to increase the use of existing pipelines by improving the efficiency of network planning and maintenance. The method also reduces the potential for design faults and is easy to apply in the field due to the clear criteria. This paper described the proposed system architecture in detail and presented test results. It was shown that the use of a shortest path for the piping layout can reduce the distance between manholes in the huge network. According to test results, the proposed method is considered to be feasible. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Health-Economics Analyses Applied to ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Swanson, John; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-06-01

    Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF EMFs) are a common exposure for modern populations. The prevailing public-health protection paradigm is that quantitative exposure limits are based on the established acute effects, whereas the possible chronic effects are considered too uncertain for quantitative limits, but might justify precautionary measures. The choice of precautionary measures can be informed by a health-economics analysis (HEA). We consider four such analyses of precautionary measures that have been conducted at a national or state level in California, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Israel. We describe the context of each analysis, examine how they deal with some of the more significant issues that arise, and present a comparison of the input parameters and assumptions used. The four HEAs are methodologically similar. The most significant qualitative choices that have to be made are what dose-response relationship to assume, what allowance if any to make for uncertainty, and, for a CBA only, what diseases to consider, and all four analyses made similar choices. These analyses suggest that, on the assumptions made, there are some low-cost measures, such as rephasing, that can be applied to transmission in some circumstances and that can be justifiable in cost-benefit terms, but that higher cost measures, such as undergrounding, become unjustifiable. Of the four HEAs, those in the United Kingdom and Israel were influential in determining the country's EMF policy. In California and Netherlands, the HEA may well have informed the debate, but the policy chosen did not stem directly from the HEA. PMID:26800316

  9. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  10. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  11. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  12. 78 FR 67357 - Vineland Municipal Electric Utility v. Atlantic City Electric Company PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 1, 2013, pursuant to sections 205, 206... City Electric Company and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (Respondents). Vineland seeks an order granting full and immediate refunds of all amounts paid in violation of the Interconnection Agreement and...

  13. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  14. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Cost structure analysis of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on corporate financial statements of electric utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze past and current cost structure of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on annual corporate financial statements published by the Japanese electric utility companies, instead of employing the conventional methodology of evaluating the generation cost for a newly constructed model plant. The result of our study on existing commercial nuclear plants reveals the increasing significance of O and M and fuel cycle costs in total generation cost. Thus, it is suggested that electric power companies should take more efforts to reduce these costs in order to maintain the competitiveness of nuclear power in Japan. (author)

  17. Lead-time reduction utilizing lean tools applied to healthcare: the inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araidah, Omar; Momani, Amer; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Momani, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The healthcare arena, much like the manufacturing industry, benefits from many aspects of the Toyota lean principles. Lean thinking contributes to reducing or eliminating nonvalue-added time, money, and energy in healthcare. In this paper, we apply selected principles of lean management aiming at reducing the wasted time associated with drug dispensing at an inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital. Thorough investigation of the drug dispensing process revealed unnecessary complexities that contribute to delays in delivering medications to patients. We utilize DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) and 5S (Sort, Set-in-order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) principles to identify and reduce wastes that contribute to increasing the lead-time in healthcare operations at the pharmacy understudy. The results obtained from the study revealed potential savings of > 45% in the drug dispensing cycle time.

  18. Lead-time reduction utilizing lean tools applied to healthcare: the inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araidah, Omar; Momani, Amer; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Momani, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The healthcare arena, much like the manufacturing industry, benefits from many aspects of the Toyota lean principles. Lean thinking contributes to reducing or eliminating nonvalue-added time, money, and energy in healthcare. In this paper, we apply selected principles of lean management aiming at reducing the wasted time associated with drug dispensing at an inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital. Thorough investigation of the drug dispensing process revealed unnecessary complexities that contribute to delays in delivering medications to patients. We utilize DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) and 5S (Sort, Set-in-order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) principles to identify and reduce wastes that contribute to increasing the lead-time in healthcare operations at the pharmacy understudy. The results obtained from the study revealed potential savings of > 45% in the drug dispensing cycle time. PMID:20151593

  19. Carbon nanotubes with atomic impurities on boron nitride sheets under applied electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kim, Gunn; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2013-01-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the structural and electronic properties of metal-doped (10, 0) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a single hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) sheet in the presence of an external electric field. We consider K, Cl and Ni atoms as dopants to study the dependence of the electronic properties of the CNT on doping polarity and concentration. The electric field strength is varied from -0.2 V/\\AA to +0.2 V/\\AA to explore the effects of an external electric...

  20. Analysis of the impact of decentralized solar technology on electric utilities: comparison and synthesis of models. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.; Blair, P.

    1980-11-20

    The validation of the physical submodels of three solar-electric utility interface models is described. The validation problem is divided into two components, the accuracy of the submodels themselves and the accuracy of the data typically used to run these models. The data set required to study these problems with respect to utility requirements is discussed and its collection in the Philadelphia Metropolitan area described. The instrumentation employed in the gathering of the data is covered. Error statistics of data and submodel accuracy are presented and the current status of the study is presented.

  1. Composite-system-stability-methods applied to advanced shipboard electric-power systems. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, J.V.

    1992-05-01

    Large increases in the complexity of shipboard electric loads as well as development of electric drive, integrated electric drive and pulsed power systems make manifest the present and future importance of naval electric power systems. The most crucial attribute of these systems is their ability to fulfill their function in the presence of large-signal perturbations. Fundamental differences between shipboard and commercial electric power systems make all but the most general nonlinear, large-signal stability analyses inappropriate for the design and assessment of naval electric power systems. The tightly coupled and compact nature of shipboard systems are best accommodated by composite system stability analyses. Composite system methods, based upon Lyapunov's direct method, require that each component's stability be represented by a Lyapunov function. A new Lyapunov function which is based upon co-energy is developed for 3-phase synchronous machines. This use of co-energy is generalizable to all electromechanical energy conversion devices. The co-energy-based Lyapunov function is implemented as a stability organ which generates waveforms at information terminals of a device object in the object oriented simulation environment of WAVESIM. Single generator simulation results are used to acquire a measure of the over sufficiency of the co-energy-based Lyapunov function.

  2. Relationship between pore size and reversible and irreversible immobilization of ionic liquid electrolytes in porous carbon under applied electric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Thompson, Matthew W.; Zhang, Pengfei; Turner, C. Heath; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Transport of electrolytes in nanoporous carbon-based electrodes largely defines the function and performance of energy storage devices. Using molecular dynamics simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering, we investigate the microscopic dynamics of a prototypical ionic liquid electrolyte, [emim][Tf2N], under applied electric potential in carbon materials with 6.7 nm and 1.5 nm pores. The simulations demonstrate the formation of dense layers of counter-ions near the charged surfaces, which is reversible when the polarity is reversed. In the experiment, the ions immobilized near the surface manifest themselves in the elastic scattering signal. The experimentally observed ion immobilization near the wall is fully reversible as a function of the applied electric potential in the 6.7 nm, but not in the 1.5 nm nanopores. In the latter case, remarkably, the first application of the electric potential leads to apparently irreversible immobilization of cations or anions, depending on the polarity, near the carbon pore walls. This unexpectedly demonstrates that in carbon electrode materials with the small pores, which are optimal for energy storage applications, the polarity of the electrical potential applied for the first time after the introduction of an ionic liquid electrolyte may define the decoration of the small pore walls with ions for prolonged periods of time and possibly for the lifetime of the electrode.

  3. An Integer Programming Approach and Implementation for an Electric Utility Capacity Planning Problem with Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif D. Sherali; Konstantin Staschus; Jorge M. Huacuz

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an integer programming model and algorithm for an electric utility capacity expansion problem which considers the option of investing in nondispatchable or renewable energy sources. A branch-and-bound algorithm is proposed for this problem in which the continuous relaxation of the subproblem associated with each node in the enumeration tree is solved via an efficient two-phase procedure. This procedure solves a deterministic approximation of the problem in the first phase ...

  4. Effects of Electric Stimulations Applied during Absolute Refractory Period on Cardiac Function of Rabbits with Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海柱; 崔长琮; 胡大一

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electric currents applied during absolute refractory period(ARP) on the cardiac function of rabbits with heart failure due to myocardial infarction(MI),and the safety of this method were investigated.Thirty rabbits were randomly assigned equally to 3 groups:sham-operated group,LV-anterior wall cardiac contractility modulation(LV-CCM) group,and septum-CCM(S-CCM) group.A thoracotomy was performed on all the rabbits.Electric pulses were delivered during the ARP on the anterior wall of left ventr...

  5. A new theoretical formulation of coupling thermo-electric breakdown in LDPE film under dc high applied fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughariou, F.; Chouikhi, S.; Kallel, A.; Belgaroui, E.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new theoretical and numerical formulation for the electrical and thermal breakdown phenomena, induced by charge packet dynamics, in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) insulating film under dc high applied field. The theoretical physical formulation is composed by the equations of bipolar charge transport as well as by the thermo-electric coupled equation associated for the first time in modeling to the bipolar transport problem. This coupled equation is resolved by the finite-element numerical model. For the first time, all bipolar transport results are obtained under non-uniform temperature distributions in the sample bulk. The principal original results show the occurring of very sudden abrupt increase in local temperature associated to a very sharp increase in external and conduction current densities appearing during the steady state. The coupling between these electrical and thermal instabilities reflects physically the local coupling between electrical conduction and thermal joule effect. The results of non-uniform temperature distributions induced by non-uniform electrical conduction current are also presented for several times. According to our formulation, the strong injection current is the principal factor of the electrical and thermal breakdown of polymer insulating material. This result is shown in this work. Our formulation is also validated experimentally.

  6. The effects of intense laser field and applied electric and magnetic fields on optical properties of an asymmetric quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: pfrire@eia.edu.co [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Envigado (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonóma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties (the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficients) in an asymmetric quantum well. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the asymmetric quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the asymmetric quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The asymmetric quantum well is constructed by using different aluminium concentrations in both right and left barriers. The confinement in the quantum well is changed drastically by either the effect of electric and magnetic fields or by the application of intense laser field. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix approach. The results show that the effect of the intense laser field competes with the effects of the electric and magnetic fields. Consequently, peak position shifts to lower photon energies due to the effect of the intense laser field and it shifts to higher photon energies by the effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, it is found that the concentration of aluminum, electric and magnetic fields and intense laser field are external agents that modify the optical responses in the asymmetric quantum well.

  7. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  8. Climate change and electricity - 2006. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2005 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 1.7% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2001. These 23 companies represent 55% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 45% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 show stable emissions while 3 have reduced their emissions. (J.S.)

  9. Climate change and electricity - 2003. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2002 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 21 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 0.8% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2001. These 21 companies represent 75% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 60% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 have increased their emissions while 3 have reduced them. (J.S.)

  10. An essay pertaining to the supply and price of natural gas as fuel for electric utilities and independent power producers; and, the related growth of non-utility generators to meet capacity shortfalls in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the impact natural gas and petroleum prices have on how the electric power industry decides to meet increasing demand for electric power. The topics of the paper include the pricing impact of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, the BTU parity argument, electric utility capacity shortfalls in 1993, the growth of the non-utility generator and the independent power developer market, natural gas as the desired fuel of the decade, the financial strategy in acquiring natural gas reserves, the cost and availability of natural gas supplies for non-utility generators, and the reluctance of the gas producers to enter long term contracts

  11. The effects of applied electric fields on Micrasterias. I. Morphogenesis and the pattern of cell wall deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, D L; McIntosh, J R

    1980-04-01

    Applied electric fields of approximately 14 V/cm have profound effects on the morphogenesis of the unicellular green alga, Micrasterias denticulata. This field corresponds to a potential drop of 15-40 mV across lobes oriented perpendicular to the applied field. These lobes show a galvanotropism toward the cathode. Lobes growing parallel to the field are stunted to varying degrees, depending on their orientation. As shown by other investigators, most cell wall material is normally deposited at the tips of growing lobes. If, however, cell expansion is osmotically inhibited in electric fields, wall material also accumulates along the cathode-facing (CF) sides of lobes oriented perpendicular to the field. Similarly, in cells growing under the influence of an applied field, radioactively labelled glucose and the methyl groups from methionine are incorporated along the CF sides of lobes as well as the lobe tips. This is also true when the label is added immediately after cells are removed from the fields, indicating that the wall-depositing machinery itself has been temporarily altered by the field. These results demonstrate that applied electric fields can be a valuable tool in elucidating the mechanisms of growth localization in Micrasterias cells. PMID:7400236

  12. Reactive molecular dynamics of the initial oxidation stages of Ni111 in pure water: effect of an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assowe, O; Politano, O; Vignal, V; Arnoux, P; Diawara, B; Verners, O; van Duin, A C T

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion processes occurring in aqueous solutions are critically dependent upon the interaction between the metal electrode and the solvent. In this work, the interaction of a nickel substrate with water molecules has been investigated using reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations. This approach was originally developed by van Duin and co-workers to study hydrocarbon chemistry and the catalytic properties of organic compounds. To our knowledge, this method has not previously been used to study the corrosion of nickel. In this work, we studied the interaction of 480 molecules of water (ρ = 0.99 g·cm(-3)) with Ni(111) surfaces at 300 K. The results showed that a water "bilayer" was adsorbed on the nickel surface. In the absence of an applied electric field, no dissociation of water was observed. However, the nickel atoms at the surface were charged positively, whereas the first water layer was charged negatively, indicating the formation of an electric double layer. To study the corrosion of nickel in pure water, we introduced an external electric field between the metal and the solution. The electric field intensity varied between 10 and 20 MeV/cm. The presence of this electric field led to oxidation of the metal surface. The structural and morphological differences associated with the growth of this oxide film in the presence of the electric field were evaluated. The simulated atomic trajectories were used to analyze the atomic displacement during the reactive process. The growth of the oxide scale on the nickel surface was primarily due to the movement of anions toward the interior of the metal substrate and the migration of nickel toward the free surface. We found that increasing the electric field intensity sped up the corrosion of nickel. The results also showed that the oxide film thickness increased linearly with increasing electric field intensity.

  13. Adding concentrated solar power plants to wind farms to achieve a good utility electrical load match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas has the greatest installed wind turbine capacity of any state in the United States, the percentage of wind capacity approaches 10% of the utilities capacity (in 2010 the total wind generated capacity in Texas was 8%). It is becomimg increasingly difficult for the utility to balance the elec...

  14. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  15. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

  16. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Ömür Bucak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  17. Evaluation of the electric utility missions; Evaluation des missions de service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, J

    2000-07-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  18. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. PMID:27006422

  19. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen;

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground environ...

  20. The influence of compressive stress applied by hard coatings on the power loss of grain oriented electrical steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce the core loss of electrical steel the vacuum arc ion plating technique has been used to deposit titanium nitride (TiN) layers on highly grain oriented electrical steel sheets. The layer thickness, the stresses of layers and coated sheets and the achieved reduction in core losses have been measured as functions of coating duration and applied bias voltage. Well adhered layers with high compressive stress up to 6.8 GPa have been produced. With increasing bias voltage the layer thickness decreases and the intrinsic stress of the layers increase. A further increase of bias voltage leads to a drop in stress due to thermal relaxation. In general, the tensile stress of the coated sheets rises with increasing layer thickness while the core loss of the coated material decreases with increasing tensile stress of the steel sheet and increasing bias voltage. The highest reduction of core loss has been found to be 28% (from P1.7=0.86 W/kg for commercially coated HGO electrical steel sheet with glass film to 0.62 W/kg for TiN coated material) and is due to the reduction of excess loss only. - Highlights: → Power loss of HGO electrical steel can be significantly reduced by tensile stress. → Tensile stress can be applied by hard coatings showing compressive stress like TiN. → The power loss can be decreased by 28%. → The reduction in loss is mainly due to the decrease of excess loss.

  1. Donor impurity states and related optical response in a lateral coupled dot-ring system under applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J.D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-09-01

    A study on the effects of an externally applied electric field on the linear optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with transitions between off-center donor impurity states in laterally coupled quantum dot-ring system is reported. Electron states are calculated within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations by means of an exact diagonalization procedure. The states and the optical response in each case show significant sensitivity to the geometrical distribution of confining energies as well as to the strength of the applied field.

  2. Intense laser effects on nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification in single quantum wells under applied electric and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque_echeverri@yahoo.es [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Sari, H. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Soekmen, I. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    In this work the effects of intense laser on the electron-related nonlinear optical absorption and nonlinear optical rectification in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum wells are studied under, applied electric and magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the growth direction of the quantum well whereas the magnetic field has been considered to be in-plane. The calculations were performed within the density matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The intense laser effects are included through the Floquet method, by modifying the confining potential associated to the heterostructure. Results are presented for the nonlinear optical absorption, the nonlinear optical rectification and the resonant peak of these two optical processes. Several configurations of the dimensions of the quantum well, the applied electric and magnetic fields, and the incident intense laser radiation have been considered. The outcome of the calculation suggests that the nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification are non-monotonic functions of the dimensions of the heterostructure and of the external perturbations considered in this work.

  3. Electron and donor-impurity-related Raman scattering and Raman gain in triangular quantum dots under an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiutiunnyk, Anton; Akimov, Volodymyr; Tulupenko, Viktor; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E.; Kasapoglu, Esin; Morales, Alvaro L.; Duque, Carlos Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The differential cross-section of electron Raman scattering and the Raman gain are calculated and analysed in the case of prismatic quantum dots with equilateral triangle base shape. The study takes into account their dependencies on the size of the triangle, the influence of externally applied electric field as well as the presence of an ionized donor center located at the triangle's orthocenter. The calculations are made within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations, with a diagonalization scheme being applied to obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the x- y Hamiltonian. The incident and secondary (scattered) radiation have been considered linearly-polarized along the y-direction, coinciding with the direction of the applied electric field. For the case with an impurity center, Raman scattering with the intermediate state energy below the initial state one has been found to show maximum differential cross-section more than by an order of magnitude bigger than that resulting from the scheme with lower intermediate state energy. The Raman gain has maximum magnitude around 35 nm dot size and electric field of 40 kV/cm for the case without impurity and at maximum considered values of the input parameters for the case with impurity. Values of Raman gain of the order of up to 104cm-1 are predicted in both cases.

  4. An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskin, Ibrahim

    Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy

  5. Utility scale hybrid wind-solar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a hybrid wind-solar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90 km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer fluid that drives a steam turbine. The market value of energy produced, retail value of energy produced, and levelized cost of energy of the hybrid plant are compared to those of an energy equivalent wind-only plant. Results show that adding solar thermal electric generating capacity to a wind farm rather than expanding with additional wind capacity provides cost-benefit trade-offs that will continue to change as the two technologies evolve. At the present time, we find that capital cost and levelized cost of energy favor a wind-only plant while electric load matching favors a hybrid wind-solar plant. Regional differences in the solar resource in the US influence the economic viability of the hybrid plant, and a comparison using the present model is made with one location in the Southwest. The hourly data analysis presented here is a possible tool for evaluating the overall economic feasibility and generating characteristics for a hybrid wind-solar thermal electric power plant for any location with available wind, solar, electric load, and price data. (author)

  6. New Free Electron Wire for Loss Free Utilization of Electrical Energy and Highly Energy Efficient Electrical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Haldar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New Free Electrons Wire will enable the use of electrical energy and also energy in various other forms, in a loss free way, at room temperature. Free Electrons confined in vacuum at the order of 10-4 torr or more, at the core of the wire, can move a distance as long as about, to a few kilometers without any collision. The vacuum is maintained in a tube made up of alternate layers of Teflon and Silicon Oxynitride. The columbic repulsion between these free electrons will actually conduct energy without any loss. The free electrons trapped in vacuum tube, should be at a particular density of around 2.02 x 108 electrons per unit area. A metal encapsulation(s over the wire is there to keep the electromagnetic field remain confined within the free electron wire, to make it harmless to the health of living creatures. Apart from loss free energy transportation, the free electron wire is also capable of generating very high electromagnetic field due to the free electrons, simply by removing the metal encapsulation(s, which can be used for various purposes. The materials and techniques adopted will make New Free Electron Wire producible commercially, at the cost of general copper wires.

  7. Comparative study between structural and electrical properties of geopolymers applied to a green concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, A. M.; González, C. P.; Pérez, J.; Royero, C.; Sandoval, D.; Gutiérrez, J.

    2013-11-01

    This work shows a comparative analysis of geopolymers obtained by alkaline activation of two aluminosilicates: bentonite and metakaolin. With the goal of to replace some cement percentage, both aluminosilicates were added in several proportions (10, 20 and 30%) to concrete mixes. Portland Type I cement was used to prepare the reference concrete (without geopolymer). X-ray diffraction of geopolymers allowed to find new crystallographic phases that was not present in precursor's minerals. To evaluate mechanical properties of concrete prepared with geopolymers, test tubes with 7, 14, 28 and 90 days as setting time were used. Chemical resistance and Electrical impedance of concrete mixes were also measured. Results shows that cementitious material obtained from metakaolin exhibit the best compressive strength. On the other hand, those materials derived from bentonite, have a high electrical resistance so that, they protected reinforced concrete better that Portland does.

  8. A New Missing Data Imputation Algorithm Applied to Electrical Data Loggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Crespo Turrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, data collection is a key process in the study of electrical power networks when searching for harmonics and a lack of balance among phases. In this context, the lack of data of any of the main electrical variables (phase-to-neutral voltage, phase-to-phase voltage, and current in each phase and power factor adversely affects any time series study performed. When this occurs, a data imputation process must be accomplished in order to substitute the data that is missing for estimated values. This paper presents a novel missing data imputation method based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and compares it with the well-known technique called multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE. The results obtained demonstrate how the proposed method outperforms the MICE algorithm.

  9. A minimally intrusive monitoring system that utilizes electricity consumption as a proxy for wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D. Hunt

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis: \\'Off-the-shelf domestic electricity meters can be utilised to assist in monitoring the wellbeing of elderly people\\'. Many studies have shown that it is, in theory, possible to use domestic electricity consumption to determine \\'activities of daily living\\' but the availability of systems for actual use is very limited. This work followed the Design Science Research Methodology to create a Java application running on the Google App Engine cloud service that interfaced with both electricity meters and voice and text services. The system was implemented and tested over a three month period with one older person and their carer. Results demonstrated that the technology readily succeeds in meeting the study\\'s initial objectives. The need for more sophisticated decision logic was apparent and a method to determine whether a home is currently occupied is likely to improve the ability to create more timely alerts.

  10. Dynamic segmentation techniques applied to load profiles of electric energy consumption from domestic users

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Sánchez, Ignacio Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The electricity sector is currently undergoing a process of liberalization and separation of roles, which is being implemented under the regulatory auspices of each Member State of the European Union and, therefore, with different speeds, perspectives and objectives that must converge on a common horizon, where Europe will benefit from an interconnected energy market in which producers and consumers can participate in free competition. This process of liberalization and separation of...

  11. Surface-downhole electrical resistivity tomography applied to monitoring of the CO2 storage Ketzin (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bergmann; Cornelia Schmidt-Hattenberger; Kiessling, D.; Rücker, C.; Tim Labitzke; Jan Henninges; Gunther Baumann; Schütt, H.;  

    2012-01-01

    Surface-downhole electrical resistivity tomography (SDERT) surveys were repeatedly carried out to image CO2 injected at the pilot storage Ketzin, Germany. The experimental setup combines surface with downhole measurements by using a permanent electrode array that has been deployed in three wells. We performed one baseline and three repeat experiments; the first survey was performed during the site startup and the subsequent surveys during the first year of CO2 injection. By the time of the th...

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  14. Energy utilization and environmental control technologies in the coal-electric cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, G.C.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents an overview and assessment of the currently commercial and possible future technologies in the United States that are a part of the coal-electric cycle. From coal production to residual emissions control at the power plant stack, this report includes a brief history, current status and future assessment of each technology. It also includes a discussion, helpful for policy making decisions, of the process operation, environmental emission characteristics, market constraints and detailed cost estimates for each of these technologies, with primary emphasis on coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions control systems.

  15. Introduction to applied statistical signal analysis guide to biomedical and electrical engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shiavi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis is designed for the experienced individual with a basic background in mathematics, science, and computer. With this predisposed knowledge, the reader will coast through the practical introduction and move on to signal analysis techniques, commonly used in a broad range of engineering areas such as biomedical engineering, communications, geophysics, and speech.Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis intertwines theory and implementation with practical examples and exercises. Topics presented in detail include: mathematical

  16. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle [Toulouse School of Economics, 21 Allees de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Blanc, Aymeric [Agence Francaise de Developpement, 5 rue Roland Barthes, 75598 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  18. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  19. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  20. Impacts and Benefits of a Satellite Power System on the Electric Utility Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this limited study was to investigate six specific issues associated with interfacing a Satellite Power System (5 GW) with large (by present standards) terrestrial power pools to a depth sufficient to determine if certain interface problems and/or benefits exist and what future studies of these problems are required. The issues investigated are as follows: (1) Stability of Power Pools Containing a 5 GWe SPS; (2) Extra Reserve Margin Required to Maintain the Reliability of Power Pools Containing a 5 GWe SPS; (3) Use of the SPS in Load Following Service (i.e. in two independent pools whose times of peak demand differ by three hours); (4) Ownership of the SPS and its effect on SPS Usage and Utility Costs; (5) Utility Sharing of SPS related RD and D Costs; (6) Utility Liability for SPS Related Hazards.

  1. Finite Element Based Solution of Laplace's Equation Applied to Electrical Activity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab T. Baqer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer models are used in the study of electrocardiography to provide insight into physiological phenomena that are difficult to measure in the lab or in a clinical environment. The electrocardiogram is an important tool for the clinician in that it changes characteristically in a number of pathological conditions. Many illnesses can be detected by this measurement. By simulating the electrical activity of the heart one obtains a quantitative relationship between the electrocardiogram and different anomalies. Because of the inhomogeneous fibrous structure of the heart and the irregular geometries of the body, finite element method is used for studying the electrical properties of the heart. This work describes the implementation of the Conjugate Gradient iterative method for the solution of large linear equation systems resulting from the finite element method. A diagonal Jacobi preconditioner is used in order to accelerate the convergence. Gaussian elimination is also implemented and compared with the Precondition Conjugate Gradient (PCG method and with the iterative method. Different types of matrix storage schemes are implemented such as the Compressed Sparse Row (CSR to achieve better performance. In order to demonstrate the validity of the finite element analysis, the technique is adopted to solve Laplace's equation that describes the electrical activity of the human body with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. An automatic mesh generator is built using C++ programming language. Initially a complete finite element program is built to solve Laplace's equation. The same accuracy is obtained using these methods. The results show that the CSR format reduces computation time compared to the order format. The PCG method is better for the solution of large linear system (sparse matrices than the Gaussian Elimination and back substitution method, while Gaussian elimination is better than iterative method.

  2. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs......, including Electric Vehicles (EVs), may lead to a scenario in which the VPP needs several hours to have a solution for the ERM problem. This is the reason why it is necessary to use metaheuristic methodologies to come up with a good solution with a reasonable amount of time. The presented paper proposes...

  3. Lasing characteristics of a pendant drop deformed by an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, X Y; Lee, W K

    2000-04-01

    The lasing properties of an oval-shaped resonant cavity (ORC) with a continuously variable aspect ratio have been studied. The ORC was formed with a dye-doped pendant drop placed inside a variable static electric field. When the drop ORC was pumped by a nitrogen laser, lasing from the ORC was found to have strong directional emission characteristics and an intensity enhancement factor as great as 19.5. Calculated results of light rays escaping from ORC's by refraction are in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:18064081

  4. Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-05-01

    Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types.

  5. Effect of nonlinear absorption on electric field applied lead chloride by Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejeena, I. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin Kerala, India and M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India); Lillibai,; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin Kerala (India); Rahimkutty, M. H. [M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    The preparation, spectral response and optical nonlinearity of gel grown lead chloride single crystals subjected to electric field of 20V using parallel plate arrangements have been investigated. Optical band gap of the samples were determined using linear absorption spectra. Open aperture z-scan was employed for the determination of nonlinear absorption coefficient of PbCl{sub 2} solution. The normalized transmittance curve exhibits a valley shows reverse saturable absorption. The non linear absorption at different input fluences were recorded using a single Gaussian laser beam in tight focus geometry. The RSA nature of the sample makes it suitable for optical limiting applications.

  6. Effects of Applied Electric Current on the Tip Radius and the Universal Amplitude Coefficient of a Single Growing Dendrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasresfahani, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Raeissi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Modification of solidification structures by applying electric current has been the subject of interest in recent years. However, the exact relationships between the dendrite growth parameters and the current density are not yet clear. The dendrite tip geometry is an important growth parameter which can be characterized using the dendrite tip radius and the universal amplitude coefficient. In this paper, the dendrite tip shape was investigated in the absence and presence of an electric field using a transparent model material, i.e. the succinonitrile-acetone alloy. The results showed that both dendrite tip radius and universal amplitude coefficient increased by increasing the applied current density. The increase in the tip radius was attributed to the Joule heat produced at the solid-liquid interface which reduced the interface undercooling. The increase in the universal amplitude coefficient was postulated to be due to the changes in the distribution coefficient of the alloy system which would result in higher solute concentration in front of the solid-liquid interface. Owing to the increased universal amplitude coefficient, more prominent dendritic fins were observed at dendrites tips under electric current.

  7. Strain distribution and electronic structures of the InAs/GaAs quantum ring molecule in an applied electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strain distribution and electronic structures of the InAs/GaAs quantum ring molecule are calculated via the finite element method.In our model,three identical InAs quantum rings are aligned vertically and embedded in the cubic GaAs barrier.Considering the band edge modification induced by the strain,the electronic ground state and the dependence of ground state energy on geometric parameters of the quantum ring molecule are investigated.The change of localization of the wavefunction resulting from the applied electric field along the growth direction is observed.The ground state energy decreases as the electric field intensity increases in a parabolic-like mode.The electric field changes the monotonic dependence of the energy level on the inter-ring distance into a non-monotonic one.However,the electric field has no effect on the relationships between the energy level and other geometric parameters such as the inner radius and outer radius.

  8. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  9. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system. (author)

  10. The role of electricity utilities in ensuring environmental compliance of uranium suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Utilities, Vattenfall Fuel, OKG and BKAB (purchasing uranium and fuel cycle services for all Swedish reactors), have started 'Nuclear Fuel and Environment Project, NFE'. The purpose is to make environmental audits of companies with uranium mines, conversion, isotope enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities. Up to now five environmental audits have been carried out and another three are being processed. (author)

  11. Comparative risks of hydraulic, thermal and nuclear work in a large electrical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data is presented on the fatalities and accidents that have occurred in the construction and operation of hydraulic, thermal and nuclear generating facilities brought into service and operated by Ontario Hydro, a large Canadian utility, in the period 1970 to 1979. Results are also given of a prospective cohort epidemiological study of thermal and nuclear station workers which was begun in 1974. (author)

  12. Virtual reality applied to a full simulator of electrical sub-stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, G.; Maroto, J.; Felez, J.; Cabanellas, J.M.; Martinez, M.L.; Carretero, A. [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents an application designed to train electrical sub-station operators by means of a virtual reality environment. The application allows full viewing of any of the sub-stations in the power supply network. With the appropriate hardware (HMD, 3D mouse and tracking systems) it is possible to navigate into the virtual world and interact with the elements. Each of the sub-station components has been reproduced in the simulation model, including the behavior laws associated with it, so the complete functionality of the sub-station can be simulated. This module is built into a larger and more complex computer system composed of the actual sub-station control system, the Geographical Information System which defines the topology of the network, and the functional system which simulates the electrical behavior of the sub-station. The application automatically updates in the virtual environment any changes to the sub-station's design and allows access, from this environment, to information on every component. The virtual reality application has been implemented in a hardware configuration and has the same interface as that used in the control system of the real sub-station. In this way, the system developed can be integrated into a replica of the complete power supply network control system emulating a real sub-station, it being able to fully interact with the global system, and allow totally real situations to be simulated. (author)

  13. Design Practices in Harmonic Analysis Studies Applied to Industrial Electrical Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mekhamer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Power system harmonics may cause several problems, such as malfunctions of electrical equipment, premature equipment failures and plant shutdowns. Accordingly, mitigation of these harmonics is considered an important target especially for industrial applications where any short downtime period may lead to great economic losses. Harmonic analysis studies are necessary to analyze the current and voltage harmonic levels and check if these levels comply with the contractual or international standard limits. If the studies reveal that the preset limits are exceeded, then a suitable harmonic mitigation technique should be installed. Harmonic analysis studies in the industrial electrical systems are discussed in many references. However, a comprehensive procedure for the steps required to perform a harmonic study is rarely found in the literature even though it is strongly needed for design engineers. This paper provides a comprehensive procedure for the steps required to perform a harmonic study in the form of a flowchart, based on industrial research and experience. Hence, this paper may be considered as a helpful guide for design engineers and consultants of the industrial sector.

  14. A modular neural network scheme applied to fault diagnosis in electric power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Agustín; Quiles, Eduardo; García, Emilio; Morant, Francisco; Correcher, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  15. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G. (DLR, German Aerospace, Cologne); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  16. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  17. A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-12-01

    Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility`s report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

  18. Real-Time Load Monitoring By Microcontroller to Optimize Electric Power Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Sai Reddy Cherlo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and working of a cost and energy efficient power meter that monitor the usage of electrical energy consumed by any appliance or machine at any given time. The precise knowledge of the consumption of each device will let us identify the devices that increases the cost of our electricity bill. The circuit designed evaluates the consumption of the load of a particular device. As this is real-time monitoring, the evaluation is instantaneous such that the user can monitor the readings at any given time. The load is displayed in terms of Watts and the cost can be programmed according to tariff plan and slab rates

  19. Wind availability and its power utility for electricity production in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term wind speed and direction available at Bahrain (1978-1998) has been analysed and studied. The average annual wind speed was found to be equal to 4.7 ms-1 which indicates the suitability of using only small size wind parks (blade diameter of not more than 2 m) to produce electricity to fulfill the deficient electrical power at night during summer season in Bahrain. The wind direction was found very varient which makes it useful to use wind parks for limited spaces - this meets the requirement for Bahrain (area of 700 km2). These wind parks can be installed near the sea shores or off-shores. The extractable power was found to vary from 36 Wm-2 to 160 Wm-2. (Author)

  20. Hacking of water and electric utilities; Waterzuiveringen zijn gemakkelijk te hacken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Kelft, D. [Waterschapsbedrijf Limburg, Roermond (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    Attention is paid to the fact that control systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems or SCADA) of electric power plants and water purification installations are easy targets for hackers and computer viruses. [Dutch] De besturingssystemen van energiecentrales en waterzuiveringsinstallaties worden steeds vaker gekoppeld aan internet of andere netwerken in het bedrijf. Dat maakt de systemen een gemakkelijk doelwit voor hackers en virussen. Er wordt gepleit voor een integrale aanpak van de beveiliging.

  1. Electrical Maxwell demon and Szilard engine utilizing Johnson noise, measurement, logic and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo Bela; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a purely electrical version of Maxwell's demon which does not involve mechanically moving parts such as trapdoors, etc. It consists of a capacitor, resistors, amplifiers, logic circuitry and electronically controlled switches and uses thermal noise in resistors (Johnson noise) to pump heat. The only types of energy of importance in this demon are electrical energy and heat. We also demonstrate an entirely electrical version of Szilard's engine, i.e., an information-controlled device that can produce work by employing thermal fluctuations. The only moving part is a piston that executes work, and the engine has purely electronic controls and it is free of the major weakness of the original Szilard engine in not requiring removal and repositioning the piston at the end of the cycle. For both devices, the energy dissipation in the memory and other binary informatics components are insignificant compared to the exponentially large energy dissipation in the analog part responsible for creating new information by measurement and decision. This result contradicts the view that the energy dissipation in the memory during erasure is the most essential dissipation process in a demon. Nevertheless the dissipation in the memory and information processing parts is sufficient to secure the Second Law of Thermodynamics. PMID:23077525

  2. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  3. Design, costs, and acceptability of an electric utility self-insurance pool for assuring the adequacy of funds for nuclear power plant decommissioning expense. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Report summarizes a feasibility study of an electric utility self-insurance pool for assuring the adequacy of funds for nuclear power plant decommissioning expense. The feasibility study was comprised of three components: (1) the design of such a self-insurance pool; (2) the estimation of the expected costs of coverage for such a pool; and (3) the testing of the acceptability of such a pool to the electric utility study

  4. The epic of the Swiss electric utilities: the entry into a new era of the Swiss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the 19th century the only resources of Switzerland were wood and hydraulic energy. Their exploitation was adequate to produce heat and useful mechanical energy. The electrification of the country was introduced in the second half of the 19th century in the form of hydropower in DC. The potential is very important, with a gigantic buffer constituted by the glaciers, estimated to be 50 TWh a year. Today, it is used at around 65-85% (for the time being, annual hydropower generation varies from 42.3 TWh in 2001 to only 32.6 in 2006). The standardization of power distribution in AC was realized during World War I: public and private lighting, space heating and hot water, mechanical power, drive propulsion system in replacement of gas, coal and vapour, e.g. with the electrification of the national railway network. Between 1875 and 1914 more than 1000 electric utilities have been established. The first law concerning hydropower was decided in 1916. During World War II the restrictions on fossil fuel import were an incentive for the development of new hydropower plants: it was the epic of the dams. The high voltage network (220 kV) was developed in order to enable interconnection with the neighbour countries France, Germany and Italy. Since 1958 this interconnection is established on the whole European level. Switzerland was entrusted with the frequency adjustment of the European network and the controlling of the exchanges in the framework of a special European agreement on electricity. From the Swiss point of view the international trade of electricity is very profitable: thanks to its accumulation lakes Switzerland can sell expensive peak load energy to whole Europe. Since the mid 50ies it was clear that the exploitation of all economically available hydropower would not be enough to cover the increasing demand of the country. A first experimental nuclear power plant was decided in 1961, built from 1962 on and turned into operation in 1968 (30 MWth and 6 MWel

  5. Parallel Sparse Matrix Solver on the GPU Applied to Simulation of Electrical Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Antonio Wendell De Oliveira; Menach, Yvonnick Le; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, several industrial applications are being ported to parallel architectures. In fact, these platforms allow acquire more performance for system modelling and simulation. In the electric machines area, there are many problems which need speed-up on their solution. This paper examines the parallelism of sparse matrix solver on the graphics processors. More specifically, we implement the conjugate gradient technique with input matrix stored in CSR, and Symmetric CSR and CSC formats. This method is one of the most efficient iterative methods available for solving the finite-element basis functions of Maxwell's equations. The GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), which is used for its implementation, provides mechanisms to parallel the algorithm. Thus, it increases significantly the computation speed in relation to serial code on CPU based systems.

  6. Applying the Different Statistical Tests in Analysis of Electrical Breakdown Mechanisms in Nitrogen Filled Gas Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čedomir, A. Maluckov; Saša, A. Rančev; Miodrag, K. Radović

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigations of breakdown mechanisms, as well as a description of their influence on the distributions of time delay distributions, for a gas tube filled with nitrogen at 4 mbar. The values of the time delay are measured for different voltages, and the values of the relaxation times and their distributions and probability plots are analyzed. The obtained density distributions have Gaussian distributions and exponential distributions for different values of relaxation times (Gaussian for small values and exponential for large values of relaxation time). It is shown that for middle values of relaxation time the delay distributions have a shape between Gaussian and exponential distributions, which is a result of the different influences of electrical breakdown.

  7. Automatic Multi-GPU Code Generation applied to Simulation of Electrical Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Antonio Wendell De Oliveira; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc; Menach, Yvonnick Le

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and electronic engineering has used parallel programming to solve its large scale complex problems for performance reasons. However, as parallel programming requires a non-trivial distribution of tasks and data, developers find it hard to implement their applications effectively. Thus, in order to reduce design complexity, we propose an approach to generate code for hybrid architectures (e.g. CPU + GPU) using OpenCL, an open standard for parallel programming of heterogeneous systems. This approach is based on Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and the MARTE profile, standard proposed by Object Management Group (OMG). The aim is to provide resources to non-specialists in parallel programming to implement their applications. Moreover, thanks to model reuse capacity, we can add/change functionalities or the target architecture. Consequently, this approach helps industries to achieve their time-to-market constraints and confirms by experimental tests, performance improvements using multi-GPU environmen...

  8. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hill, L.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains summaries of the electric utilities performance-based rate plans for the following companies: Alabama Power Company; Central Maine Power Company; Consolidated Edison of New York; Mississippi Power Company; New York State Electric and Gas Corporation; Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; PacifiCorp; Pacific Gas and Electric; Southern California Edison; San Diego Gas & Electric; and Tucson Electric Power. In addition, this document also contains information about LBNL`s Power Index and Incentive Properties of a Hybrid Cap and Long-Run Demand Elasticity.

  9. A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-12-01

    Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility's report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

  10. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  11. Divertor experiments in a toroidal plasma, with E x B drift due to an applied radial electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E.J.

    1979-09-01

    It is proposed that the E x B drift arising from an externally applied electric field could be used in a tokamak or other toroidal magnetic plasma confinement device to remove plasma and impurities from the region near the wall and reduce the amount of plasma striking the wall. This could either augment or replace a conventional magnetic field divertor. Among the possible advantages of this scheme are easy external control over the rate of removal of plasma, more rapid removal than the naturally occurring rate in a magnetic divertor, and simplification of construction if the magnetic divertor is eliminated. Results of several related experiments performed in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole are presented.

  12. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Özyalın, Şenol; Halil Zarif, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  13. Evaluation of energy transfer and utilization efficiency of azo dye removal by different pulsed electrical discharge modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN YongJun; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG XingWang

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), caused by different high voltage pulsed electrical discharge modes (spark, streamer and corona discharge) induced by the various initial conductivities was investigated. A new type of pulsed high voltage source with thyratron switch and Blumlein pulse forming net (BPFN) was used. The typical discharge waveforms of voltage, current, power, pulse en-ergy and the pictures of spark, streamer and corona discharge modes were presented. The results in-dicated that pulsed electrical discharges led to complete decolorization and substantial decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the dye solution. The main intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS. The discharge modes changed from spark to streamer and to corona discharge, and the streamer length decreased with the liquid conductivity increasing. At a constant input power, the peak voltage, peak current, peak power and energy per pulse of the three discharge modes ranked in the following order: spark > streamer > corona. The effective energy transfer efficiency of AO7 removal was higher for spark discharge (57.2%) than for streamer discharge (40.4%) and corona discharge (27.6%). Moreover, the energy utilization efficiency of AO7 removal for spark discharge was 1.035×109 mol/J, and for streamer and corona discharge they were 0.646×10-8 and 0.589×10-9mol/J. Both the energy transfer efficiency and the energy utilization efficiency of spark discharge were the highest.

  14. Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented changes in its structure worldwide. With the advent of an open market environment and competition in the industry, and restructuring of the industry into separate generation, transmission, and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and planning are inevitable. One of the major consequences of this new electric utility environment is the greater emphasis on reliability and secure operation of the power system. This paper examines the impact of restructuring on power system dynamic analysis. It specifically addresses issues related to transient stability analysis and small-signal stability analysis. Four major topics to examine the effect on the nature of studies conducted are considered. These topics are (1) system adequacy and security, (2) system modeling data requirements, (3) system protection and control, and (4) system restoration. The consequences and impact of each of these topics on the nature of the studies conducted are examined and discussed. The emphasis on greater reliability has led to a clearer enunciation of standards, measurements, and guides in some countries. These requirements will result in: (1) more measurements on existing systems, (2) rigorous analysis of transient stability and small-signal stability to determine operating limits and plan systems, (3) greater emphasis on studies to verify coordination and proper performance of protection and controls, and (4) development of a detailed plan for system restoration in the case of wide-spread outages

  15. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  16. Solar energy hot water heating and electric utilities. A model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    TRNSYS is a residential solar simulation program designed to provide detailed simulations of individual solar systems composed of almost any presently used residential solar technology. The model is described and a validation of the model is presented using a group of domestic solar hot water systems in the metropolitan Philadelphia area. The collection and reduction of the data used is discussed, and the TRNSYS modeling of the systems is presented. The model results are given and a sensitivity analysis of the models was performed to determine the effect of input changes on the electric auxiliary backup consumption.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of a place-based conservation education program by applying utilization-focused evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Alice Blood

    Lack of personal connection to the natural world by most American youth builds reason for assessing effectiveness of conservation education programs. Place-based learning is important in helping youth understand how their personal and societal well-being are linked and dependent upon their local habitats. Across Montana 2277 students in grades 3--10 participate in an interactive year long fishing education program with their teachers called Hooked on Fishing (HOF). The purpose of my study was to assess the effectiveness of HOF, a place-based conservation education program established in 1996, and modeled after the national Hooked on Fishing, Not on Drugs program. Using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent group study design, students received a pre-survey during the beginning of the program, a post-survey after the program, and an extended post-survey 12 to 14 weeks later. Teachers voluntarily participated in an Internet survey during May 2006, and program instructors voluntarily participated in a structured open-ended telephone interview in June 2006. A key component of my study was the decision to conduct the evaluation process using an approach which included stakeholders in the development of the instruments to measure student outcomes. This approach is called utilization-focused evaluation and was developed by Michael Q. Patton. The motive of this approach is to promote the usability of the evaluation results. The results are considered to have a better chance to be applied by the program stakeholders to not only gauge program effectiveness, but to be used to improve the program. Two research questions were: (1) does the frequency of outdoor experiences have significant affects on students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and intended stewardship behaviors; and (2) does improved knowledge of local natural resources have significant affects on students' skills, attitudes and intended stewardship behavior. Nonparametric statistical analyses calculated statistical

  18. Contingent valuation method applied to survey on personal preferences on choice of electric power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Survey was conducted on personal preferences regarding their choice of electric power source to verify the applicability of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to such analysis. The survey was carried out on local and urban inhabitants in two steps, first by mail and thereafter by direct interview. A choice of four typical forms of power source was presented: nuclear, coal, hydro and green power; and the question was asked whether the respondent would be willing to pay additional charge for specifying their preferable power source. The mail survey indicated more than half of the respondents hold some willingness to pay either for disuse of nuclear power or expansion of green power. The interview survey revealed various complex motives lying behind their answers. Consequently, it was found that their preference is significantly correlated to their personal image or knowledge of power sources, their thinking or attitude toward energy conservation, their sense of consumption and their private view of life. It is concluded that CVM is pertinently applicable to quantitative analysis of individual opinions, particularly in terms of their motivation to participate in national energy issues. A number of modifications, however, should be required to be brought to the survey design in order to ensure smooth application in practice. (author)

  19. Combined Electric, Electromagnetic and Gamma Spectrometric Methods Applied to the Pariquera-Açu Alkaline Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria Lopes Loureiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pariquera-Açu Alkaline Complex, located in the city of Pariquera-Açu (State of São Paulo, is one of the Brazilianalkaline complexes which has considerable mining potential. The combined use of several methods helped to determinepossible areas for exploration. Geophysical prospecting methods were used to assess the exploration potential of theseareas. The methods used in this study were gamma-spectrometry, induced polarization and electrical survey. Previousgeophysical studies were carried out to better understand the structural evolution of the complex and were not limited tothe study of the lithological variation. Gravimetric studies showed a zone of intense fenitization, which is consistent withalkaline complexes with carbonatites. A dipole-dipole survey conducted in the central part of the complex indicated thepresence in the subsurface of a resistive lithology with high chargeability. These factors, together with other studies onthe alkaline complex, suggest the presence of carbonatite in the area, which is corroborated by gamma spectrometry data,given the concentrations of Th (8 ppm and U (3.5 ppm and considering that the measurements were performed over a nonradioactivesedimentary cover.

  20. Transient electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy applied to organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraffert, Felix; Steyrleuthner, Robert; Meier, Christoph; Bittl, Robert; Behrends, Jan, E-mail: j.behrends@fu-berlin.de [Berlin Joint EPR Lab, Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universität Berlin, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-27

    The influence of light-induced paramagnetic states on the photocurrent generated by polymer:fullerene solar cells is studied using spin-sensitive techniques in combination with laser-flash excitation. For this purpose, we developed a setup that allows for simultaneous detection of transient electron paramagnetic resonance as well as transient electrically detected magnetic resonance (trEDMR) signals from fully processed and encapsulated solar cells. Combining both techniques provides a direct link between photoinduced triplet excitons, charge transfer states, and free charge carriers as well as their influence on the photocurrent generated by organic photovoltaic devices. Our results obtained from solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) as electron donor and a fullerene-based electron acceptor show that the resonant signals observed in low-temperature (T = 80 K) trEDMR spectra can be attributed to positive polarons in the polymer as well as negative polarons in the fullerene phase, indicating that both centers are involved in spin-dependent processes that directly influence the photocurrent.

  1. Transient electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy applied to organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of light-induced paramagnetic states on the photocurrent generated by polymer:fullerene solar cells is studied using spin-sensitive techniques in combination with laser-flash excitation. For this purpose, we developed a setup that allows for simultaneous detection of transient electron paramagnetic resonance as well as transient electrically detected magnetic resonance (trEDMR) signals from fully processed and encapsulated solar cells. Combining both techniques provides a direct link between photoinduced triplet excitons, charge transfer states, and free charge carriers as well as their influence on the photocurrent generated by organic photovoltaic devices. Our results obtained from solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) as electron donor and a fullerene-based electron acceptor show that the resonant signals observed in low-temperature (T = 80 K) trEDMR spectra can be attributed to positive polarons in the polymer as well as negative polarons in the fullerene phase, indicating that both centers are involved in spin-dependent processes that directly influence the photocurrent

  2. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by utilization of superconductivity in electric-power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.; Lehtonen, J.; Mikkonen, R. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Institute of Electromagnetics

    2004-06-01

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions is becoming a topical issue due to the Kyoto Protocol which requires the European Union (EU) to reduce its emissions by 8% from the 1990 levels by between 2008 and 2012. The main source for GHG-emissions is energy production. Superconducting electrical machinery is starting to emerge into the market of power devices. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings in generators and transformers can approximately halve the losses compared to conventional devices. Higher efficiency saves electrical energy and also reduces GHG-emissions as well. In this paper, the reduction potential of GHG-emissions in the EU by HTS-machinery is calculated. The replacement of existing devices by HTS ones is considered from the environmental point-of- view. The structure of energy production for the EU was investigated and the emission data from different type of power plants were screened. The potential energy savings were converted to saved GHG-emission tonnes. (author)

  3. Analysis of Plug-In hybrid Electric Vehicles' utility factors using GPS-based longitudinal travel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviquzzaman, Md

    The benefit of using a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) comes from its ability of substituting gasoline with electricity in operation. Defined as the share of distance traveled in the electric mode, the utility factor (UF) depends mostly on the battery capacity but also on many other factors, such as travel pattern and recharging pattern. Conventionally, the UFs are calculated from the daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) of vehicles by assuming motorists leaving home in the morning with full battery and return home in the evening. Such assumption, however, ignores the impact of the heterogeneity in both travel and charging behavior. The main objective of the thesis is to compare the UF by using multiday GPS-based travel data in regards to the charging decision. This thesis employs the global positioning system (GPS) based longitudinal travel data (covering 3-18 months) collected from 403 vehicles in the Seattle metropolitan area to investigate the impacts of such travel and charging behavior on UFs by analyzing the DVMT and home and work related tours. The UFs based on the DVMT are found close to those based on home-to-home tours. On the other hand, it is seen that the workplace charge opportunities largely improve UFs if the battery capacity is no more than 50 miles. It is also found that the gasoline price does not have significant impact on the UFs.

  4. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Impedance spectroscopy applied to the fast wounding dynamics of an electrical wound-healing assay in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical wound-healing assays are often used as a means to study in vitro cell migration and proliferation. In such analysis, a cell monolayer that sits on a small electrode is electrically wounded and its spectral impedance is then continuously measured in order to monitor the healing process. The relatively slow dynamics of the cell healing have been extensively studied, while those of the much faster wounding phase have not yet been investigated. An analysis of the electrical properties of a particular cell type during this phase could give extra information about the changes in the cell membrane due to the application of the wounding current, and could also be useful to optimize the wounding regime for different cell types. The main issue when trying to register information about these dynamics is that the traditional measurement scheme employed in typical wound-healing assays doesn’t allow the simultaneous application of the wounding signal and measurement of the system’s impedance. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by implementing a measurement strategy consisting of cycles of fast alternating low- and high-voltage signals applied on electrodes covered with mammalian cells. This approach is capable of registering the fast impedance changes during the transient regime corresponding to the cell wounding process. Furthermore, these quasi-simultaneous high- and low-voltage measurements can be compared in order to obtain an empirical correlation between both quantities. (paper)

  6. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2014-03-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self-healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model [Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species, which we propose involves damage to the polymer mediated through energy transfer from a dopant molecule after absorbing a photon. As in previous studies, the model with one-dimensional domains best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the precise nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated dye molecules along polymer chains. Furthermore, the voltage-dependent measurements suggest that the largest polarizability axis of the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the chain. PMID:24730866

  7. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model. [Ramini et.al. Polym. Chem., 2013, 4, 4948.] In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species. As in previous studies, the model with a one-dimensional domain best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated d...

  8. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  9. Financial ratios applied to portfolio selection: Electre III methodology in buy-and-hold strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo explorar e analisar os modelos multicritrio, em especial a aplicação da metodologia ELECTRE III, a fim de construir carteiras defensivas, em uma estratgia de buy-and-hold, em que todos os critrios e alternativas são igualmente ponderados, utilizando-se indicadores financeiros (ROA, ROE, FA, GL e RL. Assim sendo, n¨®s primeiro selecionamos ações negociadas no PSI-Geral, de 1999 a 2011, e depois definimos um período inicial / histórico, no qual oito carteiras foram estabelecidas (uma para cada período, e um período de follow-up, considerando um, dois e de três anos de espera. Realizamos análises estatísticas, particularmente testes paramétricos (t-Student e não paramétricos (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, subdivididos em duas análises: uma de amostra única de 2005-2011; e outra de duas amostras, de 2005 a 2007 e de 2008-2011. Os resultados dos testes estatísticos, para uma amostra e para duas amostras, levam-nos a concluir, de modo geral, que, em todo período de follow-up, não podemos inferir que uma forma de cálculo da rentabilidade média e do índice de Sharpe da carteira seja estatisticamente melhor que a outra, embora o teste de Mann-Whitney tenha diferenciado certas médias.

  10. Electrically heated ex-reactor pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) simulations utilizing irradiated Zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a program sponsored by the Fuel Systems Research Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a series of six electrically heated fuel rod simulation tests were conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of these tests was to determine the susceptibility of irradiated pressurized-water reactor (PWR) Zircaloy-4 cladding to failures caused by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). A secondary objective was to acquire kinetic data (e.g., ridge growth or relaxation rates) that might be helpful in the interpretation of in-reactor performance results and/or the modeling of PCMI. No cladding failures attributable to PCMI occurred during the six tests. This report describes the testing methods, testing apparatus, fuel rod diametral strain-measuring device, and test matrix. Test results are presented and discussed

  11. Utility experiences in redevelopment of formerly used sites -- Wisconsin Electric's risk management and economic development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents

  12. Comparison of Electric Utility Restructuring in Major Foreign Countries: Empirical Analysis on the Pool Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest policy directions about the market structure and the trading system of TWBP (two-way bidding pool) under the ongoing electric power restructuring scheme in Korea. For this purpose, major foreign countries' restructuring experiences, especially the market forms and trading systems, were reviewed. Based on the review, I suggested the introduction of electricity contract markets and the short- and long-term policy alternatives for adopting them. In order to test the feasibility of the policy alternatives, an empirical analysis was performed on the comparative advantage between gross pool and net pool. The data used in the empirical analysis includes simulation results of year 2000 from KPX (Korea Power Exchange), six generators' fuels costs, etc. A supply function model was modified to an operational model to calculate the generators' bidding prices and quantities, and their variable profits. In addition, the effects of introducing contracts for differences (CfDs) and bilateral contracts were analyzed in terms of market efficiency. In this study, the criteria of market efficiency are the means and the standard deviations of generators' bidding prices and their variable profits. Based on the empirical results, the following policy implications were proposed. As a short-term alternative, it would be necessary to incorporate the concept of hedging contracts into current gross pool mechanism. Related to this, through the promotion of contract markets it should be induced to decrease the general levels of bidding prices and to manage the volatility of market prices. As a long-term alternative, the possibility to transfer gross pool into net pool should be considered. (author). 53 refs., 32 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. The effects of applied electric fields on Micrasterias. II. The distributions of cytoplasmic and plasma membrane components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, D L; Giddings, T H

    1980-04-01

    The accompanying paper describes the effects of applied electric fields on the morphogenesis and patterns of wall deposition of growing cells of Micrasterias denticulata. This paper details the effects of electric fields (approximately 14 V cm-1) on the subcellular components of Micrasterias, including a description of the plasma membrane of growing semi-cells as visualized by freeze-fracturing. There are no gross cytoplasmic abnormalities or asymmetrics in the distributions of cytoplasmic organelles caused by the fields. In particular, neither the Large Vesicles nor Dark Vesicles are concentrated in the cathode-facing (CF) halves of lobes oriented perpendicular to the fields, where extra deposition of wall material has been shown to occur. In freeze-fracture replicas, there are about twice as many plasma membrane particles near the tips of growing lobes as there are in proximal regions of the lobes. Additionally, rosettes, consisting of 6 membrane particles, are seen predominantly in the distal parts of the lobes, and these rosettes are believed to be important in the synthesis of cell wall microfibrils. The applied fields cause a large asymmetry in the distributions of membrane particles, with larger numbers being found on the CF sides of lobes oriented perpendicular to the fields. We were not able to detect a specific effect on any class of particles. Taken all together, the data support the hypothesis that some of the factors responsible for growth localization in Micrasterias reside in the plasma membrane. PMID:7400237

  14. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H. M.; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN–PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0–18 kV cm−1 was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis. PMID:27738414

  15. Bio-energies usages in electricity generation utility means through a modeling approach: an application to the French case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of renewable energies target and CO2 emissions trading systems make the investment decision more difficult and add an additional flow of expenditure for electricity producers. This challenge represents a double advantage for biomass, which is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, whose use in thermal coal can now reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Whereas renewable energy sources (RES-E) are now supported by various economic tools such as feed-in tariffs and call for tender, the use of biomass is also enhanced by the CO2 emission price. However, the price evolution of emission allowance is uncertain. Taking into account these incentives, the scope of this work is to study the penetration of green electricity production from biomass and its impacts on the future electricity generation mix for France incorporating different scenarios of emission allowance prices. While the use of the power plant is organized according to their growing running costs in the short-term approach, in the long- term approach capacity expansion planning should be determined by using several optimization methods. So, we develop a model based on a linear dynamic programming approach for supporting the electricity generation management in which renewable energies, climate and energy policies are modeled. We apply the model to the French power market under consideration of the neighboring countries. We present the results of the initialization and the electricity price and production tests. Then the expected demands of fuel over 2020 are presented for di rent CO2 prices as an example to illustrate how the model can be put to use in different contexts. (authors)

  16. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  17. From LCAs to simplified models: a generic methodology applied to wind power electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padey, Pierryves; Girard, Robin; le Boulch, Denis; Blanc, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    This study presents a generic methodology to produce simplified models able to provide a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment of energy pathways. The methodology relies on the application of global sensitivity analysis to identify key parameters explaining the impact variability of systems over their life cycle. Simplified models are built upon the identification of such key parameters. The methodology is applied to one energy pathway: onshore wind turbines of medium size considering a large sample of possible configurations representative of European conditions. Among several technological, geographical, and methodological parameters, we identified the turbine load factor and the wind turbine lifetime as the most influent parameters. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) performances have been plotted as a function of these key parameters identified. Using these curves, GHG performances of a specific wind turbine can be estimated, thus avoiding the undertaking of an extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This methodology should be useful for decisions makers, providing them a robust but simple support tool for assessing the environmental performance of energy systems.

  18. The use of scenarios for long-range planning by investor-owned electric utilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John V.

    Scenario planning is a method of organizing and understanding large amounts of quantitative and qualitative data for leaders to make better strategic decisions. There is a lack of academic research about scenario planning with a subsequent shortage of definitions and theories. This study utilized a case study methodology to analyze scenario planning by investor-owned electric utilities in the Pacific Northwest in their integrated resource planning (IRP) process. The cases include Avista Corporation, Idaho Power, PacifiCorp, Portland General Electric, and Puget Sound Energy. This study sought to determine how scenario planning was used, what scenario approach was used, the scenario outcomes, and the similarities and differences in the scenario planning processes. The literature review of this study covered the development of scenario planning, common definitions and theories, approaches to scenario development, and scenario outcomes. A research methodology was developed to classify the scenario development approach into intuitive, hybrid, or quantitative approaches; and scenario outcomes of changed thinking, stories of plausible futures, improved decision making, and enhanced organizational learning. The study found all three forms of scenario planning in the IRPs. All of the cases used a similar approach to IRP development. All of the cases had at least improved decision making as an outcome of scenario planning. Only one case demonstrated all four scenario outcomes. A critical finding was a correlation between the use of the intuitive approach and the use of all scenario outcomes. Another major finding was the unique use of predetermined elements, which are normally consistent across scenarios, but became critical uncertainties in some of the scenarios in the cases for this study. This finding will need to be confirmed by future research as unique to the industry or an aberration. An unusually high number of scenarios were found for cases using the hybrid approach

  19. Cutaneous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma therapy utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yin

    Full Text Available Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF induce apoptotic pathways in human cancer cells. The potential therapeutic effective of nsPEF has been reported in cell lines and in xenograft animal tumor model. The present study investigated the ability of nsPEF to cause cancer cell death in vivo using carcinogen-induced animal tumor model, and the pulse duration of nsPEF was only 7 and 14 nano second (ns. An nsPEF generator as a prototype medical device was used in our studies, which is capable of delivering 7-30 nanosecond pulses at various programmable amplitudes and frequencies. Seven cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and five other types of cancer cell lines were used to detect the effect of nsPEF in vitro. Rate of cell death in these 12 different cancer cell lines was dependent on nsPEF voltage and pulse number. To examine the effect of nsPEF in vivo, carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in mice were exposed to nsPEF with three pulse numbers (50, 200, and 400 pulses, two nominal electric fields (40 KV/cm and 31 KV/cm, and two pulse durations (7 ns and 14 ns. Carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous carcinomas were eliminated efficiently using one treatment of nsPEF with 14 ns duration pulses (33/39 = 85%, and all remaining lesions were eliminated after a 2nd treatment (6/39 = 15%. 13.5% of carcinogen-induced tumors (5 of 37 were eliminated using 7 ns duration pulses after one treatment of nsPEF. Associated with tumor lysis, expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 were markedly reduced and apoptosis increased (TUNEL assay after nsPEF treatment. nsPEF efficiently causes cell death in vitro and removes papillomas and squamous cell carcinoma in vivo from skin of mice. nsPEF has the therapeutic potential to remove human squamous carcinoma.

  20. Applying Portfolio Theory to EU Electricity Planning and Policy-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, Shimon; Berger, Martin

    2003-02-01

    This study introduces mean-variance portfolio theory and evaluates its potential application to the development of efficient (optimal) European Union (EU-15) generating portfolios that enhance energy security and diversification objectives. The analysis extends to European countries the previous work done by Awerbuch in the US, and applies a significantly more detailed portfolio model that reflects the risk of the relevant generating cost streams: fuel, operation and maintenance and construction period costs. It illustrates the portfolio effects of different generating mixes. The study offers preliminary findings on the effects of including more renewable energy sources in the typical EU portfolio mix and suggests interesting directions for further study. The study arises from the perception that these standard, finance-oriented analyses may offer valuable enhancements to energy planning, and concepts of energy security and diversity. Clearly the combination of better portfolio construction and more accurate pricing should lead to more optimal decisions in the round. This study, therefore, represents an effort to complement traditional approaches and point researchers and planners into new territory. The results generally indicate that the existing and projected EU generating mixes are sub optimal - though slightly - from a risk-return perspective, which implies that feasible portfolios with lower cost and risk exist. These can be developed by adjusting the conventional mix and by including larger shares of wind or similar renewable technologies. The results of the portfolio analysis suggest that fixed cost technologies such as renewables must be a part of any efficient generating portfolio. Our assessment of all technologies is limited to risk and cost measures, although other benefits, including low externality costs and sustainability, are often cited for renewables.

  1. Satellite applications to electric-utility communications needs. [land mobile satellite service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstein, M.; Barnett, R.

    1981-01-01

    Significant changes in the Nation's electric power systems are expected to result from the integration of new technology, possible during the next decade. Digital communications for monitor and control, exclusive of protective relaying, are expected to double or triple current traffic. A nationwide estimate of 13 Mb/s traffic is projected. Of this total, 8 Mb/s is attributed to the bulk-power system as it is now being operated (4 Mb/s). This traffic could be accommodated by current communications satellites using 3- to 4.5-m-diameter ground terminals costing $35,000 to $70,000 each. The remaining 5-Mb/s traffic is attributed to new technology concepts integrated into the distribution system. Such traffic is not compatible with current satellite technology because it requires small, low-cost ground terminals. Therefore, a high effective isotropic radiated power satellite, such as the one being planned by NASA for the Land Mobile Satellite Service, is required.

  2. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry. PMID:27181521

  3. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  4. Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, C.; Kirby, G.; Jordan, D.; Lawrence, J.H.; Wiesner, W.; Kosovec, A.; Swanson, R.K.; Smith, R.T.; Johnson, C.C.; Hodson, H.O.

    1976-04-01

    Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly distributed winds of relatively high velocity, with average wind power density of 0.53 kW/m/sup 2/ at 30 m height at Amarillo, Texas, a representative location. The annual period of calm is extremely low. Three separate compressed air storage systems with good potential were analyzed in detail, and two potential pumped-hydro facilities were identified and given preliminary consideration. Aquifer storage of compressed air is a promising possibility in the region.

  5. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  6. Testing and Applying a Theory of Utility; an attempt to decompose income in compensatory and scarcity rents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan); N. Bouma (Nienke); B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractData on income after tax, schooling completed, job held, age, and ‘level of satisfaction’ of 2663 members of the Dutch Consumer Union have been used to estimate regression equations of two types. Type I may be called a specification of a utility function, Type II an ‘earnings function’ (

  7. Determination of the effective diffusion coefficient of water through cement-based materials when applying an electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    previously formulated. The formation factor, as well as the effective diffusion coefficient, does not depend on the ionic strength of the material pore solution, this being validated for solutions of different composition encompassing the cement materials pore solution diversity. The formation factor also does not vary when the amplitude of the applied electrical field varies, provided both the test duration and the electrical field amplitude are kept within acceptable boundaries. Finally, the comparison between the values of the effective diffusion coefficient obtained with both the constant field migration test and the natural diffusion techniques, for perfectly conditioned and prepared materials, leads us to invalidate the assumption that the effects of the double electrical layer are negligible. (author)

  8. How many years should I be married: Long-term power contracts in the electric utility industry in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Ferre, Alberto

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation deals with the effects of long-term power contracts in the electric utility in Texas on consumer welfare, investigating economic and legal aspects of price formation. The study focuses on the institutions---vertical integration and contractual arrangements---that govern the transactions between the different links in the electricity provision chain and its effects on retail electricity prices for residential, commercial and industrial customers. The main hypothesis is that long-term power contracts serve as an uncertainty reduction mechanism to the buyer by clearly defining the conditions of the exchange for a significant period of time. In turn, this reduction of uncertainty is compensated by a premium to the seller in the form of higher prices. It is found that long-term wholesale power contracts present varying levels of flexibility in the terms of the exchange that are directly translated into prices and bills, providing support to the main hypothesis. Control variables include the role of new technologies, degree of competition and population demographics. Each control variable has differing impacts of different customer classes, depending on their demand elasticity. The study poses several interesting policy implications. First, the institutions that will govern and supervise the functioning of the market have an important weight in its success. The results indicate that competition cannot be a policy objective in itself There is a balancing act between the additional needs of a functional market in terms of infrastructure, information and coordination, and the inefficiencies that occur for lack of consumer options. Second, all customers are not equal. Some customer classes have fewer alternatives than others do, their consumption patterns differ and their dependence on electricity varies. Therefore, a policy that treats all customer classes the same will produce an inferior outcome. Third, the relevant environment matters. Legislative

  9. Reasoning based in cases applied to diagnosis of electric generators; Razonamiento basado en casos aplicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, H. Octavio; Garcia Tevillo, Arturo; Campuzano Martinez, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a system for the diagnosis of electrical generators that apply techniques of artificial intelligence, is presented, as it is the reasoning based on cases, to support the work of the diagnosis engineer. This system is part of a system called CADIS, dedicated to the diagnosis of electrical generators out of line and reason of previous articles. In this occasion the characteristics of the reasoning module based on experiences (SirBE) are emphasized, indicating how to make a diagnosis using similar cases and how to edit the system base of experience, using the interactive editor of cases. It is included, in addition, a summarized example which represents a case for SirBE and how the system helps to make a diagnosis. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de diagnostico de generadores electricos que aplica tecnicas de inteligencia artificial, como es el razonamiento basado en casos, para apoyar la labor del ingeniero de diagnostico. Este sistema es parte de un sistema denominado CADIS, dedicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos fuera de linea y motivo de articulos anteriores. En esta ocasion se resaltan las caracteristicas del modulo de razonamiento basado en experiencias (SirBE), indicando como realizar un diagnostico utilizando casos similares y como editar la base de experiencia del sistema utilizando el editor interactivo de casos. Se incluye, ademas, un ejemplo resumido de lo que representa un caso para SiRBE y como el sistema ayuda a realizar un diagnostico.

  10. Improvement in refractive-index change in LiNbO3:Ce:Cu by applying an external electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Cui-Xia; Liu Li-Ren; Liu De-An; Zhou Yu; Chai Zhi-Fang; Luan Zhu

    2005-01-01

    By jointly solving two-centre material equations with a nonzero external electric field and coupled-wave equations,we have numerically studied the dependence of the non-volatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Ce:Cu crystals on the external electric field. The dominative photovoltaic effect of the non-volatile holographic recording in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals is directly verified. And an external electric field that is applied in the positive direction along the c-axis (or a large one in the negative direction of the c-axis) in the recording phase and another one that is applied in the negative direction of the c-axis in the fixing phase are both proved to benefit strong photorefractive performances.Experimental verifications are given with a small electric field applied externally.

  11. Applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure effects on quasistationary states in single and coupled GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhöbel, A. M.; Girón, J. A.; Porras-Montenegro, N.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the effects of hydrostatic pressure and an uniform electric field on the electron energy levels GaAs-(Ga,Al)As single quantum wells (QWs) and coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) by using the Enderlein's method to solve exactly the Schrodringer equation. Numerical results were obtained using the density of states (DOS) as a function of the applied electric field, hydrostatic pressure, Al concentration, and the geometry as well. We found that the quasistationary ground and excited states energy diminish with and the applied electric field, increase with the confinement potential and the width of central barrier in the DQW. In the latter structure we observed the anti-crossing between the first and second quasistationary energy levels. We found that the applied electric field and the hydrostatic pressure modify the period of Pulsations in QWs.

  12. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1

  13. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  14. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  15. Regulation and Welfare: Assessing the Regulation of Electricity and Water Supply Utilities in Colombia During the 1990s. The Case of Empresas Públicas de Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Vélez; Andrés Ramírez; Liz Londoño; Yudy Giraldo; Daniel Londoño

    2011-01-01

    Public utilities reforms in the nineties introduced institutional and methodological changes in the price regulation of electricity and water supply utilities in Colombia. This paper, in addition to outlining these changes, evaluates welfare effects through a counterfactual scenario and the measurement of equivalent variation. With the counterfactual, we analyze how prices would have evolved had reforms not been made, while the equivalent variation assesses the impact of reforms on consumers’...

  16. The structural changes in the brazilian electric sector and the utilities strategic management; A restruturacao do setor eletrico brasileiro e o gerenciamento estrategico das empresas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotero, Roberto C.; Santana, Edvaldo Alves de [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Producao e Sistemas

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to show structural and market changes in brazilian electric sector and their implications on new business environment. Factors that will affect power utilities are pointed out and how they should be thoughtful in new model. Is pointed out the strategic change as a mean for utility optimization in efficiency and comparative advantage search. (author) 11 refs.; e-mail: rcl at eps.ufsc.br

  17. Influence of applied electric field on the absorption coefficient and subband distances in asymmetrical AIN/GaN coupled double quantum wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cen Long-Bin; Shen Bo; qin Zhi-Xin; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2009-01-01

    The influence of applied electric fields on the absorption coefficient and subband distances in asymmetrical AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells (CDQWs) has been investigated by solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. It is found that the absorption coefficient of the intersubband transition (ISBT) between the ground state and the third excited state (1odd -2even) can be equal to zero when the electric fields are applied in asymmetrical A1N/GaN CDQWs,which is related to applied electric fields induced symmetry recovery of these states. Meanwhile,the energy distances between 1odd -2even and 1even - 2even subbands have different relationships from each other with the increase of applied electric fields due to the different polarization-induced potential drops between the lett and the right wells. The results indicate that an electrical-optical modulator operated within the opto-communication wavelength range can be realized in spite of the strong polarization-induced electric fields in asymmetrical AIN/GaN CDQWs.

  18. Defining a quality index for electric power utilities using multiple criteria decision support and time series analysis Definição de um índice de qualidade para distribuidoras de energia elétrica utilizando o apoio à decisão multicritério e análise de séries temporais

    OpenAIRE

    Aderson Campos Passos; Reinaldo Castro Souza

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid multi-criteria method developed through the combination of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and exponential smoothing techniques applied in time series forecasting. To illustrate its use, a model was developed with the aim of creating a quality index for electric power distribution utilities. The conclusions highlight the need to take into account the results obtained in the latest months for those utilities, but giving less attention to those obtained in th...

  19. Effect of Rare Earth Elements (Er, Ho) on Semi-Metallic Materials (ScN) in an Applied Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV ( 0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5 0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a TEM

  20. Effects of urea foliar application and of ammonium sulphate and urea applied to the soil on yield and N utilization by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of nitrogen applied to the soil (as ammonium sulphate and urea) and foliar application of urea supplementing or not the soil application, on bean yield and nitrogen utilization are studied in a cerrado soil. Labelled ammonium sulphate is applied at the rate of 20Kg N/ha at seeding or 15 or 25 days after seeding and 40 Kg N/ha at seeding or in two different applications. Labelled urea is applied at the rate of 20kg N/ha at seeding and 40 Kg N/ha splitted. Foliar application is done at 15,22, 29,36 and 45 days after seeding, with 2% urea solution labelled with 10% 15N. (M.A.C.)

  1. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A; Boletim estatistico comercial da CELESC: Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates 6 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  3. A comparison of different options for electricity production. Environmental indicators for application in a Multi Attribute Utility Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Comparative Assessment and Management of Radiological and Non-Radiological Risks Associated with Energy Systems' aims to develop a method for the comparison of environmental and human health impacts of electricity generating systems. Two energy systems serve as cases: the coal fuel cycle in Germany and the nuclear fuel cycle in France; they are compared on the basis of a Multi Attribute Utility Analysis (MAUA). This report presents a set of indicators to describe the environmental impacts. The indicators are described in more detail for a limited number of environmental concerns, i.e. climate change, depletion of natural resources, acidification and eutrophication, contamination with radionuclides and with heavy metals; they are illustrated with sample calculations. The examples show that it is possible to define environmental indicators based on no-effect levels which can be easily calculated and compared. However, problems arise in the comparison of the pressure indicators, on the one hand, and chemical-state indicators on the other. This comparison should be executed in the MAUA, where the different indicators are weighted. 59 refs

  4. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  5. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative

  6. Externally applied electric fields up to 1.6 × 10(5) V/m do not affect the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A; Tang, Sindy K Y; Bishop, Kyle J M; Whitesides, George M

    2011-02-10

    The freezing of water can initiate at electrically conducting electrodes kept at a high electric potential or at charged electrically insulating surfaces. The microscopic mechanisms of these phenomena are unknown, but they must involve interactions between water molecules and electric fields. This paper investigates the effect of uniform electric fields on the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water. Electric fields were applied across drops of water immersed in a perfluorinated liquid using a parallel-plate capacitor; the drops traveled in a microchannel and were supercooled until they froze due to the homogeneous nucleation of ice. The distribution of freezing temperatures of drops depended on the rate of nucleation of ice, and the sensitivity of measurements allowed detection of changes by a factor of 1.5 in the rate of nucleation. Sinusoidal alternation of the electric field at frequencies from 3 to 100 kHz prevented free ions present in water from screening the electric field in the bulk of drops. Uniform electric fields in water with amplitudes up to (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10(5) V/m neither enhanced nor suppressed the homogeneous nucleation of ice. Estimations based on thermodynamic models suggest that fields in the range of 10(7)-10(8) V/m might cause an observable increase in the rate of nucleation.

  7. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  8. A Novel Approach Utilizing pnetCDF applying to the WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Yang, Cheng-en; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Fu, Joshua; Wong, Kwai; Gao, Yang

    2014-05-01

    I/O is part of a scientific model and it takes up a significant portion of the simulation. There is no exception for the newly developed WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model at US EPA. This two-way coupled meteorology and air quality model is composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We are using this two-way model to evaluate how accurate it simulates the effects of aerosol loading on radiative forcing between 1990 and 2010 when there were substantial aerosol emissions such as SO2 and NOx, reduction in North America and Europe. The I/O scheme in the current model does not make use of any parallel file system or parallel I/O approach. In addition the I/O takes about 15% - 28% of the entire simulation. Our novel approach not only utilizes pnetCDF parallel I/O technique but goes one step further to aggregate the data locally, i.e. along column dimension or row dimension in the spatial domain. This approach not only reduces the I/O traffic contention but also aggregated data enhances the I/O efficiency. In terms of I/O time, we have shown this method is about 6 to 10 times faster than the current existing I/O scheme in the model and about 20% - 3 times faster than strict application of pnetCDF. We are currently running the model on a Cray XE6 machine and finding ways to reduce the overall simulation time is crucial to the success to achieve our objective.

  9. High-resolution electrical resistivity tomography applied to patterned ground, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, south-west Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kasprzak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT applied to three types of patterned ground in Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Svalbard, carried out in late July 2012. The structures investigated include sorted circles, non-sorted polygons and a net with sorted coarser material. ERT was used to recognize the internal ground structure, the shape of permafrost table below the active layer and the geometric relationships between permafrost, ground layering and surface patterns. Results of inversion modelling indicate that the permafrost table occurs at a depth of 0.5–1 m in a mountain valley and 1–2.5 m on raised marine terraces. The permafrost table was nearly planar beneath non-sorted deposits and wavy beneath sorted materials. The mutual relationships between the permafrost table and the shape of a stone circle are different from those typically presented in literature. Ground structure beneath the net with sorted coarser materials is complex as implied in convective models. In non-sorted polygons, the imaging failed to reveal vertical structures between them.

  10. The use of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to image deep volcanic structures: a methodological study applied to Mt. Vesuvius (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Somma, Renato; Brandi, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Geophysics is considered a powerful tool both for modeling the structure and controlling the dynamics of active volcanoes. In particular, the application of the electrical and electromagnetic (EM) methods is a topic of great interest, given the strong dependence of the electrical resistivity on the shallow and deep physical characteristics of a volcanic apparatus. Among the EM methods, the magnetotellurics (MT), reaching investigation depth ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of km, is the optimal tool to characterize the volcanic environments leading often to remarkable imaging of the buried structures. However, its dependence from a natural source make its application often difficult due to the presence of high noise levels. Moreover, MT curves are subjected to the so-called static shift effect, an anomalous displacement of the curves that cannot be modeled without some external constrain. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), on other hands, using an artificial source, ends in a more controlled imaging that is, however, often limited to the very shallow parts of the structures. The realization of a deeper ERT imaging is complicated by both physical and logistic reasons. The resolved depths depend from the intensity of the source, an electrical current injected into the ground, whereas the displacement of the measurements array often implies hard problems due to the nature of the volcanic environments. The actual progresses of the technologies offer some way to bypass the main limitation of the ERT technique. The use of new kind of measurement stations permits the realization of a sort of wireless electrodic arrays. The easiness of use of the actual power generators represents a further notable element. In conclusion, the ERT imaging could now represents an optimal tool also in the imaging of structures buried at intermediate depths (up to a few km). In such a way, also its interaction with the MT methods could results notably enhanced, due to the

  11. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  12. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    significant failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic [TRU] content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

  13. Comprehensive utilization of waste electrical solder%废电子焊料综合利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎庆成

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at wave soldering slag, waste solder paste in SMT and waste solder in recycling and dismantling of waste electrical products, the practical technical process and equipment for comprehensive utilization of waste electrical solder were developed. In H2SiFe-Pb (Sn)SiFe electrolyte where H2SiF6was maintained 100-150 g/L and Pb^2+(Sn^2+) was maintained 60-120 g/L, with 100 A/m^2 current density and 0.3-0.5 V cell voltage, Pb-Sn alloy was purified and refined. Finally noble metals such as silver were further recycled from the anode mud by normal method.%针对电子产品焊接过程中产生的波峰焊渣、SMT过程中产生的废电子焊膏及废电子信息产品回收拆解过程中产生的废电子焊料的回收利用,开发经济实用的废电子焊料综合利用工艺技术与设备。在H2SiF6-Pb(Sn)SiF6电解液中,控制游离H2SiF6在100~150g/L,Pb^2+(Sn^2+)在60—120g/L,电流密度100A/m2,槽电压0.3-0.5V,常温电解,实现Ph-Sn合金的提纯精制,生产出合格的Pb-Sn合金焊料。然后用常规方法从电解阳极泥中进一步回收银等贵金属。

  14. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated open-quotes cost-of-serviceclose quotes pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices

  15. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  16. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  17. Intense laser effects on donor impurity in a cylindrical single and vertically coupled quantum dots under combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque_echeverri@yahoo.es [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); NanoScience Center, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sari, H. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Soekmen, I. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-10-01

    Using the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and a variational procedure we have calculated the combined effects of intense laser radiation, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field on shallow-donor impurity confined in cylindrical-shaped single and double GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As QD. Several impurity positions and inputs of the heterostructure dimensions, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field have been considered. The laser effects have been introduced by a perturbative scheme in which the Coulomb and the barrier potentials are modified to obtain dressed potentials. Our findings suggest that (1) for on-center impurities in single QD the binding energy is a decreasing function of the dressing parameter and for small dot dimensions of the structures (lengths and radius) the binding energy is more sensitive to the dressing parameter, (2) the binding energy is an increasing/decreasing function of the hydrostatic pressure/applied electric field, (3) the effects of the intense laser field and applied electric field on the binding energy are dominant over the hydrostatic pressure effects, (4) in vertically coupled QD the binding energy for donor impurity located in the barrier region is smaller than for impurities in the well regions and can be strongly modified by the laser radiation, and finally (5) in asymmetrical double QD heterostructures the binding energy as a function of the impurity positions follows a similar behavior to the observed for the amplitude of probability of the noncorrelated electron wave function.

  18. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL...

  19. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is...

  20. Force acting on a dielectric particle in a concentration gradient by ionic concentration polarization under an externally applied DC electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Li, Dongqing

    2005-06-15

    There is a concentration-polarization (CP) force acting on a particle submerged in an electrolyte solution with a concentration (conductivity) gradient under an externally applied DC electric field. This force originates from the two mechanisms: (i) gradient of electrohydrodynamic pressure around the particle developed by the Coulombic force acting on induced free charges by the concentration polarization, and (ii) dielectric force due to nonuniform electric field induced by the conductivity gradient. A perturbation analysis is performed for the electric field, the concentration field, and the hydrodynamic field, under the assumptions of creeping flow and small concentration gradient. The leading order component of this force acting on a dielectric spherical particle is obtained by integrating the Maxwell and the hydrodynamic stress tensors. The analytical results are validated by comparing the surface pressure and the skin friction to those of a numerical analysis. The CP force is proportional to square of the applied electric field, effective for electrically neutral particles, and always directs towards the region of higher ionic concentration. The magnitude of the CP force is compared to that of the electrophoretic and the conventional dielectrophoretic forces. PMID:15897097

  1. Tracking the genealogy of CO2 emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO2 emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector

  2. Tracking the genealogy of CO2 emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO2 emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector. (author)

  3. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  4. Financial impact of energy efficiency under a federal combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard: Case study of a Kansas 'super-utility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, local, state and federal policies have separately promoted the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. Federal policymakers are currently considering and several states have enacted a combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard which proponents argue provides a comprehensive approach with greater flexibility and at lower cost. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. Our results suggest that an investor-owned utility is likely to pursue the most lucrative compliance strategy for its shareholders-one that under-invests in energy efficiency resources. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our analysis indicates that an investor-owned utility would be more willing to pursue energy efficiency as a lower-cost CERES compliance strategy. Absent implementing such a regulatory mechanism, separate energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards would improve the likelihood of reducing reliance on fossil fuels at least-cost through the increased pursuit of energy efficiency.

  5. Excitons in cylindrical GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum dots under applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-06-15

    The exciton binding energy and photoluminescence energy transition in a GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As cylindrical quantum dot are studied with the use of the effective mass approximation and a variational calculation procedure. The influence of these properties on the application of an electric field along the growth direction of the cylinder is particularly considered. It is shown that for zero applied field the binding energy and the photoluminescence energy transition are decreasing functions of the quantum dot radius and height. Given a fixed geometric configuration, both quantities then become decreasing functions of the electric field strength as well.

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  7. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  8. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  9. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by inducing energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electric utility customer charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantifies the increased greenhouse gas emissions and negative effect on energy conservation (or 'efficiency penalty') due to electric rate structures that employ an unavoidable customer charge. First, the extent of customer charges was determined from a nationwide survey of US electric tariffs. To eliminate the customer charge nationally while maintaining a fixed sum for electric companies for a given amount of electricity, an increase of 7.12% in the residential electrical rate was found to be necessary. If enacted, this increase in the electric rate would result in a 6.4% reduction in overall electricity consumption, conserving 73 billion kW h, eliminating 44.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, and saving the entire US residential sector over $8 billion per year. As shown here, these reductions would come from increased avoidable costs, thus leveraging an increased rate of return on investments in energy efficiency, energy conservation behavior, distributed energy generation, and fuel choices. Finally, limitations of this study and analysis are discussed and conclusions are drawn for proposed energy policy changes

  11. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  12. Combined effects of intense laser field and applied electric field on exciton states in GaAs quantum wells: Transition from the single to double quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H. [Physics Department, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey); Soekmen, I. [Physics Department, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey)

    2012-01-15

    The effects of intense laser radiation on the exciton states in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum wells are studied with the inclusion of applied dc electric fields oriented along the growth direction of the system. The calculations are made within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The intense laser effects have been included along the lines of the Floquet method, modifying the confinement potential associated to the heterostructure. The results for the exciton binding energy, the energy of the exciton-related photoluminescence peak, and the carriers overlap integral are presented for several configurations of the quantum well size, the strength of the applied electric fields, and the incident laser radiation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The detonation electric effect as applied to the MC-2453 driver subassembly. Progress report, October 1971--December 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettner, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    The detonation electric effect has been used to measure transit times of the MC-2453 driver subassemblies at 185 F, 212 F and room temperature after the units were subjected to a temperature of 232 F. The test procedure and the results are included in this report.

  14. Non extensive statistical physics applied in fracture-induced electric signals during triaxial deformation of Carrara marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We have conducted room-temperature, triaxial compression experiments on samples of Carrara marble, recording concurrently acoustic and electric current signals emitted during the deformation process as well as mechanical loading information and ultrasonic wave velocities. Our results reveal that in a dry non-piezoelectric rock under simulated crustal pressure conditions, a measurable electric current (nA) is generated within the stressed sample. The current is detected only in the region beyond (quasi-)linear elastic deformation; i.e. in the region of permanent deformation beyond the yield point of the material and in the presence of microcracking. Our results extend to shallow crustal conditions previous observations of electric current signals in quartz-free rocks undergoing uniaxial deformation and support the idea of a universal electrification mechanism related to deformation. Confining pressure conditions of our slow strain rate (10-6 s-1) experiments range from the purely brittle regime (10 MPa) to the semi-brittle transition (30-100MPa) where cataclastic flow is the dominant deformation mechanism. Electric current is generated under all confining pressures,implying the existence of a current-producing mechanism during both microfracture and frictional sliding. Some differences are seen in the current evolution between these two regimes, possibly related to crack localisation. In all cases, the measured electric current exhibits episodes of strong fluctuations over short timescales; calm periods punctuated by bursts of strong activity. For the analysis, we adopt an entropy-based statistical physics approach (Tsallis, 1988), particularly suited to the study of fracture related phenomena. We find that the probability distribution of normalised electric current fluctuations over short time intervals (0.5 s) can be well described by a q-Gaussian distribution of a form similar to that which describes turbulent flows. This approach yields different entropic

  15. A Robust Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller Synthesis Applied on Boost DC-DC Converter Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediène Allaoua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of electric vehicles power electronics system control comprising of DC-AC inverters and DC-DC converters takes a great interest of researchers in the modern industry. A DC-AC inverter supplies the high power electric vehicle motors torques of the propulsion system and utility loads, whereas a DC-DC converter supplies conventional low-power, low-voltage loads. However, the need for high power bidirectional DC-DC converters in future electric vehicles has led to the development of many new topologies of DC-DC converters. Nonlinear control of power converters is an active area of research in the fields of power electronics. This paper focuses on a fuzzy sliding mode strategy (FSMS as a control strategy for boost DC-DC converter power supply for electric vehicle. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the surface and the surface change knowledge to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

  16. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.

  17. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing. PMID:27284809

  18. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  19. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  20. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg;

    2015-01-01

    for long-term to seasonal periods these technologies are either very expensive or provide a very low round-trip efficiency. Here we describe a novel storage method combining recent advances in reversible solid oxide electrochemical cells with sub-surface storage of CO2 and CH4, thereby enabling large......Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology......, but unfortunately it is limited to mountainous regions and therefore difficult to expand. Emerging technologies like adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) or storage using conventional power-to-gas (P2G) technology combined with underground gas storage can be more widely deployed, but unfortunately...

  1. Three utilization patterns of the renovated Moste hydro power plant on an electricity market of power and ancillary services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to electricity, most hydro power plants can offer also the ancillary services: secondary and tertiary control reserve. On emerging electricity markets the need for these additional services is becoming more and more important, recognised and also paid. However, for each plant, there is some interdependence among those options. The same plant cannot provide maximal peaking electricity, maximal secondary control reserve as well as maximal tertiary control reserve at the same time. The generation capabilities of the plant must thus be partitioned properly among those options so as to achieve some overall goal (e.g. the maximum of revenue, etc.). This article briefly presents those options for the renovated Moste cascade on the upper Sava river near Bled in Slovenia. A small but effective mixed integer linear programme has been used. (author)

  2. Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (initial award through Award Modification 2); Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment (Award Modifications 3 - 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ebert

    2008-02-28

    This is the final report for the DOE-NETL grant entitled 'Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification & Insurance Processes for the Electric Utility Industry' and later, 'Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment'. It reflects work done on projects from 15 August 2004 to 29 February 2008. Projects were on a variety of topics, including commercial insurance for electrical utilities, the Electrical Reliability Organization, cost recovery by Gulf State electrical utilities after major hurricanes, and review of state energy emergency plans. This Final Technical Report documents and summarizes all work performed during the award period, which in this case is from 15 August 2004 (date of notification of original award) through 29 February 2008. This report presents this information in a comprehensive, integrated fashion that clearly shows a logical and synergistic research trajectory, and is augmented with findings and conclusions drawn from the research as a whole. Four major research projects were undertaken and completed during the 42 month period of activities conducted and funded by the award; these are: (1) Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (also referred to as the 'commercial insurance' research). Three major deliverables were produced: a pre-conference white paper, a two-day facilitated stakeholders workshop conducted at George Mason University, and a post-workshop report with findings and recommendations. All deliverables from this work are published on the CIP website at http://cipp.gmu.edu/projects/DoE-NETL-2005.php. (2) The New Electric Reliability Organization (ERO): an examination of critical issues associated with governance, standards development and implementation, and jurisdiction (also referred to as the 'ERO study'). Four major deliverables were produced: a series of preliminary memoranda for the staff of the Office of Electricity Delivery and

  3. Electrical impedance tomography applied to assess matching of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in a porcine experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerberg, Anneli; Stenqvist, Ola; Åneman, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can be used to measure impedance changes related to the thoracic content of air and blood. Few studies, however, have utilised EIT to make concurrent measurements of ventilation and perfusion. This experimental study was performed to investigate the feasibility of EIT to describe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) matching after acute changes of pulmonary perfusion and aeration. Methods Six mechanically ventilated, anaesthetised pigs in the supine p...

  4. Estimates of electricity requirements for the recovery of mineral commodities, with examples applied to sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2011-01-01

    To produce materials from mine to market it is necessary to overcome obstacles that include the force of gravity, the strength of molecular bonds, and technological inefficiencies. These challenges are met by the application of energy to accomplish the work that includes the direct use of electricity, fossil fuel, and manual labor. The tables and analyses presented in this study contain estimates of electricity consumption for the mining and processing of ores, concentrates, intermediate products, and industrial and refined metallic commodities on a kilowatt-hour per unit basis, primarily the metric ton or troy ounce. Data contained in tables pertaining to specific currently operating facilities are static, as the amount of electricity consumed to process or produce a unit of material changes over time for a great number of reasons. Estimates were developed from diverse sources that included feasibility studies, company-produced annual and sustainability reports, conference proceedings, discussions with government and industry experts, journal articles, reference texts, and studies by nongovernmental organizations.

  5. ELECTRE TRI aplicado a avaliação da satisfação de consumidores ELECTRE TRI applied to costumers satisfaction evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Gomes Costa; André Fernando Uébe Mansur; André Luís Policani Freitas; Rogério Atem de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    As abordagens usuais para conhecer a percepção do consumidor quanto ao desempenho de serviços baseiam-se em impressões do consumidor (julgamentos subjetivos) à luz de múltiplos critérios. Em geral estas abordagens consideram uma função de agregação do tipo média ponderada, que apresenta efeitos compensatórios indesejáveis. O presente trabalho explora a aplicação do Auxílio Multicritério à Decisão, mais especificamente no método ELECTRE TRI, à classificação ordenada da satisfação dos consumido...

  6. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Time-resolved (or transient) neutron/X-ray reflectivity. ► Neutron/X-ray reflectivity enhanced by interferometric techniques. ► Electric potential induced changes in a hybrid lipid bilayer membrane. ► Electric potential induced changes in a voltage-sensor protein membrane. - Abstract: The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100 mV potential with respect to 0 mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid’s hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer’s profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100 mV potentials with respect to 0 mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films

  7. A Comparison of Different Options for Electricity Production: Environmental Indicators for Application in a Multi Attribute Utility Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeeninga H; Uijt de Haag PAM; Lembrechts JFMM; LSO

    1996-01-01

    The project "Comparative Assessment and Management of Radiological and Non-Radiological Risks Associated with Energy Systems" aims to develop a method for the comparison of environmental and human health impacts of electricity generating systems. Two energy systems serve as cases: the coal fuel cycl

  8. A Response to Two Recent Studies that Purport to Calculate Electric Utility Restructuring Benefits Captured by Consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies by Global Energy Decisions and Cambridge Energy Research Associates offered high 'headline impact' in finding that wholesale electric competition is fulfilling its promises and restructuring is benefiting consumers to the tune of billions of dollars. But both studies share a fundamental problem tied to the fact that portions of those 'savings' to consumers accrue from losses suffered by the competitive generation sector

  9. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  10. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size; Utilizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica na sinterizacao de minerio de ferro: influencia da granulometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, V.B.; Junca, E.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: victor_bridit@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 {mu}m and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  11. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  12. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  13. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  14. Spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction applied to seeded extreme-ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni; Dacasa, Hugo; Lozano, Magali; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Zeitoun, Philippe; Garzella, David; Merdji, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    We present a setup for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers (FEL's) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Two delayed and spectrally shifted replicas are produced and used for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). We show that it can be achieved by a simple arrangement of the seed laser. Temporal shape and phase obtained in FEL simulations are well retrieved by the SPIDER reconstruction, allowing to foresee the implementation of this diagnostic on existing and future sources. This will be a significant step towards an experimental investigation and control of FEL spectral phase.

  15. ELECTRE TRI aplicado a avaliação da satisfação de consumidores ELECTRE TRI applied to costumers satisfaction evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Gomes Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As abordagens usuais para conhecer a percepção do consumidor quanto ao desempenho de serviços baseiam-se em impressões do consumidor (julgamentos subjetivos à luz de múltiplos critérios. Em geral estas abordagens consideram uma função de agregação do tipo média ponderada, que apresenta efeitos compensatórios indesejáveis. O presente trabalho explora a aplicação do Auxílio Multicritério à Decisão, mais especificamente no método ELECTRE TRI, à classificação ordenada da satisfação dos consumidores. Isto adapta uma modelagem de apoio à decisão para um problema de diagnóstico do grau de satisfação. Um tratamento inédito para a estimativa dos parâmetros p e q (limites de preferência e de indiferença, respectivamente é incorporado a modelagem, incorporando maior robustez ao uso de um método de AMD monodecisor na resolução de um problema multidecisor. Trata-se de forma inédita a questão de incomparabilidade, destacando que nem sempre a mesma é originada por imperícia na modelagem ou nas avaliações de desempenho. Uma importante diferença em relação aos métodos tradicionais de avaliação de desempenho é a independência do emprego do resultado em relação ao valor numérico da escala de julgamento de desempenho. A aplicação desta abordagem proposta é experimentada na avaliação da satisfação dos consumidores de uma bombonnière instalada em um shopping center.Usual approaches to identify costumer’s perceptions about service are based on subjective evaluations under multiple criteria. Generally, an aggregation function based on weighted average method is used to solve this type of problem, in despite of the compensatory problems that it causes. Present work explores the application of an MCDM based method in order to solve this problem. An original approach to estimates p and q parameters in ELECTRE TRI is inserted on the model building, incorporating robustness to the proposal. Also, an original

  16. Free Open Source Software: FOSS Based GIS for Spatial Retrievals of Appropriate Locations for Ocean Energy Utilizing Electric Power Generation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Free Open Source Software: FOSS based Geographic Information System: GIS for spatial retrievals of appropriate locations for ocean wind and tidal motion utilizing electric power generation plants is proposed. Using scatterometer onboard earth observation satellites, strong wind coastal areas are retrieved with FOSS/GIS of PostgreSQL/GIS. PostGIS has to be modified together with altimeter and scatterometer database. These modification and database creation would be a good reference to the users who would like to create GIS system together with database with FOSS.

  17. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-01

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%. PMID:26452156

  18. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  19. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  20. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.