WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying electrical utility

  1. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  2. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  3. Electric utility industry and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the workshop reported in these proceedings was to bring together planners, public officials, and community leaders with members of the utility industry to learn about utilities and to permit a meaningful exchange of information. This workshop was held at the Annual Meeting of the American Planning Association and its Energy Planning Division. The workshop was designed to inform planners about the electric-utility industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 4 individual presentations.

  4. Reliability impact of solar electric generation upon electric utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. T.; Hobbs, W. J.

    1982-08-01

    The introduction of solar electric systems into an electric utility grid brings new considerations in the assessment of the utility's power supply reliability. This paper summarizes a methodology for estimating the reliability impact of solar electric technologies upon electric utilities for value assessment and planning purposes. Utility expansion and operating impacts are considered. Sample results from photovoltaic analysis show that solar electric plants can increase the reliable load-carrying capability of a utility system. However, the load-carrying capability of the incremental power tends to decrease, particularly at significant capacity penetration levels. Other factors influencing reliability impact are identified.

  5. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  6. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  7. Analyzing Distributed Processing For Electric Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley A.; Kirkham, Harold; Beardmore, Julie A.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed Processing Trade-Off Model for Electric Utility Operation computer program based upon study performed at California Institute of Technology for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Study presented technique addressing question of tradeoffs between expanding communications network or expanding capacity of distributed computers in energy-management systems (EMS) of electric utility. Gives EMS planners macroscopic tool for evaluation of architectures of distributed-processing systems and major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within systems.

  8. Optical fibre cable selection for electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The report provides an assessment of the range of optical fibre cable solutions available, by type e.g. OPGW, ADSS, rather than by design. it also examines the key issues which will influence an electricity utilities decisions and proposes a method of evaluating the options to identify the one which most closely matches the utility's critical needs, with measurements against time, cost and quality targets. (author)

  9. Fiber optic transmissions in electrical utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Louis

    2000-12-01

    The application of optic and photonic technology in electric networks in many cases is subject to constraints that differ from telecommunication or commercial applications. Starting by an overview of the quality of service (QoS) needed, in the first part of this paper we summarise some issues that confronted Hydro-Quebec in applying fibre optic technologies to its network. We explore by presenting lab and field trials some issues related to optical ground wires (OPGW) design and network architecture. We present temperature, vibration, ageing and short circuit current effects. We submit the results and analysis of a first field trial of and OC-48 link over a 265 km OPGW line, PMD measurements and an overview of the final design that is being implemented presently using Raman amplification. In the last section of the paper, we will discuss shortly of non-conventional photonic based technologies, local and distributed sensors and optical phenomenon that are used or have been discovered in utilities optical networks.

  10. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  11. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  12. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  13. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  14. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  15. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  16. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  17. Electrical engineering is an applied mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti; Sambasri, Susanto; Widodo, Rohani Jahja

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents developments and applications of Electrical Engieering (EE) as an Applied Mathematic (AM). Several characteristics of EE can be linked to human behavior. EE can "think" in the sense that they can replace to some extent, human operation. It is a concept or principle that seems to fundamental in nature and not necessarily peculiar to engineering. EE theory can be discussed from four viewpoints as: an intellectual discipline within science and the philosophy of science, a part of engineering, with industrial applications and Social Systems (SS) of the present and the future. In global communication, developed countries and developing countries should build several attractive and sound symbiosis bridges, to prevent loss of universe balances. EE applications have social impacts not only in developed countries but also in developing countries.

  18. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  19. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  20. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  1. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  2. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  3. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

    2006-09-01

    Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

  5. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  6. Peak load pricing in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenders, J.T.

    In the electric utility industry, cost minimization requires that heterogeneous electric generation technologies be used to produce electricity demands of different durations. In contrast to the conclusions of traditional peak-load pricing theory, the existence of a heterogeneous capital stock means that off-peak marginal cost prices almost always should include some marginal capacity costs, and that the profit maximizing regulated electric utility may set peak price above marginal cost and off-peak price below marginal cost in order to encourage the expansion of capital-intensive base load generating capacity. (auth)

  7. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  8. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  9. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  10. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  11. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Hector, E-mail: hcampbellr@gmail.com [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, P.O. Box 3439, Calexico, CA 92232 (United States); Lambert, Alejandro [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd Benito Juarez y calle de la Normal, Col Insurgentes Este, CP 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO{sub 2}. - Highlights: > We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. > Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. > Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. > Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. > Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  12. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  13. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  14. Reshaping the electric utility industry: Competitive implications for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper briefly outlines some of the issues in the electric power industry restructuring. In addition, the impacts of these changes on the energy marketplace are discussed. Federal policy initiatives, state regulatory response, and utility management response are each described. Management skills are identified as the critical success factor for competition in the utility market.

  15. A generalization information management system applied to electrical distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, K.I.; Neumann, S.A.; Nielsen, T.D.; Bower, P.K. (Empros Systems International (US)); Hughes, B.A.

    1990-07-01

    This article presents a system solution approach that meets the requirements being imposed by industry trends and the electric utility customer. Specifically, the solution addresses electric distribution management systems. Electrical distribution management is a particularly well suited area of application because it involves a high diversity of tasks, which are currently supported by a proliferation of automated islands. Islands of automation which currently exist include (among others) distribution operations, load management, automated mapping, facility management, work order processing, and planning.

  16. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  17. Value analysis of wind energy systems to electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, D.; Harper, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the value of utility-operated wind energy systems to electric utilities. The analysis is performed by a package of computer models that interface with most conventional utility planning models. Weather data are converted to wind turbine output powers, which are used to modify the utility load representation. Execution of the utility planning models with both the original and modified load representation yields the gross and marginal value ($/rated kW/) of the added wind energy systems. This value is then compared with cost estimates to determine if for economic reasons the wind energy system should be included in future generation plans.

  18. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility`s ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term `DSM` is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility`s system. Depending on one`s perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility`s ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy.

  1. Remote Educational Experiment Applied To Electrical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    João Mota Neto; Roderval Marcelino; Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Vilson Gruber; Juarez Bento da Silva; Suenoni Paladini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the development of an architecture for a remote educational experiment concerning the speed control applied to a direct current motor. The proposed architecture is based on the use of an Arduino Uno and Ethernet Shield, whose function is to interface between the experiment and the Internet. The user can access the control experiment through an application developed in Java, which allows the students to choose the model of the controller (P, PI and PID) they want to study...

  2. (Electric utility consumer protection on island of Guam). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-30

    This report describes the establishment and operation of the Guam Office of Consumer Services, created in 1977 for representing consumers in electric utility matters. Much of the initial effort of the staff was to assist the newly created Guam Public Utilities Commission to become a viable entity. Electric service on the island of Guam is provided jointly by the Guam Power Authority, an autonomous agency of the Government of Guam and the United States Navy. For many years, customers have suffered from frequent outages, severe voltage fluctuation, and high rates. This Office spent nearly two years preparing a case on behalf of electric consumers in an effort to bring about changes in the utility. The hearing took seven months to complete. Our case focused on inequities in the rate structure and operating inefficiencies.

  3. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  4. Industrial co-generation: Its utilization by the electric utility business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States); Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Industrial Co-Generation has not only an adverse impact on electric utility earnings, but also a positive impact, in that it permits a reduction in capital expenditures related to construction of new generation plants as a means of meeting future load growth. A utility can benefit economically by persuading companies considering industrial co-generation to use their generators for peak load shaving only. This would reduce their maximum demand cost, and also allows the utility to normalize its maximum system demand.

  5. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  6. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and industrial processes orfrom geothermal and solar heat sources. Utilization of such heat sources makes it possible to produce electricity with no additional burning of fossil fuel, and does therefore represent an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel based electricity production. Utilization...... variations in mixture composition throughout the cycle (equivalent of combining a power cycle with a distillation process). In collaboration with DTU Chemical Engineering, a search for novel pure fluids and mixtures are initiated in order to develop working fluids that are tailored for maximizing...

  7. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan's regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  8. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  9. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  10. [Study on dewatering of activated sludge under applied electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Li; Feng, Jing

    2012-12-01

    For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge (AS), the effect of pH and conductivity of AS, flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field (voltage magnitude, method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated, and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained. The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value (6.93) and conductivity (1.46 mS x cm(-1)). CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process, whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate. The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes, while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes. The delay of applying the electric field had an inhibition effect on the AS electro-dewatering rate. Moreover, the optimum conditions for AS electro-dewatering were followed: CPAM dose of 9 g x kg(-1), electric field strength of 600 V x m(-1), distance between the two plates of 40 mm, dehydration time of 60 minutes. Under above optimum conditions the AS electro-dewatering rate could approach to 85.33% and the moisture content in AS decreased from 99.30% to 95.15% accordingly.

  11. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  12. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  13. Principle Discussion of Utilizing Synaptic Plasticity Characteristics in Applying Depressive Disorder Treatment of Electric Acupuncture%从神经突触可塑性探讨电针治疗抑郁症的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈喆思; 郑重; 张虹; 邹可; 彭玉琳

    2013-01-01

    The number of depressive disorder patients is increasing yearly due to growing competitions in all forms in society.It has become the focal point of current clinical research which the key symptom is decaying capability in learning and memory.Clinical curative effect for the treatment of depression has been proven effective and without side-effect,its principle is closely related to the synaptic plasticity.The synaptic plasticity consists of synaptic morphological plasticity and synaptic functional plasticity.LTP (Longterm Potentation) and LTD (Long-term Depression),being two major representations of synaptic plasticity,take part in improving learning and memory.This article discussed the principle of electric acupuncture treatment of depression by researching through the electricity for the synaptic LTP,LTD induction and the morphological plasticity,and further elaborates the enhancing effect towards rTMS from the field of "The remodeling of synapfic plasticity".%由于社会竞争的日益加剧,抑郁症患者逐年攀升,目前已成为当代医学研究的热点,其核心症状为学习及记忆能力的减退.临床电针治疗抑郁症疗效确切,且无副作用,其机理与神经突触的可塑性有着密切联系.神经突触可塑性分为形态可塑及功能可塑,长时程增强(LTP)、长时程抑制(LTD)作为突触可塑性的主要表现形式,参与学习、记忆的改善.通过综述电针对神经突触LTP、LTD的诱导及对突触形态的可塑探讨了电针治疗抑郁症的机制,并从“突触再可塑”阐述了电针对重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)的增效作用.

  14. Multiobjective financial planning model for electric-utility rate regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, C.M.; Whitford, D.T.

    1983-08-01

    The interests of the three parties to the regulatory process (investors in an electric utility, consumers, and regulators) are often in conflict. Investors are concerned with shareholder wealth maximization, while consumers desire dependable service at low rates. If the desired end product of regulation is to establish rates that balance the interests of consumers and investors, then a financial planning model is needed that accurately reflects the multi-objective nature of the regulatory decision process. This article develops such a multi-objective programming model for examining the efficient trade-offs available to utility regulators in setting rates of return. 8 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Impacts and Utilization of Electric Vehicles Integration Into Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUZechun; SONG Yonghua; XU Zhiwei; LUO Zhuowei; ZHAN Kaiqiao; JIA Long

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of electric vehicles (EVs) penetration in power grids, the charging of EVs will have significant impacts on power system planning and operation. It is necessary to note that the majority of EVs are not in use in most of the time in a day. Therefore, the onboard batteries can be utilized as energy storage devices. This article reviews and discusses the current related research in the following areas.

  16. A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1995-10-01

    In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

  17. Analysis of System Margins on Missions Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, David Y.; Landau, Damon; Randolph, Thomas; Timmerman, Paul; Chase, James; Sims, Jon; Kowalkowski, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has conducted a study focused on the analysis of appropriate margins for deep space missions using solar electric propulsion (SEP). The purpose of this study is to understand the links between disparate system margins (power, mass, thermal, etc.) and their impact on overall mission performance and robustness. It is determined that the various sources of uncertainty and risk associated with electric propulsion mission design can be summarized into three relatively independent parameters 1) EP Power Margin, 2) Propellant Margin and 3) Duty Cycle Margin. The overall relationship between these parameters and other major sources of uncertainty is presented. A detailed trajectory analysis is conducted to examine the impact that various assumptions related to power, duty cycle, destination, and thruster performance including missed thrust periods have on overall performance. Recommendations are presented for system margins for deep space missions utilizing solar electric propulsion.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory reporting: Focus on the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biden, D.; Cain, R.D.; Hoone, D.; Duncan, M.F.; O' Reilly, M.J.; Dodson, S.; Koch, L.L.; Novitsky, W.M.; Ogitis, R.S.; Farkas, S.M.

    1999-07-01

    The look of EPA's annual Toxics Release Inventory Report (TRI) is about to change. Starting in the 1998 reporting year seven new industries are required to report TRI releases. The electric utility industry will join the chemical industry and others who have reported under TRI rules for the last ten years. A major change to EPA's report will be the top ten chemical list. The TRI releases that the electric utility sector will report are of a different chemical composition than those from manufacturing. Because of the layout of the TRI database, the large quantities of utility releases will shift the public focus away from organic constituents to that of less familiar combustion by-products. The resulting shift of reported chemicals could rekindle and intensify interest in air related issues such as acid rain, global warming, and deforestation, and result in public confusion over the health and safety implications associated with releases generated by coal combustion. The nature of the electric generation marketplace will also make year-to-year and company-to-company chemical release comparisons difficult with the present framework of EPA's publication of TRI data.

  19. Effect of applied DC electric fields in flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of applied DC electric fields on the flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire. The flame-spread rates over electrical wire with negative and positive DC electric fields from 0 to ±7 kV were measured and analyzed. We compared the results for DC electric fields with previous results for AC electric fields. We explored whether or not various flame shapes could be obtained with DC electric fields and the main reason for the flame-spread acceleration, particularly at the end of the electrical wire, for AC electric fields. We found that DC electric fields do not significantly affect the flame-spread rates. However, the flame shape is mildly altered by the ionic wind effect even for DC electric fields. The flame-spread rate is relevant to the flame shape and the slanted direction in spite of the mild impact. A possible explanation for the flame spread is given by a thermal-balance mechanism and fuel-vapor jet. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  20. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

  1. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  2. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Many regulators, utilities, customer groups, and other stakeholders are reevaluating existing regulatory models and the roles and financial implications for electric utilities in the context of today’s environment of increasing distributed energy resource (DER) penetrations, forecasts of significant T&D investment, and relatively flat or negative utility sales growth. When this is coupled with predictions about fewer grid-connected customers (i.e., customer defection), there is growing concern about the potential for serious negative impacts on the regulated utility business model. Among states engaged in these issues, the range of topics under consideration is broad. Most of these states are considering whether approaches that have been applied historically to mitigate the impacts of previous “disruptions” to the regulated utility business model (e.g., energy efficiency) as well as to align utility financial interests with increased adoption of such “disruptive technologies” (e.g., shareholder incentive mechanisms, lost revenue mechanisms) are appropriate and effective in the present context. A handful of states are presently considering more fundamental changes to regulatory models and the role of regulated utilities in the ownership, management, and operation of electric delivery systems (e.g., New York “Reforming the Energy Vision” proceeding).

  3. Financial statistics of major U.S. investor-owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues. The US electric power industry is a combination of electric utilities (investor-owned, publicly owned, Federal, and cooperatives) and nonutility power producers. Investor-owned electric utilities account for over three-fourths of electric sales and revenue. Historically, the investor-owned electric utilities have served the large consolidated markets. There is substantial diversity among the investor-owned electric utilities in terms of services, size, fuel usage, and prices charged. Most investor-owned electric utilities generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. Investor-owned electric utilities operate in all States except Nebraska; Hawaii is the only State in which all electricity is supplied by investor-owned electric utilities. 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  4. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  5. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities....

  6. Overview of U.S. electric utilities: Transmission and distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.D. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Inc., Winchester, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    I hope this brief description of the US electric utility industry has been interesting and informative. No doubt many characteristics, concerns, and research efforts mirror those of the electric utility industry in South Korea. It is hoped that through workshops such as this that electric utilities, manufacturers and consultants may learn from each other for the mutual benefit of all.

  7. Breakup of the Bell monopoly: Lessons for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepmeier, J.M. (James M. Piepmeier and Co., Evanston, IL (United States)); Jermain, D.O. (David O. Jermain Associates, Portland, OR (United States)); Egnor, T.L. (MicroGrid, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Technological change, not regulatory change, was the prime mover behind the Bell breakup. Now, for the first time, technology threatens to recast the economic structure of the electric utility industry as well. Previous analyses of the restructuring of the telecommunications industry, as represented by the 1984 breakup of the Bell monopoly, focus on regulatory change as the precipitator and principal agent. Technology is recognized as an important factor but not the primary trigger. This view confounds the roles of the independent and dependent variables in the economic system. The mistake is more than misperception of a single, isolated event that is now over and done with; it is fundamental and it must be corrected in order to understand the implications that restructuring holds for electric utility monopolies. Technology, not regulation, was the primary trigger in the Bell System breakup. Technology acted as a virus, infecting the monopoly economics of telecommunications and in turn driving a complete transformation of that industry. Regulatory change was the consequence, not the cause.

  8. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  9. Charged Polymers Transport under Applied Electric Fields in Periodic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nedelcu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the transport of charged polymers in applied electric fields in confining environments, which were straight cylinders of uniform or non-uniform diameter. In the simulations, the solvent was modeled explicitly and, also, the counterions and coions of added salt. The electrophoretic velocities of charged chains in relation to electrolyte friction, hydrodynamic effects due to the solvent, and surface friction were calculated. We found that the velocities were higher if counterions were moved away from the polymeric domain, which led to a decrease in hydrodynamic friction. The topology of the surface played a key role in retarding the motion of the polyelectrolyte and, even more so, in the presence of transverse electric fields. The present study showed that a possible way of improving separation resolution is by controlling the motion of counterions or electrolyte friction effects.

  10. Augmentation of boiling heat transfer by utilizing the EHD effect. 1st report. ; Basic study on the enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer by applying electric field. EHD koka wo katsuyosuru futto dennetsu sokushin ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. ; Futto sokushin no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, J. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yabe, A. (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba (Japan)); Yamazaki, T. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Hirao, Y. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-07-25

    What utilizes the effect of electrohydrodynamical technique (EHD), as one of heat transfer augmentation methods, is methodically frequented and partially prepared to be put to practical use. Then, the heat transfer augmentation effect on nucleate boiling, utilizing the EHD effect, was both experimentally and theoretically studied from both the applicative and basic viewpoints. By adding fleon with 2wt% ethyl alcohol, higher in electric conductivity, in order to have the mitigation time of electric charge correspond to the bubbling frequency of bubble, the heat transfer augmentation was enabled to be about 8.5 times as high as that without impressing the electric field. As a result of observing the behavior of bubble in the electric field, was observed a phenomenon of bubble, moving from place to place, without ascending, on the plane electrode plate, by which could be found one of causes of the heat transfer augmentation. From analyzing the electric field around the bubble, it was clear that the static electric field force of vertical component generates force to push the bubble down on the heat transfer surface, and that the horizontal component of static electric field force is more than four times as large as its vertical component, and gives force to have the bubble move and rotate easily on the heat transfer surface. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

  12. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  13. Ancillary-service costs for 12 US electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1996-03-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC divided these services into three categories: ``actions taken to effect the transaction (such as scheduling and dispatching services) , services that are necessary to maintain the integrity of the transmission system [and] services needed to correct for the effects associated with undertaking a transaction.`` In March 1995, FERC published a proposed rule to ensure open and comparable access to transmission networks throughout the country. The rule defined six ancillary services and developed pro forma tariffs for these services: scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, energy imbalance, loss compensation, and reactive power/voltage control.

  14. Performance evaluation and improvement directions for an Indian electric utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar, E-mail: vinod@gbu.ac.in [Electrical Engineering Department, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida 201310 (India); Padhy, N.P.; Gupta, H.O. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2011-11-15

    This study evaluates the performance of 29 Electricity Distribution Divisions (EDDs) of an Indian state - Uttarakhand - deploying Input oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results indicate that the performance of several EDDs is sub-optimal, suggesting the potential for cost reductions and possible reduction in employees number. In the DEA method more than one unit are identified as efficient. Therefore, this study suggests a method for ranking the efficient units by their importance as benchmarks for the inefficient units through benchmark share measure. The bigger the benchmark share, the more important an efficient division is in benchmarking for inefficient ones. Result reveals that plain area divisions are relatively efficient and have higher potential to influence the performance of inefficient EDDs. This study is envisaged to be instrumental to policy makers and managers to increase the operational efficiency of inefficient EDDs and thereby increase the competitiveness in the face of restructuring and liberalization of Indian electricity sector. - Highlights: > Plain area divisions are more effective in integrating resources than hilly divisions. > For prevalent inefficiency two models are developed to varying environmental conditions. > Benchmark share identifies the variable that is influential in increasing the efficiency. > Savings in terms of reduction in O and M cost and number of Employees. > Findings of research work redefine the view point of the utility planners.

  15. Deregulation and restructuring of the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, Hal [Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), AFL-CIO, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Federal and state policy makers are currently faced with the rapidly evolving issue of the restructuring and potential deregulation of the electric utility industry, a sector of the economy of huge importance through its sheer size and its impact on the daily life and livelihood of everyone. This paper describes eleven principles that must be adhered to in any restructuring of the electric industry. Adherence to the principle and positions outlined can help assure that the transition in this industry benefits all, not just a few, and that the general health and welfare of the people is protected and enhanced [Espanol] Los legisladores estatales y federales se estan enfrentando con el rapido y envolvente aspecto de la reestructuracion y desregulacion potencial de la industria electrica, un sector de la economia de enorme importancia por su tamano y su impacto en la vida diaria y los medios de vida. En esta ponencia se describen once principios y posiciones que deben ser considerados en cualquier reestructuracion de la industria electrica. El apego a los principios y posiciones comentados puede ayudar a asegurar que la transicion en esta industria deneficie a todos, no solo a unos cuantos, y que la salud general y bienestar de la gente sea protegida y mejorada

  16. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  17. Applying Utility Functions to Adaptation Planning for Home Automation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratskas, Pyrros; Paspallis, Nearchos; Kakousis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, George A.

    A pervasive computing environment typically comprises multiple embedded devices that may interact together and with mobile users. These users are part of the environment, and they experience it through a variety of devices embedded in the environment. This perception involves technologies which may be heterogeneous, pervasive, and dynamic. Due to the highly dynamic properties of such environments, the software systems running on them have to face problems such as user mobility, service failures, or resource and goal changes which may happen in an unpredictable manner. To cope with these problems, such systems must be autonomous and self-managed. In this chapter we deal with a special kind of a ubiquitous environment, a smart home environment, and introduce a user-preference-based model for adaptation planning. The model, which dynamically forms a set of configuration plans for resources, reasons automatically and autonomously, based on utility functions, on which plan is likely to best achieve the user's goals with respect to resource availability and user needs.

  18. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State Governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for making policy and decisions relating to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  19. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  20. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-05-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  1. Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, R. D.; Briggs, T. A.; Congdon, J. V.; Demarche, T. E.; Gelting, R. L.; Goller, G. J.; Luoma, W. I.; McCloskey, M. W.; Mientek, A. P.; Obrien, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The advancement of electric utility cell stack technology and reduction of cell stack cost was initiated. The cell stack has a nominal 10 ft (2) active area and operates at 120 psia/405(0)F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full height, 10-ft(2) stack verification test: (1) provides the information and services needed to manage the effort, including definition of the prototype commercial power plant; (2) develops the technical base for long term improvements to the cell stack; (3) develops materials and processing techniques for cell stack components incorporating the best available technology; (4) provides the design of hardware and conceptual processing layouts, and updates the power plant definition of Phase 1 to reflect the results of Phases 2 and 3; Phase 5 manufactures the hardware to verify the achievements of Phases 2 and 3, and analyzes the cost of this hardware; and Phase 6 tests the cell stacks assembled from the hardware of Phase 5 to assess the state of development.

  2. Examination of Electric Utility CEO Compensation 2000-2011 and its significance to Company Earnings, Company Revenue, Company Stock and the Dow Jones Utility Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitch, Andrew

    This dissertation examined electric utility CEO compensation during the years 2000 through 2011 for United States owned and operated companies. To determine the extent to which agency theory may apply to electric utility CEO compensation, this examination segmented the industry by four types of company financial metrics: revenue, earnings, stock price and the Dow Jones Utility Average; by five categories of CEO compensation: base salary, bonus, stock grants, all other compensation and total compensation; and by four categories of company size as measured by revenue: large, medium, small and the industry as a whole. Electric utility CEO compensation data was analyzed with the financial metrics to determine correlations. No type of compensation was highly correlated to any of the financial metrics for any size industry segment indicating that there was little agency. CEO compensation in large electric utility companies was higher than compensation in medium and smaller companies even though the CEOs at larger companies earned less per dollar of revenue and per dollar of earnings than their counterparts in smaller companies.

  3. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  4. Muscle maintenance by volitional contraction against applied electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Takeshi; Umezu, Yuichi; Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Maeda, Takashi; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Nagata, Kensei; Basford, Jeffrey R

    2007-01-01

    Muscle training exercises are needed for muscular endurance during spaceflight. This study was designed to investigate effects of volitional contraction against applied electrical stimulation on the muscular endurance of the proximal upper extremity. Thirteen healthy sedentary men were allocated into two groups. One group participated in a hybrid (HYB) exercise regimen in which the biceps brachii was stimulated as he volitionally extended his elbow, and the triceps brachii was stimulated as the volitionally flexed his elbow. The second group underwent a similar regimen in which the electrical stimulation (ELS) was alternatively delivered to the biceps brachii and then to the triceps brachii with the limb fixed. Forty-second surface electromyography (EMG) recordings at 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were made as baseline data at just before starting the training regimen, and again conclusion. The median frequency (MF) and mean power frequency (MPF) slopes with time were determined using power spectrum analysis. There were statistical significance only for the triceps in which the MF and MPF slopes in the HYB Group became less negative over the period of study (from -45.7+/-14.7 and -47.0+/-8.6%/min at baseline to -36.9+/-10.7 and -36.8+/-7.0%/min at the end of training, respectively). The corresponding values for these slopes in the ELS Group showed opposite tends with less marked changes of borderline significance for MF and of statistical significance for MPF. These results suggested that the HYB exercise regimen was capable of producing an improvement in triceps but not biceps brachii.

  5. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired...

  6. Financial statistics of major US investor-owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues. The Financial Statistics of Major US Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication provides information about the financial results of operations of investor-owned electric utilities for use by government, industry, electric utilities, financial organizations and educational institutions in energy planning. In the private sector, the readers of this publication are researchers and analysts associated with the financial markets, the policymaking and decisionmaking members of electric utility companies, and economic development organizations. Other organizations that may be interested in the data presented in this publication include manufacturers of electric power equipment and marketing organizations. In the public sector, the readers of this publication include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals engaged in regulatory, policy, and program areas. These individuals are generally associated with the Congress, other legislative bodies, State public utility commissions, universities, and national strategic planning organizations.

  7. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  8. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  9. The Contribution of Electric Force to Sintering Ⅱ.Natures of the Applied Electric Field for Driving lonic Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIShang-zhao

    1994-01-01

    Through discussion on the acting forces of the applied electric field on the ionic system,it was shown that a periordical field with both even and odd components is to be applied.The suitable wavelengty,the extent of the field intensity and electric potential and the application of the selected field were suggested.

  10. Solar profits for electric utilities; Solare Rendite fuer Stromkonzerne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2010-11-23

    The capacity of installed photovoltaic systems in Germany increased during the past few years, and so did the profits of the electric power industry. Maximum profits were gained as a result of the German Renewables Act and at the expense of the consumers. Renewable energy sources are already lowering the wholesale prices of electric power. (orig.)

  11. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  12. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  13. Determining the Cost of Capital for Turkish Electricity Distribution Utilities: Analysis and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    GÖZEN, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Turkey has been transforming her electricity market to a competitive one since the electricity market law was approved by the parliament in 2001. As part of the new regime, electricity distribution activities are subject to incentive-based regulation by the energy regulator - EMRA. At the beginning of each implementation period, initial revenue is allowed by EMRA for a distribution utility in which a rate of return for investments in the utility is added. Setting a fair rate is relatively eas...

  14. Assessment method of business information infrastructure in electric utility company; Johoka infura kochiku koka no hyoka hoho no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, T.; Takahashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Assessment method of introduction effect of business information infrastructure in electric utility company has been developed. It is significant for information system in electric utility company to construct business information infrastructure for the effective non-routine works and business innovation through information utilizing ability of employees concerning down sizing, information link with outside organizations, and systematization of business information outside the office. For the method newly developed, relationships between factors, such as attribute of users and conditions, and utilization of application were determine with regression analysis. It can be revealed what kind of factors contribute to what kind of utilization of application. Degree of business improvement effect by utilization of each application can be predicted with the regressive analysis. Factors which can be politically modified, promotion of utilization and improvement effect can be predicted. This method was applied to the questionnaire survey for users at the stage of partial introduction. As a result, improvement factors which remarkably contribute to utilization degree, and business improvement due to the promotion of utilization of applications were successfully predicted. 8 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  16. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  17. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  18. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  19. An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-06

    Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

  20. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  1. Study of thermoelectric systems applied to electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A.; Vian, J.G.; Astrain, D.; Martinez, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de Materiales, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    A computational model has been developed in order to simulate the thermal and electric behavior of thermoelectric generators. This model solves the nonlinear system of equations of the thermoelectric and heat transfer equations. The inputs of the program are the thermoelectric parameters as a function of temperature and the boundary conditions, (room temperature and residual heat flux). The outputs are the temperature values of all the elements forming the thermoelectric generator, (performance, electric power, voltage and electric current generated). The model solves the equation system using the finite difference method and semi-empirical expressions for the convection coefficients. A thermoelectric electric power generation test bench has been built in order to validate and determine the accuracy of the computational model, which maximum error is lower than 5%. The objective of this study is to create a design tool that allows us to solve the system of equations involved in the electric generation process without needing to impose boundary conditions that are not known in the design phase, such as the temperature of the Peltier modules. With the computational model, we study the influence of the heat flux supplied as well as the room temperature on the electric power generated. (author)

  2. The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

  3. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  4. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  5. Mechanism of Carbon Nanotubes Aligning along Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shao-Jie; GUO Wan-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTS)aligning in the direction of external electric field is studied by quantum mechanics calculations.The rotational torque on the carbon nanotubes is proportional to the difference between the longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities and varies with the angle of SWCNTs to the external electric field.The longitudinal polarizability increases with second power of length,while the transverse polarizability increases linearly with length.A zigzag SWCNT has larger longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities than an armchair SWCNT with the same diameter and the discrepancy becomes larger for longer tubes.

  6. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  7. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  8. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  9. Physics of Electrical Discharges to Control and to Utilize Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Motoshige

    Three topics related to the field of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) are summarized for this special issue. First one deals with the fundamental process of long gap discharge. As the second one, the topics of a vacuum discharge occurred on the solar cell of the spacecraft is introduced. The last one shows the arc motion in the rail-gun.

  10. Applying portfolio theory to the electricity sector. Energy versus power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarue, Erik; D' haeseleer, William; De Jonghe, Cedric; Belmans, Ronnie [Leuven University, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Portfolio theory has found its way in numerous applications for optimizing the electricity generation mix of a particular region. Existing models, however, consider typically a single time period and correspondingly do not properly account for actual dispatch constraints and energy sources with a non-dispatchable, variable output. This paper presents a portfolio theory model that explicitly distinguishes between installed capacity (power), electricity generation (energy) and actual instantaneous power delivery. This way, the variability of wind power and ramp limits of conventional power plants are correctly included in the investment optimization. The model is written as a quadratically constrained programming problem and illustrated in a case study. The results show that the introduction of wind power can be motivated to lower the risk on generation cost, albeit to smaller levels than typically reported in the literature. This wind power deployment further requires the need for sufficiently rampable technologies, to deal with its fluctuating output. (author)

  11. Effects of Controlled Release Urea on Wheat Yield and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Under Different Applied Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    XIA Wei-guang; Wu, Ji; GAO Feng-me; WANG, YUN-QING; GUO Xi-sheng

    2014-01-01

    The field trial was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer applications on winter wheat yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and economic benefit. 7 treatments were designed as CK(no nitrogen fertilizer applied), 100%PU10/0(conventional urea applied before sowing, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2), 100%PU6/4(conventional urea applied before sowing and at jointing with the ratio of 6∶4, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2), 80%PU6/4(conventional urea applied before sowing and at jointing w...

  12. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  13. Fusion Energy from the electric utilities perspective: Fusion Innovation Industry Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagle, J. A.; Felipe, A.; Gomez, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Merino, A.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the different future energy scenarios envisaged and the so called Power Generation Fleet Transition in which Fusion Energy could play an important role. A review of the R and D and Innovation main drivers in the electric sector is outline, with a detail description of the main issues and strategic challenges in the medium and short term. The worldwide historical involvement of electric utilities in Fusion is presented and revised under the new USA Utilities technical assessment carried out by the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI. The paper also presents the work done in the last few years by the European Fusion Industry Innovation Forum FIIF-MB in order to to evaluate a wide range of fusion concepts from the utility standpoint, to enhance utilities perspective on fusion, to provide guidance to Government Bodies and national Energy strategies for fusion-utilities and finally to establish a basis for communication and cooperation in fusion for utilities standpoint. Finally the paper comments the utilities challenges pointed out by the Fusion electricity: a road map to the realization of fusion energy report issued this year by the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA.

  14. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  15. Electricity hubs and market centers: A new business tool for electric utilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallen, M.A.; Sharp, L.S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    There are many complexities clouding the use of hubs and market centers in the electricity market, but lessons learned in the natural gas industry can save a lot of unnecessary reinvention. The bottom line: Electricity hubs and market centers will allow the markets to work most efficiently. This article will describe how regional trading hubs may function in the competitive electricity market, using the experiences of the natural gas market to illustrate the principles involved. Part I will define the typical characteristics of hubs and market centers and describe the dey success factors needed to develop a new market center. Part II will describe the types of products and services that an electricity hub or marketing center will need to offer to succeed.

  16. Laser ablation with applied magnetic field for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishcheva, Alla; Batishchev, Oleg; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    2012-10-01

    Using ultrafast lasers with tera-watt-level power allows efficient ablation and ionization of solid-density materials [1], creating dense and hot (˜100eV) plasma. We propose ablating small droplets in the magnetic nozzle configurations similar to mini-helicon plasma source [2]. Such approach may improve the momentum coupling compared to ablation of solid surfaces and facilitate plasma detachment. Results of 2D modeling of solid wire ablation in the applied magnetic field are presented and discussed. [4pt] [1] O. Batishchev et al, Ultrafast Laser Ablation for Space Propulsion, AIAA technical paper 2008-5294, -16p, 44th JPC, Hartford, 2008.[0pt] [2] O. Batishchev and J.L. Cambier, Experimental Study of the Mini-Helicon Thruster, Air Force Research Laboratory Report, AFRL-RZ-ED-TR-2009-0020, 2009.

  17. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  18. Effects of Controlled Release Urea on Wheat Yield and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Under Different Applied Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Wei-guang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The field trial was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer applications on winter wheat yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and economic benefit. 7 treatments were designed as CK(no nitrogen fertilizer applied, 100%PU10/0(conventional urea applied before sowing, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2, 100%PU6/4(conventional urea applied before sowing and at jointing with the ratio of 6∶4, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2, 80%PU6/4(conventional urea applied before sowing and at jointing with the ratio of 6∶4, N rate was 192 kg·hm-2, 100%CRU(resin coated controlled release urea applied before sowing, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2, 80%CRU(resin coated controlled release urea applied before sowing, N rate was 192 kg·hm-2, and 40%CRU+40%PU(resin coated controlled release urea and conventional urea applied before sowing, N rate was 192 kg·hm-2. The results showed that no matter on the efficiency of yield or that of nitrogen, resin coated controlled-release urea(CRU was better when compared with conventional urea(PU. Especially, the combined application treatment(40%CRU+40%PUwas the best with achieving the highest wheat yield of 7 709 kg·hm-2, the highest N fertilizer utilization efficiency of 36.44% and the maximum net income of 15 946 yuan·hm-2. And it could not only increase winter wheat yield with reducing the nitrogen fertilizer application, but also improve N fertilizer utilization efficiency and owe the highest ratio of output to input. Therefore, the combined application of the resin coated controlled-release urea and conventional urea(40%CRU+40%PUwas the optimal nitrogen fertilizer treatment under the conditions of this experiment.

  19. Electric-utility DSM-program costs and effects, 1991 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years (1989, 1990, and 1991), all US electric utilities that sell more than 120 GWh/year have been required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a rich and uniquely comprehensive picture of electric-utility DSM programs in the United States. Altogether, 890 utilities (of about 3250 in the United States) ran DSM programs in 1991; of these, 439 sold more than 120 GWh and reported details on their DSM programs. These 439 utilities represent more than 80% of total US electricity sales and revenues. Altogether, these utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on DSM programs in 1991, equal to 1.0% of total utility revenues that year. In return for these (and prior-year) expenditures, utility DSM programs cut potential peak demand by 26,700 MW (4.8% of the national total) and cut annual electricity use by 23,300 GWh (0.9% of the national total). These 1991 numbers represent substantial increases over the 1989 and 1990 numbers on utility DSM programs. Specifically, utility DSM expenditures doubled, energy savings increased by almost 50%, and demand reductions increased by one-third between 1989 and 1991. Utilities differed enormously in their DSM-program expenditures and effects. Almost 12% of the reporting utilities spent more than 2% of total revenues on DSM programs in 1991, while almost 60% spent less than 0.5% of revenues on DSM. Utility estimates of future DSM-program expenditures and benefits show continuing growth. By the year 2001, US utilities expect to spend 1.2% of revenues on DSM and to cut demand by 8.8% and annual sales by 2.7%. Here, too, expectations vary by region. Utilities in the West and Northwest plan to spend more than 2% of revenues on DSM that year, while utilities in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southwest, Central, and North Central regions plan to spend less than 1% of revenues on DSM.

  20. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development of vitreous ceramic tiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritwik Sarkar; Nar Singh; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Steel melting through electric arc furnace route is gaining popularity due to its many advantages, but generates a new waste, electric arc furnace slag, which is getting accumulated and land/mine filling and road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to develop vitreous ceramic tiles. Slag, to the extent of 30–40 wt% with other conventional raw materials, were used for the development in the temperature range 1100–1150°C. The fired products showed relatively higher density with shorter firing range and good strength properties. Microstructural and EDAX studies were also done to evaluate the developed products.

  1. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  2. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  3. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  4. Assessment of potential and existing problems concerning interface between electric utilities and cogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The potential and existing problems concerning the interface between US electric utilities and cogenerators are considered by region. Also considered are regulatory barriers, rates and contracts, economic feasibility, and impact on system planning. Finally, the impact of the National Energy Act on the marketability potential of cogeneration is reviewed. The three appendixes summarize the utility meetings on cogeneration held in Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.

  5. Utility subroutine package used by Applied Physics Division export codes. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.H.; Derstine, K.L.; Henryson, H. II; Hosteny, R.P.; Toppel, B.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report describes the current state of the utility subroutine package used with codes being developed by the staff of the Applied Physics Division. The package provides a variety of useful functions for BCD input processing, dynamic core-storage allocation and managemnt, binary I/0 and data manipulation. The routines were written to conform to coding standards which facilitate the exchange of programs between different computers.

  6. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  7. Experimental Study on Downwardly Spreading Flame over Inclined Polyethylene-insulated Electrical Wire with Applied AC Electric Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung Jae

    2014-12-30

    An experimental study on downwardly spreading flame over slanted electrical wire, which is insulated by Polyethylene (PE), was conducted with applied AC electric fields. The result showed that the flame spread rate decreased initially with increase in inclination angle of wire and then became nearly constant. The flame shape was modified significantly with applied AC electric field due to the effect of ionic wind. Such a variation in flame spread rate could be explained by a thermal balance mechanism, depending on flame shape and slanted direction of flame. Extinction of the spreading flame was not related to angle of inclination, and was described well by a functional dependency upon the frequency and voltage at extinction.

  8. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  9. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  10. Crystallization Behavior of Anatase Films in Applied Electric Field Heating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this research the TiO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating. The crystallization of the films in the applied electric field heating process was thoroughly studied by many technique, differential thermal analysis (DTA), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). Furthermore the phase formation, microstructure and photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 film were studied under the condition of an electric field heating-treatment. It is found that the existence of applied electric field promotes the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. Studies on photo-catalytic degradation show that the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 thin films in an applied electric field is higher.

  11. Inhibition of root elongation in microgravity by an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Aizawa, S.; Yoshizaki, I.; Kamigaichi, S.; Mukai, C.; Shimazu, T.; Fukui, K.; Evans, M. L.; Ishikawa, H.

    1999-01-01

    Roots grown in an applied electric field demonstrate a bidirectional curvature. To further understand the nature of this response and its implications for the regulation of differential growth, we applied an electric field to roots growing in microgravity. We found that growth rates of roots in microgravity were higher than growth rates of ground controls. Immediately upon application of the electric field, root elongation was inhibited. We interpret this result as an indication that, in the absence of a gravity stimulus, the sensitivity of the root to an applied electric stimulus is increased. Further space experiments are required to determine the extent to which this sensitivity is shifted. The implications of this result are discussed in relation to gravitropic signaling and the regulation of differential cell elongation in the root.

  12. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  13. The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU. A case of legislative and regulatory capture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Koten, S.; Ortmann, A. [CERGE-EI, P.O. Box 882, Politickych veznu 7, 111 21 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2008-11-15

    Theory and empirics suggest that by curbing competition, incumbent electricity companies which used to be, and here are referred to as, Vertically Integrated Utilities (VIUs), can increase their profitability through combined ownership of generation and transmission and/or distribution networks. Because curbing competition is generally believed to be welfare-reducing, EU law requires unbundling (separation) of the VIU networks. However, the EU allows its member states the choice between incomplete (legal) and complete (ownership) unbundling. There is tantalizing anecdotal evidence that VIUs have tried to influence this choice through questionable means of persuasion. Such means of persuasion should be more readily available in countries with a more corrupted political culture. This paper shows that among the old EU member states, countries which are perceived as more corrupt are indeed more likely to apply weaker forms of unbundling. Somewhat surprisingly, we do not obtain a similar finding for the EU member states that acceded in 2004. We provide a conjecture for this observation. (author)

  14. Survey of electric utility demand for western coal. [1972-6 actual; 1976-1985 estimated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Kim, H.R.; Kouvalis, A.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for western coal. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Power Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases covering the period July 1972 through June 1976 and (2) direct survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1985. Price and quantity data for western coal consumed in existing plants have been assembled and presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual consuming regions over recent years. Coal source, quality, and quantity data are presented for existing and planned generating plants.

  15. Strategic planning in electric utilities: Using wind technologies as risk management tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T E [Pacific Energy Group, Stanford, CA (United States); Parsons, B [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This paper highlights research investigating the ownership of renewable energy technologies to mitigate risks faced by the electric utility industry. Renewable energy technology attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead time, modularity, and investment reversibility are discussed. Incorporating some of these attributes into an economic evaluation is illustrated using a municipal utility`s decision to invest in either wind generation or natural gas based generation. The research concludes that wind and other modular renewable energy technologies, such as photovoltaics, have the potential to provide decision makers with physical risk-management investments.

  16. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  17. An automated system for the measurement of magnetostriction in electrical steel sheet under applied stress

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, P I; Stanbury, H J

    2000-01-01

    The design of an automated system for the rapid assessment of the AC magnetostriction in electrical steel sheet under linear applied stress in the range +-10 MPa is described in detail. Typical results are presented showing the effect of induction on the unstressed material together with plots of the harmonics of magnetostriction and specific total loss versus applied stress.

  18. Extent of Utilizing Electrical Equipment in Poultry Production in Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogba, E. I.; Ogbu, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent of utilizing electrical equipment in poultry production in the rural areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 46 respondents comprising 16 Extension agents and 30 Poultry farmers.…

  19. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

  20. Collaborative jurisdiction in the regulation of electric utilities: A new look at jurisdictional boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This conference is one of several activities initiated by FERC, DOE and NARUC to improve the dialogue between Federal and State regulators and policymakers. I am pleased to be here to participate in this conference and to address, with you, electricity issues of truly national significance. I would like to commend Ashley Brown and the NARUC Electricity Committee for its foresight in devising a conference on these issues at this critical juncture in the regulation of the electric utility industry. I also would like to commend Chairman Allday and the FERC for their efforts to improve communication between Federal and State electricity regulators; both through FERC`s Public Conference on Electricity Issues that was held last June, and through the FERC/NARUC workshops that are scheduled to follow this conference. These collaborative efforts are important and necessary steps in addressing successfully the many issues facing the electric utility industry those who regulate it, and those who depend upon it - in other words, about everyone.

  1. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  2. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. From franchise to state commission: Regulation of the electric utility industry, 1907 to 1932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Keith Alan

    1997-09-01

    Empirical research into the effects of regulation on industry has been around since the early 1960s. Over the last thirty plus years a number of interesting results have been brought to the fore. For instance, it has been found that regulation of the trucking industry limits entry and increases prices. A similar result has been pointed to in other industries such as commercial airlines and banking. The effect of the state commission form of regulation on the electric utility industry has been less conclusive. State commissions became dominant during the period 1910-1930, replacing local franchising as a method of regulating the electric utility industry. Two competing theories suggest why this transformation took place, the "capture" and "public interest" theories of regulation. The capture theory of regulation suggests that the electric utility industry demanded state regulation as a way to earn above normal profits and reduce competition. The public interest theory suggests the purpose of regulation by state commissions was to benefit the general public by forcing the industry to be competitive. Few studies have tried to determine which theory more aptly describes the actual events that took place. The empirical model developed in Chapter V, is an extension of the current literature. A set of simultaneous equations describing the natural gas and electricity markets is estimated using cross-sectional time-series data from 1907 to 1932. The effect of regulation on the electric utility industry is modeled with a dummy variable taking on a value of one to designate that a state commission had been established. The results suggest the capture theory of regulation best describes the period under study. The empirical estimates indicate that state commissions (1) reduced the rate at which the real price of electricity was falling, (2) had a negative impact on firms entering the industry, (3) had a positive influence on the cost of producing a kwh of electricity, and (4

  4. Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.

  5. Carboxylated Capped Carbon Nanotubes Interacting with Nimesulide Molecules: Applied Electric Fields Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Machado de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of carboxylated capped carbon nanotubes with nimesulide molecules under electric fields were investigated by ab initio simulations. Repulsive forces between the nimesulide molecules and the carboxyl group of the carbon nanotubes, except for the nimesulide radical configuration, were observed. To keep the original molecule in the pristine form, electric fields with different intensities were applied, where changes in the behavior of the interactions between the molecules were noticed. It was shown that the intensity of the interaction between the nimesulide and the hydrophilic carboxylated capped carbon nanotube can be modulated by the action of the external electric fields making promising systems for drug delivery applications.

  6. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  7. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  8. Long-range PV R&D and the electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Terry M.

    1997-04-01

    In the short term, photovoltaics will probably continue to enjoy great success in niche markets and non-utility businesses, but see relatively little use within utilities. Deregulation is driving major restructuring of the electric-utility sector, causing great uncertainty among its planners and executives, and leading them to favor cost-cutting over other corporate strategies. However, the competitive motives at the root of that restructuring will ultimately induce resourceful utility executives to seek novel non-commodity energy-service businesses to sustain their companies' success in the deregulated industry of the future. In that industry, technology innovation will play a very important role. Specifically, photovoltaics will be highly valued in light of its unsurpassed modularity, extreme siting ease, very low operation and maintenance costs, and public popularity. The eventual leaders in wielding that powerful technology likely will be among those who recognize those assets earliest and strive to bring its promises to reality through innovative applications.

  9. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  10. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. The second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells with applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2015-12-01

    A detailed investigation of the second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells under the influence of applied electric field by using the compact-density-matrix approach and the finite difference method. The results show that the second-harmonic generation susceptibility obtained in two cases can reach the magnitude of 10-4 m/V, which depend dramatically on the applied electric field and the structural parameters. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.

  12. Removal of alum from Iron-Age wooden objects by an applied electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper removal of potassium, sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is described. An electric DC field was applied across the wood for 4-20 days. At the end of the experiments sulfate had moved as expected towards the anode...... and potassium had moved towards the cathode. One experiment showed that after 20 days only 10% of the sulfate and 8% of the potassium was left in the wood. Aluminum tended to be removed more slowly and even after 20 days only minor amounts of aluminum were removed from the wood. Total removal of alum...

  13. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  14. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  15. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This document, Glossary, is the first in a series of reports to identify, describe, and apply techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric utility concepts. This report was developed with a focus on the currently evolving issues of ratemaking, especially as they might be expected to arise under Sections 101, 111, 113, 114, 131, 132, and 210 of the P.U.R.P.A. of 1978. Because the evolutionary process of ratemaking has led to multiple proceedings and changes of inference in some terms, the glossary attempts to delineate these changes where appropriate. Definitions not uniquely related to ratemaking are included if they are likely to be used in ratemaking proceedings. To avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and expense, the compilers relied heavily on previously developed, publicly available glossaries and definitions developed by organizations such as Edison Electric Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Existing definitions were revised and new ones were developed as appropriate.

  16. Development of a database for use in electric power utilities in the electric power distribution area; Desenvolvimento de um banco de dados para uso em concessionarias de energia eletrica na area de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Alexandre Barreiros

    1996-07-01

    The electric energy distribution system dimension together with the involved diverging elements. requires a constant updated information system. The dynamics and the reliability of the information implies in the use of modern technology, as well as data updating and control. There is a constant need of improving the utilities information system and its lack may put into risk not only the quality of the services but also consumer satisfaction. Utilities technical systems should therefore follow this need allowing for a quick response needed in order to keep the system under control and consequently to maintain the quality of the services. This work proposes a basic information technology model for technical areas and for an electric utility that can be applied to manage any data bank at any platform. To have it demonstrated, a Visual Basic application was developed applying X base data structure, which shows the use of alpha numerical data with G S (Geographic Information System). (author)

  17. From state monopoly to renewable portfolio: Restructuring China's electric utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Chunbo [Alcoa Foundation Research Fellow, Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: cbma@bus.umich.edu; He Lining [California Independent System Operator (CAISO), Folsom, CA 95630 (United States)], E-mail: lhe@caiso.com

    2008-05-15

    Deregulation and decentralization in the electricity sector have thrived worldwide since the early 1980s. China also started restructuring its electricity industry since the mid-1980s. The reform shares many common features with restructuring practices in other countries and exhibits some unique characteristics as well. To some extent, two features, namely governmental administrative departments' dual role of government and business inherited from a highly centralized planned economy, and the coal-intensive nature of power generation, has determined many aspects of the evolution of China's electric power sector. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive account of the process with some emphasis on recent developments. We also identify some of the features that are similar to electricity market reforms in other countries and, most importantly, those that characterize the uniqueness of the restructuring practices in China's electricity industry through investigating the administrative framework, price and investment mechanisms, and associated legislation and policy settings at each of the five stages in the evolution of the electric utility sector. The paper concludes with a discussion and summary of some generic characteristics and remaining challenges.

  18. From state monopoly to renewable portfolio: Restructuring China's electric utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunbo [Alcoa Foundation Research Fellow, Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); He, Lining [California Independent System Operator (CAISO), Folsom, CA 95630 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Deregulation and decentralization in the electricity sector have thrived worldwide since the early 1980s. China also started restructuring its electricity industry since the mid-1980s. The reform shares many common features with restructuring practices in other countries and exhibits some unique characteristics as well. To some extent, two features, namely governmental administrative departments' dual role of government and business inherited from a highly centralized planned economy, and the coal-intensive nature of power generation, has determined many aspects of the evolution of China's electric power sector. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive account of the process with some emphasis on recent developments. We also identify some of the features that are similar to electricity market reforms in other countries and, most importantly, those that characterize the uniqueness of the restructuring practices in China's electricity industry through investigating the administrative framework, price and investment mechanisms, and associated legislation and policy settings at each of the five stages in the evolution of the electric utility sector. The paper concludes with a discussion and summary of some generic characteristics and remaining challenges. (author)

  19. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  20. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  1. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1990 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1990 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. The report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1990 time period, and gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1990. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell annually to four sectors. Data is provided on each retail customer sector and also on the customers Bonneville serves directly: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. 21 figs., 40 tabs.

  2. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  3. An Evaluation of the Physiological Strain Experienced by Electrical Utility Workers in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Lauzon, Martin; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological strain experienced by North American electrical utility workers during the performance of their normal work duties in heat stressed conditions. Three common job categories were monitored as they are normally performed in 32 electrical utility workers: (i) Ground Work (n = 11); (ii) Bucket Work (n = 9); and (iii) Manual Pole Work (n = 12). Worker hydration status (urine specific gravity (USG)) was measured prior to and following the work monitoring period (duration: 187 ± 104 min). Core and skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously. Physiological Strain Index (PSI) was calculated from the measurements of core temperature and heart rate. Prior to the start of the work shift, 38% of workers were euhydrated (USG 1.020; prevalence: 75%; p job categories, greater mean and peak increases in core temperature were observed in Manual Pole Work relative to the other job categories (both p strain were paralleled by elevated mean and peak heart rate and PSI responses, which were greater in Manual Pole Work in comparison to the other job categories (all p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, two workers performing Manual Pole Work achieved severely elevated core temperatures reaching or exceeding 39.5 °C along with prolonged periods of near maximal heart rate responses (i.e., >90% of heart rate reserve). We report elevated levels of thermal and cardiovascular strain in electrical utility workers during work in the heat and potentially dangerous levels of hyperthermia during particularly strenuous work.

  4. Commute time distance transformation applied to spectral imagery and its utilization in material clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, James A.; Messinger, David W.; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2012-07-01

    Spectral image analysis problems often begin by applying a transformation that generates an alternative representation of the spectral data with the intention of exposing hidden features not discernable in the original space. We introduce and demonstrate a transformation based on a Markov-chain model of a random walk on a graph via application to spectral image clustering. The random walk is quantified by a measure known as the average commute time distance (CTD), which is the average length that a random walker takes, when starting at one node, to transition to another and return to the starting node. This distance metric has the important characteristic of increasing when the number of paths between two nodes decreases and/or the lengths of those paths increase. Once a similarity graph is built on the spectral data, a transformation based on an eigendecomposition of the graph Laplacian matrix is applied that embeds the nodes of the graph into a Euclidean space with the separation between nodes equal to the square-root of the average commute time distance. This is referred to as the Commute Time Distance transformation. As an example of the utility of this data transformation, results are shown for standard clustering algorithms applied to hyperspectral data sets.

  5. The second-harmonic generation susceptibility in semiparabolic quantum wells with applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Zhihai

    2015-12-01

    The second-harmonic generation susceptibility in semiparabolic quantum wells with applied electric field is investigated theoretically. For the same topic studied by Zhang and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 235315] [1], some new and reliable results are obtained by us. It is easily observed that the second harmonic generation susceptibility decreases and the blue shift of the resonance is induced with increasing of the frequencies of the confined potential. Moreover, a transition from a two-photon resonance to two single-photon resonances will appear adjusted by the frequencies of the confined potential. Similar results can also be obtained by controlling the applied electric field. Surprisingly, the second harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened in the presence of the electric field, which is in contrast to the conventional case. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding resonant energy are also taken into account.

  6. Finite element modeling and analysis of piezo-integrated composite structures under large applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Tarun, S.; Schmidt, R.; Schröder, K.-U.

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we focus on static finite element (FE) simulation of piezoelectric laminated composite plates and shells, considering the nonlinear constitutive behavior of piezoelectric materials under large applied electric fields. Under the assumptions of small strains and large electric fields, the second-order nonlinear constitutive equations are used in the variational principle approach, to develop a nonlinear FE model. Numerical simulations are performed to study the effect of material nonlinearity for piezoelectric bimorph and laminated composite plates as well as cylindrical shells. In comparison to the experimental investigations existing in the literature, the results predicted by the present model agree very well. The importance of the present nonlinear model is highlighted especially in large applied electric fields, and it is shown that the difference between the results simulated by linear and nonlinear constitutive FE models cannot be omitted.

  7. Tension moderation and fluctuation spectrum in simulated lipid membranes under an applied electric potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loubet, Bastien; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an applied electric potential on the mechanics of a coarse grained POPC bilayer under tension. The size and duration of our simulations allow for a detailed and accurate study of the fluctuations. Effects on the fluctuation spectrum, tension, bending rigidity, and bil......We investigate the effect of an applied electric potential on the mechanics of a coarse grained POPC bilayer under tension. The size and duration of our simulations allow for a detailed and accurate study of the fluctuations. Effects on the fluctuation spectrum, tension, bending rigidity......, and bilayer thickness are investigated in detail. In particular, the least square fitting technique is used to calculate the fluctuation spectra. The simulations confirm a recently proposed theory that the effect of an applied electric potential on the membrane will be moderated by the elastic properties...... fluctuations. The effect of the applied electric potential on the bending rigidity is non-existent within error bars. However, when the membrane is stretched there is a point where the bending rigidity is lowered due to a decrease of the thickness of the membrane. All these effects should prove important...

  8. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  9. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  10. Electric utility pole yard training facility: Designing an effective learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Robert P.

    The primary responsibility of electric utilities is to supply consistent, dependable, and affordable energy to private customers, businesses, and industries. As with many businesses, electric utilities are experiencing the effects of an aging workforce and expending considerable resources to train their current and replacement workers. Community colleges can partner with electric utilities to provide effective learning environments for these workers, and gain access to new sources of revenue and community support for the colleges. The purpose of this study was to describe the functions, features, and major design issues of an effective learning environment for training electric utility industry workers, the electric utility line-worker pole yard. Case studies of three "state of the art" line-worker pole yard training environments provide the basis for the study's findings and implications. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What is the function of a line-worker pole yard in supporting effective training? (2) What are the features of present day ("state of the art") line-worker pole yard learning environments? and (3) What are the major issues that need to be addressed in designing a line-worker pole yard learning environment for the future? The study participants included industry representatives, training coordinators, instructors, and students from the three selected "state of the art" line-worker pole yard sites. The overall findings from the study resulted in composites of the desired features of learning outcomes, learning process, and learning environment for a line-worker pole yard training program and major issues that are affecting the future design of these training programs. Composite findings of a pole-yard training environment included unique features associated with: (a) outdoor, (b) indoor, (c) underground, (d) classroom, (e) gathering places, and (f) work-based learning components. Composite findings with regard to major

  11. Electronic and Shallow Impurity States in Semiconductor Heterostructures Under an Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai-Yang; GU Shi-Wei; SHI Yao-Ming

    2005-01-01

    With the use of variational method to solve the effective mass equation, we have studied the electronic and shallow impurity states in semiconductor heterostructures under an applied electric field. The electron energy levels are calculated exactly and the impurity binding energies are calculated with the variational approach. It is found that the behaviors of electronic and shallow impurity states in heterostructures under an applied electric field are analogous to that of quantum wells. Our results show that with the increasing strength of electric field, the electron confinement energies increase, and the impurity binding energy increases also when the impurity is on the surface, while the impurity binding energy increases at first, to a peak value, then decreases to a value which is related to the impurity position when the impurity is away from the surface. In the absence of electric field, the result tends to the Levine's ground state energy (-1/4 effective Rydberg) when the impurity is on the surface, and the ground impurity binding energy tends to that in the bulk when the impurity is far away from the surface. The dependence of the impurity binding energy on the impurity position for different electric field is also discussed.

  12. Optical Conductivity of Impurity-Doped Parabolic Quantum Wells in an Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Kang-Xian; CHEN Chuan-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The optical conductivity of impurity-doped parabolic quantum wells in an applied electric field is investigated with the memory-function approach, and the analytic expression for the optical conductivity is derived. With characteristic parameters pertaining to GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs parabolic quantum wells, the numerical results are presented.It is shown that, the smaller the well width, the larger the peak intensity of the optical conductivity, and the more asymmetric the shape of the optical conductivity; the optical conductivity is more sensitive to the electric field, the electric field enhances the optical conductivity; when the dimension of the quantum well increases, the optical conductivity increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then decreases.

  13. Utilizing the Exergy Concept to Address Environmental Challenges of Electric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. Bulucea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the concepts of energy, entropy, exergy and embodied energy are founded in the fields of thermodynamics and physics. Yet, over decades these concepts have been applied in numerous fields of science and engineering, playing a key role in the analysis of processes, systems and devices in which energy transfers and energy transformations occur. The research reported here aims to demonstrate, in terms of sustainability, the usefulness of the embodied energy and exergy concepts for analyzing electric devices which convert energy, particularly the electromagnet. This study relies on a dualist view, incorporating technical and environmental dimensions. The information provided by energy assessments is shown to be less useful than that provided by exergy and prone to be misleading. The electromagnet force and torque (representing the driving force of output exergy, accepted as both environmental and technical quantities, are expressed as a function of the electric current and the magnetic field, supporting the view of the necessity of discerning interrelations between science and the environment. This research suggests that a useful step in assessing the viability of electric devices in concert with ecological systems might be to view the magnetic flux density B and the electric current intensity I as environmental parameters. In line with this idea the study encompasses an overview of potential human health risks and effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs caused by the operation of electric systems. It is concluded that exergy has a significant role to play in evaluating and increasing the efficiencies of electrical technologies and systems. This article also aims to demonstrate the need for joint efforts by researchers in electric and environmental engineering, and in medicine and health fields, for enhancing knowledge of the impacts of environmental ELF EMFs on humans and other life forms.

  14. Conserving water in and applying solar power to haemodialysis: 'green dialysis' through wiser resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M

    2010-06-01

    Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.

  15. Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Rey, C. M.; Dixon, K. D.

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A 16,000-A HTS lead has been designed and is being constructed. An evaluation program for component performance was conducted to confirm performance predictions and/or to qualify the design features for construction. Performance of the current lead assemblies will be evaluated in a test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of the evaluations to date are presented.

  16. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine

  17. An analysis of electrical impedance measurements applied for plant N status estimation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F; Ortiz-Melendez, Antonio de J; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Contreras-Medina, Luis M; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V

    2014-06-27

    Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range) were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status.

  18. Nonlinear optical rectification in laterally-coupled quantum well wires with applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Hassanbadi, Hassan; Lu, Liangliang

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear optical rectification coefficient χ0(2) in laterally-coupled AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well wires with an applied electric field is theoretically investigated using the effective mass approximation as well as the numerical energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons. We find that χ0(2) is greatly influenced by the electric field as well as both the distance and the radius of the coupled system. A blue shift of χ0(2) with increasing electric field is exhibited while a red shift followed by a blue shift with increasing distance or radius is exhibited. A nonmonotonic behavior can be found in the resonant peak values of χ0(2) along with the increase of the electric field, the distance or the radius. One or two of the following physical mechanisms: the increased localization of the ground and first-excited states, the reduced coupling and the reduced quantum confinement effect are applied to elucidate the results above. Our results play a potential role in infrared photodetectors based on the coupled system.

  19. An Analysis of Electrical Impedance Measurements Applied for Plant N Status Estimation in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Muñoz-Huerta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status.

  20. Electric utility power system management and telecommunications engineering uses. Netzleit- und Telekommunikationstechnik in der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, M. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG, Abt. Informationstechnik, Dortmund (Germany)); Maerz, W. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG, Abt. Planung und Betriebsfuehrung, Dortmund (Germany))

    1992-05-15

    Power system management and telecommunications engineering are indispensable to the operation and management of large-scale power transmission systems. Both these fields are undergoing major changes, profiting by the progress of basic technologies such as microelectronics and optical telecommunications, and by improved methods and novel standards. The rapid development which produces ever more efficient techniques at shorter intervals of innovation is expected to continue for an indefinite time. The profitable and efficient use of new technologies, and their further development are a challenge to the electric utilities. The present state and the prospects of the technological development of power system management and telecommunications engineering are described. (orig.).

  1. Utilization of Electric Vehicles and Their Used Batteries for Peak-Load Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of electric vehicles (EV and their used batteries in supporting small-scale energy management systems were studied. Both theoretical study and practical demonstration were performed to measure the feasibility of the developed system. Each five EVs and used EV batteries were used along with 20 kW photovoltaic (PV panels as a renewable energy source. The main objective of the developed system is performing a peak-load shifting by utilizing EVs, used EV batteries and PV panels. The planning of load leveling was performed 24 h ahead for each 30 min period. The studies showed that the application of EVs and used EV batteries in supporting certain small-scale energy management systems is feasible. In addition, some findings during the demonstration test were listed and analyzed for the purpose of further system development and deployment.

  2. Current Utility Screening Practices, Technical Tools, Impact Studies, and Mitigation Strategies for Interconnecting PV on the Electric Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-19

    This report summarizes common best practices of photovoltaic system interconnection procedures based on interviews held with 19 electric utilities located in the state of California and in the southwestern, central, and northeastern regions of the United States.

  3. Utilizing Applied Projects in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Graduate Training: A Checklist To Help Ensure Successful Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.

    The scientist-practitioner model indicates graduate education must focus on application in addition to theory. Although a number of approaches may be utilized to gain applied experience for students, this paper focuses on applied projects completed as a requirement of a graduate course. Finding host organizations for class projects presents unique…

  4. Promoting creativity in the electric utility industry under a regulated and/or de-regulated environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, H.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Over the years, utilities have been going through cost cutting measures and efficiency improvements in an effort to be more competitive or stay competitive within their market territory. The next logical step for a utility to take is to promote Creativity. With a creative environment in place, utilities can keep pace with the changes in the industry and maintain or attain their competitive advantage. The goal of the creative electric utility work-force is to keep up with changes in the industry and become more competitive as the market becomes more competitive. Utilities can change the way they do business by utilizing an effectively trained and skilled work-force on the subject of creative thinking. Creativity within a work-force depends on the employees desire to understand difficult aspects of his or her life. This paper will provide the foundation for linking Creativity and the electric utility industry.

  5. [Absorption and utilization of different applied nitrogen forms by winter jujube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yong; Peng, Fu-tian; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-yan

    2007-06-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the absorption and utilization of applied urea N, Gly N and Glu N by two years old winter jujube. The results showed that all of the three N forms could be absorbed by the winter jujube, but the absorption rate of Gly N and Glu N was less than that of urea N. Taking the absorption rate of urea N as 100%, the relative absorption rate of Gly N and Glu N by jujube leaves was 28.88% and 11.73%, respectively, and the absorbed N was mainly allocated to the leaves and neonatal branches. Jujube roots could absorb 50.48% of Gly N and 42.72% of Glu N. The transaminase activity and soluble protein content in jujube leaves were increased after the application of these three N forms, but the leaf nitrate reductase activity was enhanced significantly by urea N, decreased by Gly N, and less affected by Glu N. Compared with urea N, amino acid N could significantly increase the number of colored fruits and their colored area, as well as the content of fruit soluble solid matter.

  6. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine

  7. Response-relapse patterns of building occupant electricity consumption following exposure to personal, contextualized and occupant peer network utilization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschiera, Gabriel; Taylor, John E. [Dept of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University, New York (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Dept of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Behavior can account for significant differences in building energy use. Monitoring and reporting of building energy use may induce occupants to conserve energy. The goal of this study was to assess the behavioral impact of providing building occupants with personal electricity utilization data contextualized with different social frames of reference. We installed monitoring equipment on the electrical meters for 83 rooms of a six-floor residential dormitory building and formulated three study groups and a control group from the building occupants. One study group was provided with their own electricity use, a second group was provided their own electricity use contextualized with average building occupant utilization, and a third group was provided with their own electricity use contextualized with both average occupant utilization and the electricity use of their peer network in the building. The only group that significantly reduced their electricity use when compared to the control group was the study group that could view peer network utilization. All three study groups exhibited response-relapse patterns after viewing their electricity consumption raising important questions about the sustainability of energy conservation and monitoring efforts. (author)

  8. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  9. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  10. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  11. Directing migration of endothelial progenitor cells with applied DC electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Qin, Lu; Reid, Brian; Pu, Jin; Hara, Takahiko; Zhao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Naturally-occurring, endogenous electric fields (EFs) have been detected at skin wounds, damaged tissue sites and vasculature. Applied EFs guide migration of many types of cells, including endothelial cells to migrate directionally. Homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to an injury site is important for repair of vasculature and also for angiogenesis. However, it has not been reported whether EPCs respond to applied EFs. Aiming to explore the possibility to use electric stimulation to regulate the progenitor cells and angiogenesis, we tested the effects of direct-current (DC) EFs on EPCs. We first used immunofluorescence to confirm the expression of endothelial progenitor markers in three lines of EPCs. We then cultured the progenitor cells in EFs. Using time-lapse video microscopy, we demonstrated that an applied DC EF directs migration of the EPCs toward the cathode. The progenitor cells also align and elongate in an EF. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor signaling completely abolished the EF-induced directional migration of the progenitor cells. We conclude that EFs are an effective signal that guides EPC migration through VEGF receptor signaling in vitro. Applied EFs may be used to control behaviors of EPCs in tissue engineering, in homing of EPCs to wounds and to an injury site in the vasculature.

  12. Giant electrocaloric effect in PZT bilayer thin films by utilizing the electric field engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiandong; Li, Weili; Cao, Wenping; Hou, Yafei; Yu, Yang; Fei, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The enhancement of the electrocaloric effect (ECE) was achieved by the amplifying effect of applied electric field through devising the thin films' structure. The PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 bilayer structured thin films were fabricated on a Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate using sol-gel method. The ΔS = 20.5 J K-1 kg-1 and ΔT = 24.8 K for bilayer thin films is achieved around 125 °C much below Tc, which is caused by the amplifying electric field induced phase transition of OAFE/RFE in PZr0.95Ti0.05O3 layer. It is also worth mentioning that the films exhibit outstanding ECE at room temperature; ΔS = 11.9 J K-1 kg-1 and ΔT = 10.7 K are observed, which are attributed to the effect of amplifying electric field in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 layer and RFE/TFE at morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) in PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 layer. This result indicates that to amplify the local electric field engineering and to maximize the number of coexisting phases in heterostructures or multilayer thin films may be an effective way for cooling applications.

  13. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  14. Extensional flow of nematic liquid crystal with an applied electric field

    KAUST Repository

    CUMMINGS, L. J.

    2013-10-17

    Systematic asymptotic methods are used to formulate a model for the extensional flow of a thin sheet of nematic liquid crystal. With no external body forces applied, the model is found to be equivalent to the so-called Trouton model for Newtonian sheets (and fibres), albeit with a modified \\'Trouton ratio\\'. However, with a symmetry-breaking electric field gradient applied, behaviour deviates from the Newtonian case, and the sheet can undergo finite-time breakup if a suitable destabilizing field is applied. Some simple exact solutions are presented to illustrate the results in certain idealized limits, as well as sample numerical results to the full model equations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  15. Second-order nonlinear susceptibility in quantum dot structure under applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Noori, Farah T. Mohammed; Al-Khursan, Amin H.

    2015-06-01

    A model for quantum dot (QD) subbands, when the dots are in the form of quantum disks, under applied electric field was stated. Then, subbands of dots with different disk radii and heights were calculated under applied field. The competition between the shift due to confinement by field and the size was shown for subbands. Second-order nonlinear susceptibility in quantum dots (QDs) was derived using density matrix theory which is, then, simulated using the calculated subbands. Both interband (IB) and intersubband (ISB) transitions were discussed. High second-order susceptibility in QDs was predicted. The results show a reduction in the susceptibility with the applied field while the peak wavelength was mainly relates to energy difference between subbands. A good match between theory and laboratory experiments was observed. Laboratory experiments at terahertz region might be possible using valence intersubband which is important in many device applications.

  16. Feasibility of optimizing large utility electricity customers on a distribution feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Mammoli, A.

    2014-01-01

    the peak reduction potential of introducing the additional constraint while keeping appealing economic benefits for the customers. DER-CAM, an optimization tool developed at LBNL was used for simulating the operation of three large typical commercial customers over a week. Results prove the peak shaving...... the electricity price, which in turn reflects the DSO requirements. However, most optimization tools are intended for minimizing the costs of a single user and do not take into account the grid operation. If large customers in the same area optimize their schedules, unwanted ‘artificial’ peaks may occur...... on the feeder that the DSO has to deal with. Peaks height can be lowered by applying an upper bound to the purchased electricity in the mathematical formulation of the optimization problem. However, introducing a further constraint reduces the economic benefit for optimizing customers. This study assesses...

  17. A power-adjustable superconducting terahertz source utilizing electrical triggering phase transitions in vanadium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L. Y.; Zhou, X. J.; Yang, Z. B.; Zhang, H. L.; Sun, H. C.; Cao, H. X.; Dai, P. H.; Li, J.; Hatano, T.; Wang, H. B.; Wen, Q. Y.; Wu, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    We report a practical superconducting terahertz (THz) source, comprising a stack of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) and a vanadium dioxide (VO2) tunable attenuator with coplanar interdigital contacts. The electrical triggering phase transitions are observed not only at room temperature, but also at low temperatures, which provides a proof of the electrical triggering. Applying this, the VO2 attenuator is implemented for the independent regulations on the emission powers from the IJJ THz emitter, remaining frequencies and temperatures unchanged. The attenuation can be tuned smoothly and continuously within a couple of volts among which the maximum is, respectively, -5.6 dB at 20 K or -4.3 dB at 25 K. Such a power-adjustable radiation source, including the VO2 attenuator, can further expand its practicability in cryogenic THz systems, like superconducting THz spectrometers.

  18. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields.

  19. Sulfur utilization by rice and Crotalaria juncea from sulfate - 34S applied to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivelin Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical soils with intensive agriculture an increasing sulfur deficiency has been verified in several crops. The low available S in these soils is caused by the continuous use of concentrated NPK fertilizers. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization by rice (Oriza sativa L. and crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L. of sulfur applied to the soil, under greenhouse conditions. Pots with 3 kg of an Argisol (Paleudalf were used to test the isotopic technique with the stable isotope 34S, adding a solution of sodium sulfate labeled with 34S (14.30 ± 0.05 atom % of 34S to the soil (70 mg SO4-S per kg-1 of soil 18 days after sowing both species. The shoots of the crotalaria and rice were harvested, respectively on the 72nd and 122nd days after S fertilization. The concentration and the amount of sulfur in the crotalaria were higher than in rice, due to the higher legume requirement for this nutrient. The sulfur requirement and the short time interval between fertilization and harvest of the crotalaria resulted in a small amount of native SO4-S mineralized in the soil and a small quantity of 34SO4 immobilized by soil microorganisms. Thus, the percentage of sulfur in the crotalaria derived from the fertilizer (Sdff was higher than in the rice (%Sdff crotalaria = 91.3 ± 3.5%; %Sdff rice = 66.3 ± 0.8%. The expressive values of %Sdff indicate a low rate of mineralization of SO4-S probably as a consequence of the low available sulfur content in the soil.

  20. Hybrid electrical generation system utilizing wind, diesel and hydropower for operation of an underground zinc mine in southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridley, Norman [Minera El Toqui (Chile); Banto, Marcelo [Seawind Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid electrical generation system used for underground zinc mine operations that utilizes wind, diesel and hydropower. This mine is located in Coyhaique and had a total energy consumption of 32,567 MWh in 2010 which is anticipated to increase by 25% in 2011. Power generation in this mine is independent of the power grid. It consists of four main portals: ventilation, electrical and drainage systems and ramp access to all mining zones. The technical details for all the parts of the mine and the hybrid generation system are given. A tabular form shows the energy consumed every month from 2005-2010 for all three systems involved, namely wind power generation, diesel generation and the hydro generation system. Benefits of this hybrid system include stability and constant power generation under variable loads. This system can also be applied to other mines using a grid. From the study it can be concluded that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable.

  1. Rupture of nanoscaled water sheets in the presence of an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopan, Nandu

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the behaviour of water sheets is relevant in numerous areas, such as thin film coating and atomisation. The rupture of planar liquid sheets are interesting due to the fact that they are objects of co-dimension 1. Previous work seems to suggest that a generic route to liquid structure fragmentation is via liquid sheets. The interplay between inertia, surface tension and viscosity is crucial in determining the dynamics of liquid sheets at a macro scale. At the nanoscale, where thermal fluctuations are expected to play a dominant role, the dynamics become more interesting. The stability and rupture dynamics of nanoscaled water sheets, at constant temperature, are studied using constrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The SPC/E potential with long range electrostatics is used to simulate water molecules. The effect of an applied electric field on the stability of the nanoscaled water sheet forms the focus of this study. The effect of the initial configuration is studied by changing the random seed values used for velocity initialisation. The effect of sheet thickness on the rupture dynamics is also explored. It is seen that when large electric fields (5 V/nm) act across very thin sheets (1 layer), then breakup into multiple ellipsoidal structures is a possibility, and the response of the fluid structure to the applied electric field is non-linear. Furthermore, it is seen that Taylor's predictions for the critical electric field intensity, based on classical electro-hydrodynamics for the onset of instability in macroscopic drops, scales surprisingly well for the case of nanoscaled sheets.

  2. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  3. High-temperature tensile deformation behavior of aluminum oxide with and without an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James

    1998-12-01

    Ceramics are usually considered to be brittle, but under certain conditions some ceramics exhibit a large degree of ductility. They are fine-grained and exhibit superplastic behavior when deformed at high temperatures and low stresses. Whereas superplasticity gives enhanced ductility to metals, it may be the only method for imparting large plasticity to ceramics. Electric fields have been shown to increase ductility, reduce flow stress and reduce cavitation in the superplastic forming of 7475 Al and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Thus, the concurrent application of an electric field may give improved superplastic properties and increased plasticity to a marginally ductile ceramic such as aluminum oxide (alpha-alumina). Fine-grained alumina tensile specimens, formed by dry pressing and sintering a spray-dried powder, were tested in tension at high temperature with and without an electric field of 300 V/cm. Constant strain rate, strain rate cycling and stress relaxation tests were performed. The effects of an electric field on the ductility, flow stress, cavitation and parameters of the Weertman-Dorn deformation equation were measured. Without an electric field, the following deformation parameters were found: the stress exponent n = 2.2, the grain size exponent p = 1.9, the activation energy Q = 490 kJ/mol and the threshold stress sigmao ≈ 0 MPa, indicating structural superplasticity where grain boundary sliding is the predominant deformation mode and was likely accommodated by the motion of grain boundary dislocations. An electric field of 300 V/cm gave a Joule heating temperature increase of ˜30°C and caused the alumina to swell 5--25% (increasing with time), even while under no applied stress, thereby reducing its ductility and flow stress. After correcting for Joule heating and swelling there was still a significant flow stress reduction produced by the field and the following deformation parameters were found: n = 2.2, p = 1.9, Q = 950 kJ/mol and sigmao ≈ 0

  4. Improving energy utilization efficiency of electrical discharge milling in titanium alloys machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成波; 韦东波; 狄士春

    2016-01-01

    Electrical discharge milling (ED-milling) can be a good choice for titanium alloys machining and it was proven that its machining efficiency can be improved to compete with mechanical cutting. In order to improve energy utilization efficiency of ED-milling process, unstable arc discharge and stable arc discharge combined with normal discharge were implemented for material removal by adjusting servo control strategy. The influence of electrode rotating speed and dielectric flushing pressure on machining performance was investigated by experiments. It was found that the rotating of electrode could move the position of discharge plasma channel, and high pressure flushing could wash melted debris out the discharge gap effectively. Both electrode rotating motion and high pressure flushing are contributed to the improvement of machining efficiency.

  5. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  6. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  7. Reducing Gridlock on the Grid: Utility Trends in Managing Peak Electric Load through Residential Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betsy

    Utilities across the United States are piloting residential demand response programs to help manage peak electric demand. Using publicly available program evaluations, this thesis analyzes nine such programs to uncover and synthesize the range of program offerings, goals, enrollment strategies, and customer experiences. This review reveals that program participation, components, and results differ based on a variety of factors, including geographic characteristics, program goals, and implementation strategies. The diversity of program designs and evaluation findings suggests an underlying tension between the need to generate cost-effective program impacts and the desire to increase accessibility so that program benefits are not exclusive to certain segments of the population. For more significant and impactful engagement, program goals may need to shift. State level policy support could help shift program goals toward increasing program accessibility. Future research should explore creative strategies that target existing barriers and allow for more inclusive deployment.

  8. Utilization of hydrolysate from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment to generate electricity by enzymatic fuel cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Kim, Dong Sup; Yang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Junyoung; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    The waste hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) of lignocellulosic biomass was utilized to generate electricity using an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) system. During DAP, the components of biomass containing hemicellulose and other compounds are hydrolyzed, and glucose is solubilized into the dilute acid solution, called as the hydrolysate liquid. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and laccase (Lac) were assembled on the electrode of the anode and cathode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured, and the maximum power density was found to be 1.254×10(3) μW/cm(2). The results indicate that the hydrolysate from DAP is a reliable electrolyte containing the fuel of EFC. Moreover, the impurities in the hydrolysate such as phenols and furans slightly affected the charge transfer on the surface of the electrode, but did not affect the power generation of the EFC system in principal.

  9. Studies on the second-harmonic generations in cubical quantum dots with applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Shuai [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo Kangxian, E-mail: axguo@sohu.co [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang Zhihai; Li Ning; Peng Chao [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The second-harmonic generation (SHG) coefficient for cubical quantum dots (CQDs) with the applied electric field is theoretically investigated. Using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method, we get the analytical expression of the SHG coefficient. And the numerical calculations for the typical GaAs/AlAs CQDs are presented. The results show that the SHG coefficient can reach the magnitude of 10{sup -5} m/V, about two orders higher than that in spherical quantum dot system. More importantly, the SHG coefficient is not a monotonic function of the length L of CQDs as well as the applied field F. If we select suitable values of F and L, we will get a higher value of the SHG coefficient. In addition, the relaxation rate also affects the SHG coefficient obviously.

  10. Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  11. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  12. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  13. A simple methodology to assess the energy and electricity utilization of a country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Giraldi–Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple methodology was developed to assess the efficiency of resource utilization in the energy sector. This was made possible by grouping several variables related to the same general concept into one parameter. Similar at tempts have been made in the case of the Human Development Index created by the United Nations, and in a more elaborate concept related to the Sustainable Development Index developed by the University of Yale and the University of Columbia. A comparison is done, and possible correlations are analyzed between these indexes and that developed in this work. Results show that when one variable has a very favorable value in the energy context of the country, the index is greatly influenced. This can be observed by the fact that the proposed index improves in the case of countries with a surplus of energy resources. Despite the general approach of the developed method, the obtained index can be a first hand tool to evaluate the energy and electricity utilization of a country. This index can be properly integrated with similar indexes to achieve a more precise diagnosis of the situation of the country in question.

  14. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita M. Rochlani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26% received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes.

  15. Summary of the research and development effort on steam plants for electric-utility service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1981-06-01

    The development of steam power plants for electric utility service over the past century is reviewed with particular emphasis on the prime problems and their solution. Increases in steam pressure and temperature made possible by developments in metallurgy led to an increase in thermal efficiency by a factor of 8 between 1880 and 1955. Further improvements have not been made because the use of still more expensive alloys is not economically justified, even with the much higher fuel prices of the latter 1970's. In fact, EPA regulations on waste heat and sulfur emissions have led to the use of cooling towers and wet limestone stack gas scrubbers that cause a degradation in plant thermal efficiency. The various possibilities for further improvements in efficiency and their problems are examined. The development of steam power plants in the past has been carried out in sufficiently small steps that the utilities and the equipment manufacturers have been able to assume the financial risk involved; but the fluidized-bed combustion system, which appears to be the most promising area, presents such a large step with major uncertainties that U.S. government financial support of the research and development effort appears to be required. The potential benefits appear to justify the research and development cost many times over.

  16. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  17. Numerical study of the influence of an applied electrical potential on the solidification of a binary metal alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Nikrityuk, P. A.; Eckert, K.; Grundmann, R

    2007-01-01

    In this work we study numerically the influence of a homogeneous electrical field on the fluid and heat transfer phenomena at macroscale and mesoscale during unidirectional solidification of a binary metal alloy. The numerical results showed that a pulse electric discharging applied perpendicularly to the solidification front leads to a much stronger Joule heating of the liquid phase in comparison to the solid phase. It was found that on the mesoscopic scale the electric current density is no...

  18. Residential Rooftop Solar and the Utilities Death Spiral. A system dynamics analysis of the effects of rooftop solar diffusion on the electricity rates and CO2 emissions of the U.S. electricity supply sector

    OpenAIRE

    Meehan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    U.S. electric utilities are concerned by the recent exponential growth in rooftop solar installations among their customers. They fear that if their customers continue to adopt such self generation technologies and buy less electricity from the utility, then the utility will no longer make enough sales to achieve cost recovery' from these customers. Utilities argue that, in order to compensate for this, they will have to increase their electricity rates, and that these rate rises will in turn...

  19. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHMUCK, RICHARD

    THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION--(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN…

  20. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  1. Embryonic zebrafish neuronal growth is not affected by an applied electric field in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Peter; Robinson, Kenneth R

    2007-01-10

    Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) have been implicated in cell guidance during embryonic development and adult wound healing. Embryonic Xenopus laevis neurons sprout preferentially towards the cathode, turn towards the cathode, and migrate faster towards the cathode in the presence of an external EF in vitro. A recent Phase 1 clinical trial has investigated the effects of oscillating EFs on human spinal cord regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether embryonic zebrafish neurons respond to an applied EF, and thus extend this research into another vertebrate system. Neural tubes of zebrafish embryos (16-17 somites) were dissected and dissociated neuroblasts were plated onto laminin-coated glass. A 100 mV/mm EF was applied to cell cultures for 4 or 20 h and the responses of neurons to the applied EFs were investigated. After 4h in an EF neurites were significantly shorter than control neurites. No other statistically significant effects were observed. After 20 h, control and EF-exposed neurites were no different in length. No length difference was seen between cathodally- and anodally-sprouted neurites. Application of an EF did not affect the average number of neurons in a chamber. Growth cones did not migrate preferentially towards either pole of the EF and no asymmetry was seen in neurite sprout sites. We conclude that zebrafish neurons do not respond to a 100 mV/mm applied EF in vitro. This suggests that neurons of other vertebrate species may not respond to applied EFs in the same ways as Xenopus laevis neurons.

  2. Rolling Stability Control Utilizing Rollover Index for In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Hori, Yoichi

    In this paper, a novel integrated stability program (ISP) based on robust rolling stability control (RSC) for in-wheel electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate, (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely, (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel, and (4) a motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable a high-performance three-dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. Rolling stability is important for all classes of light-vehicles, especially, for EVs that have narrow tread and high center of gravity. In this study, RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. However, as the drivability of the vehicle will be changed significantly if only RSC is applied, vehicle rolling motion should be controlled depending on the rolling state. Therefore, variable weight-ISP and variable reference-ISP are proposed using rolling state information. For detecting rolling state, rollover index (RI) is introduced. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by the simulation and the experimental results.

  3. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  4. Electronic structures of stacked layers quantum dots: influence of the non-perfect alignment and the applied electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Bo-Yong; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Liu Yu-Min; Han Li-Hong; Yao Wen-Jie; Feng Hao; Ye Han

    2011-01-01

    Electronic structures of the artificial molecule comprising two truncated pyramidal quantum dots vertically coupled and embedded in the matrix are theoretically analysed via the finite element method. When the quantum dots are completely aligned, the electron energy levels decrease with the horizontally applied electric field. However, energy levels may have the maxima at non-zero electric field if the dots are staggered by a distance of several nanometers in the same direction of the electric field. In addition to shifting the energy levels, the electric field can also manipulate the electron wavefunctions confined in the quantum dots, in company with the non-perfect alignment.

  5. Applying nitrogen site-specifically using soil electrical conductivity maps and precision agriculture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E D; Wolcott, M C; Hanson, G P

    2001-10-16

    Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N) loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower"s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS)-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC) has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  6. Applying Nitrogen Site-Specifically Using Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps and Precision Agriculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lund

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower’s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  7. Ionization at a solid-water interface in an applied electric field: Charge regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2016-09-01

    We investigate ionization at a solid-water interface in an applied electric field. We attach an electrode to a dielectric film bearing silanol or carboxyl groups with an areal density Γ0, where the degree of dissociation α is determined by the proton density in water close to the film. We show how α depends on the density n0 of NaOH in water and the surface charge density σm on the electrode. For σm > 0, the protons are expelled away from the film, leading to an increase in α. In particular, in the range 0 < σm < eΓ0, self-regulation occurs to realize α ≅ σm/eΓ0 for n0 ≪ nc, where nc is 0.01 mol/L for silica surfaces and is 2 × 10-5 mol/L for carboxyl-bearing surfaces. We also examine the charge regulation with decreasing the cell thickness H below the Debye length κ-1, where a crossover occurs at the Gouy-Chapman length. In particular, when σm ˜ eΓ0 and H ≪ κ-1, the surface charges remain only partially screened by ions, leading to a nonvanishing electric field in the interior.

  8. Effects of Electric Stimulations Applied During Absolute Refractory Period on Ventricular Muscle from Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海柱; 崔长琮; 赵晓静; 周忠

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To investigatethe influences of electric signals applied during absoluterefractory period(ARP)on the contractility of isolatedpapilary muscle from rabbits.Methods Papillarymuscle was exercised from the right yentricle and waspaced at 1 Hz.Biphasic square wave current pulse wasdelivered during the absolute refractory period(calledCCM)in isolated,superfused,isometrically contractil-ity rabbit papillary muscle.The peak tension(PT)ofpapillary muscle,as well as maximum positive tensionchange(+dT/dtmax),were observed.ResultsCompared with the baseline,both PT and+dT/dtmaxsignificantly increased during CCM stimulation by18.2%and 21.4%respectively(P<0.05).In ad-dition,PT increased significantly with one or two beatsfollowing CCM signal application and reached a newsteady state level after a few beats.Once the CCM signals were turned off,the PT returned to the approximatelv baseline level(P<0.05).Moreover,the effectof CCM on PT was dose-response to voltage.Theobvious effect was at higher voltage.No effect was ob-served at lower voltage.Conclusions Electric signalsdelivered during the absolute refractory period canrapidly enhance the contractility of myocardium,whichsuggests that CCM signal is a novel potent method forcontractility modulation.

  9. Applying petrophysical models to radar travel time and electrical resistivity tomograms: Resolution-dependent limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.; Binley, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical imaging has traditionally provided qualitative information about geologic structure; however, there is increasing interest in using petrophysical models to convert tomograms to quantitative estimates of hydrogeologic, mechanical, or geochemical parameters of interest (e.g., permeability, porosity, water content, and salinity). Unfortunately, petrophysical estimation based on tomograms is complicated by limited and variable image resolution, which depends on (1) measurement physics (e.g., electrical conduction or electromagnetic wave propagation), (2) parameterization and regularization, (3) measurement error, and (4) spatial variability. We present a framework to predict how core-scale relations between geophysical properties and hydrologic parameters are altered by the inversion, which produces smoothly varying pixel-scale estimates. We refer to this loss of information as "correlation loss." Our approach upscales the core-scale relation to the pixel scale using the model resolution matrix from the inversion, random field averaging, and spatial statistics of the geophysical property. Synthetic examples evaluate the utility of radar travel time tomography (RTT) and electrical-resistivity tomography (ERT) for estimating water content. This work provides (1) a framework to assess tomograms for geologic parameter estimation and (2) insights into the different patterns of correlation loss for ERT and RTT. Whereas ERT generally performs better near boreholes, RTT performs better in the interwell region. Application of petrophysical models to the tomograms in our examples would yield misleading estimates of water content. Although the examples presented illustrate the problem of correlation loss in the context of near-surface geophysical imaging, our results have clear implications for quantitative analysis of tomograms for diverse geoscience applications. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. [Effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer additive on rice yield and rice plant nitrogen uptake, translocation, and utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Yong-qiu; Yang, Xiao-yun; Guo, Miao; Yan, Xiao-yuan

    2011-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of southern Jiangsu to study the effects of applying nitrogen (N) fertilizer and fertilizer additive on the rice yield and the rice plant N uptake, translocation, and utilization. Applying N fertilizer had significant positive effects on the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N at all growth stages and at each growth stage, and N translocation rate after anthesis (P 0.05). The N translocation rate after anthesis and the N fertilizer use efficiency decreased with increasing N application rate. Applying fertilizer additive further improved the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N, N translocation rate after anthesis, and N fertilizer use efficiency, and this effect was more evident when the N application rate was equal to or greater than 200 kg x hm(-2). Relatively high rice yield and N use efficiency were achieved when applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N fertilizer without the application of fertilizer additive.

  11. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenhofer, J [Siemens AG, Automation and Drives, Large Drives (Germany); Grundmann, J; Klaus, G; Nick, W [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, PO Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: wolfgang.nick@siemens.com

    2008-02-15

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ('conventional') components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  12. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  13. Electrical utility generating system reliability analysis code, SYSREL. Social cost studies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hub, K.; Conley, L.; Buehring, W.; Rowland, B.; Stephenson, M.

    1975-09-01

    The system reliability code, SYSREL, is a system planning tool that can be used to assess the reliability and economic performance of alternative expansion patterns of electric utility generation systems. Given input information such as capacity, forced-outage rate, number of weeks of annual scheduled maintenance, and economic data for individual units along with the expected load characteristics, the code produces estimates of the mean time between system failures, required reserve capacity to meet a specified system-failure-frequency criterion, expected energy generation from each unit, and system energy cost. The categories of calculations performed by the code are maintenance scheduling, reliability, capacity requirement, energy production allocation, and energy cost. The code is designed to examine alternative generating units and system expansion patterns based on the constraints and general economic conditions imposed by the investigator. The computer running time to execute a study is short and many system alternatives can be examined at a relatively low cost. The report contains a technical description of the code, list of input data requirements, program listing, sample execution, and parameter studies. (auth)

  14. Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impossible? The case of the electricity utility industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Paredes-Gazquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept that is often measured using diverse indicators. Composite indices can aggregate these single indicators into one measurement. This article aims to identify the key challenges in constructing a composite index for measuring corporate social responsibility. The process is illustrated by the construction of a composite index for measuring social outcomes in the electricity utility industry. The sample consisted of seventy-four companies from twenty-three different countries, and one special administrative region operating in the industry in 2011. The findings show that (1 the unavailability of information about corporate social responsibility, (2 the particular characteristics of this information and (3 the weighting of indicators are the main obstacles when constructing the composite index. We highlight than an effective composite index should has a clear objective, a solid theoretical background and a robust structure. In a practical sense, it should be reconsidered how researchers use composite indexes to measure corporate social responsibility, as more transparency and stringency is needed when constructing these tools.

  15. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameter...

  16. A Novel Adaptive Elite-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to VAR Optimization in Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization (PSO has been successfully applied to solve many practical engineering problems. However, more efficient strategies are needed to coordinate global and local searches in the solution space when the studied problem is extremely nonlinear and highly dimensional. This work proposes a novel adaptive elite-based PSO approach. The adaptive elite strategies involve the following two tasks: (1 appending the mean search to the original approach and (2 pruning/cloning particles. The mean search, leading to stable convergence, helps the iterative process coordinate between the global and local searches. The mean of the particles and standard deviation of the distances between pairs of particles are utilized to prune distant particles. The best particle is cloned and it replaces the pruned distant particles in the elite strategy. To evaluate the performance and generality of the proposed method, four benchmark functions were tested by traditional PSO, chaotic PSO, differential evolution, and genetic algorithm. Finally, a realistic loss minimization problem in an electric power system is studied to show the robustness of the proposed method.

  17. {sup 7}Be radioactive beam production at CIRCE and its utilization in basic and applied physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limata, Benedicta Normanna [Sezione di Napoli, INFN, Ed. G, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy)], E-mail: limata@na.infn.it; Gialanella, Lucio; Leva, Antonino Di [Sezione di Napoli, INFN, Ed. G, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Cesare, Nicola De [Sezione di Napoli, INFN, Ed. G, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); D' Onofrio, Antonio [Sezione di Napoli, INFN, Ed. G, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Gyurky, G. [ATOMKI, POB 51, Debrecen H-4001 (Hungary); Rolfs, Claus [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, RuhrUniversitaet, Universitatetstrasse 150, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Romano, Mario [Sezione di Napoli, INFN, Ed. G, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Ed. G Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Rogalla, Detlef [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, RuhrUniversitaet, Universitatetstrasse 150, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Rossi, Cesare; Russo, Michele [DIME, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Somorjai, Endre [ATOMKI, POB 51, Debrecen H-4001 (Hungary); Terrasi, Filippo [Sezione di Napoli, INFN, Ed. G, Via Cintia, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    A pure {sup 7}Be beam with an energy E = 1-8 MeV is available for nuclear and applied physics at the 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator CIRCE in Caserta. The beam is produced using an offline technique. Typical analyzed beam intensities are about 2 ppA, using cathodes with an activity of the order of 200 MBq. The {sup 7}Be implantation has been used for both fundamental nuclear physics and applied physics. In particular, different metals have been implanted with {sup 7}Be in order to study the influence of the chemical composition and of the number of quasi-free electrons of the host material on the {sup 7}Be half-life. In the field of applied physics, the {sup 7}Be implantation turns out to be very interesting for wear measurement. In fact, in this case {sup 7}Be is used as a depth-sensitive tracer. The continuous detection of the sample activity during the wear allows a high sensitivity measurement of wearing speed. The {sup 7}Be beam production at CIRCE, the implantation procedure and the results obtained from the {sup 7}Be half-life measurements and the wear characterization of implanted steel samples are described.

  18. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Intelligent techniques applied in identifying fraudsters industrial consumers of electricity; Tecnicas inteligentes aplicadas na identificacao de consumidores industriais fraudadores de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Caio C.O.; Souza, Andre N. de; Pereira, Lucas I.; Gastaldello, Danilo S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: caioramos@gmail.com, andrejau@feb.unesp.br, ra510611@feb.unesp.br, danilosg@feb.unesp.br; Zago, Maria G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil) Escola Politecnica], Email: mgzago@usp.br; Papa, Joao P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. da Computacao], Email: papa.joaopaulo@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The development of a computational intelligent tools based on neural network to identify commercial losses or fraud (theft energy), considering information from a database electric utility, is presented.

  20. Study on applying technology of utilizing long-term materials for corrosion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Chul; Park, Young Kyu; Baek, Soo Gon; Lee, Jong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Suk [Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rhyo Seong [Hankuk Aviation, University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays, as the pollution in seawater is escalating rapidly because of fast industrialization, corrosion rate and repairing frequency of seawater facilities in power plant are increasing. In addition, new construction is restricted with narrow limits due to the deterioration of social condition, asking for extension of facility life and repairing frequency. The objectives of this study are to select the appropriate new high corrosion resistance materials and apply them in the field, to make the corrosion data base in accordance with their usage conditions and to predict the remaining life and optimum repairing period by predicting the life of facilities. (author). 77 refs., 54 figs.

  1. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) Applied to Karst Carbonate Aquifers: Case Study from Amdoun, Northwestern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhaounia, Belgacem; Ilondo, Batobo Ountsche; Gabtni, Hakim; Sami, Khomsi; Bédir, Mourad

    2016-04-01

    The Amdoun region is characterized by a high degree of karstification due to the climate impact (±1500 mm year-1) and the development of fracture network. Survey using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is deployed to provide a cost-effective characterization of the subsurface karst environments. A total of seven ERT profiles with lengths of 315 m were evaluated at the Béja governorate (NW Tunisia). The area represents a small syncline of Boudabbous limestone rocks (Lower Eocene), which is covered by a thin layer of clay. In this study, an ERT survey was conducted to examine the spatial distribution and shape of underground cavities in the karst area in Jebel Sabah anticline and Aïn Sallem-Zahret Medien syncline. In this study, geological, hydro-geological and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods were applied to determine the geometry of the perched aquifer in the Amdoun region (NW Tunisia). The area is characterized by fractured and karstic limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous (Abiod Fm.) and Lower Eocene (Boudabbous Fm.). The aquifers have a karstic functioning and drain aquifers of economical interest, despite some wells exploiting them. Seven resistivity profiles were conducted along the survey area at three sites. The orientation, extension and the degree of inclination of those profiles are shown in the location map. The correct resistivity data were interpreted using Earth Imager 2D software. The results of the interpreted geo-electrical sections showed that the resistivity of the carbonate aquifer varied between 2.5 to over 5794 Ωm. The thickness of the perched aquifer ranged from 15 to 50 m, while its depth from the surface lies between 10 and 60 m. The ERT not only provided precise near surface information, but was also very useful for establishing the 3D geometry and the position of several potential cavities and karts. The results show the presence of small to large isolated cavities at various depths. The low resistivity of cavities

  2. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  3. La regulación de los servicios de electricidad en Argentina y Brasil (1890-1962 Electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil (1890-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución de la regulación del sector eléctrico en Argentina y Brasil entre 1890 y 1960. Desde la instalación de las primeras usinas eléctricas a fines del siglo diecinueve hasta los años treinta, el control de las empresas concesionarias estuvo a cargo de las autoridades municipales en ambos países. No obstante, la similar estructura de los sistemas eléctricos en Argentina y en Brasil, la participación del estado en la regulación de este sector estratégico para el desarrollo económico, se produjo en diferentes coyunturas. Como resultado de la crisis de 1930, el gobierno brasileño transformó los principios jurídicos que reglamentaban la gestión de la electricidad aplicando un criterio de regulación discrecional; mientras que el estado argentino intervino una década más tarde, nacionalizando las empresas. Mediante la comparación de las trayectorias regulatorias en ambos países, se identifican las divergencias en las políticas eléctricas y su impacto en los sistemas eléctricos en los años de la segunda posguerra.This article compares the evolution of electric utility regulation in Argentina and Brazil between 1890 and 1960. From the installation of electrical systems in the 19th century until the 1930s, electrical utility companies were controlled by the local authorities in both countries. The structure of electrical systems was similar in Argentina and Brazil, however the state regulation of electric utilities took place at different times. As a result of the 1930's crisis, the Brazilian government introduced a new legal approach by applying a discretionary regulation. On the other hand, the Argentinean government intervened one decade later, nationalizing the companies. By comparing both regulatory trajectories, the divergences as well as the effects of each policy on the electrical utility systems in the second postward period, are identified.

  4. Feasibility assessment of path-planning for pipeline system construction of electric utilities network enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C.; Huang, S.J. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposed an algorithm to improve the power transmission network in Taiwan which has experienced increased competition since the addition of competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC) into the telecommunication market. Recently, the CLECs requested to rent pipelines from the original incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and from the Taiwan Power Company. The Taiwan Power Company not only builds transmission lines, but also telecommunication networks using different kinds of fiber optic cables, including Optical Power Ground Wire (OPGW), All-Dielectric Self-Supporting (ADSS), and Wrapped types (WOC). This paper also discussed the integration of pipeline rent-out work with AM/FM/geographic information system software. The Java-based software determines a shortest path-planning method for the piping layout to help improve the pipeline system and the construction of an electricity network. The method is expected to increase the use of existing pipelines by improving the efficiency of network planning and maintenance. The method also reduces the potential for design faults and is easy to apply in the field due to the clear criteria. This paper described the proposed system architecture in detail and presented test results. It was shown that the use of a shortest path for the piping layout can reduce the distance between manholes in the huge network. According to test results, the proposed method is considered to be feasible. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  6. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  7. 78 FR 67357 - Vineland Municipal Electric Utility v. Atlantic City Electric Company PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 1, 2013, pursuant to sections 205, 206... City Electric Company and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (Respondents). Vineland seeks an order granting full and immediate refunds of all amounts paid in violation of the Interconnection Agreement and...

  8. Models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.Y. [Nottingham Trent University Burton Street, Dept. of Mechinal and Manufacturing Engineering (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the theoretical models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field. The models are on the basis of nucleation and surface fluctuation theories to study the generality of phase change processes under the action of an electric field. Theoretical analysis is carried out and highlights the effect of an electric field on phase change processes from an existing phase to a new phase. The analysis has shown that a critical value of the filed strength could be found theoretically for a certain phase change process. This could be a mechanism of control the processes. (authors)

  9. Electrical resistivity tomography applied to a complex lava dome: 2D and 3D models comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The study of volcanic domes growth (e.g. St. Helens, Unzen, Montserrat) shows that it is often characterized by a succession of extrusion phases, dome explosions and collapse events. Lava dome eruptive activity may last from days to decades. Therefore, their internal structure, at the end of the eruption, is complex and includes massive extrusions and lava lobes, talus and pyroclastic deposits as well as hydrothermal alteration. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for volcano structure imaging. Because a large range of resistivity values is often observed in volcanic environments, the method is well suited to study the internal structure of volcanic edifices. We performed an ERT survey on an 11ka years old trachytic lava dome, the Puy de Dôme volcano (French Massif Central). The analysis of a recent high resolution DEM (LiDAR 0.5 m), as well as other geophysical data, strongly suggest that the Puy de Dôme is a composite dome. 11 ERT profiles have been carried out, both at the scale of the entire dome (base diameter of ~2 km and height of 400 m) on the one hand, and at a smaller scale on the summit part on the other hand. Each profile is composed of 64 electrodes. Three different electrode spacing have been used depending on the study area (35 m for the entire dome, 10 m and 5 m for its summit part). Some profiles were performed with half-length roll-along acquisitions, in order to keep a good trade-off between depth of investigation and resolution. Both Wenner-alpha and Wenner-Schlumberger protocols were used. 2-D models of the electrical resistivity distribution were computed using RES2DINV software. In order to constrain inversion models interpretation, the depth of investigation (DOI) method was applied to those results. It aims to compute a sensitivity index on inversion results, illustrating how the data influence the model and constraining models

  10. Performance and Stability Enhancement of Perovskite-Type Nanomaterials Applied for Carbon Capture Utilizing Oxyfuel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwan Shen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Ba-Co-Operovskite-type oxygen carriers has been successfully synthesized by the microwave-assisted sol-gel method and further applied for producing an O2/CO2 mixture gas. The oxygen adsorption/desorption performance of synthesized samples was studied in a fixed-bed reactor system. Effects of A/B-site substitution on the oxygen desorption performance of Ba-Co-O–based perovskites are also included. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions including the adsorption time and temperature as well as the desorption temperature on oxygen production performance were investigated in detail. The results indicated that BaCoO3-δ exhibited an excellent oxygen desorption performance among the synthesized A/B-site–substituted ACoO3-δ and BaBO3-δ samples, and that the optimal adsorption time, adsorption temperature and desorption temperatureforBaCoO3-δ were determined to be 20min, 850◦Cand850◦C, respectively, in this study.

  11. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  13. A Framework for Organizing Current and Future Electric Utility Regulatory and Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we will present a descriptive and organizational framework for incremental and fundamental changes to regulatory and utility business models in the context of clean energy public policy goals. We will also discuss the regulated utility's role in providing value-added services that relate to distributed energy resources, identify the "openness" of customer information and utility networks necessary to facilitate change, and discuss the relative risks, and the shifting of risks, for utilities and customers.

  14. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  15. Health-Economics Analyses Applied to ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Swanson, John; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-06-01

    Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF EMFs) are a common exposure for modern populations. The prevailing public-health protection paradigm is that quantitative exposure limits are based on the established acute effects, whereas the possible chronic effects are considered too uncertain for quantitative limits, but might justify precautionary measures. The choice of precautionary measures can be informed by a health-economics analysis (HEA). We consider four such analyses of precautionary measures that have been conducted at a national or state level in California, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Israel. We describe the context of each analysis, examine how they deal with some of the more significant issues that arise, and present a comparison of the input parameters and assumptions used. The four HEAs are methodologically similar. The most significant qualitative choices that have to be made are what dose-response relationship to assume, what allowance if any to make for uncertainty, and, for a CBA only, what diseases to consider, and all four analyses made similar choices. These analyses suggest that, on the assumptions made, there are some low-cost measures, such as rephasing, that can be applied to transmission in some circumstances and that can be justifiable in cost-benefit terms, but that higher cost measures, such as undergrounding, become unjustifiable. Of the four HEAs, those in the United Kingdom and Israel were influential in determining the country's EMF policy. In California and Netherlands, the HEA may well have informed the debate, but the policy chosen did not stem directly from the HEA.

  16. Risk and countermeasures of temporary electricity utilization management%临时用电管理风险与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉卿

    2013-01-01

      The article analyzed risk in temporary electricity utilization management combined with the practical situation of temporary electricity utilization, puts forward ideas and counter⁃measures in aspects of perfecting rules and regulations, standardiz⁃ing business processes, and strict safety standards, strengthening security checks, strict enforcement of relevant laws and regula⁃tions, strengthening audit supervision and standardizing manage⁃ment of the temporary electricity utilization.%  结合临时用电实际情况,分析了临时用电管理中存在的风险,提出从完善规章制度、规范业务流程、严格安全标准、加大安全检查力度、严格执行相关法律法规、强化稽查监督等方面规范临时用电管理的思路和对策。

  17. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  18. Electric utilities fare well in '83; weather plays big role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minner, D.

    1984-04-01

    A hot summer and cold winter, along with continued economic recovery, are credited with the 8.4% increase in operating revenues and 13.9% increase in earnings per share among 40 investor-owned utilities. While some utilities cite effective cost controls and higher industrial sales for their success, earnings dropped for those with nuclear plants under construction. Non-utility corporations showed a 64% increase in after-tax earnings in 1983. 2 tables.

  19. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  20. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  1. Evaluation of the electric utility missions; Evaluation des missions de service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, J

    2000-07-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  2. [Research progress of nanosecond pulsed electric field applied to intracellular electromanipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenguo; Mo, Dengbin; Sun, Caixin; Chen, Xin; Xiong, Zheng'ai

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, many experts have done some researches on experiment and mechanism of intracellular electromanipulation (IEM) under nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). The experiment results have shown that nsPEF could not induce electroporation of cell membrane, but could induce intracellular effects such as apoptosis, calcium release, enhancement of gene expression, and fragmentation of DNA and chromosome. In order to account for the phenomenon, researchers believe that when the pulse width of the pulsed electric field is larger than the charging time of plasma membrane, the pulsed electric field mainly targets on the outer membrane of cell; and that the effect of the pulsed electric field on nucleus and nuclear membrane increases with the decrease of the pulse width. It is also believed that the effect of electroporation changes from the outer membrane to intracellular electromanipulation when the pulse width decreases to a value being smaller than the charging time of plasma membrane.

  3. Contribution of 3D inversion of Electrical Resistivity Tomography data applied to volcanic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for geological structures imaging. Such structures can present complex characteristics that conventional 2D inversion processes cannot perfectly integrate. Here we present a new 3D inversion algorithm named EResI, firstly developed for levee investigation, and presently applied to the study of a complex lava dome (the Puy de Dôme volcano, France). EResI algorithm is based on a conventional regularized Gauss-Newton inversion scheme and a 3D non-structured discretization of the model (double grid method based on tetrahedrons). This discretization allows to accurately model the topography of investigated structure (without a mesh deformation procedure) and also permits a precise location of the electrodes. Moreover, we demonstrate that a complete 3D unstructured discretization limits the number of inversion cells and is better adapted to the resolution capacity of tomography than a structured discretization. This study shows that a 3D inversion with a non-structured parametrization has some advantages compared to classical 2D inversions. The first advantage comes from the fact that a 2D inversion leads to artefacts due to 3D effects (3D topography, 3D internal resistivity). The second advantage comes from the fact that the capacity to experimentally align electrodes along an axis (for 2D surveys) depends on the constrains on the field (topography...). In this case, a 2D assumption induced by 2.5D inversion software prevents its capacity to model electrodes outside this axis leading to artefacts in the inversion result. The last limitation comes from the use of mesh deformation techniques used to accurately model the topography in 2D softwares. This technique used for structured discretization (Res2dinv) is prohibed for strong topography (>60 %) and leads to a small computational errors. A wide geophysical survey was carried out

  4. Relationship between pore size and reversible and irreversible immobilization of ionic liquid electrolytes in porous carbon under applied electric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Thompson, Matthew W.; Zhang, Pengfei; Turner, C. Heath; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Transport of electrolytes in nanoporous carbon-based electrodes largely defines the function and performance of energy storage devices. Using molecular dynamics simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering, we investigate the microscopic dynamics of a prototypical ionic liquid electrolyte, [emim][Tf2N], under applied electric potential in carbon materials with 6.7 nm and 1.5 nm pores. The simulations demonstrate the formation of dense layers of counter-ions near the charged surfaces, which is reversible when the polarity is reversed. In the experiment, the ions immobilized near the surface manifest themselves in the elastic scattering signal. The experimentally observed ion immobilization near the wall is fully reversible as a function of the applied electric potential in the 6.7 nm, but not in the 1.5 nm nanopores. In the latter case, remarkably, the first application of the electric potential leads to apparently irreversible immobilization of cations or anions, depending on the polarity, near the carbon pore walls. This unexpectedly demonstrates that in carbon electrode materials with the small pores, which are optimal for energy storage applications, the polarity of the electrical potential applied for the first time after the introduction of an ionic liquid electrolyte may define the decoration of the small pore walls with ions for prolonged periods of time and possibly for the lifetime of the electrode.

  5. A new theoretical formulation of coupling thermo-electric breakdown in LDPE film under dc high applied fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughariou, F.; Chouikhi, S.; Kallel, A.; Belgaroui, E.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new theoretical and numerical formulation for the electrical and thermal breakdown phenomena, induced by charge packet dynamics, in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) insulating film under dc high applied field. The theoretical physical formulation is composed by the equations of bipolar charge transport as well as by the thermo-electric coupled equation associated for the first time in modeling to the bipolar transport problem. This coupled equation is resolved by the finite-element numerical model. For the first time, all bipolar transport results are obtained under non-uniform temperature distributions in the sample bulk. The principal original results show the occurring of very sudden abrupt increase in local temperature associated to a very sharp increase in external and conduction current densities appearing during the steady state. The coupling between these electrical and thermal instabilities reflects physically the local coupling between electrical conduction and thermal joule effect. The results of non-uniform temperature distributions induced by non-uniform electrical conduction current are also presented for several times. According to our formulation, the strong injection current is the principal factor of the electrical and thermal breakdown of polymer insulating material. This result is shown in this work. Our formulation is also validated experimentally.

  6. The effects of intense laser field and applied electric and magnetic fields on optical properties of an asymmetric quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: pfrire@eia.edu.co [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Envigado (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonóma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties (the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficients) in an asymmetric quantum well. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the asymmetric quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the asymmetric quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The asymmetric quantum well is constructed by using different aluminium concentrations in both right and left barriers. The confinement in the quantum well is changed drastically by either the effect of electric and magnetic fields or by the application of intense laser field. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix approach. The results show that the effect of the intense laser field competes with the effects of the electric and magnetic fields. Consequently, peak position shifts to lower photon energies due to the effect of the intense laser field and it shifts to higher photon energies by the effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, it is found that the concentration of aluminum, electric and magnetic fields and intense laser field are external agents that modify the optical responses in the asymmetric quantum well.

  7. Dynamic response of a thin sessile drop of conductive liquid to an abruptly applied or removed electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, L. T.; Mottram, N. J.; Duffy, B. R.; Wilson, S. K.; Tsakonas, C.; Brown, C. V.

    2016-10-01

    We consider, both theoretically and experimentally, a thin sessile drop of conductive liquid that rests on the lower plate of a parallel-plate capacitor. We derive analytical expressions for both the initial deformation and the relaxation dynamics of the drop as the electric field is either abruptly applied or abruptly removed, as functions of the geometrical, electrical, and material parameters, and investigate the ranges of validity of these expressions by comparison with full numerical simulations. These expressions provide a reasonable description of the experimentally measured dynamic response of a drop of conductive ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate.

  8. Effects of Electric Stimulations Applied during Absolute Refractory Period on Cardiac Function of Rabbits with Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海柱; 崔长琮; 胡大一

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electric currents applied during absolute refractory period(ARP) on the cardiac function of rabbits with heart failure due to myocardial infarction(MI),and the safety of this method were investigated.Thirty rabbits were randomly assigned equally to 3 groups:sham-operated group,LV-anterior wall cardiac contractility modulation(LV-CCM) group,and septum-CCM(S-CCM) group.A thoracotomy was performed on all the rabbits.Electric pulses were delivered during the ARP on the anterior wall of left ventr...

  9. New Free Electron Wire for Loss Free Utilization of Electrical Energy and Highly Energy Efficient Electrical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Haldar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New Free Electrons Wire will enable the use of electrical energy and also energy in various other forms, in a loss free way, at room temperature. Free Electrons confined in vacuum at the order of 10-4 torr or more, at the core of the wire, can move a distance as long as about, to a few kilometers without any collision. The vacuum is maintained in a tube made up of alternate layers of Teflon and Silicon Oxynitride. The columbic repulsion between these free electrons will actually conduct energy without any loss. The free electrons trapped in vacuum tube, should be at a particular density of around 2.02 x 108 electrons per unit area. A metal encapsulation(s over the wire is there to keep the electromagnetic field remain confined within the free electron wire, to make it harmless to the health of living creatures. Apart from loss free energy transportation, the free electron wire is also capable of generating very high electromagnetic field due to the free electrons, simply by removing the metal encapsulation(s, which can be used for various purposes. The materials and techniques adopted will make New Free Electron Wire producible commercially, at the cost of general copper wires.

  10. Lead-time reduction utilizing lean tools applied to healthcare: the inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araidah, Omar; Momani, Amer; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Momani, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The healthcare arena, much like the manufacturing industry, benefits from many aspects of the Toyota lean principles. Lean thinking contributes to reducing or eliminating nonvalue-added time, money, and energy in healthcare. In this paper, we apply selected principles of lean management aiming at reducing the wasted time associated with drug dispensing at an inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital. Thorough investigation of the drug dispensing process revealed unnecessary complexities that contribute to delays in delivering medications to patients. We utilize DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) and 5S (Sort, Set-in-order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) principles to identify and reduce wastes that contribute to increasing the lead-time in healthcare operations at the pharmacy understudy. The results obtained from the study revealed potential savings of > 45% in the drug dispensing cycle time.

  11. An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskin, Ibrahim

    Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy

  12. A minimally intrusive monitoring system that utilizes electricity consumption as a proxy for wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D. Hunt

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis: \\'Off-the-shelf domestic electricity meters can be utilised to assist in monitoring the wellbeing of elderly people\\'. Many studies have shown that it is, in theory, possible to use domestic electricity consumption to determine \\'activities of daily living\\' but the availability of systems for actual use is very limited. This work followed the Design Science Research Methodology to create a Java application running on the Google App Engine cloud service that interfaced with both electricity meters and voice and text services. The system was implemented and tested over a three month period with one older person and their carer. Results demonstrated that the technology readily succeeds in meeting the study\\'s initial objectives. The need for more sophisticated decision logic was apparent and a method to determine whether a home is currently occupied is likely to improve the ability to create more timely alerts.

  13. Reactive molecular dynamics of the initial oxidation stages of Ni111 in pure water: effect of an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assowe, O; Politano, O; Vignal, V; Arnoux, P; Diawara, B; Verners, O; van Duin, A C T

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion processes occurring in aqueous solutions are critically dependent upon the interaction between the metal electrode and the solvent. In this work, the interaction of a nickel substrate with water molecules has been investigated using reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations. This approach was originally developed by van Duin and co-workers to study hydrocarbon chemistry and the catalytic properties of organic compounds. To our knowledge, this method has not previously been used to study the corrosion of nickel. In this work, we studied the interaction of 480 molecules of water (ρ = 0.99 g·cm(-3)) with Ni(111) surfaces at 300 K. The results showed that a water "bilayer" was adsorbed on the nickel surface. In the absence of an applied electric field, no dissociation of water was observed. However, the nickel atoms at the surface were charged positively, whereas the first water layer was charged negatively, indicating the formation of an electric double layer. To study the corrosion of nickel in pure water, we introduced an external electric field between the metal and the solution. The electric field intensity varied between 10 and 20 MeV/cm. The presence of this electric field led to oxidation of the metal surface. The structural and morphological differences associated with the growth of this oxide film in the presence of the electric field were evaluated. The simulated atomic trajectories were used to analyze the atomic displacement during the reactive process. The growth of the oxide scale on the nickel surface was primarily due to the movement of anions toward the interior of the metal substrate and the migration of nickel toward the free surface. We found that increasing the electric field intensity sped up the corrosion of nickel. The results also showed that the oxide film thickness increased linearly with increasing electric field intensity.

  14. The effect of applied pressure on the electrical impedance of the bladder tissue using small and large probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar, A; Keshtkar, A

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of studies using electrical impedance spectroscopy, a minimally invasive technique, as a tissue characterizing method with different probe sizes (usually with larger probe diameters than that used in this work). In urinary bladder studies the probe size are limited to 2 mm diameter, in order to pass through the working channel of the cystoscope to measure the impedance inside the urinary bladder. Thus, bio-impedance of the human urothelium can only be measured using a small sized probe for in vivo studies. Different pressures were applied with this probe and it was demonstrated that increasing the applied pressure over the probe would increase the measured electrical impedance of the bladder tissue. Therefore, the effect of applied pressure on the resulting electrical impedance was considered in this study (all of the measurements were taken on points that had benign histology). An excessive amount of the applied pressure beyond the first visible indentation (first recordable reading) pressure has a significant effect on the impedance of the bladder tissue (p < 0.001). Then, to reduce the effect of pressure on the measured bio-impedance, the effect of a larger probe (10 mm diameter) was considered (p < 0.001). Increasing the probe contact area is one way to reduce the pressure effect on measurements; however this is difficult in practice in the in vivo situation.

  15. Energy utilization and environmental control technologies in the coal-electric cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, G.C.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents an overview and assessment of the currently commercial and possible future technologies in the United States that are a part of the coal-electric cycle. From coal production to residual emissions control at the power plant stack, this report includes a brief history, current status and future assessment of each technology. It also includes a discussion, helpful for policy making decisions, of the process operation, environmental emission characteristics, market constraints and detailed cost estimates for each of these technologies, with primary emphasis on coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions control systems.

  16. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Capture and corruption in public utilities. The cases of water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auriol, Emmanuelle [Toulouse School of Economics, 21 Allees de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Blanc, Aymeric [Agence Francaise de Developpement, 5 rue Roland Barthes, 75598 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The paper focuses on public utilities services located in poor countries with a special attention to capture and corruption issues. It confronts the optimal policy of Auriol and Picard [Privatization in Developing Countries and the Government Budget Constraint, Nota di Lavoro 75.2002. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy] regarding private sector involvement in public utilities with empirical evidence on water and electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As predicted by the theory, the participation of private unregulated firms in the supply of services for the middle class and poor people is fairly common in SSA. By contrast, services for rich people are provided by public utilities. Theory suggests that their prices should be high so that the public firms make a profit. Yet piped water and electricity are subsidized. This suggests that there is a problem of capture by the ruling elite. Since ruling elites design privatization programs, there is concern about their optimality. The paper shows that the social cost of corrupted privatization is non-monotone in the opportunity cost of public funds. Because of the fiscal loss it represents, privatizing profit centers of public firms entails huge social costs in very poor countries. (author)

  18. A Comparative Study of Proficiencies Utilized by Electrical Engineering Graduates of the University of Alabama and the Core Curricula in Electrical Engineering and Electrical Engineering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, William S.

    A survey of 531 electrical engineering graduates of the University of Alabama who had received bachelor's degrees in the years 1950 through 1974 showed that the educational needs of a majority of the respondents could have been adequately served by the mathematics levels present in the engineering technology program. In addition, certain subjects…

  19. Understanding Electrical Conduction States in WO3 Thin Films Applied for Resistive Random-Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh; Pham, Kim Ngoc; Dao, Thi Bang Tam; Tran, Dai Lam; Phan, Bach Thang

    2016-05-01

    The electrical conduction and associated resistance switching mechanism of top electrode/WO3/bottom electrode devices [top electrode (TE): Ag, Ti; bottom electrode (BE): Pt, fluorine-doped tin oxide] have been investigated. The direction of switching and switching ability depended on both the top and bottom electrode material. Multiple electrical conduction mechanisms control the leakage current of such switching devices, including trap-controlled space-charge, ballistic, Ohmic, and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effects. The transition between electrical conduction states is also linked to the switching (SET-RESET) process. This is the first report of ballistic conduction in research into resistive random-access memory. The associated resistive switching mechanisms are also discussed.

  20. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Ömür Bucak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  1. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  2. Postcontraction hyperemia after electrical stimulation: potential utility in rehabilitation of patients with upper extremity paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobusuke; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Kudo, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kana; Mizutani, Takashi; Sato, Mineyoshi; Chida, Satoaki; Hatakeyama, Kazutoshi; Watanabe, Motoyuki; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postcontraction hyperemia after electrical stimulation between patients with upper extremity paralysis caused by upper motor neuron diseases and healthy controls. Thirteen healthy controls and eleven patients with upper extremity paralysis were enrolled. The blood flow in the basilic vein was measured by ultrasound before the electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii muscle and 30 s after the stimulation. The stimulation was performed at 10 mA and at a frequency of 70 Hz for 20 s. The mean blood flow in the healthy control group and in upper extremity paralysis group before the electrical stimulation was 60 ± 20 mL/min (mean ± SD) and 48 ± 25 mL/min, respectively. After the stimulation, blood flow in both groups increased to 117 ± 23 mL/min and 81 ± 41 mL/min, respectively. We show that it is possible to measure postcontraction hyperemia using an ultrasound system. In addition, blood flow in both groups increased after the electrical stimulation because of postcontraction hyperemia. These findings suggest that evaluating post contraction hyperemia in patients with upper extremity paralysis can assess rehabilitation effects.

  3. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  4. Benchmarking and Regulation of Electricity Transmission and Distribution Utilities: Lessons from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, many countries have implemented electricity sector reform, many of which have bundled generation, transmission, distribution and supply activities, and have introduced competition in generation and supply. An increasing number of countries are also adopting incentive regulation to promote efficiency improvement in the natural monopoly activities - transmission and distribution. Incentive regulation almost invariably involves benchmarking or comparison of actual vs...

  5. Keratocyte fragments and cells utilize competing pathways to move in opposite directions in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaohui; Do, Hao; Gao, Jing; Zhao, Ren; Zhao, Min; Mogilner, Alex

    2013-04-08

    Sensing of an electric field (EF) by cells-galvanotaxis-is important in wound healing [1], development [2], cell division, nerve growth, and angiogenesis [3]. Different cell types migrate in opposite directions in EFs [4], and the same cell can switch the directionality depending on conditions [5]. A tug-of-war mechanism between multiple signaling pathways [6] can direct Dictyostelium cells to either cathode or anode. Mechanics of motility is simplest in fish keratocytes, so we turned to keratocytes to investigate their migration in EFs. Keratocytes sense electric fields and migrate to the cathode [7, 8]. Keratocyte fragments [9, 10] are the simplest motile units. Cell fragments from leukocytes are able to respond to chemotactic signals [11], but whether cell fragments are galvanotactic was unknown. We found that keratocyte fragments are the smallest motile electric field-sensing unit: they migrate to the anode, in the opposite direction of whole cells. Myosin II was essential for the direction sensing of fragments but not for parental cells, while PI3 kinase was essential for the direction sensing of whole cells but not for fragments. Thus, two signal transduction pathways, one depending on PI3K, another on myosin, compete to orient motile cells in the electric field. Galvanotaxis is not due to EF force and does not depend on cell or fragment size. We propose a "compass" model according to which protrusive and contractile actomyosin networks self-polarize to the front and rear of the motile cell, respectively, and the electric signal orients both networks toward cathode with different strengths.

  6. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  7. 'SPS 2000' - A commercial SPS test-bed for electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P. Q.; Tomkins, R.; Nagatomo, M.

    There is very little firm information of the kind that utilities need to assess solar power stations (SPSs) as possible candidates for investment. The SPS 2000 project is designed to provide such information. It comprises a space segment in low earth equatorial orbit transmitting photovoltaic-generated microwave power to one or more rectifying antennas on the equator. These will receive 1-10 MW of power during each satellite pass, enabling utilities to perform several experiments each day on many different technical and economic aspects of the system's operation. The results will help utilities to calculate the prices that they could profitably offer to satellite operators for commercial supplies of microwave power delivered from space to given specifications.

  8. Battery energy storage systems for electric utility, industrial and commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Zrebiec, R.S.; Delmerico, R.W. [GE Power Systems Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hunt, G. [GNB Industrial Battery, Lombard, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Voltage depressions and power interruptions are rapidly becoming two of the hottest topics in the field of power quality. Of particular interest is the need to supply a dependable, efficient and controllable source of real and reactive power, which is available instantly to support a large (> .5 MVA) load, even if the utility connection is lost. This paper describes a versatile solution to this problem for utility, industrial and commercial applications using battery energy storage systems (BESS). BESS has the potential to provide other substantial benefits in terms of improved voltage and energy management in conjunction with this protection from interruptions.

  9. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen;

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground environ...

  10. Applying FBD-power theory to analysing effective lighting devices’ impact on power quality and electric grid efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pavas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently the impact of high efficient lighting devices such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFL and light emitting diodes (LED is an important concern for the electrotechnical community. This paper makes a contribution towards determining the impact of these devices on electric grid power quality and efficiency, proposed by means of applying FBD-power theory to the currents absorbed by CFLs and LEDs. An analysis of the waveform distortion regarding IEEE standard 519 and efficiency detriment quantification are presented.

  11. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perceptio...

  12. Donor impurity states and related optical response in a lateral coupled dot-ring system under applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J.D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-09-01

    A study on the effects of an externally applied electric field on the linear optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with transitions between off-center donor impurity states in laterally coupled quantum dot-ring system is reported. Electron states are calculated within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations by means of an exact diagonalization procedure. The states and the optical response in each case show significant sensitivity to the geometrical distribution of confining energies as well as to the strength of the applied field.

  13. Simulation study on structure of water in aqueous solutions confined between graphene electrodes under very high applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Gary; Tsige, Mesfin; Talapatra, Saikat

    2011-03-01

    Arising from questions regarding electric double-layer capacitors utilizing graphene electrodes and aqueous electrolyte (KOH solution), atomistic MD simulations of electrolyte confined between graphene electrodes were performed to understand the behavior of electrolyte as a function of electric field strength and solution concentration, from pure water to 6M KOH. It was noted that the strength of the electric field had a demonstrable effect on the structure of pure water between the electrodes (as has previously been seen in highly confined multilayer water systems), creating regularly spaced channels and densely packed sheets of highly ordered molecules. We also saw a clear effect due to the presence of electrolyte ions and their separation from the water due to the action of the field; different field strengths appear to greatly alter the distribution of ions, which in turn affects the structure and ordering of the water. Time dependence in the strength of the electric field was also studied to determine what effect, if any, it has on induced structure. Authors gratefully acknowledge support from the ACS Petroleum Research Fund and the National Science Foundation.

  14. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a statement of receipts and expenditures for such year and of financial status at its end. (3) As a... receipts and expenditures for such year and of financial status at its end. (4) If it appears to the... foregoing; and (i) Such facility is leased under a net lease directly to a public utility company either...

  15. Hacking of water and electric utilities; Waterzuiveringen zijn gemakkelijk te hacken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Kelft, D. [Waterschapsbedrijf Limburg, Roermond (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    Attention is paid to the fact that control systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems or SCADA) of electric power plants and water purification installations are easy targets for hackers and computer viruses. [Dutch] De besturingssystemen van energiecentrales en waterzuiveringsinstallaties worden steeds vaker gekoppeld aan internet of andere netwerken in het bedrijf. Dat maakt de systemen een gemakkelijk doelwit voor hackers en virussen. Er wordt gepleit voor een integrale aanpak van de beveiliging.

  16. A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-12-01

    Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility`s report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

  17. Comparative study between structural and electrical properties of geopolymers applied to a green concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, A. M.; González, C. P.; Pérez, J.; Royero, C.; Sandoval, D.; Gutiérrez, J.

    2013-11-01

    This work shows a comparative analysis of geopolymers obtained by alkaline activation of two aluminosilicates: bentonite and metakaolin. With the goal of to replace some cement percentage, both aluminosilicates were added in several proportions (10, 20 and 30%) to concrete mixes. Portland Type I cement was used to prepare the reference concrete (without geopolymer). X-ray diffraction of geopolymers allowed to find new crystallographic phases that was not present in precursor's minerals. To evaluate mechanical properties of concrete prepared with geopolymers, test tubes with 7, 14, 28 and 90 days as setting time were used. Chemical resistance and Electrical impedance of concrete mixes were also measured. Results shows that cementitious material obtained from metakaolin exhibit the best compressive strength. On the other hand, those materials derived from bentonite, have a high electrical resistance so that, they protected reinforced concrete better that Portland does.

  18. Instability of protein drops via applied electric field: mathematical and experimental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Mladenov, Ivaïlo M

    2009-04-01

    Drops (5-15 microL) consisting of a protein solution readily crystallize and could provide an opportunity for a simultaneous examination of their thermodynamic and kinetic properties at various sizes. These drops experienced different pressures and therefore different surface tensions. Starting from the expression for the interface traction between protein fluid and silicon medium (with different dielectric constants), we have derived an equation accounting the influence of the electric field strength on the geometry of a protein drop. If the field strength increases, the lysozyme drop between two electrodes elongates and some crystals nucleate on the cathode side. In this situation numerous factors besides the intensity of the electric field--such as the solution composition, the charge and size of the protein molecule, the purity of the protein substance, and the consistency of bubbles of water--can have a significant effect on the crystallization rate and location.

  19. A New Missing Data Imputation Algorithm Applied to Electrical Data Loggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Crespo Turrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, data collection is a key process in the study of electrical power networks when searching for harmonics and a lack of balance among phases. In this context, the lack of data of any of the main electrical variables (phase-to-neutral voltage, phase-to-phase voltage, and current in each phase and power factor adversely affects any time series study performed. When this occurs, a data imputation process must be accomplished in order to substitute the data that is missing for estimated values. This paper presents a novel missing data imputation method based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and compares it with the well-known technique called multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE. The results obtained demonstrate how the proposed method outperforms the MICE algorithm.

  20. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs, including Electric Vehicles (EVs), may lead to a scenario in which the VPP needs several hours to have a solution for the ERM problem. This is the reason why it is necessary to use metaheuristic methodolo...

  1. Effect of applying static electric field on the physical parameters and dynamics of laser-induced plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Elhassan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the LIBS technique – in particular its sensitivity, reproducibility and limit of detection – we studied the effect of applying a static electric field with different polarities on the emission spectra obtained in a typical LIBS set-up. The physical parameters of the laser-induced plasma, namely the electron density Ne and the plasma temperature Te, were studied under such circumstances. In addition to the spectroscopic analysis of the plasma plume emission, the laser-induced shock waves were exploited to monitor the probable changes in the plasma plume dynamics due to the application of the electric field. The study showed a pronounced enhancement in the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio of different Al, neutral and ionic lines under forward biasing voltage (negative target and positive electrode. On the other hand, a clear deterioration of the emission line intensities was observed under conditions of reversed polarity. This negative effect may be attributed to the reduction in electron-ion recombinations due to the stretched plasma plume. The plasma temperature showed a constant value in the average with the increasing electric field in both directions. This effect may be due to the fact that the measured values of Te were averaged over the whole plasma emission volume. The electron density was observed to decrease slightly in the case of forward biasing while no significant effect was noticed in the case of reversed biasing. This slight decrease in Ne can be interpreted in view of the increase in the rate of electron–ion recombinations due to the presence of the electric field. No appreciable effects of the applied electric field on the plasma dynamics were noticed.

  2. A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-12-01

    Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility's report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

  3. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  4. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Özyalın, Şenol; Halil Zarif, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  5. Evaluation of energy transfer and utilization efficiency of azo dye removal by different pulsed electrical discharge modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN YongJun; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG XingWang

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), caused by different high voltage pulsed electrical discharge modes (spark, streamer and corona discharge) induced by the various initial conductivities was investigated. A new type of pulsed high voltage source with thyratron switch and Blumlein pulse forming net (BPFN) was used. The typical discharge waveforms of voltage, current, power, pulse en-ergy and the pictures of spark, streamer and corona discharge modes were presented. The results in-dicated that pulsed electrical discharges led to complete decolorization and substantial decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the dye solution. The main intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS. The discharge modes changed from spark to streamer and to corona discharge, and the streamer length decreased with the liquid conductivity increasing. At a constant input power, the peak voltage, peak current, peak power and energy per pulse of the three discharge modes ranked in the following order: spark > streamer > corona. The effective energy transfer efficiency of AO7 removal was higher for spark discharge (57.2%) than for streamer discharge (40.4%) and corona discharge (27.6%). Moreover, the energy utilization efficiency of AO7 removal for spark discharge was 1.035×109 mol/J, and for streamer and corona discharge they were 0.646×10-8 and 0.589×10-9mol/J. Both the energy transfer efficiency and the energy utilization efficiency of spark discharge were the highest.

  6. Design of a high-temperature superconductor current lead for electric utility SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Rey, C. M.; Dixon, K. D.

    Current leads that rely on high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) to deliver power to devices operating at liquid helium temperature have the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements to levels significantly below those achievable with conventional leads. The design of HTS current leads suitable for use in near-term superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is in progress. The SMES system has an 0.5 MWh energy capacity and a discharge power of 30 MW. Lead-design considerations include safety and reliability, electrical and thermal performance, structural integrity, manufacturability, and cost. Available details of the design, including materials, configuration, and performance predictions, are presented.

  7. Introduction to applied statistical signal analysis guide to biomedical and electrical engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shiavi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis is designed for the experienced individual with a basic background in mathematics, science, and computer. With this predisposed knowledge, the reader will coast through the practical introduction and move on to signal analysis techniques, commonly used in a broad range of engineering areas such as biomedical engineering, communications, geophysics, and speech.Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis intertwines theory and implementation with practical examples and exercises. Topics presented in detail include: mathematical

  8. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  9. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by utilization of superconductivity in electric-power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.; Lehtonen, J.; Mikkonen, R. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Institute of Electromagnetics

    2004-06-01

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions is becoming a topical issue due to the Kyoto Protocol which requires the European Union (EU) to reduce its emissions by 8% from the 1990 levels by between 2008 and 2012. The main source for GHG-emissions is energy production. Superconducting electrical machinery is starting to emerge into the market of power devices. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings in generators and transformers can approximately halve the losses compared to conventional devices. Higher efficiency saves electrical energy and also reduces GHG-emissions as well. In this paper, the reduction potential of GHG-emissions in the EU by HTS-machinery is calculated. The replacement of existing devices by HTS ones is considered from the environmental point-of- view. The structure of energy production for the EU was investigated and the emission data from different type of power plants were screened. The potential energy savings were converted to saved GHG-emission tonnes. (author)

  10. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  11. Finite Element Based Solution of Laplace's Equation Applied to Electrical Activity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab T. Baqer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer models are used in the study of electrocardiography to provide insight into physiological phenomena that are difficult to measure in the lab or in a clinical environment. The electrocardiogram is an important tool for the clinician in that it changes characteristically in a number of pathological conditions. Many illnesses can be detected by this measurement. By simulating the electrical activity of the heart one obtains a quantitative relationship between the electrocardiogram and different anomalies. Because of the inhomogeneous fibrous structure of the heart and the irregular geometries of the body, finite element method is used for studying the electrical properties of the heart. This work describes the implementation of the Conjugate Gradient iterative method for the solution of large linear equation systems resulting from the finite element method. A diagonal Jacobi preconditioner is used in order to accelerate the convergence. Gaussian elimination is also implemented and compared with the Precondition Conjugate Gradient (PCG method and with the iterative method. Different types of matrix storage schemes are implemented such as the Compressed Sparse Row (CSR to achieve better performance. In order to demonstrate the validity of the finite element analysis, the technique is adopted to solve Laplace's equation that describes the electrical activity of the human body with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. An automatic mesh generator is built using C++ programming language. Initially a complete finite element program is built to solve Laplace's equation. The same accuracy is obtained using these methods. The results show that the CSR format reduces computation time compared to the order format. The PCG method is better for the solution of large linear system (sparse matrices than the Gaussian Elimination and back substitution method, while Gaussian elimination is better than iterative method.

  12. Effects of Applied Electric Current on the Tip Radius and the Universal Amplitude Coefficient of a Single Growing Dendrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasresfahani, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Raeissi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Modification of solidification structures by applying electric current has been the subject of interest in recent years. However, the exact relationships between the dendrite growth parameters and the current density are not yet clear. The dendrite tip geometry is an important growth parameter which can be characterized using the dendrite tip radius and the universal amplitude coefficient. In this paper, the dendrite tip shape was investigated in the absence and presence of an electric field using a transparent model material, i.e. the succinonitrile-acetone alloy. The results showed that both dendrite tip radius and universal amplitude coefficient increased by increasing the applied current density. The increase in the tip radius was attributed to the Joule heat produced at the solid-liquid interface which reduced the interface undercooling. The increase in the universal amplitude coefficient was postulated to be due to the changes in the distribution coefficient of the alloy system which would result in higher solute concentration in front of the solid-liquid interface. Owing to the increased universal amplitude coefficient, more prominent dendritic fins were observed at dendrites tips under electric current.

  13. Strain distribution and electronic structures of the InAs/GaAs quantum ring molecule in an applied electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strain distribution and electronic structures of the InAs/GaAs quantum ring molecule are calculated via the finite element method.In our model,three identical InAs quantum rings are aligned vertically and embedded in the cubic GaAs barrier.Considering the band edge modification induced by the strain,the electronic ground state and the dependence of ground state energy on geometric parameters of the quantum ring molecule are investigated.The change of localization of the wavefunction resulting from the applied electric field along the growth direction is observed.The ground state energy decreases as the electric field intensity increases in a parabolic-like mode.The electric field changes the monotonic dependence of the energy level on the inter-ring distance into a non-monotonic one.However,the electric field has no effect on the relationships between the energy level and other geometric parameters such as the inner radius and outer radius.

  14. Slant transform applied to electric power quality detection with field programmable gate array design enhanced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Tao [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan (China); Lin, Jeu-Min [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Far East University, Tainan (China); Huang, Shyh-Jier [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, a slantlet transform is proposed with the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware realization for electrical power system disturbance detection. By embedding the slantlet functions into wavelet basis, the method is anticipated to increase the capability of signal discrimination, hence improving the grasping the disturbance intrusion. Furthermore, with the hardware realization of FPGA chip, the practicality of the method can be better ensured. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, several scenarios have been considered and verified with good agreement. (author)

  15. Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-05-01

    Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types.

  16. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G. (DLR, German Aerospace, Cologne); Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  18. Design Practices in Harmonic Analysis Studies Applied to Industrial Electrical Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mekhamer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Power system harmonics may cause several problems, such as malfunctions of electrical equipment, premature equipment failures and plant shutdowns. Accordingly, mitigation of these harmonics is considered an important target especially for industrial applications where any short downtime period may lead to great economic losses. Harmonic analysis studies are necessary to analyze the current and voltage harmonic levels and check if these levels comply with the contractual or international standard limits. If the studies reveal that the preset limits are exceeded, then a suitable harmonic mitigation technique should be installed. Harmonic analysis studies in the industrial electrical systems are discussed in many references. However, a comprehensive procedure for the steps required to perform a harmonic study is rarely found in the literature even though it is strongly needed for design engineers. This paper provides a comprehensive procedure for the steps required to perform a harmonic study in the form of a flowchart, based on industrial research and experience. Hence, this paper may be considered as a helpful guide for design engineers and consultants of the industrial sector.

  19. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  20. A modular neural network scheme applied to fault diagnosis in electric power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Agustín; Quiles, Eduardo; García, Emilio; Morant, Francisco; Correcher, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  1. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  2. Comparison of Electric Utility Restructuring in Major Foreign Countries: Empirical Analysis on the Pool Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest policy directions about the market structure and the trading system of TWBP (two-way bidding pool) under the ongoing electric power restructuring scheme in Korea. For this purpose, major foreign countries' restructuring experiences, especially the market forms and trading systems, were reviewed. Based on the review, I suggested the introduction of electricity contract markets and the short- and long-term policy alternatives for adopting them. In order to test the feasibility of the policy alternatives, an empirical analysis was performed on the comparative advantage between gross pool and net pool. The data used in the empirical analysis includes simulation results of year 2000 from KPX (Korea Power Exchange), six generators' fuels costs, etc. A supply function model was modified to an operational model to calculate the generators' bidding prices and quantities, and their variable profits. In addition, the effects of introducing contracts for differences (CfDs) and bilateral contracts were analyzed in terms of market efficiency. In this study, the criteria of market efficiency are the means and the standard deviations of generators' bidding prices and their variable profits. Based on the empirical results, the following policy implications were proposed. As a short-term alternative, it would be necessary to incorporate the concept of hedging contracts into current gross pool mechanism. Related to this, through the promotion of contract markets it should be induced to decrease the general levels of bidding prices and to manage the volatility of market prices. As a long-term alternative, the possibility to transfer gross pool into net pool should be considered. (author). 53 refs., 32 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  4. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs......, including Electric Vehicles (EVs), may lead to a scenario in which the VPP needs several hours to have a solution for the ERM problem. This is the reason why it is necessary to use metaheuristic methodologies to come up with a good solution with a reasonable amount of time. The presented paper proposes...... network with 2000 EVs, and the SA results are compared with a deterministic technique and particle swarm optimization results...

  5. A Survey on Data Mining Techniques Applied to Electricity-Related Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martínez-Álvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining has become an essential tool during the last decade to analyze large sets of data. The variety of techniques it includes and the successful results obtained in many application fields, make this family of approaches powerful and widely used. In particular, this work explores the application of these techniques to time series forecasting. Although classical statistical-based methods provides reasonably good results, the result of the application of data mining outperforms those of classical ones. Hence, this work faces two main challenges: (i to provide a compact mathematical formulation of the mainly used techniques; (ii to review the latest works of time series forecasting and, as case study, those related to electricity price and demand markets.

  6. Parallel Sparse Matrix Solver on the GPU Applied to Simulation of Electrical Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Antonio Wendell De Oliveira; Menach, Yvonnick Le; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, several industrial applications are being ported to parallel architectures. In fact, these platforms allow acquire more performance for system modelling and simulation. In the electric machines area, there are many problems which need speed-up on their solution. This paper examines the parallelism of sparse matrix solver on the graphics processors. More specifically, we implement the conjugate gradient technique with input matrix stored in CSR, and Symmetric CSR and CSC formats. This method is one of the most efficient iterative methods available for solving the finite-element basis functions of Maxwell's equations. The GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), which is used for its implementation, provides mechanisms to parallel the algorithm. Thus, it increases significantly the computation speed in relation to serial code on CPU based systems.

  7. Applying the Different Statistical Tests in Analysis of Electrical Breakdown Mechanisms in Nitrogen Filled Gas Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čedomir, A. Maluckov; Saša, A. Rančev; Miodrag, K. Radović

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigations of breakdown mechanisms, as well as a description of their influence on the distributions of time delay distributions, for a gas tube filled with nitrogen at 4 mbar. The values of the time delay are measured for different voltages, and the values of the relaxation times and their distributions and probability plots are analyzed. The obtained density distributions have Gaussian distributions and exponential distributions for different values of relaxation times (Gaussian for small values and exponential for large values of relaxation time). It is shown that for middle values of relaxation time the delay distributions have a shape between Gaussian and exponential distributions, which is a result of the different influences of electrical breakdown.

  8. The use of scenarios for long-range planning by investor-owned electric utilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John V.

    Scenario planning is a method of organizing and understanding large amounts of quantitative and qualitative data for leaders to make better strategic decisions. There is a lack of academic research about scenario planning with a subsequent shortage of definitions and theories. This study utilized a case study methodology to analyze scenario planning by investor-owned electric utilities in the Pacific Northwest in their integrated resource planning (IRP) process. The cases include Avista Corporation, Idaho Power, PacifiCorp, Portland General Electric, and Puget Sound Energy. This study sought to determine how scenario planning was used, what scenario approach was used, the scenario outcomes, and the similarities and differences in the scenario planning processes. The literature review of this study covered the development of scenario planning, common definitions and theories, approaches to scenario development, and scenario outcomes. A research methodology was developed to classify the scenario development approach into intuitive, hybrid, or quantitative approaches; and scenario outcomes of changed thinking, stories of plausible futures, improved decision making, and enhanced organizational learning. The study found all three forms of scenario planning in the IRPs. All of the cases used a similar approach to IRP development. All of the cases had at least improved decision making as an outcome of scenario planning. Only one case demonstrated all four scenario outcomes. A critical finding was a correlation between the use of the intuitive approach and the use of all scenario outcomes. Another major finding was the unique use of predetermined elements, which are normally consistent across scenarios, but became critical uncertainties in some of the scenarios in the cases for this study. This finding will need to be confirmed by future research as unique to the industry or an aberration. An unusually high number of scenarios were found for cases using the hybrid approach

  9. Cutaneous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma therapy utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yin

    Full Text Available Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF induce apoptotic pathways in human cancer cells. The potential therapeutic effective of nsPEF has been reported in cell lines and in xenograft animal tumor model. The present study investigated the ability of nsPEF to cause cancer cell death in vivo using carcinogen-induced animal tumor model, and the pulse duration of nsPEF was only 7 and 14 nano second (ns. An nsPEF generator as a prototype medical device was used in our studies, which is capable of delivering 7-30 nanosecond pulses at various programmable amplitudes and frequencies. Seven cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and five other types of cancer cell lines were used to detect the effect of nsPEF in vitro. Rate of cell death in these 12 different cancer cell lines was dependent on nsPEF voltage and pulse number. To examine the effect of nsPEF in vivo, carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in mice were exposed to nsPEF with three pulse numbers (50, 200, and 400 pulses, two nominal electric fields (40 KV/cm and 31 KV/cm, and two pulse durations (7 ns and 14 ns. Carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous carcinomas were eliminated efficiently using one treatment of nsPEF with 14 ns duration pulses (33/39 = 85%, and all remaining lesions were eliminated after a 2nd treatment (6/39 = 15%. 13.5% of carcinogen-induced tumors (5 of 37 were eliminated using 7 ns duration pulses after one treatment of nsPEF. Associated with tumor lysis, expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 were markedly reduced and apoptosis increased (TUNEL assay after nsPEF treatment. nsPEF efficiently causes cell death in vitro and removes papillomas and squamous cell carcinoma in vivo from skin of mice. nsPEF has the therapeutic potential to remove human squamous carcinoma.

  10. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  11. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry. PMID:27181521

  12. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  13. Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, C.; Kirby, G.; Jordan, D.; Lawrence, J.H.; Wiesner, W.; Kosovec, A.; Swanson, R.K.; Smith, R.T.; Johnson, C.C.; Hodson, H.O.

    1976-04-01

    Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly distributed winds of relatively high velocity, with average wind power density of 0.53 kW/m/sup 2/ at 30 m height at Amarillo, Texas, a representative location. The annual period of calm is extremely low. Three separate compressed air storage systems with good potential were analyzed in detail, and two potential pumped-hydro facilities were identified and given preliminary consideration. Aquifer storage of compressed air is a promising possibility in the region.

  14. High-temperature superconductor current leads for electric utility SMES applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Buckles, W. E.; Weber, B. R.; Dixon, K. D.; Rey, C. M.

    Current leads that utilize high-temperature superconductors (HTSS) to deliver power to devices operating at liquid helium temperature have the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements to levels significantly below those achievable with conventional leads. As part of the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and two industrial partners are developing HTS current leads for application to superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Superconductivity, Inc. (SI) is a supplier of micro-SMES systems for power-quality applications. A typical SI SMES system has an 0.3-kWh energy capacity and operates at currents up to 1.2 kA. The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) is engaged in a project to design, build, and demonstrate a midsized SMES system. The B&W system has an 0.5-MWh energy capacity and operates at currents up to 16 kA. Details of the lead designs, including materials, configuration, and performance predictions, are presented.

  15. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model. [Ramini et.al. Polym. Chem., 2013, 4, 4948.] In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species. As in previous studies, the model with a one-dimensional domain best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated d...

  16. Enhancing filterability of activated sludge from landfill leachate treatment plant by applying electrical field ineffective on bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Gulizar Kurtoglu; Sekman, Elif; Top, Selin; Sagir, Ece; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Guvenc, Senem Yazici

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study is to investigate filterability enhancement of activated sludge supplied form a full-scale leachate treatment plant by applying DC electric field while keeping the biological operational conditions in desirable range. The activated sludge samples were received from the nitrification tank in the leachate treatment plant of Istanbul's Odayeri Sanitary Landfill Site. Experimental sets were conducted as laboratory-scale batch studies and were duplicated for 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A of electrical currents and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min of exposure times under continuous aeration. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, and oxidation reduction potential in the mixture right after each experimental set and biochemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen in supernatant were analyzed to define the sets that remain in the range of ideal biological operational conditions. Later on, sludge filterability properties such as capillary suction time, specific resistance to filtration, zeta potential, and particle size were measured for remaining harmless sets. Additionally, cost analyses were conducted in respect to energy and electrode consumptions. Application of 2A DC electric field and 15-min exposure time was found to be the most favorable conditions to enhance filterability of the landfill leachate-activated sludge.

  17. First-principles studies of magnetoelectric coupling in hexagonal LuFeO3 under applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Hongwei; Dhuvad, Pratikkumar; Xu, Xiaoshan; Stengel, Massimiliano; Wu, Xifan

    The recently stabilized hexagonal LuFeO3 thin-film provides an opportunity in realizing the magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials, in which the weak ferromagnetism due to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction was found to be closely associated with the trimerization (K3) mode. Here, we performed first-principles calculations in hexagonal LuFeO3 and studied the variations of weak ferromagnetic moment under applied electric fields. It is found that the weak ferromagnetism is a property that can be directly tuned by the external electric fields. As an improper ferroelectric material, such a magnetoelectric coupling is realized by the strong interaction between the trimerization mode and ferroelectric mode. Under the electric field poling, ferroelectric mode will respond. A change in ferroelectric distortion will in turn affect the amplitude of trimerization mode, and therefore, the weak ferromagnetism. Interestingly, the magnetoelectric coupling in LuFeO3 shows a strong nonlinear behavior originating again from the coupling between the trimerization and ferroelectric modes due to its improper nature.

  18. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H M; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN-PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0-18 kV cm(-1) was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis.

  19. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H. M.; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN–PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0–18 kV cm−1 was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis. PMID:27738414

  20. Financial ratios applied to portfolio selection: Electre III methodology in buy-and-hold strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo explorar e analisar os modelos multicritrio, em especial a aplicação da metodologia ELECTRE III, a fim de construir carteiras defensivas, em uma estratgia de buy-and-hold, em que todos os critrios e alternativas são igualmente ponderados, utilizando-se indicadores financeiros (ROA, ROE, FA, GL e RL. Assim sendo, n¨®s primeiro selecionamos ações negociadas no PSI-Geral, de 1999 a 2011, e depois definimos um período inicial / histórico, no qual oito carteiras foram estabelecidas (uma para cada período, e um período de follow-up, considerando um, dois e de três anos de espera. Realizamos análises estatísticas, particularmente testes paramétricos (t-Student e não paramétricos (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, subdivididos em duas análises: uma de amostra única de 2005-2011; e outra de duas amostras, de 2005 a 2007 e de 2008-2011. Os resultados dos testes estatísticos, para uma amostra e para duas amostras, levam-nos a concluir, de modo geral, que, em todo período de follow-up, não podemos inferir que uma forma de cálculo da rentabilidade média e do índice de Sharpe da carteira seja estatisticamente melhor que a outra, embora o teste de Mann-Whitney tenha diferenciado certas médias.

  1. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply.

  2. Development of double-pulse lasers ablation system for generating gold ion source under applying an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Double-pulse lasers ablation (DPLA) technique was developed to generate gold (Au) ion source and produce high current under applying an electric potential in an argon ambient gas environment. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1064 and 266 nm wavelengths are combined in an unconventional orthogonal (crossed-beam) double-pulse configuration with 45° angle to focus on a gold target along with a spectrometer for spectral analysis of gold plasma. The properties of gold plasma produced under double-pulse lasers excitation were studied. The velocity distribution function (VDF) of the emitted plasma was studied using a dedicated Faraday-cup ion probe (FCIP) under argon gas discharge. The experimental parameters were optimized to attain the best signal to noise (S/N) ratio. The results depicted that the VDF and current signals depend on the discharge applied voltage, laser intensity, laser wavelength and ambient argon gas pressure. A seven-fold increases in the current signal by increasing the discharge applied voltage and ion velocity under applying double-pulse lasers field. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and density) were also studied and their dependence on the delay (times between the excitation laser pulse and the opening of camera shutter) was investigated as well. This study could provide significant reference data for the optimization and design of DPLA systems engaged in laser induced plasma deposition thin films and facing components diagnostics.

  3. Corporate action on climate change: an independent review focusing on Canada's electric and natural gas utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This independent report on corporate action on climate change is the fourth in a series of studies undertaken by the Pembina Institute, a citizen-based organization involved in environmental education, research, policy development and consulting. The objective of the report is to identify the key elements that are required to produce a credible and effective corporate action plan to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; to create a standardized mechanism to assess the credibility and effectiveness of corporate action plans to reduce GHG emissions; and to provide Canadians with as comparative assessment of the climate change performance of individual companies, by providing the means to identify the leaders and laggards within different industry sectors. The report focuses on the quality of actions being taken to reduce GHG emissions specifically by the electric and natural gas utility companies. Future reviews will concentrate on the climate protection performers of companies in other sectors of industry. Criteria for inclusion in this report require that the company must be a participant in Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program; must have submitted a corporate climate change report to the VCR between Sept. 1998 and March 31, 1999, including the GHG inventory that presents recent emissions data, identifies at least one activity that has been taken to reduce GHG emissions, and quantifying the benefits of that activity in tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions per year. While Ontario alone has over 300 companies that fit into the electricity and natural gas utility sector, only 16 companies across the country have met all the criteria. These companies (listed in Section 2.1) must be recognized as the leaders in the country in addressing the climate change issue. Other companies that report to VCR but did not meet all the criteria and the reason for their exclusion are listed in Appendix D. The report describes the methodology

  4. From LCAs to simplified models: a generic methodology applied to wind power electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padey, Pierryves; Girard, Robin; le Boulch, Denis; Blanc, Isabelle

    2013-02-05

    This study presents a generic methodology to produce simplified models able to provide a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment of energy pathways. The methodology relies on the application of global sensitivity analysis to identify key parameters explaining the impact variability of systems over their life cycle. Simplified models are built upon the identification of such key parameters. The methodology is applied to one energy pathway: onshore wind turbines of medium size considering a large sample of possible configurations representative of European conditions. Among several technological, geographical, and methodological parameters, we identified the turbine load factor and the wind turbine lifetime as the most influent parameters. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) performances have been plotted as a function of these key parameters identified. Using these curves, GHG performances of a specific wind turbine can be estimated, thus avoiding the undertaking of an extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This methodology should be useful for decisions makers, providing them a robust but simple support tool for assessing the environmental performance of energy systems.

  5. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1

  6. Applying Portfolio Theory to EU Electricity Planning and Policy-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, Shimon; Berger, Martin

    2003-02-01

    This study introduces mean-variance portfolio theory and evaluates its potential application to the development of efficient (optimal) European Union (EU-15) generating portfolios that enhance energy security and diversification objectives. The analysis extends to European countries the previous work done by Awerbuch in the US, and applies a significantly more detailed portfolio model that reflects the risk of the relevant generating cost streams: fuel, operation and maintenance and construction period costs. It illustrates the portfolio effects of different generating mixes. The study offers preliminary findings on the effects of including more renewable energy sources in the typical EU portfolio mix and suggests interesting directions for further study. The study arises from the perception that these standard, finance-oriented analyses may offer valuable enhancements to energy planning, and concepts of energy security and diversity. Clearly the combination of better portfolio construction and more accurate pricing should lead to more optimal decisions in the round. This study, therefore, represents an effort to complement traditional approaches and point researchers and planners into new territory. The results generally indicate that the existing and projected EU generating mixes are sub optimal - though slightly - from a risk-return perspective, which implies that feasible portfolios with lower cost and risk exist. These can be developed by adjusting the conventional mix and by including larger shares of wind or similar renewable technologies. The results of the portfolio analysis suggest that fixed cost technologies such as renewables must be a part of any efficient generating portfolio. Our assessment of all technologies is limited to risk and cost measures, although other benefits, including low externality costs and sustainability, are often cited for renewables.

  7. The structural changes in the brazilian electric sector and the utilities strategic management; A restruturacao do setor eletrico brasileiro e o gerenciamento estrategico das empresas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotero, Roberto C.; Santana, Edvaldo Alves de [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Producao e Sistemas

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to show structural and market changes in brazilian electric sector and their implications on new business environment. Factors that will affect power utilities are pointed out and how they should be thoughtful in new model. Is pointed out the strategic change as a mean for utility optimization in efficiency and comparative advantage search. (author) 11 refs.; e-mail: rcl at eps.ufsc.br

  8. Reasoning based in cases applied to diagnosis of electric generators; Razonamiento basado en casos aplicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, H. Octavio; Garcia Tevillo, Arturo; Campuzano Martinez, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a system for the diagnosis of electrical generators that apply techniques of artificial intelligence, is presented, as it is the reasoning based on cases, to support the work of the diagnosis engineer. This system is part of a system called CADIS, dedicated to the diagnosis of electrical generators out of line and reason of previous articles. In this occasion the characteristics of the reasoning module based on experiences (SirBE) are emphasized, indicating how to make a diagnosis using similar cases and how to edit the system base of experience, using the interactive editor of cases. It is included, in addition, a summarized example which represents a case for SirBE and how the system helps to make a diagnosis. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de diagnostico de generadores electricos que aplica tecnicas de inteligencia artificial, como es el razonamiento basado en casos, para apoyar la labor del ingeniero de diagnostico. Este sistema es parte de un sistema denominado CADIS, dedicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos fuera de linea y motivo de articulos anteriores. En esta ocasion se resaltan las caracteristicas del modulo de razonamiento basado en experiencias (SirBE), indicando como realizar un diagnostico utilizando casos similares y como editar la base de experiencia del sistema utilizando el editor interactivo de casos. Se incluye, ademas, un ejemplo resumido de lo que representa un caso para SiRBE y como el sistema ayuda a realizar un diagnostico.

  9. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-09-02

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose.

  10. Dependence of electrical property on the applied magnetic fields in spin coated Fe(III)-Phorphyrin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari; Kusumandari; Purnama, B.; Mudasir; Abraha, K.

    2016-11-01

    We report here on the experimental results of the effect of external magnetic field on the current flow in plane surface of Fe(III)-porphyrin thin layer. The deposition of the Fe(III)- porphyrin thin layer was done by spin coating method. The I-V characteristics of film were measured by means of two point probes. The sample of layer number N = 4 was used to evaluate the magnetic effect on the electrical currents. The ohmic characteristics of the I-V film measurement were obtained. The current decreases when magnetic field is applied to the system and saturated current is obtained at a given magnetic field. Here, the decrease in the current can be attributed to the recombination of carrier charge under the magnetic field. In addition, the magnitude of the saturated current is found to increase with the increase in the voltage used.

  11. Testing and Applying a Theory of Utility; an attempt to decompose income in compensatory and scarcity rents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan); N. Bouma (Nienke); B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractData on income after tax, schooling completed, job held, age, and ‘level of satisfaction’ of 2663 members of the Dutch Consumer Union have been used to estimate regression equations of two types. Type I may be called a specification of a utility function, Type II an ‘earnings function’ (

  12. Improvement in refractive-index change in LiNbO3:Ce:Cu by applying an external electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Cui-Xia; Liu Li-Ren; Liu De-An; Zhou Yu; Chai Zhi-Fang; Luan Zhu

    2005-01-01

    By jointly solving two-centre material equations with a nonzero external electric field and coupled-wave equations,we have numerically studied the dependence of the non-volatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Ce:Cu crystals on the external electric field. The dominative photovoltaic effect of the non-volatile holographic recording in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals is directly verified. And an external electric field that is applied in the positive direction along the c-axis (or a large one in the negative direction of the c-axis) in the recording phase and another one that is applied in the negative direction of the c-axis in the fixing phase are both proved to benefit strong photorefractive performances.Experimental verifications are given with a small electric field applied externally.

  13. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A; Boletim estatistico comercial da CELESC: Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates 6 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  16. Economic evaluation of the industrial induction electric motors utilization of high performance; Avaliacao economica da utilizacao de motores eletricos industriais de inducao de alto rendimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Goeorge A. [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Herszterg, I. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The current work makes a cost-benefit analysis of the agents` view point involved, that is, the consumer and the electric utilities. In relation to the final consumer the energy economic potential calculus due to high performance motor application was taken into consideration in three different situations: in new installations, as an alternative the damaged motor recoil and substituting motors that are operating normally. The electricity rates show a strong influence in the financial-economic evaluation as much from the consumer view point as the electric utilities. The return internal rate criteria and payback period have been used, therefore the last one not so much recommended for not portraying the real investment rentability. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Influence of applied electric field on the absorption coefficient and subband distances in asymmetrical AIN/GaN coupled double quantum wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cen Long-Bin; Shen Bo; qin Zhi-Xin; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2009-01-01

    The influence of applied electric fields on the absorption coefficient and subband distances in asymmetrical AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells (CDQWs) has been investigated by solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. It is found that the absorption coefficient of the intersubband transition (ISBT) between the ground state and the third excited state (1odd -2even) can be equal to zero when the electric fields are applied in asymmetrical A1N/GaN CDQWs,which is related to applied electric fields induced symmetry recovery of these states. Meanwhile,the energy distances between 1odd -2even and 1even - 2even subbands have different relationships from each other with the increase of applied electric fields due to the different polarization-induced potential drops between the lett and the right wells. The results indicate that an electrical-optical modulator operated within the opto-communication wavelength range can be realized in spite of the strong polarization-induced electric fields in asymmetrical AIN/GaN CDQWs.

  18. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II, from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper electrodeposition and current efficiency are revealed. The results showed that the increase in pH (provided not lead to the deposition of Cu(OH2, initial concentration of the copper and flow rate increased the electrodeposition of copper as well as improved current efficiency. However, increasing intensity of the applied electric current led to an increase in the electrodeposition of copper and decreased electrical efficiency. It was also observed that reducing the intensity of applied electric current with time during the electrolysis process while maintaining other operating variables constant led to a significant reduction in the consumption of electrical energy used in the process of copper removal by electrodeposition; a reduction of 41.6% could be achieved.

  19. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  20. Cost Analysis of Utilizing Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic Solar Energy in the United States Marine Corps Commercial Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    1992 Energy Policy Act of 1992 EPAct 2005 Energy Policy Act of 2005 EV1 Electric Vehicle 1 EVC Electric Vehicle Company FEMP Federal Energy...Battery Company to introduce an electric cab and carriage service known as the Electric Vehicle Company ( EVC ) in 1897. By 1899, the EVC —operating from...the original vision of its founding engineers—merged with the Motor Carriage division of the Pope Manufacturing Company (Kirsch, 2000). The EVC

  1. Effect of Rare Earth Elements (Er, Ho) on Semi-Metallic Materials (ScN) in an Applied Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV ( 0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5 0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a TEM

  2. Externally applied electric fields up to 1.6 × 10(5) V/m do not affect the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A; Tang, Sindy K Y; Bishop, Kyle J M; Whitesides, George M

    2011-02-10

    The freezing of water can initiate at electrically conducting electrodes kept at a high electric potential or at charged electrically insulating surfaces. The microscopic mechanisms of these phenomena are unknown, but they must involve interactions between water molecules and electric fields. This paper investigates the effect of uniform electric fields on the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water. Electric fields were applied across drops of water immersed in a perfluorinated liquid using a parallel-plate capacitor; the drops traveled in a microchannel and were supercooled until they froze due to the homogeneous nucleation of ice. The distribution of freezing temperatures of drops depended on the rate of nucleation of ice, and the sensitivity of measurements allowed detection of changes by a factor of 1.5 in the rate of nucleation. Sinusoidal alternation of the electric field at frequencies from 3 to 100 kHz prevented free ions present in water from screening the electric field in the bulk of drops. Uniform electric fields in water with amplitudes up to (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10(5) V/m neither enhanced nor suppressed the homogeneous nucleation of ice. Estimations based on thermodynamic models suggest that fields in the range of 10(7)-10(8) V/m might cause an observable increase in the rate of nucleation.

  3. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  4. The use of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to image deep volcanic structures: a methodological study applied to Mt. Vesuvius (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Somma, Renato; Brandi, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Geophysics is considered a powerful tool both for modeling the structure and controlling the dynamics of active volcanoes. In particular, the application of the electrical and electromagnetic (EM) methods is a topic of great interest, given the strong dependence of the electrical resistivity on the shallow and deep physical characteristics of a volcanic apparatus. Among the EM methods, the magnetotellurics (MT), reaching investigation depth ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of km, is the optimal tool to characterize the volcanic environments leading often to remarkable imaging of the buried structures. However, its dependence from a natural source make its application often difficult due to the presence of high noise levels. Moreover, MT curves are subjected to the so-called static shift effect, an anomalous displacement of the curves that cannot be modeled without some external constrain. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), on other hands, using an artificial source, ends in a more controlled imaging that is, however, often limited to the very shallow parts of the structures. The realization of a deeper ERT imaging is complicated by both physical and logistic reasons. The resolved depths depend from the intensity of the source, an electrical current injected into the ground, whereas the displacement of the measurements array often implies hard problems due to the nature of the volcanic environments. The actual progresses of the technologies offer some way to bypass the main limitation of the ERT technique. The use of new kind of measurement stations permits the realization of a sort of wireless electrodic arrays. The easiness of use of the actual power generators represents a further notable element. In conclusion, the ERT imaging could now represents an optimal tool also in the imaging of structures buried at intermediate depths (up to a few km). In such a way, also its interaction with the MT methods could results notably enhanced, due to the

  5. High-resolution electrical resistivity tomography applied to patterned ground, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, south-west Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kasprzak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT applied to three types of patterned ground in Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Svalbard, carried out in late July 2012. The structures investigated include sorted circles, non-sorted polygons and a net with sorted coarser material. ERT was used to recognize the internal ground structure, the shape of permafrost table below the active layer and the geometric relationships between permafrost, ground layering and surface patterns. Results of inversion modelling indicate that the permafrost table occurs at a depth of 0.5–1 m in a mountain valley and 1–2.5 m on raised marine terraces. The permafrost table was nearly planar beneath non-sorted deposits and wavy beneath sorted materials. The mutual relationships between the permafrost table and the shape of a stone circle are different from those typically presented in literature. Ground structure beneath the net with sorted coarser materials is complex as implied in convective models. In non-sorted polygons, the imaging failed to reveal vertical structures between them.

  6. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    OpenAIRE

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim; I.A. Khattab; Sharif, Adel O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II), from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper el...

  7. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is...

  8. 77 FR 50998 - Proposal To Exempt Certain Transactions Involving Not-for-Profit Electric Utilities; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., including ``green tags''). NFP Electric Entities in a particular geographic region, whose available... Federal tax law.\\39\\ \\39\\ Petition at 14 (internal citations omitted). Generally, the Petition...

  9. A Novel Approach Utilizing pnetCDF applying to the WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Yang, Cheng-en; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Fu, Joshua; Wong, Kwai; Gao, Yang

    2014-05-01

    I/O is part of a scientific model and it takes up a significant portion of the simulation. There is no exception for the newly developed WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model at US EPA. This two-way coupled meteorology and air quality model is composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We are using this two-way model to evaluate how accurate it simulates the effects of aerosol loading on radiative forcing between 1990 and 2010 when there were substantial aerosol emissions such as SO2 and NOx, reduction in North America and Europe. The I/O scheme in the current model does not make use of any parallel file system or parallel I/O approach. In addition the I/O takes about 15% - 28% of the entire simulation. Our novel approach not only utilizes pnetCDF parallel I/O technique but goes one step further to aggregate the data locally, i.e. along column dimension or row dimension in the spatial domain. This approach not only reduces the I/O traffic contention but also aggregated data enhances the I/O efficiency. In terms of I/O time, we have shown this method is about 6 to 10 times faster than the current existing I/O scheme in the model and about 20% - 3 times faster than strict application of pnetCDF. We are currently running the model on a Cray XE6 machine and finding ways to reduce the overall simulation time is crucial to the success to achieve our objective.

  10. Estimate of coolant flow in assemblies of a natural circulation BWR applying and equivalent electric model; Estimacion del flujo de refrigerante en los ensambles de un BWR de circulacion natural aplicando un modelo electrico equivalente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: julfi_jg@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The present work exposes the design and implementation of an advanced controller that it allows to estimate the coolant flow in fuel assemblies of a natural circulation BWR in real time. the complete development of this study is part of a doctoral project in course. In this work the construction of optimal controller is shown that allows to estimate the coolant flows in reactor and its operation applied to an equivalent electric model to natural circulation ESBWR. The controller design that allows the completely automatic starter of natural circulation reactor, required of a variables estimator not meter directly of nuclear power plant and use of local distributions estimates of coolant flow, (this controller type at the moment is utilized in the A BWR and several BWR in operation in Japan). The construction of estimator controller is mathematically based in the theory referring to Kalman filter, whose algorithm provides an advanced control of system. To prove the estimator operation was developed a simplified model that reproduces the basic dynamic of coolant flowing in the ESBWR, a practice way and very interesting of representing this phenomenon is by means the use of an equivalent electric model, which was developed starting from analogies that there is among the relation that keep the pressure differences with the mass flow and differences of electric potential with electric current. A detailed analysis of equivalence among models will be presented in a later article. (Author)

  11. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  12. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    significant failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic [TRU] content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  14. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  15. 抽油机电动机合理负载率的研究%Reasonable Range of Electrical Motor Power Utilization Ratio of Pumping Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋扬; 姜雪; 张德实; 王新民

    2012-01-01

    The load characteristic of pumping units is a cyclicity loading. In order to startup and run the pumping units normally, the electrical motor theory installed power of pumping unit was usually higher than running power for requirement of the motor margin, which makes the electric power lost. The reasonable upper limit of electrical motor power utilization ratio by theorical check of the motor heating conditions, overload capacity and startup character and the lower limit by characteristic curve of electrical motor were made. It had been checked by experimental study. Declining electrical motor of pumping units installed power reasonably not only can raise electrical motor power utilization ratio and decrease inirial investment, but also can make importance for energy saving of oilfield.%游梁式抽油机的负载属于一种周期性交变载荷,为了满足抽油机正常启动、运行,所用电动机装机功率普遍高于理论装机功率,使电动机长期处于低负荷运行,造成能耗浪费.通过对电动机发热条件、过载能力及启动性能的理论校验与分析,确定了电动机负载率的合理上限,根据电动机工作特性曲线确定了负载率的合理下限,并利用试验研究进行了验证,合理地降低抽油机所用电动机的装机功率,不仅可以提高油井电动机负载率,降低初期投入,而且对油田生产节能降耗意义重大.

  16. Early applied electric field stimulation attenuates secondary apoptotic responses and exerts neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zhang, G; Rong, W; Wang, A; Wu, C; Huo, X

    2015-04-16

    Injury potential, which refers to a direct current voltage between intact and injured nerve ends, is mainly caused by injury-induced Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies revealed that injury potential increased with the onset and severity of spinal cord injury (SCI), and an application of applied electric field stimulation (EFS) with the cathode distal to the lesion could delay and attenuate injury potential formation. As Ca2+ influx is also considered as a major trigger for secondary injury after SCI, we hypothesize that EFS would protect an injured spinal cord from secondary injury and consequently improve functional and pathological outcomes. In this study, rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, laminectomy only; (2) control group, subjected to SCI only; and (3) EFS group, received EFS immediately post-injury with the injury potential modulated to 0±0.5 mV by EFS. Functional recovery of the hind limbs was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. Results revealed that EFS-treated rats exhibited significantly better locomotor function recovery. Luxol fast blue staining was performed to assess the spared myelin area. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural analysis was performed to evaluate the size of myelinated nerve fibers. Findings showed that the EFS group rats exhibited significantly less myelin loss and had larger and more myelinated nerve fibers than the control group rats in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) 8 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, we found that EFS inhibited the activation of calpain and caspase-3, as well as the expression of Bax, as detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, EFS decreased cellular apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL, within 4 weeks post-injury. Results suggest that early EFS could significantly reduce spinal cord degeneration and improve functional and historical recovery. Furthermore, these neuroprotective effects may be related to

  17. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.

  18. Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (initial award through Award Modification 2); Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment (Award Modifications 3 - 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ebert

    2008-02-28

    This is the final report for the DOE-NETL grant entitled 'Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification & Insurance Processes for the Electric Utility Industry' and later, 'Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment'. It reflects work done on projects from 15 August 2004 to 29 February 2008. Projects were on a variety of topics, including commercial insurance for electrical utilities, the Electrical Reliability Organization, cost recovery by Gulf State electrical utilities after major hurricanes, and review of state energy emergency plans. This Final Technical Report documents and summarizes all work performed during the award period, which in this case is from 15 August 2004 (date of notification of original award) through 29 February 2008. This report presents this information in a comprehensive, integrated fashion that clearly shows a logical and synergistic research trajectory, and is augmented with findings and conclusions drawn from the research as a whole. Four major research projects were undertaken and completed during the 42 month period of activities conducted and funded by the award; these are: (1) Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (also referred to as the 'commercial insurance' research). Three major deliverables were produced: a pre-conference white paper, a two-day facilitated stakeholders workshop conducted at George Mason University, and a post-workshop report with findings and recommendations. All deliverables from this work are published on the CIP website at http://cipp.gmu.edu/projects/DoE-NETL-2005.php. (2) The New Electric Reliability Organization (ERO): an examination of critical issues associated with governance, standards development and implementation, and jurisdiction (also referred to as the 'ERO study'). Four major deliverables were produced: a series of preliminary memoranda for the staff of the Office of Electricity Delivery and

  19. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of response of liquid N,N-dimethylformamide to externally applied electric field using a polarizable force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xungai; Kong, Lingxue [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2014-01-28

    The behavior of Liquid N,N-dimethylformamide subjected to a wide range of externally applied electric fields (from 0.001 V/nm to 1 V/nm) has been investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. To approach the objective the AMOEBA polarizable force field was extended to include the interaction of the external electric field with atomic partial charges and the contribution to the atomic polarization. The simulation results were evaluated with quantum mechanical calculations. The results from the present force field for the liquid at normal conditions were compared with the experimental and molecular dynamics results with non-polarizable and other polarizable force fields. The uniform external electric fields of higher than 0.01 V/nm have a significant effect on the structure of the liquid, which exhibits a variation in numerous properties, including molecular polarization, local cluster structure, rotation, alignment, energetics, and bulk thermodynamic and structural properties.

  1. Silicon based light emitters utilizing radiation from dislocations; electric field induced shift of the dislocation-related luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arguirov, T.; Mchedlidze, T.; Kittler, M.; Reiche, M.; Wilhelm, T.; Hoang, T.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Dislocation rich regions can be controllably formed at a certain location inside a silicon wafer. We studied the light emission properties of such regions located in an electric field of a p–n junction under different excitation conditions. It was found that the luminescence spectra of the dislocati

  2. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size; Utilizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica na sinterizacao de minerio de ferro: influencia da granulometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, V.B.; Junca, E.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: victor_bridit@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 {mu}m and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  4. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  5. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengke eTian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied Zn formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by ICP-MS, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower pertioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant GroZyme resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using µ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  6. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaier, M; Langer, S; Sawilla, B

    2009-05-01

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Free Open Source Software: FOSS Based GIS for Spatial Retrievals of Appropriate Locations for Ocean Energy Utilizing Electric Power Generation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Free Open Source Software: FOSS based Geographic Information System: GIS for spatial retrievals of appropriate locations for ocean wind and tidal motion utilizing electric power generation plants is proposed. Using scatterometer onboard earth observation satellites, strong wind coastal areas are retrieved with FOSS/GIS of PostgreSQL/GIS. PostGIS has to be modified together with altimeter and scatterometer database. These modification and database creation would be a good reference to the users who would like to create GIS system together with database with FOSS.

  8. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  9. Statistics of public electric utilities, industrial plants, and other companies in Baden-Wuerttemberg for the year 1995; Statistik der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen, Industriebetriebe und anderer Werke in Baden Wuerttemberg fuer das Jahr 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Part one of these annual statistics contains an alphabetical index of electric utilities and of other utilities in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Part two compiles the individual results obtained by the electric utilities, by industrial plants and by other companies, and classifies them by the overall outputs of effective electrical energy. Part three compiles the overall results by presenting clearly arranged tabels and graphical representations which give the individual data of the electric utilities under review. (HS) [Deutsch] Die Jahresstatistik ist in drei Teile geteilt. Teil 1 enthaelt ein alphabetisches Verzeichnis der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) und anderer Werke in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Teil 2 enthaelt die Einzelergebnisse der EVU`s, der Industriebetriebe und der anderen Werke, jeweils geordnet nach der Hoehe der gesamten nutzbar abgegebenen elektrischen Arbeit. Teil 3 enthaelt die Gesamtergebnisse, die die Einzelangaben aller EVU`s in uebersichtlichen Tabellen und graphischen Darstellungen zusammenfasst. (HS)

  10. Statistics of public electric utilities, industrial plants, and other companies in Baden-Wuerttemberg for the year 1996; Statistik der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen, Industriebetriebe und anderer Werke in Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer das Jahr 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Part one of these annual statistics contains an alphabetical index of electric utilities and of other utilities in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Part two compiles the individual results obtained by the electric utilities, by industrial plants and by other companies, and classifies them by the overall outputs of effective electrical energy. Part three compiles the overall results by presenting clearly arranged tables and graphical representations which give the individual data of the electric utilities under review. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Jahresstatistik ist in drei Teile geteilt. Teil 1 enthaelt ein alphabetisches Verzeichnis der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) und anderer Werke in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Teil 2 enthaelt die Einzelergebnisse der EVU`s, der Industriebetriebe und der anderen Werke, jeweils geordnet nach der Hoehe der gesamten nutzbar abgegebenen elektrischen Arbeit. Teil 3 enthaelt die Gesamtergebnisse, die die Einzelangaben aller EVU`s in uebersichtlichen Tabellen und graphischen Darstellungen zusammenfasst. (orig.)

  11. Statistics of public electric utilities, industrial plants, and other companies in Baden-Wuerttemberg for the year 1997; Statistik der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen, Industriebetriebe und anderer Werke in Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer das Jahr 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Part one of these annual statistics contains an alphabetical index of electric utilities and of other utilities in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Part two compiles the individual results obtained by the electric utilities, by industrial plants and by other companies, and classifies them by the overall outputs of effective electrical energy. Part three compiles the overall results by presenting clearly arranged tables and graphical representations which give the individual data of the electric utilities under review. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Jahresstatistik ist in drei Teile geteilt. Teil 1 enthaelt ein alphabetisches Verzeichnis der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) und anderer Werke in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Teil 2 enthaelt die Einzelergebnisse der EVU`s, der Industriebetriebe und der anderen Werke, jeweils geordnet nach der Hoehe der gesamten nutzbar abgegebenen elektrischen Arbeit. Teil 3 enthaelt die Gesamtergebnisse, die die Einzelangaben aller EVU`s in uebersichtlichen Tabellen und graphischen Darstellungen zusammenfasst. (orig.)

  12. Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Devie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-grid (V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated.

  13. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  14. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  15. Simultaneously improving electrical conductivity and thermopower of polyaniline composites by utilizing carbon nanotubes as high mobility conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Yi, Su-in; Pu, Xiong; Yu, Choongho

    2015-05-13

    Electrical conductivity and thermopower of isotropic materials typically have inversely proportional correlation because both are strongly affected in the opposite way by the electronic carrier concentration. This behavior has been one of the major hurdles in developing high-performance thermoelectrics whose figure-of-merit enhances with large thermopower and high electrical conductivity. Here we report a promising method of simultaneously improving both properties with polyaniline (PANI) composites filled by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). With addition of double-wall CNTs (DWCNTs), the electronic mobility of PANI doped with camphorsulfonic acid (PANI-CSA) was raised from ∼0.15 to ∼7.3 cm(2)/(V s) (∼50 time improvement) while the carrier concentration was decreased from ∼2.1 × 10(21) to ∼5.6 × 10(20) cm(-3) (∼4 time reduction). The larger increase of mobility increased electrical conductivity despite the carrier concentration reduction that enlarges thermopower. The improvement in the carrier mobility could be attributed to the band alignment that attracts hole carriers to CNTs whose mobility is much higher than that of PANI-CSA. The electrical conductivity of the PANI-CSA composites with 30-wt % DWCNTs was measured to be ∼610 S/cm with a thermopower value of ∼61 μV/K at room temperature, resulting in a power factor value of ∼220 μW/(m K(2)), which is more than two orders higher than that of PANI-CSA as well as the highest among those of the previously reported PANI composites. Further study may result in high performance thermoelectric organic composites uniquely offering mechanical flexibility, light weight, low toxicity, and easy manufacturing. unlike conventional inorganic semiconductors.

  16. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  17. Estimates of electricity requirements for the recovery of mineral commodities, with examples applied to sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2011-01-01

    To produce materials from mine to market it is necessary to overcome obstacles that include the force of gravity, the strength of molecular bonds, and technological inefficiencies. These challenges are met by the application of energy to accomplish the work that includes the direct use of electricity, fossil fuel, and manual labor. The tables and analyses presented in this study contain estimates of electricity consumption for the mining and processing of ores, concentrates, intermediate products, and industrial and refined metallic commodities on a kilowatt-hour per unit basis, primarily the metric ton or troy ounce. Data contained in tables pertaining to specific currently operating facilities are static, as the amount of electricity consumed to process or produce a unit of material changes over time for a great number of reasons. Estimates were developed from diverse sources that included feasibility studies, company-produced annual and sustainability reports, conference proceedings, discussions with government and industry experts, journal articles, reference texts, and studies by nongovernmental organizations.

  18. R and D and Innovation Electric Utilities Challenges: the USA EPRI perspective and the European Horizon2020 framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagle, J. A.; Garcia Martin, J.; Martin Gomez, M.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the real challenges for the utilities worldwide to move the scientific and technological knowledge existing in our hands out of the laboratory and put it into the market place as rapidly as possible to provide a global electrification needed for a better worldwide life. Six main issues have been identified and each one is confronted with top ten challenges: Long-term operation of future and existing assets; Renewable energies; Zero-emission technologies; Energy Efficiency; Smart grids and cities and Water resources management. The corresponding challenges for each issue are described from both sides the USA utilities perspective and the European strategy with special emphasis in the road map for future R and D and innovation efforts needed for a Nuclear Energy renaissance policy.

  19. An Early Survey of Best Practices for the Use of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems by the Electric Utility Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, Rick M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monday, William [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This technical manual is about doing things safely. It isn’t so much a how-to guide as it is a collection of best practices from unmanned aerial system (UAS) operators from all over the world. The desired end state is to provide a touchstone for utility businesses, directors, managers, and operators that will inform them as they begin to strategize, plan, and incorporate this technology into day-to-day operations.

  20. Electricity utilization for ventilation purposes in new and old offices; Elanvaendning foer ventilation i nya och gamla kontor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The consumption of electric power for ventilation purposes in new office buildings is compared with an investigation made 1990-91. This study will be used in two planning scenarios, `frozen efficiency` and BaU (Business as Usual). With the technology of 1980s the power used for ventilation will increase from 190 GWh in 1991 to 210 GWh in the year 2010. The technology of the 1990s will give an increase to 205 GWh in the year 2010. 21 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  1. A study on electric power management for power producer-suppliers utilizing output of megawatt-solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth in penetration of photovoltaic generation units (PVs has brought new power management ideas, which achieve more profitable operation, to Power Producer-Suppliers (PPSs. The expected profit for the PPSs will improve if they appropriately operate their controllable generators and sell the generated electricity to contracted customers and Power Exchanges together with the output of Megawatt-Solar Power Plants (MSPPs. Moreover, we can expect that the profitable cooperation between the PPSs and the MSPPs decreases difficulties in the supply-demand balancing operation for the main power grids. However, it is necessary that the PPSs treat the uncertainty in output prediction of PVs carefully. This is because there is a risk for them to pay a heavy imbalance penalty. This paper presents a problem framework and its solution to make the optimal power management plan for the PPSs in consideration with the electricity procurement from the MSPPs. The validity of the authors’ proposal is verified through numerical simulations and discussions of their results.

  2. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy.

  3. Potential impacts of electric power production utilizing natural gas, renewables and carbon capture and sequestration on US Freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C; Malczynski, Leonard A; Kobos, Peter H; Klise, Geoffrey T; Shuster, Erik

    2013-08-06

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has important implications relative to future thermoelectric water use. A bounding analysis is performed using past greenhouse gas emission policy proposals and assumes either all effected capacity retires (lower water use bound) or is retrofitted (upper bound). The analysis is performed in the context of recent trends in electric power generation expansion, namely high penetration of natural gas and renewables along with constrained cooling system options. Results indicate thermoelectric freshwater withdrawals nationwide could increase by roughly 1% or decrease by up to 60% relative to 2009 levels, while consumption could increase as much as 21% or decrease as much as 28%. To identify where changes in freshwater use might be problematic at a regional level, electric power production has been mapped onto watersheds with limited water availability (where consumption exceeds 70% of gauged streamflow). Results suggest that between 0.44 and 0.96 Mm(3)/d of new thermoelectric freshwater consumption could occur in watersheds with limited water availability, while power plant retirements in these watersheds could yield 0.90 to 1.0 Mm(3)/d of water savings.

  4. Synergistic Use of Nighttime Satellite Data, Electric Utility Infrastructure, and Ambient Population to Improve Power Outage Detections in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony A. Cole

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic hazards are frequently responsible for disaster events, leading to damaged physical infrastructure, which can result in loss of electrical power for affected locations. Remotely-sensed, nighttime satellite imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB can monitor power outages in disaster-affected areas through the identification of missing city lights. When combined with locally-relevant geospatial information, these observations can be used to estimate power outages, defined as geographic locations requiring manual intervention to restore power. In this study, we produced a power outage product based on Suomi-NPP VIIRS DNB observations to estimate power outages following Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This product, combined with known power outage data and ambient population estimates, was then used to predict power outages in a layered, feedforward neural network model. We believe this is the first attempt to synergistically combine such data sources to quantitatively estimate power outages. The VIIRS DNB power outage product was able to identify initial loss of light following Hurricane Sandy, as well as the gradual restoration of electrical power. The neural network model predicted power outages with reasonable spatial accuracy, achieving Pearson coefficients (r between 0.48 and 0.58 across all folds. Our results show promise for producing a continental United States (CONUS- or global-scale power outage monitoring network using satellite imagery and locally-relevant geospatial data.

  5. Spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction applied to seeded extreme-ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni; Dacasa, Hugo; Lozano, Magali; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Zeitoun, Philippe; Garzella, David; Merdji, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    We present a setup for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers (FEL's) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Two delayed and spectrally shifted replicas are produced and used for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). We show that it can be achieved by a simple arrangement of the seed laser. Temporal shape and phase obtained in FEL simulations are well retrieved by the SPIDER reconstruction, allowing to foresee the implementation of this diagnostic on existing and future sources. This will be a significant step towards an experimental investigation and control of FEL spectral phase.

  6. Estimation of the coolant flow through a natural circulation BWR fuel channel applying and equivalent electrical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Campus Morelos en IMTA, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: julfi_ig@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work presents the design and implementation of an advanced controller for a reduced order model of a BWR reactor core cooled by natural circulating water, which allows real time estimates of coolant flows through fuel assemblies about standard neutron flux strings. Nuclear power plants with boiling water reactors control individual fuel assembly coolant flows by forced circulation using external or internal water pumps and different core support plate orifices. These two elements reduce flow dependency on local channel pressure drops. In BWR reactors using only natural circulation coolant flows, these two elements are not available and therefore individual channel coolant flows are highly dependent in local conditions, such as power distributions and local pressure drops. Therefore it is expected that grater uncertainties in these variables be used during safety, fuel management and other analysis, which in turns may lead to increased operation penalties, such as tighter operating limits. The objective of this work is to asses by computer simulations means to reduce uncertainties in the measurement of fuel assembly coolant flows and eventually the associated penalties. During coolant phase transitions, pressure drops and local power may alter local natural circulation through fuel assemblies and flow estimates can be helped or not by control rod moves. This work presents the construction of an optimal controller for a core flow estimator based on a reduced order model of the coolant going though the reactor vessel components and nuclear core. This model is to be driven by plant signals from standard BWR instrumentation in order to estimate the coolant flows in selected fuel assemblies about a LPRM string. For this purpose an equivalent electrical model has been mathematically developed and numerically tested. The power-flow maps of typical BRW are used as steady state references for this equivalent model. Once these were fully reproduced for steady state

  7. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  8. Appearance of perfect amorphous linear bulk polyethylene under applied electric field and the analysis by radial distribution function and direct tunneling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Bin, Yuezhen; Yang, Wenxiao; Fan, Shaoyan; Matsuo, Masaru

    2014-02-27

    Without melting flow, linear ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) provided X-ray intensity curve from only amorphous halo at 129.0 °C (surface temperature, Ts arisen by Joule heat) lower than the conventionally known melting point 145.5 °C on applying electric field to UHMWPE-nickel-coated carbon fiber (NiCF) composite. Such surprising phenomenon was analyzed by simultaneous measurements of X-ray intensity, electric current, and Ts as a function of time. The calculated radial distribution function revealed the amorphous structure with disordered chain arrangement. The appearance of such amorphous phase was arisen by the phenomenon that the transferring electrons between overlapped adjacent NiCFs by tunneling effect struck together with X-ray photons and some of the transferring electron flown out from the gap to UHMWPE matrix collided against carbon atoms of UHMWPE. The impact by the collision caused disordering chain arrangement in crystal grains.

  9. Determination of Specific Losses in the Limbs of an Epstein Frame Using a Three Epstein Frame Methodology Applied to Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Guillaume; Penin, Rémi; Lecointe, Jean-Philippe; Brudny, Jean-François; Belgrand, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    An experimental method to characterize the magnetic properties of Grain Oriented Electrical Steel in the rolling direction is proposed in this paper. It relies on the use of three 25 cm Epstein frames combined to generate three test-frames of different lengths. This enables the identification of the effective specific losses of the electrical steel when magnetization is applied along the rolling direction. As a consequence, it evidences the deviation of the loss figures obtained using the standardised Epstein test. The difference in losses is explained by the fact that the described method gives “only” the losses attached to the straight parts. The concept of the magnetic path length as defined by the standard is discussed. PMID:27271637

  10. Studies on the Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Parabolic and Semi-parabolic Quantum Wells with Applied Electric Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; XIE Hong-Jing

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of compact density matrix approach and iterative procedure, a detailed procedure for the calculation of the second-harmonic generation (SHG)susceptibility tensor is given in the electric-field-biased parabolic and semi-parabolic quantum wells (QWs). The simple analytical formula for the SHG susceptibility in the systems is also deduced. Numerical results on typical AlGaAs/GaAs materials show that, for the same effective width,the SHG susceptibility in semi-parabolic QW is larger than that in parabolic QW due to the self-asymmetry of the semiparabolic QW, and the applied electric field can make the SHG susceptibilities in both systems enhance remarkably.Moreover, the SHG susceptibility is also related to the parabolic confinement frequency and the relaxation rate of the systems.

  11. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  12. Exciton spectra in GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells in an externally applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangfen

    1988-12-01

    A theory on the exciton spectra in quantum wells in the presence of an external electric field is presented. The theory emphasizes the usually ignored aspect, namely, that the different exciton spinor components correspond to different in-plane angular momenta and only a single spinor component contributes to the optical transition, which in conjunction with the hybridization of the heavy and light holes will affect the exciton binding energies and oscillator strengths drastically. Numerical calculations based on the theory explain the contradictory behavior of the h12a peak observed by Collins et al., which is actually the 2p state of the light-hole-conduction-band (LH1-CB1) exciton.

  13. Pico-force optical exchange (pico-FOX): utilizing optical forces applied to an orthogonal electroosmotic flow for particulate enrichment from mixed sample streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J R; Kim, Soo Y; Hart, Sean J; Collins, Greg E; Terray, Alex

    2013-09-17

    Results are reported from a combined optical force and electrokinetic microfluidic device that separates individual particulates from molecular components in a mixed sample stream. A pico-Newton optical force was applied to an orthogonal electroosmotic flow carrying a hydrodynamically pinched, mixed sample, resulting in the separation of the various particles from the sample stream. Different combinations of polystyrene, PMMA, and silica particles with a commercially available dye were utilized to test the different separation modes available, from purely optical force to combined optical and electrophoretic forces. The impact of various particle properties on particle separation and separation efficiency were explored, including size (2, 6, 10 μm), refractive index, and electrophoretic mobility. Particle addressability was achieved by moving particles to different outlets on the basis of particle size, refractive index, and electrophoretic differences. Separations of 6 and 10 μm polystyrene particles led to only 3% particle contamination in the original sample stream and interparticle type enrichment levels >80%. The unique addressability of three different particle materials (polystyrene, PMMA, and silica) of the same size (2 μm) led to each being separated into a unique outlet without measurable contamination of the other particle types using optical force and electrophoretic mobility. In addition to particle separation, the device was able to minimize dye diffusion, leading to >95% dye recovery. This combined platform would have applications for noninvasive sample preparation of mixed molecular/particulate systems for mating with traditional analytics as well as efficient removal of harmful, degrading components from complex mixtures.

  14. Web-services-based integration of electric power utility real-time applications%基于Web服务的电力企业实时信息应用集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蓬; 李欣然; 唐国庆; 徐青山

    2011-01-01

    分析了电力企业实时应用各异构系统间难以共享信息的现状.基于Web服务技术设计了能提供业务服务、应用服务、客户服务和编制服务等多种服务的标准化的松耦合的一体化电力实时信息应用集成框架,应用Web服务提供通用基础架构支持,使用基于知识库的编制服务实现SCADA、EMS、DMS等实时应用系统间的实时信息互通和互操作.集成框架是否合理可根据系统安全性、可用性、性能、可扩展性和适应性等方面进行评估.%The barriers of information sharing among the heterogeneous real-time systems used in electric power utility are analyzed. The loosely-coupled and standardized framework for the real-time information application integration of electric power utility is designed based on Web services,which can provide business service,application service,customer service,orchestration service and so on. The Web services are applied to construct the general infrastructure while the knowledge-based orchestration services are used to realize the real-time information exchange and inter-operation among SCADA(Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), EMS (Energy Management System), DMS (Distribution Management System) and other real-time application systems. The reasonableness of integration framework can be evaluated in security,availability,performanee,extensibility and adaptability.

  15. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G.

    2008-05-15

    utilization planning is possible as for any other energy resource. In Sudan, Baggase, Groundnuts shells and Roselle stalks could be considered as possible fuels. The experimental work done in chapter 5 showed that GN.S could be gasified in down draft gasifiers, which are less costly and simpler to operate than circulating systems. Acceptable values of gas thermal properties (c.v.{proportional_to} 4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, 30 % of burnable gases) at fairly continuing processes were obtained. In chapter 6, a concept for biomass power plant was drafted, the main components are: downdraft, air based gasifier connected to ICE, multi-stage gas cleaning system (cyclones, washer and filters) mechanical ash removal and semi closed water cycle. Main operation measures are: electricity is the sole product; working time is 150 day/year between mid November-mid Mars. Environmental hazards of waste management e.g. flue gas emission and waste water management are the limiting factors. In the last part of chapter 6 an economic analysis was carried out. At a value of 3000 Euro/kW for the initial system and fuel price of 100000 Euro/year for {proportional_to}6 GWh then a price of 0.23 Euro/kWh and a return period of 24 years could be obtained. The study concludes in chapter 7 that biomass gasification under the local conditions has its comparative merits however a high institutional support is needed at the beginning. (orig.)

  16. Use of neural networks to evaluate the impact of proposed transactions on the security of a pool of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali Seyed

    Power system networks are traditionally managed by utility companies that control the process of generation, transmission and distribution in their local region. These power systems are also known as pool systems, where all generators inject their power into the system (pool) and all loads satisfy their needs from the system. In traditional systems, each utility company determines a single price that changes with time, known as the spot price. Today, power systems are under pressure to open their "domains" of control and provide their services in a competitive market. Known as deregulated power systems, generation, transmission and distribution may be owned and managed separately. Another new entity, known as the Independent System Operator (ISO), coordinates the activities of these companies. In an auction-like process, generation and distribution companies propose power transactions (bids) and the ISO decides which ones to honor. Selecting a set of transactions from all bids is a challenging problem for a number of reasons. A summary of these reasons is: The selection process usually repeats every hour; the number of bids to select is not limited to one; the selection process should not be in favor of any entity; the selection process should be feasible; and it should contribute to the competitors' profits. Most studies on deregulation of power systems consider the feasibility problem and use security as the main criterion. These studies usually assume that transactions are given in a form that can be used by traditional power system measures. This adds another dimension to the difficulty in deregulation: the lack of a one-to-one relationship between the entities' bidding network (virtual) and the power system network (physical). This study provides a general framework that identifies details of a selection process in deregulated power systems and also provides a remedy for reducing the selection time by employing feasibility as a constraint. In the proposed

  17. Fixed-base flywheel storage systems for electric-utility applications: An assessment of economic viability and R and D priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, M.; Steele, R. S.

    1983-02-01

    Electric utility side meter storage options were assessed for the daily 2 h peaking spike application. The storage options considered included compressed air, batteries, and flywheels. The potential role for flywheels in this application was assessed and research and development (R and D) priorities were established for fixed base flywheel systems. Results of the worth cost analysis indicate that where geologic conditions are favorable, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a strong competitor against combustion turbines. Existing battery and flywheel systems rated about equal, both being, at best, marginally uncompetitive with turbines. Advanced batteries, if existing cost and performance goals are met, could be competitive with CAES. A three task R and D effort for flywheel development appears warranted. The first task, directed at reducing fabrication coss and increasing performance of a chopped fiber, F-glass, solid disk concept, could produce a competitive flywheel system.

  18. The impact of economic regulation on attempts to curb expense preference behavior: a micro-data analysis of CEO compensation schemes for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mixon, F.G. [Department of Economics and International Business, University of Southern Mississippi, Box 5072, USM Station, Hattiesburg, MI (United States); Upadhyaya, K.P. [Department of Economics, Pennsylvania State University, Berks-Lehigh Valley College, Reading, PA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study uses a large, micro data set to present evidence which suggests that owners of regulated electric utilities have little incentive to structure CEO compensation packages in an effort to curb potential expense preference behavior. Because such potential behavior occurs, or would occur, at no cost to the firm (or the firm's owners), little incentive exists to structure compensation schemes in a way that would curb such behavior (e.g. by compensating them with incentive bonus plans and stock options). The results presented here augment those which examine other industries (e.g. banking) in an effort to point out the relationships between ownership organization, political involvement and expense preference behavior. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Investigation of the metabolic consequences of impregnating spinach leaves with trehalose and applying a pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Panarese, Valentina; Herremans, Els; Cantre, Dennis; Schoo, Rick; Toraño, Javier Sastre; Schluepmann, Henriette; Wadso, Lars; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart M; Dejmek, Petr; Gómez Galindo, Federico

    2016-12-01

    The impregnation of leafy vegetables with cryoprotectants using a combination of vacuum impregnation (VI) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) has been proposed by our research group as a method of improving their freezing tolerance and consequently their general quality after thawing. In this study, we have investigated the metabolic consequences of the combination of these unit operations on spinach. The vacuum impregnated spinach leaves showed a drastic decrease in the porosity of the extracellular space. However, at maximum weight gain, randomly located air pockets remained, which may account for oxygen-consuming pathways in the cells being active after VI. The metabolic activity of the impregnated leaves showed a drastic increase that was further enhanced by the application of PEF to the impregnated tissue. Impregnating the leaves with trehalose by VI led to a significant accumulation of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), however, this was not further enhanced by PEF. It is suggested that the accumulation of T6P in the leaves may increase metabolic activity, and increase tissue resistance to abiotic stress.

  20. Recursive decision-making feedback extension (RDFE) for fuzzy scheduling scheme applied on electrical power control generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracios-Marin, C.A.; Nuno-de-la-Parra, P.; Vega-Lebrum, Carlos [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, 21 Sur 1103 Col, Puebla, Pue, 72220 Santiago (Mexico); Munoz-Hernandez, G.A.; Estevez-Carreon, J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Av. Tecnologico 420. Col. Maravillas, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Diaz-Sanchez, A. [INAOE. - Luis Enrique Erro. No. 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    A new decision feedback extension (DFE) and an alternative application to schedule industrial processes are presented. The DFE is defined as a recursive decision feedback extension (RDFE), where the recursive part is developed to assign the probability of occurrence in the operation of a set of machines working together using an objective function of production. The fundaments of fuzzy factors and the principle of maximum membership function are used to develop the new extension. At last, RDFE is proposed to generate a fuzzy scheduler, which is used to apply an intelligent control scheme to a hydropower station. (author)

  1. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A

    2012-09-28

    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum.

  2. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  3. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Study on Dewatering of Activated Sludge Under Applied Electric Field%水平电场作用下活性污泥的脱水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季雪元; 王毅力; 冯晶

    2012-01-01

    通过考察水平电场作用下活性污泥的性质(pH、电导率)、絮凝调理及电场因素(电压大小、电场应用方式、极板间距)对污泥电脱水效果的影响,确定了水平电场下污泥电脱水的最佳条件.结果表明,对于本研究的活性污泥,以水平电场为驱动力进行脱水,在原始pH(6.93)、电导率=1.46 mS·cm-1的条件下污泥电脱水效果最好;投加阳离子型聚丙烯酰胺(CPAM)可以使污泥脱水率提高30%~40%,缩短达到相同电脱水效果的时间,但对电脱水率的提高不显著.水平电场施加60 min,絮凝调理后污泥的电脱水率可达83.12%,而对应的原始污泥则需要120 min才能达到75.31%的电脱水效果.延迟电场应用对污泥电脱水效果产生抑制作用.此外,本研究确定的最佳脱水条件为:CPAM投药量为9 g.kg-1,电场强度为600V·m-1,极板间距为40 mm,电场应用时间为60 min.在上述最佳条件下对活性污泥进行电脱水,其含水率从99.30%降至95.15%,脱水率可达85.33%.%For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge(AS),the effect of pH and conductivity of AS,flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field(voltage magnitude,method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated,and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained.The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value(6.93) and conductivity(1.46 mS·cm-1).CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process,whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate.The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes,while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes.The delay of applying the electric field had

  5. Motor unit recruitment when neuromuscular electrical stimulation is applied over a nerve trunk compared with a muscle belly: triceps surae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, A J; Clair, J M; Collins, D F

    2011-03-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be delivered over a nerve trunk or muscle belly and can generate contractions by activating motor (peripheral pathway) and sensory (central pathway) axons. In the present experiments, we compared the peripheral and central contributions to plantar flexion contractions evoked by stimulation over the tibial nerve vs. the triceps surae muscles. Generating contractions through central pathways follows Henneman's size principle, whereby low-threshold motor units are activated first, and this may have advantages for rehabilitation. Statistical analyses were performed on data from trials in which NMES was delivered to evoke 10-30% maximum voluntary torque 2-3 s into the stimulation (Time(1)). Two patterns of stimulation were delivered: 1) 20 Hz for 8 s; and 2) 20-100-20 Hz for 3-2-3 s. Torque and soleus electromyography were quantified at the beginning (Time(1)) and end (Time(2); 6-7 s into the stimulation) of each stimulation train. H reflexes (central pathway) and M waves (peripheral pathway) were quantified. Motor unit activity that was not time-locked to each stimulation pulse as an M wave or H reflex ("asynchronous" activity) was also quantified as a second measure of central recruitment. Torque was not different for stimulation over the nerve or the muscle. In contrast, M waves were approximately five to six times smaller, and H reflexes were approximately two to three times larger during NMES over the nerve vs. the muscle. Asynchronous activity increased by 50% over time, regardless of the stimulation location or pattern, and was largest during NMES over the muscle belly. Compared with NMES over the triceps surae muscles, NMES over the tibial nerve produced contractions with a relatively greater central contribution, and this may help reduce muscle atrophy and fatigue when NMES is used for rehabilitation.

  6. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  7. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  8. Case study for underground workers at an electric utility: how a research institution, university, and industry collaboration improved occupational health through ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amy; Usher, Debra; Marklin, Richard; Seeley, Patricia; Yager, Janice W

    2006-08-01

    This article describes a collaboration between a research institution, a university, and a medium-sized electric power utility. Two ergonomics teams were created at the host utility to identify tasks with risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and propose ergonomic interventions for these tasks. Both ergonomics teams focused on tasks performed by underground workers: one team focused on manhole-vault tasks, and the other team focused on direct-buried cable job tasks. Several of the ergonomic interventions were tested in the ergonomics laboratory at the university. The results of one of the laboratory experiments indicated that a 2nd class lever tool reduced muscle forces required to remove and replace a manhole cover as compared with a T-handle attached to a hook and chain. The results of another laboratory experiment demonstrated that a battery-powered cutter reduced muscle forces to cut cable as compared to a manual cutting tool. A collaborative ergonomics effort is an effective method for identifying problematic tasks for workers in a particular industry, evaluating those tasks, and developing best work practices for that type of industry. This approach could be used by other industries in their effort to reduce the incidence, cost, and severity of MSDs in the workplace.

  9. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi You

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions of using existing, or developing their own, solutions for further applications.

  10. Variational reduced-density-matrix theory applied to the potential energy surfaces of carbon monoxide in the presence of electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2006-04-27

    The variational optimization of the energy with respect to the two-electron reduced-density matrix (2-RDM), constrained by N-representability conditions, can determine the shape of molecular potential energy surfaces with useful accuracy. In this paper, we apply the 2-RDM method with a first-order optimization algorithm [Mazziotti, D. A. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004, 93, 213001] to investigating the potential energy surfaces of carbon monoxide in the presence and absence of an electric field. Two beneficial characteristics of the 2-RDM method for computing potential energy surfaces include the following: (i) its ability to capture multireference effects without specifying any reference wave function or density matrix and (ii) its guarantee of a global energy minimum in the variational optimization. The 2-RDM method produces electronic ground-state energies with similar accuracy at equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries in both the presence and the absence of the electric field. Computed dipole moments are similar in accuracy to the values from the computationally expensive configuration interaction with single, double, triple, and quadruple excitations. These surfaces have important applications in quantum molecular control theory.

  11. Digital filtering techniques applied to electric power systems protection; Tecnicas de filtragem digital aplicadas a protecao de sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Helio Glauco Ferreira

    1996-12-31

    This work introduces an analysis and a comparative study of some of the techniques for digital filtering of the voltage and current waveforms from faulted transmission lines. This study is of fundamental importance for the development of algorithms applied to digital protection of electric power systems. The techniques studied are based on the Discrete Fourier Transform theory, the Walsh functions and the Kalman filter theory. Two aspects were emphasized in this study: Firstly, the non-recursive techniques were analysed with the implementation of filters based on Fourier theory and the Walsh functions. Secondly, recursive techniques were analyzed, with the implementation of the filters based on the Kalman theory and once more on the Fourier theory. (author) 56 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Magnetic Imaging of Applied and Propagating Action Currents in Cardiac Tissue Slices: Determination of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivities in a Two-Dimensional Bidomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Daniel Joseph

    We describe the first, high-resolution magnetic images of applied currents and propagating action currents in slices of canine cardiac tissue. This tissue was maintained in vitro at 37^circC. Our main conclusions are summarized as follows: the action currents produce magnetic fields which are measurable; during the initial stages of the propagating action potential, small, expanding, quatrefoil loops of current develop; the magnetic fields produced by repolarization currents are larger than previously anticipated. Most of the current associated with the propagating action potential is confined within the wavefront and should be magnetically silent; however, differences in the intracellular and extracellular electrical conductivities, in both the longitudinal and transverse fiber directions, are great enough that expanding quatrefoil current densities are associated with the wavefront and produce measurable magnetic fields. Since action currents are affected by the electrical conductivities, it is of interest to determine their values, which depend not only upon the tissue characteristics, but also on the mathematical model used to interpret the measured data. In our analysis of current injection, we use the anisotropic bidomain model which incorporates a passive, linear membrane. We introduce theoretical techniques to calculate the anisotropic conductivities of a two-dimensional bidomain. To apply these techniques to magnetic fields resulting from current injection into cardiac tissue slices, we need to improve the higher spatial frequency content of our present measurements. This may be done by measuring the magnetic field closer to the cardiac slice (presently 2.5 mm), decreasing the sampling interval of the measurement, and increasing the sampling area of the field. Magnetic fields are produced by propagating action currents, which are in turn the result of the propagating action potential. From the magnetic field, we directly image isochronal transmembrane

  13. What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuld, L.M.; Borska, D.L. [Fuld & Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer (rather than competitor) intelligence is desparately needed, (2) Competitor Costs-As prices drive markets, utilities must learn how competitors use the technology to gain a cost advantage, and (3) Market Savvy-Recognizing threats means more that just crunching the numbers. It means converting raw data into a strategy that will expose a competitor`s weakness. The complex economics will require companies to apply all types of intelligence to solve competitive problems. This coherent approach requires changes in the way both management and the organization handle vital intelligence.

  14. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  15. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Second quarterly progress report, May 1-August 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coury, G.E.; Vorum, M.

    1977-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop an initial quantification of the magnitude of low-temperature geothermal resources in the San Luis Valley area of south-central Colorado, and to analyze the engineering and economic factors pertinent to the non-electric utilization of these resources. The industrial applications being evaluated are the supply of heat and process water from the geothermal source for the malting of barley for beer production, and for the refining of sugar from beets. Also under consideration is the augmentation of municipal water supplies in some cities in the southern region of Colorado, with the possibility that some space heating may be accomplished before consumption of the water, itself. A review of the potential size of the resource in the San Luis Valley has been completed and is included. Several process flow options for using low-temperature brine to supply heat to a beet sugar refinery are being studied. One option is presented here in detail, and calculations for more efficient processes are underway.

  16. Research for application of optical wavelength multiplexing method in electric utility communications networks. Hikarihacho taju hoshiki no denryoku eno tekiyo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohi, T. (The Kasai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-06-25

    A study was made on the optical wavelength multiplexing method (independent signals of different wavelengths are transmitted) as an optical communication method capable of responding to electric utility communications networks, and the SCM method (frequency-multiplexed signals are transmitted, with analog modulation of the optical source). 1.31 and 1.55 [mu]m optical signals were multiplex-transmitted to the 1.31 [mu]m optical network to reveal loss fluctuations of OPGW, and overhead and underground cables. The loss of fusion points was not observed. When 1.55 [mu]m light was transmitted to the existing optical transmission cable, loss and loss fluctuations became large slightly, but the fluctuations caused no particular problem in actual application. SCM multiplexing transmission equipment was test-manufactured, and a demonstration test was conducted on it. Optical transmission/reception level fluctuations, video signal channel S/N characteristics, audio/voice/data channel characteristics were made clear. It was confirmed that the SCM optical transmission equipment was stable in the transmission length of 30km or longer. Both the methods studied are believed to be practically applicable. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Lima, Êmyle; Teixeira Goes, Bruno; Zugaib Cavalcanti, João; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz), and High-TENS (100 Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. PMID:25147807

  18. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz, and High-TENS (100 Hz. The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity.

  19. Factors which determine the utilization of urban solid residue in vapor and electric power generation; Fatores que condicionam o aproveitamento dos residuos solidos urbanos nas geracoes eletricas e de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Flavio B.; Sanchez, Wladimyr [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    this work describes the main aspects concerning the utilization of urban solid residues in electric power and vapor generation such as: the transportation of the solid residues; the strategic factors which should be considered for the success of the plant; economic and financial analysis; and environmental impacts 5 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Distributed architecture for operation and supervision center: the solution adopted in CELESC, an electric power utility of Santa Catarina State - South Brazil; A solucao adotando arquitetura distribuida para centro de operacao e supervisao na CELESC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Claudio de Jesus; Kina, Eduardo Tomio [Asea Brown Boveri, XX (Brazil); Antunes, Milton de Haro; Silva, Jorge Henrique C. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina SA, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work aims at presenting the SDSC, CELESC`s, an electric power utility of Santa Catarina State - South Brazil, Control and Supervision Digital System, project, on the context of the CELESC`s Control and Supervision Guide Plan. The work also describes the solution adopted by the company in terms of technology and Operation Centers` arquitecture 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  2. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  3. On the Necessity of Changes in the Strategy of Utilization Ship Boiler Technical Condition Maintenance in the Aspect of LNG Applied as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Zeńczak, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Heavy oils (HFO fuels) used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utilization boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degradation. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, therefore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO), which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG), onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  4. ON THE NECESSITY OF CHANGES IN THE STRATEGY OF UTILIZATION SHIP BOILER TECHNICAL CONDITION MAINTENANCE IN THE ASPECT OF LNG APPLIED AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy oils (HFO fuels used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utiliza-tion boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degrada-tion. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, there-fore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO, which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG, onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  5. Electricity supply contracts: Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G.; Vezzoni, M.; Grassani, E. (Sistemi Integrati per il Risparmio Energetico, Pavia (Italy) Necchi Compressori, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents a computer program, ACEE (Electrical Energy Consumption Analysis), developed to assist industrial firms in Italy to determine their electrical power consumption, optimize it through production process interventions, and then utilize the results to draft up optimum electricity supply contracts with ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). The program also allows the user to properly budget future allocations for electricity costs.

  6. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology, ......-scale electricity storage with a round-trip efficiency exceeding 70% and an estimated storage cost around 3 b kW-1 h-1, i.e., comparable to pumped hydro and much better than previously proposed technologies...

  7. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO electrode with periodic holes (perforations under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  8. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...

  9. Most effective way to improve the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated BN sheets: applying external biaxial strain and an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-15

    Density functional calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-atoms-decorated BN sheets under both external biaxial strain and a vertical electric field. The Na atom generally has the weakest binding strength to a given substrate compared with the other elements in the periodic table [PANS, 2016, 113, 3735]. Consequently, it is understudied in comparison to other elements and there are few reports about the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated nanomaterials. We calculated that the average binding energy (Eb) of Na atoms to the pure BN sheet is 1.08 eV, which is smaller than the cohesive energy of bulk Na (1.11 eV). However, the Eb can be increased to 1.15 eV under 15% biaxial strain, and further up to 1.53 eV with the control of both 15% biaxial strain and a 5.14 V nm(-1) electric field (E-field). Therefore, the application of biaxial strain and an external upward E-field can prevent clustering of the Na atoms on the surface of a BN sheet, which is crucial for the hydrogen storage. Each Na atom on the surface of a BN sheet can adsorb only one H2 molecule when no strain or E-field is applied; however, the absorption increases to five H2 molecules under 15% biaxial strain and six H2 molecules under both 15% biaxial strain combined with a 5.14 V nm(-1)E-field. The average adsorption energies for H2 of BN-(Na-mH2) (m = 1-6) are within the range of practical applications (0.2-0.6 eV). The hydrogen gravimetric density of the periodic BN-(Na-6H2)4 structure is 9 wt%, which exceeds the 5.5 wt% value that should be met by 2017 as specified by the US Department of Energy. On the other side, removal of the biaxial strain and E-field can help to desorb the H2 molecule. These findings suggest a new route to design hydrogen storage materials under near-ambient conditions.

  10. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  11. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  12. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  13. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  14. From a corporate group of electric utilities to a trendsetting industrial heavy weight. RWE looking back on 100 years of successful business; Vom Stromkonzern zur Zukunftsgruppe. 100 Jahre RWE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoerster, K.

    1998-07-01

    The century was characterized by exciting as well as dramatic times. The Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke Aktiengesellschaft (RWE) was founded in Essen/Germany on 25 April 1898. The mother cell of the successful electric utility was the first, then coal-fired power plant erected next to the coal mine called Victoria Mathias. The owner was the dynamic personality and industrialist Hugo Stinnes. The article gives an outline of the history and rise of the enterprise from a regional electric utility to a diversified, globe-spanning business enterprise. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Aufregende und dramatische Zeitlaeufe bestimmen dieses Jahrhundert seit dem 25. April 1898. An diesem Tag wurde der Gruendungsvertrag der Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Elektrizitaetswerks Aktiengesellschaft in Essen unterzeichnet. Keimzelle des Stromversorgers war das erste Kraftwerk der jungen Gesellschaft neben der Zeche Victoria Mathias. Eigentuemer: Der dynamische Industrielle Hugo Stinnes. Das 20. Jahrhundert umspannt auch die Entwicklung der RWE vom regionalen Stromversorger zum international operierenden Grosskonzern. (orig./RHM)

  15. Guarantee of property right in open access systems. Legal study of property right of electric utilities and expropriation; Open access ni okeru zaisanken no hosho. Denki jigyo ni okeru zaisanken to shuyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    A study has been made about the relationship between open access, which has now become an important element of the electric utilities renovation efforts in the U.S. and Europe, and property right. The meaning of open access is to guarantee free access to suppliers by securing fair competition between them through separation of the vertical integration in power transmission and opening the transmission network to final customers. In case of Japan, the U.S., and Germany where private sector suppliers run electric utilities, however, a need arises to consider the property right that such suppliers enjoy as guaranteed by their Constitutions. The outcomes of discussions made in Germany and the State of California were complied, and some conclusions were reached. It constitutes an infringement of their property right for the authorities to order them to allow open access without compensation. In case the authorities use expropriation for the same purpose, they have to make it known clearly that the separation and opening is to the benefit of the public and must compensate fully for their action. There is no problem in giving the authorities the power to force the electric utilities to sign a wheeling contract in case the latter unlawfully rejects to sign one proposed by a wheeling-requesting party. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. High School Student Perceptions of the Utility of the Engineering Design Process: Creating Opportunities to Engage in Engineering Practices and Apply Math and Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Leema; Steingut, Rebecca; Ko, Pat

    2014-12-01

    Research and policy documents increasingly advocate for incorporating engineering design into K-12 classrooms in order to accomplish two goals: (1) provide an opportunity to engage with science content in a motivating real-world context; and (2) introduce students to the field of engineering. The present study uses multiple qualitative data sources (i.e., interviews, artifact analysis) in order to examine the ways in which engaging in engineering design can support students in participating in engineering practices and applying math and science knowledge. This study suggests that students better understand and value those aspects of engineering design that are more qualitative (i.e., interviewing users, generating multiple possible solutions) than the more quantitative aspects of design which create opportunities for students to integrate traditional math and science content into their design work (i.e., modeling or systematically choosing between possible design solutions). Recommendations for curriculum design and implementation are discussed.

  17. The Investigation Of Utilizing Rapeseed Flowers Oil As A Reliable Feedstock To Produce Biofuel And To Be Applied In Iraqi Kurdistan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribwar K. Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world demand for energy in recent decade has been dramatic. Indeed, several hydrocarbons reservoirs are depleted around the world. Moreover, the using of fossil fuels for example, natural gas and coal is emitted high quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the environment that contributed in global worming phenomenon. Hence, many researchers and energy companies are attended and investigated to find out a new and reliable renewable energy source for example, biogas and biodiesel. Indeed, biodiesel can consider a reliable fuel due to many advantages for instance, reduce the global worming phenomenon, reduces carbon dioxide emissions and sustainable energy source. In fact, biodiesel can be produced from several resources for example, vegetable oil and animal fats. Rapeseed oil may consider a quite reliable and cheap source to produce biodiesel. Indeed, it has been observed that during the spring session in Iraqi Kurdistan region, wild rapeseed flowers are growing naturally in many cities of Iraqi Kurdistan for example, Sulaymaniyah, Ranya and Koya. The observed wild rapeseed flowers are produced considerable amounts of rape seed that can be invested to produced rapeseed oil and biodiesel. Therefore, this study is aimed to produce a reliable biodiesel from rapeseed flower oil by adopting transesterification reaction. Furthermore, this study has also applied process production parameters to find out the optimum operating conditions to produce biodiesel form the rapeseed oil for instance, amount of catalyst 1.25 % KOH and amount of methanol on biodiesel production yield about 7:1.Moreover, several laboratory tests for example, density, cloud point, pour point and cetane value have been applied for the produced biodiesel.

  18. Plug-and-play technology applied in microgrid and utility grid%微电网与公共电网即插即用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍群海; 唐西胜

    2013-01-01

    采用基于主控微源恒压恒频的组网控制策略,主控微源建立微电网的电压和频率,从微源以最大功率点跟踪运行.在微源组网基础上提出微电网的即插即用技术,通过对微电网中主控微源的并网过程和离网过程平滑切换控制,实现微电网与公共电网的能量交换,并保证微电网内敏感负荷上电压稳定.对微电网即插即用的各个实现过程进行了详细分析,并对即插即用过程进行了仿真和实验研究.结果表明微电网即插即用技术正确可行,对本地敏感负荷影响较小,易于硬件实现.%A microgrid networking strategy is adopted,which controls the master microsource to maintain the voltage and frequency of microgrid and the slave microsource to operate in the maximum power point tracking mode.The plug-and-play technology is then proposed,which can be used to realize the smooth connection or disconnection of the master microsource with the grid for the energy exchange between microgrid and utility grid while maintain the stable voltage for the sensitive loads in microgrid.The realization processes of microgrid plug-and-play are analyzed,simulated and experimentally studied in detail,which shows that,the plug-and-play technology of microgrid is correct and feasible,its hardware implementation is easy and it has less impact on local sensitive load.

  19. Staff report on monthly report cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants. FPC form No. 423. Data for November 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    Electric generating plants with a total combined capacity of 25 MW or greater purchased fossil fuel equivalent to 1.5 quadrillion Btu's in Nov. 98.9% of which was for steam-electric generation. Measured by their total heat content, fossil fuel purchases for steam-electric generation were up 1.7% from last month and up 11.6% from Nov. 1976. Deliveries of coal totaled 48.3 million tons, an increase of 8.2 million tons above shipments made during Nov. 1976. Oil purchases for steam-electric generation reached 39.6 million barrels this month, a decrease of 5.6 million barrels below shipments made in Nov. of last year. Gas deliveries to steam-electric units total 219.2 billion ft/sup 3/ up 6.6% from last year's level. In Nov., the price of coal averaged 101.7 cents per millin Btu, a rise of 17.4% over the average price of a year ago. The average price of all oil delivered to steam plants was 219.3, a rise of 6.2% compared to Nov. 1976. Steam gas purchases averaged 134.9 cents per million Btu, an increase of 19.3% over the Nov. 1976 level. The following tabulations highlight the relative changes in deliveries and prices of fossil fuels for steam-electric generation for Nov. 1976 and Nov. 1977.

  20. Demand response - Non-electric storage devices for electric utilities with a high participation of renewable energy sources; Demand response - Nichtelektrische Speicher fuer Elektrizitaetsversorgungssysteme mit hohem Anteil erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, I.

    2005-10-15

    Electrical power supply is mainly based on fossil and nuclear fuels. Their availability will be dramatically reduced within the next half century. The only possibility to maintain our high living and economic standard which is based on high energy consumption will be a reorganisation of our supplies towards renewable energies such as wind, photovoltaics and biomass. It is generally accepted that the maximum fraction of stochastically available renewable energies that can be integrated into our electricity supplies is 20 to 25 %. Reasons are stability of the electricity network and absence of possibilities to store large amounts of electricity. The author demonstrates that by integrating already existing intrinsic storage capacities on the demand side into the control of electricity supplies there is no longer an upper limit for integration of renewable energies. The following technologies on the demand side are taken into account: storage heating and electrical water heating, ventilation, refrigeration, circulation pumps and compressed air in industry. Furthermore, changes in user behaviour, compressed air energy storage, and transition to flexible electricity usage by integration of thermal storage are discussed. (orig.)

  1. ePHM System Development, Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing, Fault Tree, and FMECA Applied to and Integrated on NASA Hybrid Electric Testbeds Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development with validation and demonstrations...

  2. Bending and turbulent enhancement phenomena of neutral gas flow containing an atmospheric pressure plasma by applying external electric fields measured by schlieren optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Sakakita, Hajime; Tsunoda, Syuichiro; Kasahara, Jiro; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kato, Susumu; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of turbulent enhancement phenomena of a neutral gas flow containing plasma ejected from the nozzle of plasma equipment, the schlieren optical method was performed to visualize the neutral gas behavior. It was confirmed that the turbulent starting point became closer to the nozzle exit, as the amplitude of discharge voltage (electric field) increased. To study the effect of electric field on turbulent enhancement, two sets of external electrodes were arranged in parallel, and the gas from the nozzle was allowed to flow between the upper and lower electrodes. It was found that the neutral gas flow was bent, and the bending angle increased as the amplitude of the external electric field increased. The results obtained using a simple model analysis roughly coincide with experimental data. These results indicate that momentum transport from drifted ions induced by the electric field to neutral particles is an important factor that enhances turbulence.

  3. A Novel Hysteresis Model of Magnetic Field Strength Determined by Magnetic Induction Intensity for Fe-3% Si Electrical Steel Applied in Cigarette Making Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel were studied through the hysteresis loop. Existing hysteresis fitting simulation methods were summarized, and new Fe-3% Si grain-oriented electrical steel hysteresis loop model was proposed. Undetermined coefficients of the magnetic field intensity and magnetic flux density were determined by both the fixed angle method and the least squares method, and the hysteresis loop model was validated with high fitting degree by experimental data.

  4. Tracking the genealogy of CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon Moran, Miguel Angel; Albinana, Fernando Callejas [Faculty of Law and Business, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Facultad of Social Sciences and Law, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo 45071 (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO{sub 2} emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector. (author)

  5. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  6. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  7. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Aproveitamento pela cana-de-açúcar da adubação nitrogenada de plantio Utilization by sugar cane of nitrogen applied at planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2008-12-01

    . To evaluate the urea-N utilization by sugarcane at plant cane harvest, two experiments were developed with the variety SP81-3250, in commercial sugarcane fields. The experiments were carried out from February 2005 to July 2006. The experiment was a randomized complete block design and the treatments three N-urea rates (40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and a control without N-fertilization (0 kg ha-1 N. In the center of the plots with urea application microplots were installed and treated with 15N-labeled urea. The average recovery (% of 15N-fertilizer by sugarcane (whole plant was 30, 30 and 21 %, respectively, at rates of 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N. The lower urea-N recovery at higher rates, mainly for 120 kg ha-1 of N, was due to N losses from the soil-plant system. The N-urea recovery was on average 11.7 % of the total accumulated N in the whole plant. The different N rates on N from fertilizer did not influence N distribution in the different sugarcane plant parts, which were on average 50 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 20 % in the shoots and 8 % in the roots.

  9. Mitigating Interconnection Challenges of the High Penetration Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic (PV) in the Electrical Distribution Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-563

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of the electric power systems. Some of the urgent areas for research, as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers and utilities, are potential for transient overvoltage from PV inverters, multi-inverter anti-islanding, impact of smart inverters on volt-VAR support, impact of bidirectional power flow, and potential for distributed generation curtailment solutions to mitigate grid stability challenges. Under this project, NREL worked with SolarCity to address these challenges through research, testing and analysis at the Energy System Integration Facility (ESIF). Inverters from different manufacturers were tested at ESIF and NREL's unique power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability was utilized to evaluate various system-level impacts. Through the modeling, simulation, and testing, this project eliminated critical barriers on high PV penetration and directly supported the Department of Energy's SunShot goal of increasing the solar PV on the electrical grid.

  10. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  11. The strategical planning as quality intake in electric power utilities; O planejamento estrategico como insumo da qualidade em empresas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, A.; Cordeiro, M.L.R. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    A methodology for a strategical plan elaboration aiming the electric power distribution sector is shown, including the following steps: thr company business; company goal; environmental analysis; definition of the company behaviour principles, guidelines, purpose and strategies; programs and projects elaboration; responsibility definition and the follow of strategical plan. (C.G.C.)

  12. Enhancement of Nutrient Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Utilizing an Electric Fan Air Blower with Renewable Energy of Solar and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sewage treatment efficiency of hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs was evaluated under different ventilation methods. The removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP in the vertical flow- (VF- horizontal flow (HF CWs using an electric fan air blower by the renewable energy of solar and wind power were higher than those by natural ventilation, excluding only suspended solids (SS. The TN treatment efficiency in the CW using the air blower especially increased rapidly by 16.6% in comparison with the CW employing natural ventilation, since the VF bed provided suitable conditions (aerobic for nitrification to occur. The average removal efficiencies of BOD, SS, TN, and TP in the effluent were 98.8, 97.4, 58.0, and 48.3% in the CW using an electric fan air blower, respectively. The treatment performance of the CWs under different ventilation methods was assessed, showing TN in the CW using an electric fan air blower to be reduced by 57.5~58.6% for inlet TN loading, whereas reduction by 19.0~53.3% was observed in the CW with natural ventilation. Therefore, to increase the removal of nutrients in CWs, an improved ventilation system, providing ventilation via an electric fan air blower with the renewable energy, is recommended.

  13. Electric monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.

    1981-09-14

    A controversial proposal to deregulate a major part of the electric utility industry could transform how electric power is produced. The proposal involves one-third of US energy consumption and violates the classic economic theory that tightly regulated natural monopolies serve society's needs best. Supporters of the proposal suggest that free-market competition may now be valid because new technologies and new power-supply sources can introduce innovation and efficiency into cost control. Many states, for example, allow utilities to pass capital costs through to their users. Alternative energy sources could include small hydro, wind power, and industrial cogeneration. Opponents, who question whether there really is a free market in energy production, suggest better regulation to protect consumers. Some of the opposition will come from utilities wanting to keep their captive markets. (DCK)

  14. Electrical bistabilities and operating mechanisms of memory devices fabricated utilizing ZnO quantum dot-multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fushan; Son, Dong Ick; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were conjugated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Bistable memories utilizing an ensemble of the ZnO QD-MWCNT heterostructures were developed and the storage capability of the devices was significantly enhanced due to the conjugation of the ZnO QDs and the MWCNTs. Operating mechanisms of memory devices fabricated utilizing the ZnO QD-MWCNT heterostructures are described on the basis of the current-voltage results. The memory devices exhibited excellent environmental stability at ambient conditions.

  15. Site Commissioning Experience of Broadband Electricity Utilization Information Collection System Terminal%宽带用电信息采集系统终端现场投运经验和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华

    2012-01-01

    低压客户宽带用电信息采集系统以其通信速率高、实时性强等特点为电力企业营销服务手段的拓展提供了有力保障。针对终端组网接入方式、小区中继器、现场电能质量检测等方面归纳了现场测试需要重点注意的问题和实施手段。分析了在终端建设需求规划阶段对终端的性能要求及对多功能电表、主站与采集终端通信协议的要求,给出了小区建设实施方案。最后对低压客户宽带用电信息采集系统应用业务进行了展望。%Broadband low voltage electricity utilization information collection system provides the good guarantee for expanding electric power enterprise marketing service method by high speed and real-time communication.This paper concludes key problems and implements by terminal networking mode,district's repeater and power quality detection.And it analyzes terminal construction requirements including multi-function electric meter,communication protocol of data collection terminal communication with host.Then district's construction plan is suggested.Finally,it describes some prospects of the broadband low voltage electricity utilization information collection system application.

  16. Frontier of CO{sub 2} reduction/sink with international Win/Win Corporation - coal fired electric power generation helps afforestation through by product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshitaka, N.; Kaori, A.; Kazuo, W.; Katsumi, O. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Several countries in Asia require coal fired electric power generation because they are rich in domestic coal. In common sense, coal firing generates carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide more than natural gas, thus it tends to be disliked for electric power generation. When desulfurization plants are housed, these cost much and produce valuable by-poducts. Gypsum is a by-product from desulfurization plant, which can reclaim very poor alkaline or sodic soil and the combination of gypsum and quick lime is a by-product from fluidized-bed boiler and bio-briquet, which can reclaim very poor acidic soil. These two principal by-products are the key to afforestation, resulting in carbon sink. Sometimes soil reclamation can change poor soil into fertile soil which is useful for agriculture. 2 tabs.

  17. The utilization of natural gas in the electricity production through fuel cell; A utilizacao do gas natural na geracao distribuida atraves de celulas combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2004-07-01

    In function of the necessity of electric energy as input of vital importance for the development of the country, this work aims at to offer plus an energy alternative for Brazil. The exploitation of the natural gas reserves recently discovered can be made through modern methods that give as priority the distributed generation and the low ambient impact. All these aspects can be gotten with the use of fuel cell, working with the remodelled natural gas. Increased to the factor of a low ambient impact in the proper generation, the project suggests that the generating source can be located next the consumer, diminishing still more the problems generated for transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. The fuel cell has received a great attention in the international community and some models, some already in commercial period of training, they have shown excellent possibilities of capsize to be one of the future technologies in the generation of electric energy with low ambient impact. (author)

  18. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  19. The epic of the Swiss electric utilities: the entry into a new era of the Swiss history; L'epopee des entreprises electriques suisses. L'entree dans une nouvelle ere de l'histoire suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remondeulaz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Until the 19{sup th} century the only resources of Switzerland were wood and hydraulic energy. Their exploitation was adequate to produce heat and useful mechanical energy. The electrification of the country was introduced in the second half of the 19{sup th} century in the form of hydropower in DC. The potential is very important, with a gigantic buffer constituted by the glaciers, estimated to be 50 TWh a year. Today, it is used at around 65-85% (for the time being, annual hydropower generation varies from 42.3 TWh in 2001 to only 32.6 in 2006). The standardization of power distribution in AC was realized during World War I: public and private lighting, space heating and hot water, mechanical power, drive propulsion system in replacement of gas, coal and vapour, e.g. with the electrification of the national railway network. Between 1875 and 1914 more than 1000 electric utilities have been established. The first law concerning hydropower was decided in 1916. During World War II the restrictions on fossil fuel import were an incentive for the development of new hydropower plants: it was the epic of the dams. The high voltage network (220 kV) was developed in order to enable interconnection with the neighbour countries France, Germany and Italy. Since 1958 this interconnection is established on the whole European level. Switzerland was entrusted with the frequency adjustment of the European network and the controlling of the exchanges in the framework of a special European agreement on electricity. From the Swiss point of view the international trade of electricity is very profitable: thanks to its accumulation lakes Switzerland can sell expensive peak load energy to whole Europe. Since the mid 50ies it was clear that the exploitation of all economically available hydropower would not be enough to cover the increasing demand of the country. A first experimental nuclear power plant was decided in 1961, built from 1962 on and turned into operation in 1968 (30 MW

  20. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  1. POSSIBILITIES OF APPLYING THE DEA METHOD IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY: REVIEW OF WIND ENERGY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maradin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental tasks of modern power system is finding ways to produce stable and continuous electricity from scarce energy resources. One of the possible solutions is introduction, implementation and improvement of alternative forms of energy such as renewable energy sources, particularly wind energy as an increasingly important energy source which is expected to further increase its share in total electricity production. Numerous methods can be used in assessing the efficiency of wind energy companies, and in the focus of this research is the Data Envelopment Analysis method (DEA, a widely accepted methodology given its interdisciplinary approach and flexibility. This method represents a step forward in the field of renewable energy management, because it provides the possibility to compare the selected companies with the best in the industry (the most efficient and the possibility of determining sources of inefficiency and, consequently, the possibilities of their elimination.

  2. Current hybrid-electric powertrain architectures:Applying empirical design data to life cycle assessment and whole-life cost analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Timothy W; Burgess, Stuart C; Herrmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of hybrid-electric powertrain technology has disrupted the automotive industry, causing significant powertrain design divergence. As this radical powertrain innovation matures, will hybrid vehicles dominate the future automotive market and does this represent a positive shift in the environmental impact of the industry? The answer to this question is sought within this paper. It seeks to take advantage of the position that the industry has reached, replacing previous t...

  3. Evaluation and Refinement of a Field-Portable Drinking Water Toxicity Sensor Utilizing Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing and a Fluidic Biochip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    described here operates on the same principle as the laboratory-based version described previously (Brennan et al., 2012), but now utilizes a hand -held...Potential interferences tested were chlorine and chloramine (commonly used for drinking water disinfection ), geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB...Protection Agency maximum residual disinfectant level for chlorine and chloramine is set at 4 mg l1 under the Safe Drinking Water Act and thus would

  4. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  5. Managing electricity demand through dynamic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddie, Robert A.; Bulleit, Douglas A.

    1985-11-01

    As electrical energy cannot be stored in large quantities with current technology, the energy balance of the electricity supply system has to be maintained continually by adjustments in supply to meet an unrestricted customer demand. Electricity over the projected peak tends to be very expensive, so utilities have sought to restrict demand during such periods to improve internal economic efficiency. The techniques used can be shown to be inefficient and disruptive if widely applied. Due to the way the utility and the regulators have homogenized costs, rate structures provide the customer no useful cost message as motivation to economically control utilization. Advances in microelectronics and communications remove these restrictions by allowing the customer to be informed continually of the cost of a kiloWatt hour (kWh) at the time of use. For the first time, the ensuing control of demand by the customer enables efficient utilization and simplifies the dynamic control of the electric system. This paper describes the method of formulating dynamic prices, the main elements and examples of the system, and how it can be introduced. The enumerated benefits show that greater customer satisfaction and improved economic management of the nation's resources and the utility's assets would result.

  6. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  7. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  8. Dual-domain mass-transfer parameters from electrical hysteresis: theory and analytical approach applied to laboratory, synthetic streambed, and groundwater experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2014-01-01

    Models of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.

  9. Refraction of $e^-$ beams due to plasma lensing at a plasma-vacuum interface -- applied to beam deflection in a Copper cell with electrical RF-breakdown plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a possible description of the deflection of a relativistic $e^-$ beam in an inhomogeneous copper plasma, encountered by the beam when propagating through a accelerating cell that has undergone a high electric-field RF-breakdown. It is well known that an inhomogeneous plasma forms and may last for up to a few micro-seconds, until recombination in an accelerating structure where a field-emission triggers melting and ionization of RF-cell wall deformity. We present a preliminary model for the beam deflection due to collective plasma response based upon the beam density, plasma density and interaction length.

  10. Utility launches computer information service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaty, W. [ed.; Ordonez, B.

    1994-12-01

    Three employees at Lee County Electric Cooperative in North Fort Meyers, Fla., have developed InterLine, an on-line computer service designed specifically for the electric utility industry. Since introducing InterLine to the public, the development team has been looking at what areas of information would be most useful to subscribers. In the initial phase, system features include forums on electrical engineering, safety and health and transmission and distribution, a library of files and the Internet gateway. If InterLIne is embraced by the electric utility industry, long range plans are to take it internationls.

  11. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Ziras, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators......, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging...... management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions...

  12. "Curing" of plasmid DNA in acetogen using microwave or applying an electric pulse improves cell growth and metabolite production as compared to the plasmid-harboring strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Vel; Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Plasmid-free acetogen Clostridium sp. MT962 electrotransformed with a small cryptic plasmid pMT351 was used to develop time- and cost-effective methods for plasmid elimination. Elimination of pMT351 restored production of acetate and ethanol to the levels of the plasmid-free strain with no dry cell weight changes. Destabilizing cell membrane via microwave at 2.45 GHz, or exposure to a single 12 ms square electric pulse at 35 kV cm⁻¹, eliminated pMT351 in 42-47 % of cells. Plasmid elimination with a single square electric pulse required 10 versus 0.1 J needed to introduce the same 3,202-bp plasmid into the cells as calculated per cell sample of Clostridium sp. MT962. Microwave caused visible changes in repPCR pattern and increased ethanol production at the expense of acetate. This is the first report on microwave of microwave ovens, wireless routers, and mobile devices causing chromosomal DNA aberrations in microbes along with carbon flux change.

  13. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  14. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  15. Monitoring environmental and related performance parameters for a Rankine-cycle turbine electric generator utilizing geothermal energy at the Gila Hot Springs, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, A. H.; Icerman, L.

    1984-08-01

    The environmental effects associated with the operation of a privately owned Rankine-cycle turbogenerator unit using low temperature geothermal resources in the form of free-flowing hot springs to produce electricity in a remote, rural area were studied. The following conclusions pertain to the operation of the turbogenerator system: (1) the heat exchanger could not provide sufficient freon vapor at the required pressures to provide adequate thermal input to the turbine; (2) conversion or redesign of the condenser and return pump to function adequately represents a problem of unknown difficulty; (3) all pressure and heat transfer tests indicated that a custom designed heat exchanger built on-site would provide adequate vapor at pressures high enough to power a 10-kW (sub e) or perhaps larger generator; and (4) automated control systems are needed for the hot and cold water supplies and the freon return pump.

  16. Induction of ELF transmembrane potentials in relation to power-frequency electric field bioeffects in a plant root model system. Pt. 1. Relationship between applied field strength and cucurbitaceous root growth rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brayman, A.A.; Miller, M.W.

    1986-08-01

    Seminal roots of Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima were exposed to 60 Hz electric fields of 100-500 V . m/sup -1/ in a conducting aqueous inorganic growth medium. Root growth rates were measured to produce a dose-response relationship for each species. The species were selected for study because of their familial relationship, reported sensitivity to 60 Hz, 360 V . m/sup -1/ electric fields, and differing average root cell sizes. The latter characteristic influences the magnitude of ELF membrane potentials induced by constant-strength applied electric fields, but does not affect the magnitude of the electric field strength tangent to the cell surface. The difference in average root cell size between C. sativus (smaller cells) and C. maxima (larger cells) was used to evaluate two alternate hypotheses that the observed effect on root growth is stimulated by the electric field tangent to the cell surface, or a field-induced perturbation in the normal transmembrane potential of the cells. The results of the dose-response relationship studies are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that the effect is elicited by induced transmembrane potentials. The smaller-celled roots showed a substantially higher response threshold (C. sativus; E/sub 0/sup(TH) approx.= 330 V . m/sup -1/) than did the larger-celled species (C. maxima; E/sub 0/sup(TH) approx.= 200 V . m/sup -1/). At field strengths above the response thresholds in both species, the growth rate of C. sativus roots was less affected than that of C. maxima roots exposed to the same field strength.

  17. Effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation within the framework of effective mass approximation. The analytic expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The numerical results are presented for a typical GaAs/Ga1- x Al x As quantum well. The results show that the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation coefficients are considerably affected by the electromagnetic fields and intense laser field.

  18. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  19. Influence of the electrical power applied to the target on the optical and structural properties of ZrON films produced via RF magnetron sputtering in a reactive atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzón, M.J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Olaya, J.J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Cubillos, G.I.; Romero, E. [Grupo de Materiales y Procesos Químicos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the variation of electrical power applied to the target on the morphology and optical properties of zirconium oxynitride - zirconium oxide (ZrON) films deposited via RF magnetron sputtering on common glass substrates in a reactive atmosphere of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, with a flow ratio ΦN{sub 2}/ΦO{sub 2} of 1.25 was investigated. The crystallographic structure of the films was established through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the optical behavior was evaluated through transmittance measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films grew with mixed crystalline structures: monoclinic (ZrO{sub 2}) and body-centered cubic (Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2}). SEM analysis showed that the films grew with a homogeneous morphology, and AFM results established that as the electrical power applied to the target increased, there were changes in the grain size and the roughness of the films. The thickness, refractive index, and absorption coefficient of the films were calculated using the values of the transmittance through the Swanepoel method. Additionally, the energy band gap was determined via analysis of the free interference region. - Highlights: • We growth zirconium oxynitride films by RF magnetron sputtering in reactive atmosphere. • We determine the influence of the electrical power applied at the target in optical and structural properties. • We determine the crystallite size, grain size and roughness of the zirconium oxynitride films. • We determine the optical parameters such refractive index of the zirconium oxynitride films through Swanepoel method. • We calculated the absorption coefficient and optical band gap of the zirconium oxynitride films.

  20. Characterizations and Electrical Modelling of Sensory Samples Formed from Synthesized Vanadium (V Oxide and Copper Oxide Graphene Quantum Tunneling Composites (GQTC Applied in Electrotribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Habdank-Wojewódzki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CuO and V2O5 graphene quantum tunneling composites (GQTC presented in this article were produced and their sensory properties were analyzed. The composites were synthesised using two stage high-power milling process, which resulted in materials that have good temeprature and pressure sensory properties. Described production process defines internal structure of materials such that when used as sensor in the desired range, it exhibits a strong percolation effect. The experiment, with controlled changing physical conditions during electrotribological measurement, enabled analyzing of the composites’ conductivity as a function of the sensory properties: applied temperature, pressure, tangential force and wear. The sensory characteristic was successfully modelled by invertible generalized equations, and used to create sensor capable of estimating temperature or pressure in the real time. The developed materials have the potential to be applied in the areas where miniaturization is essential, due to the materials exhibiting good sensory properties in mini and micro scale.