WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying blood fix

  1. Evolutionary algorithms applied to Landau-gauge fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current algorithms used to put a lattice gauge configuration into Landau gauge either suffer from the problem of critical slowing-down or involve an additions computational expense to overcome it. Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), which have been widely applied to other global optimisation problems, may be of use in gauge fixing. Also, being global, they should not suffer from critical slowing-down as do local gradient based algorithms. We apply EA'S and also a Steepest Descent (SD) based method to the problem of Landau Gauge Fixing and compare their performance. (authors)

  2. Wall shear stress fixed points in blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics produces large datasets, and wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most important parameters due to its close connection with the biological processes at the wall. While some studies have investigated WSS vectorial features, the WSS fixed points have not received much attention. In this talk, we will discuss the importance of WSS fixed points from three viewpoints. First, we will review how WSS fixed points relate to the flow physics away from the wall. Second, we will discuss how certain types of WSS fixed points lead to high biochemical surface concentration in cardiovascular mass transport problems. Finally, we will introduce a new measure to track the exposure of endothelial cells to WSS fixed points.

  3. Iterated local search and record-to-record travel applied to the fixed charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeanne; Klose, Andreas

    The fixed charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a well-known and difficult optimization problem with lots of applications in logistics. It consists in finding a minimum cost network flow from a set of suppliers to a set of customers. Beside costs proportional to quantities transported......, transportation costs do, however, include a fixed charge. Iterated local search and record-to-record travel are both simple local search based meta-heuristics that, to our knowledge, not yet have been applied to the FCTP. In this paper, we apply both types of search strategies and combine them into a single...

  4. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  5. Comparison of 44-hour and fixed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Hong; Tang, Bing; Sun, Zhiping; Wen, Ping; Wu, Wenhui; Bian, Xueqing; Shen, Xia; Yang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Blood hero: An application for encouraging the blood donation by applying gamification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Daniela C L; Lima, Luis F S G; Messias, Thiago F; Feijo, Jose V L; Diniz, Anthony A R; Soares, Heliana B

    2016-08-01

    There is a strong need for actions to supply the blood demand in the World. Based on this fact, it was designed an application, named `Blood Hero', by applying the `gamification' concept, which allows users to be rewarded by social acts related to the blood donation. It takes advantage of the application of mobile devices, implementing a specific social network, to attract and retain blood donators. This application makes possible an interaction between users and blood centers, and is being tested aiming at evaluating its acceptance and impact in bloodstocks.

  7. Role of triple fixed combination valsartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide in controlling blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Doménech

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Monica Doménech, Antonio CocaHypertension Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Hospital Clinic (IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and the search for new therapeutic strategies aimed at optimizing its control remains an ongoing research and clinical challenge. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of combinations of antihypertensive drugs with complementary mechanisms of action, with the aims of reducing blood pressure levels more rapidly and vigorously than strategies employing monotherapy and improving treatment compliance and adhesion. Therefore, as recommended by the 2009 reappraisal of the European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology Guidelines, the use of a triple combination that combines a calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin II receptor blocker and a thiazide diuretic seems a reasonable and efficacious combination for the management of hypertensive patients with moderate, high or very high risk. This article reviews the clinical trials carried out with the fixed combination of amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide at the doses recommended for each drug in monotherapy. The data show that this combination achieved greater reductions in mean sitting diastolic and systolic blood pressure than amlodipine, valsartan or hydrochlorothiazide in monotherapy, with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. The triple combination at high single doses should be used with caution in elderly patients and those with renal or liver failure. Although the tolerability and safety of the triple combination are good, the mostfrequently reported adverse effects were peripheral edema, headache and dizziness. Analytical alterations were consistent with the already-known biochemical effects of amlodipine, valsartan or hydrochlorothiazide in

  8. Suppression of Red Blood Cell Autofluorescence for Immunocytochemistry on Fixed Embryonic Mouse Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Niteace C; Wray, Susan

    2017-10-23

    Autofluorescence is a problem that interferes with immunofluorescent staining and complicates data analysis. Throughout the mouse embryo, red blood cells naturally fluoresce across multiple wavelengths, spanning the emission and excitation spectra of many commonly used fluorescent reporters, including antibodies, dyes, stains, probes, and transgenic proteins, making it difficult to distinguish assay fluorescence from endogenous fluorescence. Several tissue treatment methods have been developed to bypass this issue with varying degrees of success. Sudan Black B dye has been commonly used to quench autofluorescence, but can also introduce background fluorescence. Here we present a protocol for an alternative called TrueBlack Lipofuscin Autofluorescence Quencher. The protocol described in this unit demonstrates how TrueBlack efficiently quenches red blood cell autofluorescence across red and green wavelengths in fixed embryonic tissue without interfering with immunofluorescent signal intensity or introducing background staining. We also identify optimal incubation, concentration, and multiple usage conditions for routine immunofluorescence microscopy. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. A Simple Method to Estimate Large Fixed Effects Models Applied to Wage Determinants and Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Mittag, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    Models with high dimensional sets of fixed effects are frequently used to examine, among others, linked employer-employee data, student outcomes and migration. Estimating these models is computationally difficult, so simplifying assumptions that are likely to cause bias are often invoked to make computation feasible and specification tests are rarely conducted. I present a simple method to estimate large two-way fixed effects (TWFE) and worker-firm match effect models without additional assum...

  10. Fixed switching frequency applied in single-phase boost AC to DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-C.; Ren, T.-J.; Ou, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    The fixed switching frequency control for a single-phase boost AC to DC converter to achieve a sinusoidal line current and unity power factor is proposed in this paper. The relation between the line current error and the fixed switching frequency was developed. For a limit line current error, the minimum switching frequency for a boost AC to DC converter can be achieved. The proposed scheme was implemented using a 32-bit digital signal processor TMS320C32. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and fast dynamic response of the proposed control strategy.

  11. Numerical Treatment of Fixed Point Applied to the Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenguer MI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a method of numerical approximation of the fixed point of an operator, specifically the integral one associated with a nonlinear Fredholm integral equation, that uses strongly the properties of a classical Schauder basis in the Banach space .

  12. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In

  13. Separation of breast cancer cells from peripherally circulating blood using antibodies fixed in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Soper, Steven A.; McCarley, Robin L.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2004-07-01

    Bio-Micro Electro Mechanical System (Bio-MEMS) technology was applied to the problem of early breast cancer detection and diagnosis. A micro-device is being developed to identify and specifically collect tumor cells of low abundance (1 tumor cell among 107 normal blood cells) from circulating whole blood. By immobilizing anti-EpCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) antibodies on polymer micro-channel walls by chemically modifying the surface of the PMMA, breast cancer cells from the MCF-7 cell line, which over-express EpCAM, were selected from a sample volume by the strong binding affinity between the antibody and antigen. To validate the capture of the breast cancer cells, three fluorochrome markers, each identified by a separate color, were used to reliably identify the cancer cells. The cancer cells were defined by DAPI+ (blue), CD45- and the FITC-cell membrane linker+ (green). White blood cells, which may interfere in the detection of the cancer cells, were identified by DAPI+ (blue), CD45+ (red), and the FITC-cell membrane linker+ (green). EpCAM/anti-EpCAM binding models from the literature were used to estimate an optimal velocity, 2mm/sec, for maximizing the number of cells binding and the critical binding force. At higher velocities, shear forces (> 0.48 dyne) will break existing bonds and prevent the formation of new ones. This detection micro-device can be assembled with other lab-on-a-chip components for follow-up gene and protein analysis.

  14. Blood transfusion determines postoperative morbidity in pediatric cardiac surgery applying a comprehensive blood-sparing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlin, Matthias; Kukucka, Marian; Boettcher, Wolfgang; Schoenfeld, Helge; Huebler, Michael; Kuppe, Hermann; Habazettl, Helmut

    2013-09-01

    Recently we suggested a comprehensive blood-sparing approach in pediatric cardiac surgery that resulted in no transfusion in 71 infants (25%), postoperative transfusion only in 68 (24%), and intraoperative transfusion in 149 (52%). We analyzed the effects of transfusion on postoperative morbidity and mortality in the same cohort of patients. The effect of transfusion on the length of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves. To assess whether transfusion independently determined the length of mechanical ventilation and length of intensive care unit stay, a multivariate model was applied. Additionally, in the subgroup of transfused infants, the effect of the applied volume of packed red blood cells was assessed. The median length of mechanical ventilation was 11 hours (interquartile range, 9-18 hours), 33 hours (interquartile range, 18-80 hours), and 93 hours (interquartile range, 34-161 hours) in the no transfusion, postoperative transfusion only, and intraoperative transfusion groups, respectively (P interquartile range, 1-2 days), 3.5 days (interquartile range, 2-5 days), and 8 days (interquartile range, 3-9 days; P < .00001). The multivariate hazard ratio for early extubation was 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.35) and 0.37 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.55) for the intraoperative transfusion and postoperative transfusion only groups, respectively (P < .00001). In addition, the cardiopulmonary time, body weight, need for reoperation, and hemoglobin during cardiopulmonary bypass affected the length of mechanical ventilation. Similar results were obtained for the length of intensive care unit stay. In the subgroup of transfused infants, the volume of packed red blood cells also independently affected both the length of mechanical ventilation and the length of intensive care unit stay. The incidence and volume of blood transfusion markedly affects postoperative morbidity in pediatric cardiac surgery. These

  15. Cross-pinning: the philosophy of retrievability applied practically to fixed, implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, M J; Hatzipanagiotis, P; Wilson, P R

    2008-03-01

    Biologic and technical complications are widely reported in the dental literature and often compromise the functional and/or aesthetic features of fixed, implant-supported prostheses. Managing complications without damaging or destroying a restoration is an obvious advantage of implant-based dentistry where the option of prosthetic retrievability is almost always available. The technique of cross-pinning uses a transverse screw to secure a prosthesis to a milled implant abutment, allowing prosthetic retrievability irrespective of dental implant alignment. This study presents guidelines for cross-pinning implant-supported prostheses based on resistance form, screw mechanics and natural tooth contours. The technical aspects of cross-pinning are also discussed using examples from four implant systems.

  16. [Telescopic adhesive anastomosis of small blood vessel applied in formation of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G; Leng, Y; Rong, G

    1997-03-01

    The formation of an arteriovenous fistual for dialysis by routine interrupted sutures anastomosing the vein and artery is difficult to perform and time-consuming. A new method, telescopic adhesive anastomosis was studied and applied in 10 hemodialysis patients, who were in need of an arteriovenous fistula. The external diameter of the vessels anastomosed was 2.40 +/- 0.20 mm (radial artery) or 2.40 +/- 0.35 mm (cephalic vein). After thorough debridement of the vascular ends, the arterial end was put in the venous lumen. In order to fix the telescopic vessels, two stitches were applied 180 degrees apart from each other and tied. Each stitch was inserted from vein (penetrating the whole wall) to artery (just through the adventitia and partial thickness of the media vasorum). The distance from the stitch to the edge of the vein was 0.5 mm, and that of the artery was approximated to the external diameter of the vessle. The medical adhesive was then applied for sealing the anastomotic adventitia. Ten seconds were given for the solidification of the adhesive. The patients were followed up for 8 months. The patency rate was 100%, and the rate of blood flow was more than 300 ml/min (measured by ultrasonography). It was shown that this method could be managed easily and quickly, and the so-formed fistula would fulfill the need of hemodialysis.

  17. Fixed Nadir Focus Concentrated Solar Power Applying Reflective Array Tracking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; DAMayanti, A. M.; Murdani, A.; Habibi, I. I. A.; Wakidah, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Sun is one of the most potential renewable energy develoPMent to be utilized, one of its utilization is for solar thermal concentrators, CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). In CSP energy conversion, the concentrator is as moving the object by tracking the sunlight to reach the focus point. This method need quite energy consumption, because the unit of the concentrators has considerable weight, and use large CSP, means the existence of the usage unit will appear to be wider and heavier. The addition of weight and width of the unit will increase the torque to drive the concentrator and hold the wind gusts. One method to reduce energy consumption is direct the sunlight by the reflective array to nadir through CSP with Reflective Fresnel Lens concentrator. The focus will be below the nadir direction, and the position of concentrator will be fixed position even the angle of the sun’s elevation changes from morning to afternoon. So, the energy concentrated maximally, because it has been protected from wind gusts. And then, the possibility of dAMage and changes in focus construction will not occur. The research study and simulation of the reflective array (mechanical method) will show the reflective angle movement. The distance between reflectors and their angle are controlled by mechatronics. From the simulation using fresnel 1m2, and efficiency of solar energy is 60.88%. In restriction, the intensity of sunlight at the tropical circles 1KW/peak, from 6 AM until 6 PM.

  18. ACCOUNTING POLICIES APPLIED BY ENTITIES AND THE VALUE OF FIXED ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partenie Dumbravă

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the accounting policies applied by medium taxpayers in Covasna county and analyse the factors of influence over choice of accounting policies related to tangible assets. The study contains an analysis of answers given by respondents to the questionnaire sent, with regard to: evaluation bases, revaluation of the tangible assets of the entities, used amortization methods and the depreciable value. The results obtained among other, show that the greatest effect on accounting policy choices have influence factor no. 7 - The tangible assets value in the financial statements present the true and fair view of them.

  19. Unit Commitment Towards Decarbonized Network Facing Fixed and Stochastic Resources Applying Water Cycle Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-Allah I. ElAzab

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a trustworthy unit commitment study to schedule both Renewable Energy Resources (RERs with conventional power plants to potentially decarbonize the electrical network. The study has employed a system with three IEEE thermal (coal-fired power plants as dispatchable distributed generators, one wind plant, one solar plant as stochastic distributed generators, and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs which can work either loads or generators based on their charging schedule. This paper investigates the unit commitment scheduling objective to minimize the Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED. To reduce combined emission costs, integrating more renewable energy resources (RER and PEVs, there is an essential need to decarbonize the existing system. Decarbonizing the system means reducing the percentage of CO2 emissions. The uncertain behavior of wind and solar energies causes imbalance penalty costs. PEVs are proposed to overcome the intermittent nature of wind and solar energies. It is important to optimally integrate and schedule stochastic resources including the wind and solar energies, and PEVs charge and discharge processes with dispatched resources; the three IEEE thermal (coal-fired power plants. The Water Cycle Optimization Algorithm (WCOA is an efficient and intelligent meta-heuristic technique employed to solve the economically emission dispatch problem for both scheduling dispatchable and stochastic resources. The goal of this study is to obtain the solution for unit commitment to minimize the combined cost function including CO2 emission costs applying the Water Cycle Optimization Algorithm (WCOA. To validate the WCOA technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from applying the Dynamic Programming (DP algorithm, which is considered as a conventional numerical technique, and with the Genetic Algorithm (GA as a meta-heuristic technique.

  20. Changes in subcutaneous blood flow during locally applied negative pressure to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    The effect of locally applied subatmospheric pressure on subcutaneous blood flow was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Blood flow was measured on the forearm by the local 133Xe wash-out technique. Air suction between 10 mmHg and 250 mmHg was applied to the skin. Subatmospheric pressure of 20 mm...

  1. Role of valsartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide fixed combination in blood pressure control: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Destro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Destro1, Francesca Cagnoni1, Antonio D’Ospina1, Alessandra Rossi Ricci1, Elena Demichele1, Emmanouil Peros1, Augusto Zaninelli2, Paola Preti31Internal Medicine, Ospedale Unificato Broni-Stradella, Stradella (PV, Italy; 2General Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: The treatment of moderate or severe hypertension in most cases requires the contemporaneous use of multiple antihypertensive agents. The most available two-drug combinations have an agent that addresses renin secretion and another one that is statistically more effective in renin-independent hypertension. The practice of combining agents that counteract different mechanisms is the most likely explanation for the fact that most available two-drug combinations have an agent that addresses renin secretion (beta-blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker or direct renin inhibitor and another one that is more effective in renin-independent hypertension (diuretic, dihydropyridine or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Based on these considerations, addition of hydrochlorothiazide to the combination of an antagonist of the renin-angiotensin system with a calcium channel blocker would constitute a logical approach. Inclusion of a diuretic in the triple combination is based on the evidence that these agents are effective and cheap, enhance the effect of other antihypertensive agents, and add a specific effect to individuals with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. The benefit of triple combination therapy with amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide over its dual component therapies has been demonstrated, and the use of a single pill will simplify therapy resulting in better blood pressure control.Keywords: valsartan, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ, blood pressure, hypertension

  2. Identification of mononuclear cells in human blood. II. Evaluation of morphological and immunological aspects of native and formaldehyde-fixed cell populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, H.R.E.; Hijmans, W.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of surface-associated immunoglobulins and Fc receptors on mononuclear cells from normal human blood waas investigated by the direct immunofluorescence technique combined with phase-contrast microscopy. Formaldehyde-fixed cells were compared to unfixed cells and to cells preincubated at

  3. A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings as applied to OPEC behavior since march 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazushi Uemura

    1992-01-01

    In the past, OPEC has been analyzed as a cartel, but usually without a formal theoretical framework. Don Patinkin's cartel model was occasionally used, but was turned down for being 'too strict' to explain OPEC behavior. One of the most serious short-comings of Patinkin's model is its prediction that high-cost producers would first shut down for the survival of a cartel. In OPEC agreements, it has been seen many times that Saudi Arabia (a low-cost producer) reduced its production for the survival of the cartel. A new and promising cartel theory, A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings, has been introduced ('CMT model'). In this paper, it is going to use CMT model's structure and model OPEC's major price-fixing/market-sharing agreements and a period without such an agreement since March, 1982 when OPEC, for the first time in its history, reached a price-fixing/market-sharing agreement. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Comparative effect of fixed dose combination of Amlodipine + Bisoprolol versus Amlodipine and Bisoprolol alone on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirure PA,Tadvi NA, Bajait CS, Baig MS, Gade PR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Employment of low dose combinations of two antihypertensives, with different mode of action has gained acceptance worldwide for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. However, most studies in hypertensive disease have focused on monotherapy. The combination therapy in the treatment of hypertension is largely extrapolated from these monotherapy studies. Objectives: To study and compare the effect of amlodipine, bisoprolol and fixed dose combination of amlodipine + bisoprolol on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients. Methods: The present study was carried out in Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Medicine at Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad. Results and Conclusion : Amlodipine + bisoprolol in fixed dose combination have showed significant blood pressure control in patients of stage-2 essential hypertension and the antihypertensive effect was greater than individual monotherapy study groups.

  5. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, Macarena; Cantó, Begoña

    2013-04-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet denoising we determine the best wavelet that shows a segmentation with the largest area in the cell. We study different wavelet families and we conclude that the wavelet db1 is the best and it can serve for posterior works on blood pathologies. The proposed method generates goods results when it is applied on several images. Finally, the proposed algorithm made in MatLab environment is verified for a selected blood cells.

  6. ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION OF 2-3 DEGREE WITH FIXED COMBINATION OF ENALAPRIL OR LOSARTAN WITH HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kudryavtsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effects of fixed combinations of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril or angiotensin II receptor antagonist (losartan with diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide, HCT on the "office" blood pressure (BP level in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 2-3 degrees.Materials and methods. Patients (n=73; 34 men and 39 women; aged 50.5±5.8 with HT of 2-3 degrees were included in the study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: patients of group 1 (n=34 received a fixed combination of enalapril with HCT; patients (n=39 of group 2 — a fixed combination of losartan with HCT. The study duration was 24 weeks. "Office" BP levels (Korotkov method were evaluated.Results. Combination of losartan with HCT shown more prominent effect on systolic BP (reduction from 176.1±2.77 to 122.3±1.54 mm Hg in comparison with combination enalapril with HCT (reduction from 172.4±1.62 to 129.8±3.4 mm Hg after 12 weeks of treatment (p<0.05. High frequency of target BP level achievement was observed in patients of groups 1 and 2 (83% and 86% respectively.Conclusion. The fixed combination of enalapril or lozartan with HCT has high efficacy and can be recommended as initial therapy in patients with HT of 2-3 degree.

  7. Office and ambulatory blood pressure control with a fixed-dose combination of candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in previously uncontrolled hypertensive patients: results of CHILI CU Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengden, Thomas; Hübner, Reinhold; Bramlage, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Fixed-dose combinations of candesartan 32 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) have been shown to be effective in clinical trials. Upon market entry we conducted a noninterventional study to document the safety and effectiveness of this fixed-dose combination in an unselected population in primary care and to compare blood pressure (BP) values obtained during office measurement (OBPM) with ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM). Methods CHILI CU Soon was a prospective, noninterventional, noncontrolled, open-label, multicenter study with a follow-up of at least 10 weeks. High-risk patients aged ≥18 years with previously uncontrolled hypertension were started on candesartan 32 mg in a fixed-dose combination with either 12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ. OBPM and ABPM reduction and adverse events were documented. Results A total of 4131 patients (52.8% male) with a mean age of 63.0 ± 11.0 years were included. BP was 162.1 ± 14.8/94.7 ± 9.2 mmHg during office visits at baseline. After 10 weeks of candesartan 32 mg/12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ, mean BP had lowered to 131.7 ± 10.5/80.0 ± 6.6 mmHg (P good (r = 0.589 for systolic BP and r = 0.389 for diastolic BP during the day). Of those who were normotensive upon OBPM, 35.1% had high ABPM during the day, 49.3% were nondippers, and 3.4% were inverted dippers. Forty-nine adverse events (1.19%) were reported, of which seven (0.17%) were regarded as serious. Conclusion Candesartan 32 mg in a fixed-dose combination with either 12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ is safe and effective for further BP lowering irrespective of prior antihypertensive drug class not being able to control BP. PMID:22241950

  8. Systematic staging design applied to the fixed-bed reactor series for methanol and one-step methanol/dimethyl ether synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Flavio; Leon-Garzon, Andres R.; Ravaghi-Ardebili, Zohreh; Pirola, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates possible design advances in the series of fixed-bed reactors for methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis. Specifically, the systematic staging design proposed by Hillestad [1] is applied to the water-cooled and gas-cooled series of reactors of Lurgi's technology. The procedure leads to new design and operating conditions with respect to the current best industrial practice, with relevant benefits in terms of process yield, energy saving, and net income. The overall mathematical model for the process simulation and optimization is reported in the work together with dedicated sensitivity analysis studies. - Highlights: • Systematic staging design is applied to methanol and methanol/DME synthesis. • New configurations for the synthesis reactor network are proposed and assessed. • Comparison with the industrial best practice is provided. • Energy-process optimization is performed to improve the overall yield of the process

  9. Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Minami, Masahide; Yano, Eiji

    2014-02-27

    Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry. Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed. BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p glucose metabolism, even when adjusted for age and lifestyle variables, although BMI of fixed-term workers were lower than permanent workers. Precarious work might contribute to a deteriorating health status even among less overweight populations.

  10. Office and ambulatory blood pressure control with a fixed-dose combination of candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in previously uncontrolled hypertensive patients: results of CHILI CU Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Mengden1, Reinhold Hübner2, Peter Bramlage31Kerckhoff-Klinik GmbH, Bad Nauheim, 2Takeda Pharma GmbH, Aachen, 3Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Pharmakologie und Epidemiologie, Mahlow, GermanyBackground: Fixed-dose combinations of candesartan 32 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ have been shown to be effective in clinical trials. Upon market entry we conducted a noninterventional study to document the safety and effectiveness of this fixed-dose combination in an unselected population in primary care and to compare blood pressure (BP values obtained during office measurement (OBPM with ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM.Methods: CHILI CU Soon was a prospective, noninterventional, noncontrolled, open-label, multicenter study with a follow-up of at least 10 weeks. High-risk patients aged ≥18 years with previously uncontrolled hypertension were started on candesartan 32 mg in a fixed-dose combination with either 12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ. OBPM and ABPM reduction and adverse events were documented.Results: A total of 4131 patients (52.8% male with a mean age of 63.0 ± 11.0 years were included. BP was 162.1 ± 14.8/94.7 ± 9.2 mmHg during office visits at baseline. After 10 weeks of candesartan 32 mg/12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ, mean BP had lowered to 131.7 ± 10.5/80.0 ± 6.6 mmHg (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons. BP reduction was comparable irrespective of prior or concomitant medication. In patients for whom physicians regarded an ABPM to be necessary (because of suspected noncontrol over 24 hours, ABP at baseline was 158.2/93.7 mmHg during the day and 141.8/85.2 mmHg during the night. At the last visit, BP had significantly reduced to 133.6/80.0 mmHg and 121.0/72.3 mmHg, respectively, resulting in 20.8% being normotensive over 24 hours (<130/80 mmHg. The correlation between OBPM and ABPM was good (r = 0.589 for systolic BP and r = 0.389 for diastolic BP during the day. Of those who were normotensive upon OBPM, 35.1% had high ABPM during the

  11. The Behaviors of Ferro-Magnetic Nano-Particles In and Around Blood Vessels under Applied Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood. PMID:21278859

  12. Comparison of algorithms for blood stain detection applied to forensic hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Early detection of blood stains is particularly important since the blood reacts physically and chemically with air and materials over time. Accurate identification of blood remnants, including regions that might have been intentionally cleaned, is an important aspect of forensic investigation. Hyperspectral imaging might be a potential method to detect blood stains because it is non-contact and provides substantial spectral information that can be used to identify regions in a scene with trace amounts of blood. The potential complexity of scenes in which such vast violence occurs can be high when the range of scene material types and conditions containing blood stains at a crime scene are considered. Some stains are hard to detect by the unaided eye, especially if a conscious effort to clean the scene has occurred (we refer to these as "latent" blood stains). In this paper we present the initial results of a study of the use of hyperspectral imaging algorithms for blood detection in complex scenes. We describe a hyperspectral imaging system which generates images covering 400 nm - 700 nm visible range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Three image sets of 31 wavelength bands were generated using this camera for a simulated indoor crime scene in which blood stains were placed on a T-shirt and walls. To detect blood stains in the scene, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Subspace Reed Xiaoli Detection (SRXD), and Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithms were used. Comparison of the three hyperspectral image analysis techniques shows that TAD is most suitable for detecting blood stains and discovering latent blood stains.

  13. Applying Magneto-rheology to Reduce Blood Viscosity and Suppress Turbulence to Prevent Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.

    Heart attacks are the leading causes of death in USA. Research indicates one common thread, high blood viscosity, linking all cardiovascular diseases. Turbulence in blood circulation makes different regions of the vasculature vulnerable to development of atherosclerotic plaque. Turbulence is also responsible for systolic ejection murmurs and places heavier workload on heart, a possible trigger of heart attacks. Presently, neither medicine nor method is available to suppress turbulence. The only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. However, using medicine to reduce the blood viscosity does not help suppressing turbulence. In fact, the turbulence gets worse as the Reynolds number goes up with the viscosity reduction by the medicine. Here we report our new discovery: application of a strong magnetic field to blood along its flow direction, red blood cells are polarized in the magnetic field and aggregated into short chains along the flow direction. The blood viscosity becomes anisotropic: Along the flow direction the viscosity is significantly reduced, but in the directions perpendicular to the flow the viscosity is considerably increased. In this way, the blood flow becomes laminar, turbulence is suppressed, the blood circulation is greatly improved, and the risk for heart attacks is reduced. While these effects are not permanent, they last for about 24 hours after one magnetic therapy treatment.

  14. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  15. The effect of mineral radon water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to patients’ safety, increased blood pressure often restricts wider use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes in rehabilitation practice. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radon mineral water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in people with hypertension.Methods: A total of 27 patients, average age 58.10 years with hypertension were included in the study. Balneotherapy was applied in the form of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after twenty minutes therapy on the first and fifth day of treatment.Results: On the first day of treatment there was no significant change in blood pressure after the application of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 0.697, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 0.505, not significant. On the fi fth day of treatment there was no significant changes in blood pressure after the application of medical baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant.Conclusion: The significant increase of blood pressure in patients with mild and moderate hypertension is not expected when Fojnica water (radioactive mineral water is being used in the form of full baths of neutral temperature, which allows a broader application of this balneo procedure in rehabilitation practice.

  16. Determination of Ethanol in Blood Samples Using Partial Least Square Regression Applied to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Güneş; Hamamci, Berna; Yildiz, Abdulkadir

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption triggers toxic effect to organs and tissues in the human body. The risks are essentially thought to be related to ethanol content in alcoholic beverages. The identification of ethanol in blood samples requires rapid, minimal sample handling, and non-destructive analysis, such as Raman Spectroscopy. This study aims to apply Raman Spectroscopy for identification of ethanol in blood samples. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized to obtain Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) spectra of blood samples. The SERS spectra were used for Partial Least Square (PLS) for determining ethanol quantitatively. To apply PLS method, 920~820 cm -1 band interval was chosen and the spectral changes of the observed concentrations statistically associated with each other. The blood samples were examined according to this model and the quantity of ethanol was determined as that: first a calibration method was established. A strong relationship was observed between known concentration values and the values obtained by PLS method (R 2 = 1). Second instead of then, quantities of ethanol in 40 blood samples were predicted according to the calibration method. Quantitative analysis of the ethanol in the blood was done by analyzing the data obtained by Raman spectroscopy and the PLS method.

  17. Modelling applied to PET-studies ont blood-brain transfer of 11-C-labelled drugs in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agon, P.; Kaufman, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomograph (PET) allows the 'in vivo' monitoring of changes in tissue concentrations of a labelled compounds. In order to validate the technique for the study of the early distribution of drugs into the braiin occuring following intravenous administration. The distribution in anaesthetized dogs of several 11-C-labelled drugs with known physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties was studied. Twenty five sequential scans of a single slice of the head were performed using a Neuro-ECAT positron camera over 90 minutes following intravenous administration. Arterial blood samples were obtained for monitoring of blood and plasma radioactivity. Blood-brain transfer of the drugs was also studied after blood-brain barrier disruption by intracarotid infusion of a hyperosmolar mannitol solution. A qualitative evaluation of drug distribution can be done by visual inspection of the radioactivity concentration-time curves obtained for blood and tissues; for a quantitative evaluation a mathematical approach was required. A four compartment unit-membrane model can be suggested as a generally applicable model. For all the drugs studied, a model with 2 compartments described the course of the radioactivity quite well. In experiments with blood-brain barrier disruption the conditions for blood-brain exchange are changed and a 4 compartment model was required to describe adequately the course of the radioactivity. The results obtained when applying these models to sets of data for different drugs, were in good agreement with their known properties. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Transfusion algorithms and how they apply to blood conservation: the high-risk cardiac surgical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Marie E; Despotis, George John

    2007-02-01

    Considerable blood product support is administered to the cardiac surgery population. Due to the multifactorial etiology of bleeding in the cardiac bypass patient, blood products frequently and empirically are infused to correct bleeding, with varying success. Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of algorithm-guided transfusion in reducing blood loss, transfusion exposure, or rate of surgical re-exploration for bleeding. Some transfusion algorithms also incorporate laboratory-based decision points in their guidelines. Despite published success with standardized transfusion practices, generalized change in blood use has not been realized, and it is evident that current laboratory-guided hemostasis measures are inadequate to define and address the bleeding etiology in these patients.

  19. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.

    1966-02-01

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques

  2. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1966-02-15

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  3. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  4. [Work organisation improvement methods applied to activities of Blood Transfusion Establishments (BTE): Lean Manufacturing, VSM, 5S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholey, F; Bourniquel, P; Rivery, E; Coudurier, N; Follea, G

    2009-05-01

    Continuous improvement of efficiency as well as new expectations from customers (quality and safety of blood products) and employees (working conditions) imply constant efforts in Blood Transfusion Establishments (BTE) to improve work organisations. The Lean method (from "Lean" meaning "thin") aims at identifying wastages in the process (overproduction, waiting, over-processing, inventory, transport, motion) and then reducing them in establishing a mapping of value chain (Value Stream Mapping). It consists in determining the added value of each step of the process from a customer perspective. Lean also consists in standardizing operations while implicating and responsabilizing all collaborators. The name 5S comes from the first letter of five operations of a Japanese management technique: to clear, rank, keep clean, standardize, make durable. The 5S method leads to develop the team working inducing an evolution of the way in the management is performed. The Lean VSM method has been applied to blood processing (component laboratory) in the Pays de la Loire BTE. The Lean 5S method has been applied to blood processing, quality control, purchasing, warehouse, human resources and quality assurance in the Rhône-Alpes BTE. The experience returns from both BTE shows that these methods allowed improving: (1) the processes and working conditions from a quality perspective, (2) the staff satisfaction, (3) the efficiency. These experiences, implemented in two BTE for different processes, confirm the applicability and usefulness of these methods to improve working organisations in BTE.

  5. The Effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs Applied to Elite Wrestlers on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nurcan; Özbay, Serhat; Kaya, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs applied to elite wrestlers on body mass index (BMI) and blood lipids. 20 elite wrestlers, whose average age is (experimental group; 15.20 ± 4.61, n = 10), control group; 15.90 ± 2.08, n = 10), participated in the study and they were randomly divided into…

  6. The Effect of Medicine Knowledge on the Methods Applied for Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Belguzar Kara; Senay Uzun; Mehmet Yokusoglu; Mehmet Uzun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of medicine knowledge on the methods applied for lowering blood pressure among patients with hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and April 30, 2006. The sample of the study was constituted by 77 patients who had admitted to Gulhane Military Medical Academy Cardiology Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of hypertension. The data were collected by using a questionnaire designed by the investig...

  7. Fixed-pressure CPAP versus auto-adjusting CPAP: comparison of efficacy on blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea, a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, J L; Tamisier, R; Baguet, J P; Lepaulle, B; Arbib, F; Arnol, N; Timsit, J F; Lévy, P

    2016-08-01

    Millions of individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are treated by CPAP aimed at reducing blood pressure (BP) and thus cardiovascular risk. However, evidence is scarce concerning the impact of different CPAP modalities on BP evolution. This double-blind, randomised clinical trial of parallel groups of patients with OSA indicated for CPAP treatment compared the efficacy of fixed-pressure CPAP (FP-CPAP) with auto-adjusting CPAP (AutoCPAP) in reducing BP. The primary endpoint was the change in office systolic BP after 4 months. Secondary endpoints included 24 h BP measurements. Patients (322) were randomised to FP-CPAP (n=161) or AutoCPAP (n=161). The mean apnoea+hypopnoea index (AHI) was 43/h (SD, 21); mean age was 57 (SD, 11), with 70% of males; mean body mass index was 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD, 6.6) and median device use was 5.1 h/night. In the intention-to-treat analysis, office systolic blood pressure decreased by 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI -5.8 to 1.4) and 0.4 mm Hg (-4.3 to 3.4) in the FP-CPAP and AutoCPAP group, respectively (group difference: -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI -4.1 to 1.5); p=0.37, adjusted for baseline BP values). 24 h diastolic BP (DBP) decreased by 1.7 mm Hg (95% CI -3.9 to 0.5) and 0.5 mm Hg (95% CI -2.3 to 1.3) in the FP-CPAP and AutoCPAP group, respectively (group difference: -1.4 mm Hg (95% CI -2.7 to -0.01); p=0.048, adjusted for baseline BP values). The result was negative regarding the primary outcome of office BP, while FP-CPAP was more effective in reducing 24 h DBP (a secondary outcome). NCT01090297. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. [The precautionary principle applied to blood transfusion. What is its impact on practices and risk management?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergon, E; Moutel, G; Duchange, N; Bellier, L; Hervé, C; Rouger, P

    2004-07-01

    The precautionary principle has boomed in the French public health sector through blood transfusion. There has been, however, no perambulatory reflection on the definition, objectives, methods of application or consequences of this principle. The question of the pertinence of its application remains unanswered. This study, based on interviews with blood transfusion practitioners, aims to establish their perceptions of the precautionary principle's application in this specific field and of its consequences in terms of risk management and patients' rights. The pros and cons of this application are analysed based on these perceptions. According to our analysis, the precautionary principle seems to be born of confusion. It is seen more as a way to protect decision makers than patients and, if taken to extremes, could prejudice medical logic. Nevertheless, it also brings measures which renew and encourage evolution in transfusion risk management.

  9. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images

    OpenAIRE

    Boix García, Macarena; Cantó Colomina, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet...

  10. Use of portable blood physiology point-of-care devices for basic and applied research on vertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoot, Lauren J; Cairns, Nicholas A; Cull, Felicia; Taylor, Jessica J; Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Morin, Félix; Mandelman, John W; Clark, Timothy D; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Non-human vertebrate blood is commonly collected and assayed for a variety of applications, including veterinary diagnostics and physiological research. Small, often non-lethal samples enable the assessment and monitoring of the physiological state and health of the individual. Traditionally, studies that rely on blood physiology have focused on captive animals or, in studies conducted in remote settings, have required the preservation and transport of samples for later analysis. In either situation, large, laboratory-bound equipment and traditional assays and analytical protocols are required. The use of point-of-care (POC) devices to measure various secondary blood physiological parameters, such as metabolites, blood gases and ions, has become increasingly popular recently, due to immediate results and their portability, which allows the freedom to study organisms in the wild. Here, we review the current uses of POC devices and their applicability to basic and applied studies on a variety of non-domesticated species. We located 79 individual studies that focused on non-domesticated vertebrates, including validation and application of POC tools. Studies focused on a wide spectrum of taxa, including mammals, birds and herptiles, although the majority of studies focused on fish, and typical variables measured included blood glucose, lactate and pH. We found that calibrations for species-specific blood physiology values are necessary, because ranges can vary within and among taxa and are sometimes outside the measurable range of the devices. In addition, although POC devices are portable and robust, most require durable cases, they are seldom waterproof/water-resistant, and factors such as humidity and temperature can affect the performance of the device. Overall, most studies concluded that POC devices are suitable alternatives to traditional laboratory devices and eliminate the need for transport of samples; however, there is a need for greater emphasis on rigorous

  11. Dimensioning of aerated submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors based on a mathematical biofilm model applied to petrochemical wastewater - the link between theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Wójcik, Wtodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    The description of a biofilm mathematical model application for dimensioning an aerated fixed bed biofilm reactor (ASFBBR) for petrochemical wastewater polishing is presented. A simple one-dimensional model of biofilm, developed by P Harremöes, was chosen for this purpose. The model was calibrated and verified under conditions of oil-refinery effluent. The results of ASFBBR dimensioning on the basis of the biofilm model were compared with the bioreactor dimensions determined by application of...

  12. Applying a Real-Time PCR Assay for Histoplasma capsulatum to Clinically Relevant Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Scott A.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is described. The assay had an analytical sensitivity of 6 pg/μl of fungal DNA, analytical specificity of 100%, and clinical sensitivity of 88.9%. This proof-of-concept study may aid in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis from FFPE tissue. PMID:22855519

  13. Blood pressure normalization by fixed perindopril/indapamide combination in hypertensive patients with or without associate metabolic syndrome: results of the OPTIMAX 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques Mourad1, Dulce Lameira1, Pierre-Jean Guillausseau21APHP, Service de Médecine interne, Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny, France; 2APHP, Service de Médecine B, Hôpital Lariboisière, et Université Paris, Paris, FranceAbstract: The aim of the observational pharmaco-epidemiological study Optimax II was to seek whether the pre-existence of a metabolic syndrome (MS defi ned by the NCEP-ATP III criteria impacts blood pressure (BP control in hypertensive patients receiving a fixed perindopril/indapamide combination therapy. The primary objective of the study was to compare in patients with and without MS the rate of BP control defined as a systolic BP ≤140 mmHg and a diastolic BP ≤90 mmHg. Patients were prospectively included and the follow-up lasted 6 months. The study population consisted of 24,069 hypertensive patients (56% men; mean age 62 ± 11 years; 18% diabetics; mean BP at inclusion 162 ± 13/93 ± 9 mmHg. MS was found in 30.4% of the patients (n = 7322: 35.2% women and 20.1% men. Three therapeutic subgroups were constituted: Group A, previously untreated, received the combination therapy as initial treatment; Group B, previously treated but with unsatisfactory results and/or treatment intolerance, had its previous treatment switched to perindopril/indapamide; and Group C, previously treated, with good treatment tolerance but uncontrolled BP, received the study treatment in adjunction to the previous one. The normalization rate was 70.3% in group A, 68.4% in Group B, and 64.1% in Group C (p < 0.0001. The pre-existence of MS did not show any significant influence on these rates since BP lowering was –22.7 ± 13.7 (SBP and –12.0 ± 10.0 mmHg (DBP in patients without MS and –22.6 ± 13.3 (SBP and −12.1 ± 9.7 (DBP in those with MS. The results of this study show a significant effect of perindopril/indapamide treatment on systolic BP lowering, whatever the treatment status: initiation, switch, or adjunctive therapy, and

  14. The Effect of Medicine Knowledge on the Methods Applied for Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of medicine knowledge on the methods applied for lowering blood pressure among patients with hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and April 30, 2006. The sample of the study was constituted by 77 patients who had admitted to Gulhane Military Medical Academy Cardiology Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of hypertension. The data were collected by using a questionnaire designed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 54±13 years. Of the patients, 54.5% were female and %90.9 were married. The patients’ median duration of disease was 4 years and median duration of using antihypertensive drug was 4 years. Approximately 53% of the study group was educated about the antihypertensive drugs and 70.7% was educated by the physician. The methods applied for lowering blood pressure of patients were: 48.1% use of oral antihypertensive medicine; 40.2% use of traditional methods; %11.7 use of sublingual medicine. In this study, the methods used in case of blood pressure elevation was significantly associated with having been educated about the antihypertensive drugs and knowing the side effects of the drugs (χ²=16.378; p<0.001, χ²=13.467; p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the patients who had been educated about the antihypertensive drugs and their side effects were more frequently preferring to use antihypertensive drug to lower the elevated blood pressure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 231-238

  15. [Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A

    2007-01-01

    The review sums up the long experience of the authors and other researchers in studying the genetic system of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), which controls sthe development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and arbuscular mycorrhiza. A justified phenotypic classification of pea mutants is presented....... Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza...

  16. A comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) applied to mapping debris flows in small alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Lechner, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for documenting natural hazard events (e.g. debris flows) is becoming increasingly popular, as UAS allow on-demand, flexible and cost-efficient data acquisition. In this paper, we present the results of a comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing UAS. They were employed in the summer of 2015 to map two small alpine catchments located in Western Austria, where debris flows had occurred recently: The first event took place in the Seigesbach (Tyrol), the second occurred in the Plojergraben (Salzburg). For the Seigesbach mission, a fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (50 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was employed to acquire approximately 4,000 images. In the Plojergraben an AustroDrones X18 octocopter was used, carrying a Sony ILCE-7R (35 mm prime lens, 36 MP sensor resolution) to record 1,700 images. Both sites had a size of approximately 2km². 20 ground control points (GCP) were distributed within both catchments, and their location was measured (Trimble GeoXT, expected accuracy 0.15 m). Using standard structure-from-motion photogrammetry software (AgiSoft PhotoScan Pro, v. 1.1.6), orthophotos (5 cm ground sampling distance - GSD) and digital surface models (DSM) (20 cm GSD) were calculated. Volume differences caused by the debris flow (i.e. deposition heights and erosion depths) computed by subtracting post-event from pre-event DSMs. Even though the terrain conditions in the two catchments were comparable, the challenges during the field campaign and the evaluation of the aerial images were very different. The main difference between the two campaigns was the number of flights required to cover the catchment: only four were needed by the fixed-wing UAS, while the multicopter required eleven in the Plojergraben. The fixed-wing UAS is specially designed for missions in hardly accessible regions, requiring only two people to carry the whole equipment, while in this case a car was needed for the

  17. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-10-07

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  18. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest

  19. Analysis of the effect of the Electron-Beam welding sequence for a fixed manufacturing route using finite element simulations applied to ITER vacuum vessel manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Menéndez, Cristina, E-mail: cristina@natec-ingenieros.com [Numerical Analysis Technologies, S.L. Marqués de San Esteban No. 52, 33206 Gijón (Spain); Rodríguez, Eduardo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus de Gijón, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Ottolini, Marco [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy); Caixas, Joan [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Guirao, Julio [Numerical Analysis Technologies, S.L. Marqués de San Esteban No. 52, 33206 Gijón (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The simulation methodology employed in this paper is able to adapt inside a complex manufacturing route. • The effect of the sequence is lower in a highly constrained assembly than in a lowly constrained one. • The most relevant influence on the distortions is the jigs design, instead of the welding sequence. • The welding distortion analysis should be used as a guidance to design and improve the manufacturing strategy. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel Sectors have very tight tolerances and high density of welding. Therefore, prediction and reduction of welding distortion are critical to allow the final assembly with the other Vacuum Vessel Sectors without the production of a full scale prototype. In this paper, the effect of the welding sequence in the distortions inside a fixed manufacturing route and in a highly constrained assembly is studied in the poloidal segment named inboard (PS1). This is one of the four poloidal segments (PS) assembled for the sector. Moreover, some restrictions and limitations in the welding sequence related to the manufacturing process are explained. The results obtained show that the effect of the sequence is lower in a highly constrained assembly than in a low constrained one. A prototype manufactured by AMW consortium (PS1 mock-up) is used in order to validate the finite element method welding simulation employed. The obtained results confirmed that for Electron-Beam welds, both the welding simulation and the mock-up show a low value of distortions.

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  1. New 3D technologies applied to assess the long-term clinical effects of misfit of the full jaw fixed prosthesis on dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, Asbjørn; Shokati, Babak

    2015-10-01

    To assess implant:suprastructure misfit in patients with an edentulous jaw restored by an implant-retained fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) and its association with biologic and mechanical adverse events over an extensive period. Thirty patients with an edentulous mandible treated with implant-supported prosthetics before 2000 were examined clinically in 2012. Each patient had received 4 to 6 implants to retain a FDP made from acrylic and three different metal alloys, that is, Ag-Pd, Pd-Ag, and Au type IV. The implant intra-oral locations were recorded digitally by use of an intra-oral scanner, and the intaglio surface of the detached FDP was recorded using a desktop scanner. The fit was estimated by digital matching of the STL files using industrial metrological software. The average misfit was correlated with the average marginal bone loss and the prevalence of screw loosening or fractures, using the patient as the statistical unit. Over an average of 19 years (range 12 to 32), 5 implants had been lost in 4 participants (96.7% implant survival) and 8 eight prostheses (26.7%) had been remade. Anaverage misfit was 150 μm (SD 35, range 95-232, CI 138-163). An average marginal bone loss of 2.2 mm (SD = 0.7) had occurred (range 0.6 to 5.8 mm) for individual implants. The correlation between framework misfit and marginal bone loss was weak (R² = 0.04) (P = 0.29). The prostheses with a history of screw-related adverse events showed average misfit of 169 μm (SD = 32) vs. those with no history of screw-related adverse events, that is, 134 μm (SD = 30) (P = 0.005, Student's t-test). Fourteen of the 30 participants had experienced at least one incidence of screw loosening or fracture of prosthetic or abutment screw(s) over the period of follow-up. The occurrence among the frameworks fabricated with different metal alloys did not differ (P > 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Combining STL files with best-fit algorithms to appraise misfit is feasible using

  2. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi

    2011-07-01

    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  3. Vilified and Fixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Westberg, Lysa

    , and imbalances of power between scholars and journalists on one side, and fans on the other are not rare occurrences. An analysis of a number of recent news articles, scholarly works, and websites, shows how the attempt of fixing fandom still prevails. Like Said's view on how the Orient is treated, fandom...... and tween website", 'Teen' managed to outrage fans. It took days and hundreds of comments, tweets, and mails to the publishers, before the article was taken down. Vilification in scholarly works and the media may have significantly lessened in recent years. Still, misunderstandings, applied exoticism...... is similarly exotisised, incorporated, and fixed. Scholars explain how to become better fans, attempting authority over fandom by applying rules to a culture, which already has their own. This, the notion of the 'better fan', devalues the existing discourses, rules, and traditions within fandom. The expert...

  4. The evolution of systolic blood pressure as a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk and the effectiveness of fixed-dose ARB/CCB combinations in lowering levels of this preferential target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques MouradHypertension Unit, Avicenne Hospital – AP-HP and Paris XIII University Bobigny, FranceAbstract: Elevated blood pressure is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Although targets for both diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP are defined by current guidelines, DBP has historically taken precedence in hypertension management. However, there is strong evidence that SBP is superior to DBP as a predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, achieving control of SBP is assuming greater importance amongst an aging population. In spite of the growing recognition of the importance of SBP in reducing cardiovascular risk and the emphasis by current guidelines on SBP control, a substantial proportion of patients still fail to achieve SBP targets, and SBP control is achieved much less frequently than DBP control. Thus, new approaches to the management of hypertension are required in order to control SBP and minimize cardiovascular risk. Fixed-dose combination (FDC therapy is an approach that offers the advantages of multiple drug administration and a reduction in regimen complexity that favors compliance. We have reviewed the latest evidence demonstrating the efficacy in targeting SBP of the most recent FDC products; combinations of the calcium channel blocker (CCB, amlodipine, with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, valsartan or olmesartan. In addition, results from studies with new classes of agent are outlined.Keywords: hypertension, systolic blood pressure, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, combination therapy

  5. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  6. Differences in night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure when diurnal periods are defined by self-report, fixed-times, and actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Abdalla, Marwah; Diaz, Keith M; Viera, Anthony J; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy produce different estimates of night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-h ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed night-time and daytime periods were defined as 0000-0600 h and 1000-2000 h, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean night-time and daytime ABP and kappa statistics for night-time and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Within-individual mean differences in night-time systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in night-time systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in night-time systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was -0.53 (-6.61, +5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (-3.61, +5.43) mmHg, and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (-5.59, +8.46) mmHg. Agreement for night-time and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: kappa statistic (95% CI) = 0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach.

  7. [Effects of Self-management Program applying Dongsasub Training on Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, Self-management Behavior and Blood Pressure in Older Adults with Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsuk; Song, Misoon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a self-management program applying Dongsasub training based on self-efficacy theory, and to verify the program effectiveness on self-esteem as well as self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and blood pressure. The study design was a non-equivalent, pre-post controlled quasi-experiment study. Thirty-eight patients aged 65 and older from a senior welfare center in Seoul participated in this study (20 patients in the experimental group and 18 patients in the control group). The self-management program applying Dongsasub training consisted of eight sessions. After development was complete the program was used with the experimental group. Outcome variables included self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-management behaviors measured by questionnaires, and blood pressure measured by electronic manometer. Self-efficacy (t=2.42, p=.021), self-esteem (t=2.57, p=.014) and self-management behaviors (t=2.21, p=.034) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (t=-2.14, p=.040) was significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, diastolic blood pressure (t=-.85, p=.400) was not significantly different between the two groups. The results indicate that the self-management program applying Dongsasub training can be used as a nursing intervention in community settings for improving self-management behaviors for older adults with hypertension.

  8. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  9. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Chun-Han

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood. (paper)

  10. Nanomechanical sensor applied to blood culture pellets: a fast approach to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against agents of bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar, P; Opota, O; Longo, G; Prod'hom, G; Dietler, G; Greub, G; Kasas, S

    2017-06-01

    The management of bloodstream infection, a life-threatening disease, largely relies on early detection of infecting microorganisms and accurate determination of their antibiotic susceptibility to reduce both mortality and morbidity. Recently we developed a new technique based on atomic force microscopy capable of detecting movements of biologic samples at the nanoscale. Such sensor is able to monitor the response of bacteria to antibiotic's pressure, allowing a fast and versatile susceptibility test. Furthermore, rapid preparation of a bacterial pellet from a positive blood culture can improve downstream characterization of the recovered pathogen as a result of the increased bacterial concentration obtained. Using artificially inoculated blood cultures, we combined these two innovative procedures and validated them in double-blind experiments to determine the susceptibility and resistance of Escherichia coli strains (ATCC 25933 as susceptible and a characterized clinical isolate as resistant strain) towards a selection of antibiotics commonly used in clinical settings. On the basis of the variance of the sensor movements, we were able to positively discriminate the resistant from the susceptible E. coli strains in 16 of 17 blindly investigated cases. Furthermore, we defined a variance change threshold of 60% that discriminates susceptible from resistant strains. By combining the nanomotion sensor with the rapid preparation method of blood culture pellets, we obtained an innovative, rapid and relatively accurate method for antibiotic susceptibility test directly from positive blood culture bottles, without the need for bacterial subculture. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  12. Binding properties of a blood group Le(a+) active sialoglycoprotein, purified from human ovarian cyst, with applied lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; WU, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Tsai, M C

    1996-06-07

    Studies on the structures and binding properties of the glycoproteins, purified from human ovarian cyst fluids, will aid the understanding of the carbohydrate alterations occurring during the biosynthesis of blood group antigens and neoplasm formation. These glycoproteins can also serve as important biological materials to study blood group A, B, H, Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), Le(y), T and Tn determinants, precursor type I and II sequences and cold agglutinin I and i epitopes. In this study, the binding property of a cyst glycoprotein from a human blood group Le(a+) nonsecretor individual, that contains an unusually high amount (18%) of sialic acid (HOC 350) was characterized by quantitative precipitin assay with a panel of lectins exhibiting a broad range of carbohydrate-binding specificities. Native HOC 350 reacted well only with three out of nineteen lectins tested. It precipitated about 80% of Ricinus communis (RCA1), 50% of Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and 37% of Bauhinia purpurea aba (BPA) agglutinins, respectively. However, its asialo product had dramatically enhanced reactivity and reacted well with many I/II (Gal beta1 --> 3/4GcNAc), T(Gal beta1 --> 3GalNAc) and Tn(GaNIAc alphaI --> Ser/Thr) active lectins. It bound best to Jacalin, BPA, and abrin-a and completely precipitated all the lectins added. Asialo-HOC 350 also reacted strongly with Wistaria floribunda, Abrus precatorius agglutinin, ricin and RCA1 and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, and moderately with Arachis hypogaea, Maclura pomifera, WGA, Vicia viosa-B4, Codium fragile tomentosoides and Ulex europaeus-II. But native HOC 350 and its asialo product reacted not at all or poorly with Dolichos biflorus, Helix pomatia, Lotus tetra-gonolobus, Ulex europaeus-I, Lens culinaris lectins and Con A. The lectin-glycoform interactions through bioactive sugars were confirmed by precipitin inhibition assay. Mapping the precipitation profiles of the interactions have led to the conclusion that HOC 350

  13. Applying standardized uptake values in gallium-67-citrate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography studies and their correlation with blood test results in representative organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriihara, Akira; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Yoshida, Katsuya; Isogai, Jun; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2018-05-21

    Recently, semiquantitative analysis using standardized uptake value (SUV) has been introduced in bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Our purposes were to apply SUV-based semiquantitative analytic method for gallium-67 (Ga)-citrate SPECT/CT and to evaluate correlation between SUV of physiological uptake and blood test results in representative organs. The accuracy of semiquantitative method was validated using an National Electrical Manufacturers Association body phantom study (radioactivity ratio of sphere : background=4 : 1). Thereafter, 59 patients (34 male and 25 female; mean age, 66.9 years) who had undergone Ga-citrate SPECT/CT were retrospectively enrolled in the study. A mean SUV of physiological uptake was calculated for the following organs: the lungs, right atrium, liver, kidneys, spleen, gluteal muscles, and bone marrow. The correlation between physiological uptakes and blood test results was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The phantom study revealed only 1% error between theoretical and actual SUVs in the background, suggesting the sufficient accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections. However, a partial volume effect could not be overlooked, particularly in small spheres with a diameter of less than 28 mm. The highest mean SUV was observed in the liver (range: 0.44-4.64), followed by bone marrow (range: 0.33-3.60), spleen (range: 0.52-2.12), and kidneys (range: 0.42-1.45). There was no significant correlation between hepatic uptake and liver function, renal uptake and renal function, or bone marrow uptake and blood cell count (P>0.05). The physiological uptake in Ga-citrate SPECT/CT can be represented as SUVs, which are not significantly correlated with corresponding blood test results.

  14. About Applications of the Fixed Point Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixed point theory is essential to various theoretical and applied fields, such as variational and linear inequalities, the approximation theory, nonlinear analysis, integral and differential equations and inclusions, the dynamic systems theory, mathematics of fractals, mathematical economics (game theory, equilibrium problems, and optimisation problems and mathematical modelling. This paper presents a few benchmarks regarding the applications of the fixed point theory. This paper also debates if the results of the fixed point theory can be applied to the mathematical modelling of quality.

  15. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  16. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model applied to quantification of cerebral blood flow using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Yamazaki, Youichi; Shinohara, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in comparison with deconvolution analysis based on singular value decomposition (DA-SVD). Using computer simulations, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) modeled as a gamma-variate function under various CBFs, cerebral blood volumes and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for three different types of residue function (exponential, triangular, and box-shaped). We also considered the effects of delay and dispersion in AIF. The ARMA model and DA-SVD were used to estimate CBF values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIFs, and the estimated values were compared with the assumed values. We found that the CBF value estimated by the ARMA model was more sensitive to the SNR and the delay in AIF than that obtained by DA-SVD. Although the ARMA model considerably overestimated CBF at low SNRs, it estimated the CBF more accurately than did DA-SVD at high SNRs for the exponential or triangular residue function. We believe this study will contribute to an understanding of the usefulness and limitations of the ARMA model when applied to quantification of CBF with DSC-MRI. (author)

  18. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  19. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  20. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a...

  1. On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x B . We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)

  2. On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France); Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Univ. de Liege, Inst. de Physique, Liege (Belgium); Teryaev, O.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x{sub B}. We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)

  3. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  4. DISCRETE FIXED POINT THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO NASH EQUILIBRIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Junichi; Kawasaki, Hidefumi

    2007-01-01

    Fixed point theorems are powerful tools in not only mathematics but also economic. In some economic problems, we need not real-valued but integer-valued equilibriums. However, classical fixed point theorems guarantee only real-valued equilibria. So we need discrete fixed point theorems in order to get discrete equilibria. In this paper, we first provide discrete fixed point theorems, next apply them to a non-cooperative game and prove the existence of a Nash equilibrium of pure strategies.

  5. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  6. Donation return time at fixed and mobile donation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Patricia M.; High, Patrick M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Johnson, Bryce R.; Mast, Alan E.; Rios, Jorge A.; Simon, Toby L.; Wilkinson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of blood donation environment, fixed or mobile with differing sponsor types, on donation return time. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 2006 through 2009 at six US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) were used for analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by whole blood (WB), plateletpheresis (PP), and double red blood cell (R2) donations were obtained for fixed and mobile locations, including median number of donations and median interdonation interval. A survival analysis estimated median return time at fixed and mobile sites, while controlling for censored return times, demographics, blood center, and mandatory recovery times. RESULTS Two-thirds (67.9%) of WB donations were made at mobile sites, 97.4% of PP donations were made at fixed sites, and R2 donations were equally distributed between fixed and mobile locations. For donations at fixed sites only or alternating between fixed and mobile sites, the highest median numbers of donations were nine and eight, respectively, and the shortest model-adjusted median return times (controlling for mandatory eligibility times of 56 and 112 days) were 36 and 30 days for WB and R2 donations, respectively. For PP donations, the shortest model-adjusted median return time was 23 days at a fixed location and the longest was 693 days at community locations. CONCLUSION WB, PP, and R2 donors with the shortest time between donations were associated with fixed locations and those alternating between fixed and mobile locations, even after controlling for differing mandatory recovery times for the different blood donation procedures. PMID:21745215

  7. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  8. Methodology for performing surveys for fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a methodology for performing instrument surveys for fixed contamination that can be used to support the release of material from radiological areas, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology, which is based on a fast scan survey and a series of statistical, fixed measurements, meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for surveys for fixed contamination and requires less time than a conventional scan survey. The confidence interval associated with the new methodology conforms to the draft national standard for surveys. The methodology that is presented applies only to surveys for fixed contamination. Surveys for removable contamination are not discussed, and the new methodology does not affect surveys for removable contamination

  9. Fixed-film processes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended and fixed biomass bioreactors have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These process no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients and suspended solid. Also, processes may work at high rates making it possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film process include trickling filter, moving bed reactors fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical base governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined with some simple examples of calculations underlining the main differences with conventional activated sludge processes [it

  10. Fixed-film processes. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These processes no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients suspended solids. Also, processes may work at high rates making is possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film processes include trickling filters (and combined suspended and fixed-films processes), rotating biological contactors, biological aerated submerged, filters moving bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical based governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined, with some simple examples of calculations, underlining the main differences with conventional activate sludge processes. In the second part, the most common types of reactors are reviewed [it

  11. Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.

    Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and

  12. Fixing Health Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, health care has been in a state of crisis for several decades. ..... Instead, think about them as representations of real people — people with families that ...... blood screening; patient care, counseling, and social support; palliative care.

  13. Untargeted metabolomics applied retrospectively to UPLC-HR-TOFMS data of whole blood samples from Danish drivers exposed to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Telving, Rasmus; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    to evaluate the drug metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”). Despite of the untraditional experimental setup, and a very heterogeneous population with different concentrations of MDMA/kg blood weight, as well as unknown information about amount and time of administration in relation...... to blood sampling, it was possible to extract meaningful information. Various statistical methods were tested and their predictability was validated by the positive identification of MDMA blood metabolites. In addition, endogenous metabolites that may be related to energy metabolism, the serotonergic...

  14. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-10

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate.

  15. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  16. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, B.W.; Schonberner, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  17. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  18. Fixed-point data-collection method of video signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yu; Yin Zejie; Qian Weiming; Wu Xiaoyi

    1997-01-01

    The author describes a Fixed-point data-collection method of video signal. The method provides an idea of fixed-point data-collection, and has been successfully applied in the research of real-time radiography on dose field, a project supported by National Science Fund

  19. Effects of Fatty Acid and Geraniol Repellent-Oil Mixtures Applied to Cattle on Blood Feeding and Reproductive Parameters in Field Populations of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Soto, Diane; Gerry, Alec C; Fowler, Fallon E; Diniz, Alesha N

    2018-02-28

    California pastured cattle were treated with 250 ml of a 15% mixture of fatty acids (C8-C9-C10) or 125 ml of 2% geraniol in a mineral oil carrier to assess impacts on horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) over two summers. Horn flies were netted from cattle every 3-4 d for 2 wk before treatment, 2 wk during treatment (four treatments, with flies collected before each treatment), and 2 wk after treatments ceased. Blood meal weights were estimated by hemoglobin assay of excised abdomens. Other females were dissected to determine the number of active ovarioles and the stage of primary follicle development. Depending on year and herd, pretreatment males contained an average of 0.6-1.0 mg of blood, while females contained 1.7-2.7 mg. Pretreatment egg development (least developed oocytes were stage 1 and fully developed eggs were stage 5) averaged 3.7-4.3, and number of active ovarioles averaged 18.1 to 19.6/female. During treatment periods, significant reductions in blood weight were noted for females, but usually not for males, and females also often exhibited reduced mean oocyte stage and number of active ovarioles. Peaks in proportions of young nulliparous females (oocyte stages 1 or 2) were seen during some repellent application periods. This suggested older females had been killed or driven off from the local population by the treatments, and flies on cattle included more young flies that likely were recent arrivals. The repellent-oil mixture thus impacted blood feeding, reproductive fitness, and probably age structure in the field.

  20. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2017-01-14

    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations' vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  1. User Performance Evaluation of Four Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Applying ISO 15197:2013 Accuracy Criteria and Calculation of Insulin Dosing Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Jendrike, Nina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Liebing, Christina; Haug, Cornelia

    2018-04-01

    The international standard ISO 15197:2013 requires a user performance evaluation to assess if intended users are able to obtain accurate blood glucose measurement results with a self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) system. In this study, user performance was evaluated for four SMBG systems on the basis of ISO 15197:2013, and possibly related insulin dosing errors were calculated. Additionally, accuracy was assessed in the hands of study personnel. Accu-Chek ® Performa Connect (A), Contour ® plus ONE (B), FreeStyle Optium Neo (C), and OneTouch Select ® Plus (D) were evaluated with one test strip lot. After familiarization with the systems, subjects collected a capillary blood sample and performed an SMBG measurement. Study personnel observed the subjects' measurement technique. Then, study personnel performed SMBG measurements and comparison measurements. Number and percentage of SMBG measurements within ± 15 mg/dl and ± 15% of the comparison measurements at glucose concentrations performed by lay-users. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02916576). Ascensia Diabetes Care Deutschland GmbH.

  2. The residual efficacy of a cypermethrin pour-on formulation applied on goats on the mortality and blood intake of Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Amelotti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. As a frequent blood meal source for triatomine bugs, domestic goats play a key role in the eco-epidemiology of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and blood intake of T. infestans fed on goats that had been treated with different doses of pour-on insecticide. Third-instar nymphs were fed on goats that had been treated with 0 cc, 5 cc, 10 cc or 15 cc of a pour-on formulation of cypermethrin. The exposure of T. infestans to animals treated at different post-application intervals revealed a residual activity of the insecticide. The mortality rate in the treated groups was higher than in the control groups until 30 days post-insecticide application (p = 0.03, except in the group treated with 5 cc, in which no mortality was detected after seven days of insecticide application. Rainfall affected the triatomicide effect, reducing the time of residual activity. The cypermethrin pour-on treatment decreased the blood intake of T. infestans. Thirty days after the cypermethrin application, nymph mortality was 16% (± 13 with both doses (10 cc and 15 cc. The 15 cc dose did not result in higher insect mortality or increased persistence compared to the 10 cc dose.

  3. Wall shear stress fixed points in cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2018-05-17

    Complex blood flow in large arteries creates rich wall shear stress (WSS) vectorial features. WSS acts as a link between blood flow dynamics and the biology of various cardiovascular diseases. WSS has been of great interest in a wide range of studies and has been the most popular measure to correlate blood flow to cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have emphasized different vectorial features of WSS. However, fixed points in the WSS vector field have not received much attention. A WSS fixed point is a point on the vessel wall where the WSS vector vanishes. In this article, WSS fixed points are classified and the aspects by which they could influence cardiovascular disease are reviewed. First, the connection between WSS fixed points and the flow topology away from the vessel wall is discussed. Second, the potential role of time-averaged WSS fixed points in biochemical mass transport is demonstrated using the recent concept of Lagrangian WSS structures. Finally, simple measures are proposed to quantify the exposure of the endothelial cells to WSS fixed points. Examples from various arterial flow applications are demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  5. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D F

    2003-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  6. Elastolytic activity of human blood monocytes characterized by a new monoclonal antibody against human leucocyte elastase. Relationship to rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Christensen, L D

    1990-01-01

    The leucocyte elastase of human blood monocytes was investigated by applying a new monoclonal antibody which did not block the enzyme activity against elastin. In a fixed population of mononuclear cells (MNC) and using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the human leucocyte elastase (HLE...

  7. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  8. Non-Contact Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Estimations from Video Analysis and Machine Learning Modelling Applied to Food Sensory Responses: A Case Study for Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Viejo, Claudia; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Torrico, Damir D; Dunshea, Frank R

    2018-06-03

    Traditional methods to assess heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are intrusive and can affect results in sensory analysis of food as participants are aware of the sensors. This paper aims to validate a non-contact method to measure HR using the photoplethysmography (PPG) technique and to develop models to predict the real HR and BP based on raw video analysis (RVA) with an example application in chocolate consumption using machine learning (ML). The RVA used a computer vision algorithm based on luminosity changes on the different RGB color channels using three face-regions (forehead and both cheeks). To validate the proposed method and ML models, a home oscillometric monitor and a finger sensor were used. Results showed high correlations with the G color channel (R² = 0.83). Two ML models were developed using three face-regions: (i) Model 1 to predict HR and BP using the RVA outputs with R = 0.85 and (ii) Model 2 based on time-series prediction with HR, magnitude and luminosity from RVA inputs to HR values every second with R = 0.97. An application for the sensory analysis of chocolate showed significant correlations between changes in HR and BP with chocolate hardness and purchase intention.

  9. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  10. A study on fixing force generation mechanism of ER gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H; Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T; Anzai, H

    2009-01-01

    Electro-rheological Gel (ERG) is a new functional elastomer which changes its surface frictional and adhesive property according to the intensity of applied electrical field. This unique property is called ERG effect. The upper sliding electrode placed on the surface of ERG is fixed by the adhesive effect of ERG under electrical field. Variable fixing forces due to adhesion are generated by this effect. However, relationship between physical factors and generated fixing force has not yet been clarified. In this study, physical mechanism of fixing phenomenon is elucidated experimentally from the view point of frictional force and adhesive force. From the results, empirical equation of generated fixing force is originally derived to establish the theory of ERG effect.

  11. Some fixed point theorems in fuzzy reflexive Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeqi, I.; Solaty kia, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first show that there are some gaps in the fixed point theorems for fuzzy non-expansive mappings which are proved by Bag and Samanta, in [Bag T, Samanta SK. Fixed point theorems on fuzzy normed linear spaces. Inf Sci 2006;176:2910-31; Bag T, Samanta SK. Some fixed point theorems in fuzzy normed linear spaces. Inform Sci 2007;177(3):3271-89]. By introducing the notion of fuzzy and α- fuzzy reflexive Banach spaces, we obtain some results which help us to establish the correct version of fuzzy fixed point theorems. Second, by applying Theorem 3.3 of Sadeqi and Solati kia [Sadeqi I, Solati kia F. Fuzzy normed linear space and it's topological structure. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press] which says that any fuzzy normed linear space is also a topological vector space, we show that all topological version of fixed point theorems do hold in fuzzy normed linear spaces.

  12. A study on fixing force generation mechanism of ER gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T [School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Anzai, H [Fujikura kasei Co., Ltd., 2-6-15 Shibakouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: h-tanaka@ina.sd.keio.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Electro-rheological Gel (ERG) is a new functional elastomer which changes its surface frictional and adhesive property according to the intensity of applied electrical field. This unique property is called ERG effect. The upper sliding electrode placed on the surface of ERG is fixed by the adhesive effect of ERG under electrical field. Variable fixing forces due to adhesion are generated by this effect. However, relationship between physical factors and generated fixing force has not yet been clarified. In this study, physical mechanism of fixing phenomenon is elucidated experimentally from the view point of frictional force and adhesive force. From the results, empirical equation of generated fixing force is originally derived to establish the theory of ERG effect.

  13. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  14. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Rhizobium is a genus of symbiotic N2-fixing soil bacteria that induce ... To produce biofilm cultures, a 2 × 2 cm yeast manitol agar. (YMA) slab was .... determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms;. J. Clin. Microbiol.

  15. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the...

  17. Renormalization Scale-Fixing for Complex Scattering Amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; /Madrid U.

    2005-12-21

    We show how to fix the renormalization scale for hard-scattering exclusive processes such as deeply virtual meson electroproduction by applying the BLM prescription to the imaginary part of the scattering amplitude and employing a fixed-t dispersion relation to obtain the scale-fixed real part. In this way we resolve the ambiguity in BLM renormalization scale-setting for complex scattering amplitudes. We illustrate this by computing the H generalized parton distribution at leading twist in an analytic quark-diquark model for the parton-proton scattering amplitude which can incorporate Regge exchange contributions characteristic of the deep inelastic structure functions.

  18. Measures of Noncircularity and Fixed Points of Contractive Multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In analogy to the Eisenfeld-Lakshmikantham measure of nonconvexity and the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness, we introduce two mutually equivalent measures of noncircularity for Banach spaces satisfying a Cantor type property, and apply them to establish a fixed point theorem of Darbo type for multifunctions. Namely, we prove that every multifunction with closed values, defined on a closed set and contractive with respect to any one of these measures, has the origin as a fixed point.

  19. Some Design Considerations on the Electrostatically Actuated Fixed-Fixed End Type MEMS Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian, Hamed; Rezazadeh, Ghader; Sani, Ebrahim Abbaspour

    2006-01-01

    The nonlinear electrostatic pull-in behaviour of MEMS Switches in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is investigated in this article. We used the distributed model when the electrostatic pressure didn't apply at the whole of the beam and applied only in the mid-part of the beam. In this part the electrostatic area is different from two other parts. The model uses Euler-Bernoulli beam theory for fixed-fixed end type beams. The finite difference method was used to solve the nonlinear equation. The proposed model includes the fringing effects of the electrical field, residual stress and varying electrostatic area effects. The numerical results reveal that the profile deflection of the MEMS Switch may not only influence the distribution of the electrostatic force but also considerably change the nonlinear pull-in voltage

  20. Fixed kernel regression for voltammogram feature extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Rodriguez, F J; López-Sastre, R J; Gil-Jiménez, P; Maldonado Bascón, S; Ruiz-Reyes, N

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an electroanalytical technique for obtaining information about substances under analysis without the need for complex flow systems. However, classifying the information in voltammograms obtained using this technique is difficult. In this paper, we propose the use of fixed kernel regression as a method for extracting features from these voltammograms, reducing the information to a few coefficients. The proposed approach has been applied to a wine classification problem with accuracy rates of over 98%. Although the method is described here for extracting voltammogram information, it can be used for other types of signals

  1. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  2. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  3. Fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, A.; Gheondea, A.; Gudder, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum operations frequently occur in quantum measurement theory, quantum probability, quantum computation, and quantum information theory. If an operator A is invariant under a quantum operation φ, we call A a φ-fixed point. Physically, the φ-fixed points are the operators that are not disturbed by the action of φ. Our main purpose is to answer the following question. If A is a φ-fixed point, is A compatible with the operation elements of φ? We shall show in general that the answer is no and we shall give some sufficient conditions under which the answer is yes. Our results will follow from some general theorems concerning completely positive maps and injectivity of operator systems and von Neumann algebras

  4. Settling of fixed erythrocyte suspension droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that when particles behave collectively rather than individually, the fractionation of micron-size particles on the basis of size, density, and surface characteristics by centrifugation and electrophoresis is hindered. The formation and sedimentation of droplets containing particles represent an extreme example of collective behavior and pose a major problem for these separation methods when large quantities of particles need to be fractionated. Experiments are described that measure droplet sizes and settling rates for a variety of particles and droplets. Expressions relating the particle concentration in a drop to measurable quantities of the fluids and particles are developed. The number of particles in each droplet is then estimated, together with the effective droplet density. Red blood cells from different animals fixed in glutaraldehyde provide model particle groups.

  5. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  6. Apparatus for fixing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.D.; Pirro, J. Jr.; Lawrence, M.; Wisla, S.F.

    1975-01-01

    Fixing radioactive waste is disclosed in which the waste is collected as a slurry in aqueous media in a metering tank located within the nuclear facilities. Collection of waste is continued from time to time until a sufficient quantity of material to make up a full shipment to a burial ground has been collected. The slurry is then cast in shipping containers for shipment to a burial ground or the like by metering through a mixer into which fixing materials are simultaneously metered at a rate to yield the desired proportions of materials. (U.S.)

  7. Blood pressure and heart rate response to posteriorly directed pressure applied to the cervical spine in young, pain-free individuals: a randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Emmanuel; Wong, Michael; Williams, Haddie; Mache, Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response of healthy volunteers to posteriorly directed (anterior-to-posterior [AP]) pressure applied to the cervical spine versus placebo. Manual therapists employ cervical spine AP mobilizations for various cervical-shoulder pain conditions. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the procedure, cardiovascular response, and safety profile. Thirty-nine (25 female) healthy participants (mean ± SD age, 24.7 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received a placebo, consisting of light touch applied to the right C6 costal process. Group 2 received AP pressure at the same location. Blood pressure and HR were measured prior to, during, and after the application of AP pressure. One-way analysis of variance and paired-difference statistics were used for data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and mean HR (P >.05) for all time points. Within-group comparisons indicated statistically significant differences between baseline and post-AP pressure HR (-2.8 bpm; 95% confidence interval: -4.6, -1.1) and between baseline and post-AP pressure systolic BP (-2.4 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -3.7, -1.0) in the AP group, and between baseline and postplacebo systolic BP (-2.6 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -4.2, -1.0) in the placebo group. No participants reported any adverse reactions or side effects within 24 hours of testing. AP pressure caused a statistically significant physiologic response that resulted in a minor drop in HR (without causing asystole or vasodepression) after the procedure, whereas this cardiovascular change did not occur for those in the placebo group. Within both groups, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in systolic BP following the procedure.

  8. Internal audit of costs on fixed assets repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Samchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the approaches to the process and methods of expenditure audit on repair and modernization of fixed assets and the author considers that there is no single approach to understanding the issue. The author improves the organizational and methodological support of internal audit of expenditures on the fixed assets repair and modernization that forms the accurate information for management repair and modernization of fixed assets. The paper specifies the goals and objectives of internal expenditures on repair and modernization of fixed assets, depending on the sources of such facilities to the company, allowing the author to determine the documentary control methods to be applied by an auditor to perform each task. The article determines the areas of risk components of internal control that can lead to ineffective implementation of authority by officials of an enterprise in the process of fixed assets repair, which can cause inefficient use of resources and, consequently, decrease in the efficiency of the work of fixed assets repair and modernization. The author proposes the list of auditor’s questions to assess the internal control system in the repair of fixed assets and these questions will help identify the significant drawbacks of control means.

  9. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described

  10. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  11. Enumerating matroids of fixed rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendavingh, R.; van der Pol, J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been conjectured that asymptotically almost all matroids are sparse paving, i.e. that~s(n)∼m(n)s(n)∼m(n), where m(n)m(n) denotes the number of matroids on a fixed groundset of size nn, and s(n)s(n) the number of sparse paving matroids. In an earlier paper, we showed that

  12. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  13. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  14. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels

  15. Effect of Fixed Metallic Oral Appliances on Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    There is a substantial proportion of the population using fixed metallic oral appliances, such as crowns and bridges, which are composed of various dental alloys. These restorations may be associated with a number of effects on oral health with variable degrees of severity, to review potential effects of using fixed metallic oral appliances, fabricated from various alloys. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using certain combinations of keywords related to the topic. The search revealed that burning mouth syndrome, oral pigmentation, hypersensitivity and lichenoid reactions, and genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are the major potential oral health changes associated with fixed prosthodontic appliances. Certain oral disorders are associated with the use of fixed metallic oral appliances. Patch test is the most reliable method that can be applied for identifying metal allergy, and the simultaneous use of different alloys in the mouth is discouraged.

  16. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  17. [Characteristics of porcine thoracic arteries fixed with polyepoxy compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi-Xun; Chen, Huai-Qing

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of porcine thoracic arteries fixed with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EX-810) and to provide the proper scaffold materials for tissue-engineered blood vessel. The porcine thoracic arteries were respectively treated with 40 ml/L EX-810 and 6.25 g/L glutaraldehyde, and then they were examined with naked-eye, light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fixation index determination, the amino acid analysis and the biomechanics test were also performed. The antigenicity of vascular tissues can be diminished by EX-810 through getting rid of cell in the vascular tissues or reducing the level of free amino groups in the vascular tissues. The structural integrity of vascular tissues can be preserved after treatment with EX-810. It was also found that the EX-810-fixed porcine vascular tissues appeared more similar to the natural vascular tissues in color and mechanical properties, and were more pliable than the glutaraldehyde-fixed tissues. The EX-810-fixed porcine thoracic arteries with low cytotoxicity and low antigenicity showed favorable characteristic similar to those of natural vessel, and it should be a promising material for fabricating scaffold of tissue-engineered blood vessel.

  18. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  19. Applied research on glucansucrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although glycansucrases have been known for over 70 years, they remain relatively unknown except to a small group of researchers. Practical, applied research on glycansucrases has been focused on certain key areas. The earliest of these was the development of blood plasma extenders from dextran, d...

  20. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2005-01-01

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  1. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  2. BRST cosmology and BRST gauge fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalau, W.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica; Holten, J.W. van

    1991-01-01

    Some general aspects of BRST cohomology are discussed. The BRST gauge-fixing procedure based on the harmonic gauges in the ghost-extended quantum mechanical Hilbert space. A general classification of states according to their BRST transformation properties is obtained.On the basis of these results necessary and sufficient conditions are found for the positivity of the physical state space following an earlier analysis of Spiegelglas. The method is applied to a system with a non semi-simple, solvable algebra of first-class constraints, such as appears in the theory of massless higher spins. It is found that both the Dirac and Gupta-Bleuler quantization procedures are contained within the BRST approach. (author). 15 refs

  3. On Krasnoselskii's Cone Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Kam Kwong

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem for cone maps and its many generalizations have been successfully applied to establish the existence of multiple solutions in the study of boundary value problems of various types. In the first part of this paper, we revisit the Krasnoselskii theorem, in a more topological perspective, and show that it can be deduced in an elementary way from the classical Brouwer-Schauder theorem. This viewpoint also leads to a topology-theoretic generalization of the theorem. In the second part of the paper, we extend the cone theorem in a different direction using the notion of retraction and show that a stronger form of the often cited Leggett-Williams theorem is a special case of this extension.

  4. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  5. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  6. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; Millett, D T; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Macfarlane, T V; Worthington, H V

    2003-01-01

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. To evaluate the effectiveness of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of most recent searches: August 2002 (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in duplicate by pairs of reviewers (Nicky Mandall (NM) and Rye Mattick (CRM); Declan Millett (DTM) and Joy Hickman (JH2)). Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cure composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. It is difficult to draw any conclusions from this review, however, suggestions are made for methods of improving future research involving

  7. BRST gauge fixing and regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, P.H.; Jonghe, F. de; Sollacher, R.

    1995-05-01

    In the presence of consistent regulators, the standard procedure of BRST gauge fixing (or moving from one gauge to another) can require non-trivial modifications. These modifications occur at the quantum level, and gauges exist which are only well-defined when quantum mechanical modifications are correctly taken into account. We illustrate how this phenomenon manifests itself in the solvable case of two-dimensional bosonization in the path-integral formalism. As a by-product, we show how to derive smooth bosonization in Batalin-Vilkovisky Lagrangian BRST quantization. (orig.)

  8. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  9. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  10. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  11. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  12. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  13. 75 FR 13422 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-015, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...-AL26 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-015, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer..., Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, currently requires contracting officers to... judgment regarding the amount of payment withheld to apply under fixed-price architect-engineer (A-E...

  14. Improved Landau gauge fixing and discretisation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, F.D.R.; Bowman, P.O.; Leinweber, D.B.; Richards, D.G.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Lattice discretisation errors in the Landau gauge condition are examined. An improved gauge fixing algorithm in which O(a 2 ) errors are removed is presented. O(a 2 ) improvement of the gauge fixing condition displays the secondary benefit of reducing the size of higher-order errors. These results emphasise the importance of implementing an improved gauge fixing condition

  15. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Make Blood? It's not made in a kitchen, but blood has ingredients, just like a recipe. ... these ingredients together and you have blood — an essential part of the circulatory system. Thanks to your ...

  16. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  17. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  18. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, Nicky A; Hickman, Joy; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mattick, Rye Cr; Millett, Declan T; Worthington, Helen V

    2018-04-09

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified. We have only updated the search methods section in this new version. The conclusions of this Cochrane Review remain the same. To evaluate the effects of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 26 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 26 September 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 26 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 26 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in

  19. IR fixed points in SU(3 gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Ishikawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in lattice gauge theories and apply it to the SU(3 gauge theories with Nf fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator through the RG analysis with a finite IR cutoff, which we cannot remove in the conformal field theories in sharp contrast to the confining theories. The method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for Nf=16,12,8 and Nf=7 and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in all cases.

  20. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  1. THE FIXED MEANS: AN ACCOUNTING CONCEPT OR A FISCAL ONE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the analysis of the accounting regulations applied to the economic operators, in their evolution after 1989, the specific accounting regulations for certain fields of activity and for certain categories of entities and starting from the fiscal rules and some paper works, we want to clarify in this study some conceptual issues referring to the fixed means, the tangible fixed assets components, of impacting financial information, respectively, on taxation. Is the concept of “fixed means” an accounting one or a fiscal one? We try to answer to this question and also to formulate an opinion on whether it is longer justified to use this concept in the accounting vocabulary and hence in the production of information presented in financial statements or in the fiscal vocabulary and implicitly in the work done to produce information provided in the fiscal reports.

  2. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  3. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  4. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Blood ...

  5. Fixed point iterations for quasi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-05-01

    Two well-known fixed point iteration methods are applied to approximate fixed points of quasi-contractive maps in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. While our theorems generalize important known results, our method is of independent interest. (author). 25 refs

  6. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and

  7. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  8. Detection of African swine fever virus from formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Luka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Formalin fixing and paraffin embedding of tissue samples is one of the techniques for preserving the structural integrity of cells for a very long time. However, extraction and analysis of genomic material from formalin fixed tissue (FFT remains a challenge despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. The success of polymerase chain reaction (PCR depends on the quality of DNA extract. Materials and Methods: Here we assessed the conventional method of DNA extraction from FFT for African swine fever virus (ASFV detection. The modified conventional method gave a higher quality DNA when compared with commercially available DNA extraction kits (QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, DNeasy® Blood and Tissue Kit, and ZR Genomic DNA™ Tissue MiniPrep. Results: An average A260/A280 DNA purity of 0.86-1.68 and 3.22-5.32 μg DNA/mg for formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues, respectively using a conventional method. In a reproducible and three times repeat PCR, the ASFV DNA expected product size of 278 bp was obtained from the DNA extract of the conventional method but not from the DNA extract of the commercial kits. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the conventional method extracts ASFV genome better than commercial kit. In summary, the commercial kit extraction appeared not suitable to purify ASFV DNA from FFT. We, therefore, recommend that the use of the conventional method be considered for African swine fever DNA extraction from FFT.

  9. Fixed telephony evolution at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The heart of CERN’s telephony infrastructure consists of the Alcatel IP-PBX that links CERN’s fixed line phones, Lync softphones and CERN’s GSM subscribers to low-cost local and international telephony services. The PABX infrastructure also supports the emergency “red telephones” in the LHC tunnel and provides vital services for the Fire and Rescue Service and the CERN Control Centre. Although still reliable, the Alcatel hardware is increasingly costly to maintain and looking increasingly outmoded in a market where open source solutions are increasingly dominant. After presenting an overview of the Alcatel PABX and the services it provides, including innovative solutions such as the Closed User Group for our mobile telephony services, we present a possible architecture for a software based system designed to meet tomorrow’s communication needs and describe how the introduction of open-source call routers based on the SIP protocol and Session Border Controllers (SBC) could foster the introduction...

  10. Fixed type incore measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka; Ito, Hitoshi; Maeda, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device using gamma thermometers to be used in a BWR type reactor. An input switch is inserted to the vicinity of a detection signal input portion of a signal cable connecting GT with the detection signal input portion of a fixed type incore measuring device, and a loop resistance measuring means is disposed to the input switch on the side of the GT by way of a measurement switch. Upon measuring loop resistance, the GT measuring circuit is switched from the detection signal input portion to the loop resistance measuring means by a switching operation of the input switch and the measurement switch thereby enabling to confirm the value of the loop resistance. In addition, the lowering of the voltage in the loop resistance is compensated to confirm the accurate measurement values to be used thereby enabling to measure GT detection signals accurately. A diagnosing means for diagnosing the state of GT based on the results of the measurement for the loop resistance is disposed, and the results are reported to an operator. (N.H.)

  11. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  12. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  13. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ¾c /font>, and c stands for the color quadratic Casimir of the field. Fixed points arise when R* ¼ or when R*. /nobr>. ´S-½. µ ´r ·b¿µ. The stability of the solutions may be tested by linearizing the system about the fixed points. For the non-trivial fixed points we need to consider the eigenvalues of the stability matrix whose ...

  14. Design and management of networks with fixed transportation costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Reusable packages are logistic items used for the shipments of goods from a producer to its customers and which, once the goods have been consumed by the customers, are to be returned to the producer. This doctoral thesis addresses the strategic design and the operational management of large independent reverse networks for their return flows when fixed transportation costs apply. At the strategic level, we identify the economic logic by which the allocation of the customers should be made...

  15. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  16. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  17. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  18. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  19. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  20. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  1. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  2. Spinal pedicle subtraction osteotomy for fixed sagittal imbalance patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yongjung J; Rhim, Seung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    In addressing spinal sagittal imbalance through a posterior approach, the surgeon now may choose from among a variety of osteotomy techniques. Posterior column osteotomies such as the facetectomy or Ponte or Smith-Petersen osteotomy provide the least correction, but can be used at multiple levels with minimal blood loss and a lower operative risk. Pedicle subtraction osteotomies provide nearly 3 times the per-level correction of Ponte/Smith-Petersen osteotomies; however, they carry increased technical demands, longer operative time, and greater blood loss and associated significant morbidity, including neurological injury. The literature focusing on pedicle subtraction osteotomy for fixed sagittal imbalance patients is reviewed. The long-term overall outcomes, surgical tips to reduce the complications and suggestions for their proper application are also provided. PMID:24340276

  3. Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    We establish in perturbation theory the existence of fixed points along the renormalization group flow for QCD with an adjoint Weyl fermion and scalar matter reminiscent of magnetic duals of QCD [1-3]. We classify the fixed points by analyzing their basin of attraction. We discover that among...

  4. Fixed Wireless may be a temporary answer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Possible to enhance throughput by 4 with respect to Mobile Wireless. And get 8 to 10 bps / Hz / cell; Examples: BB corDECT: today provides 256/512kbps to each connection in fixed environment. Ideal for small town / rural Broadband. Fixed 802.16d/e does the same in but at much higher price-points.

  5. Metallic and antiferromagnetic fixed points from gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Chandrima

    2018-06-01

    We consider SU(2) × U(1) gauge theory coupled to matter field in adjoints and study RG group flow. We constructed Callan-Symanzik equation and subsequent β functions and study the fixed points. We find there are two fixed points, showing metallic and antiferromagnetic behavior. We have shown that metallic phase develops an instability if certain parametric conditions are satisfied.

  6. Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Elisabet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting. (PKP)

  7. 78 FR 20705 - Fixed Income Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69275; File No. 4-660] Fixed Income Roundtable... of fixed income markets. The roundtable will focus on the municipal securities, corporate bonds, and asset-backed securities markets. The roundtable discussion will be held in the multi-purpose room of the...

  8. Gauge fixing problem in the conformal QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    1986-01-01

    The gauge fixing problem in the conformal (spinor and scalar) QED is examined. For the analysis, we generalize Dirac's manifestly conformal-covariant formalism. It is shown that the (vector and matter) fields must obey a certain mixed (conformal and gauge) type of transformation law in order to fix the local gauge symmetry preserving the conformal invariance in the Lagrangian. (orig.)

  9. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  10. Impact of fixed-mobile convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachnicke, Stephan; Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a very trendy concept as it promises integration of the previously separated fixed access network and the mobile network. From this novel approach telecommunication operators expect significant cost savings and performance improvements. FMC can be separated...

  11. Use of fixed income products within a company's portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial instruments have been developed over time from bonds, with a simple structure of cash flows, to yielding instruments that have a complex structure, attracting a much broader range of investors and permitting issuers of bonds to allow reduce the costs of fund raising. To construct investment strategies to control interest rate risk and grow revenues, investors must understand the forcesthat controls the bond market but also the tendencies.The main objective of this paper is to show how they apply to an investment strategy and asset allocation tools available. Fixed income products occupy a large share in total assets, so we want to highlight how to use fixed income products in order to optimize the portfolio of companies. Working hypothesis we chose looks at how the value of financial assets is influenced by macroeconomic factors and market price developments. Investment banks, in particular, put great emphasis on fixed income products and their use by customers. Thus traditional banking and financial products together with fixed income products enables companies to finance current needs, to finance development and to diversify the asset allocation tools.

  12. Global gauge fixing in lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachin, S.; Parrinello, C. (Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York (USA))

    1991-10-15

    We propose a covariant, nonperturbative gauge-fixing procedure for lattice gauge theories that avoids the problem of Gribov copies. This is closely related to a recent proposal for a gauge fixing in the continuum that we review. The lattice gauge-fixed model allows both analytical and numerical investigations: on the analytical side, explicit nonperturbative calculations of gauge-dependent quantities can be easily performed in the framework of a generalized strong-coupling expansion, while on the numerical side a stochastic gauge-fixing algorithm is very naturally associated with the scheme. In both applications one can study the gauge dependence of the results, since the model actually provides a smooth'' family of gauge-fixing conditions.

  13. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  14. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  15. Application and appreciation of chemical sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) and its composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jun; Cao Hui; Wang Fang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tan Tianwei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: twtan@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2007-12-15

    The sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) (PASP) and its composites were applied in the field by two forms (spraying around by PASP solution and PASP powder directly). It was found that the sand fixing effect in powder form was not as good as in solution form, but it was more practical in dry region. It needed 9, 6 and 7 days for PASP, xanthan gum-PASP (X2) and ethyl cellulose-PASP (E3) to attain the maximal mechanical strength after they were applied, respectively. The sand fixing effect decreased when the material was subjected to repeated hydration-dehydration cycles and the material had no negative influence on plant growth. The PASP and its composites had water-retaining ability and could reduce the water evaporation. - The sand fixing agent was applied in powder form and it had no negative influence on plant growth.

  16. Fixed-dose lercanidipine/enalapril for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne, Jan; Haller, Hermann

    2008-04-01

    The dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker lercanidipine and the ACE inhibitor enalapril are frequently used in the treatment of hypertensive patients. In April 2007, a fixed-dose combination of the two drugs was approved in Germany for the treatment of patients not responding to monotherapy. It is expected that the drug will soon be available in the other European Union markets. In this review the present literature is summarized. Two doses will be available with 10 mg lercanidipine each and 10 or 20 mg enalapril. The medication should be taken once daily, optimally =15 minutes before a meal and the consumption of grapefruit juice should be avoided. The fixed-dose combination of the two drugs has a stronger blood pressure-lowering effect than monotherapy with 20 mg enalapril or 10 mg lercanidipine. The combination is well tolerated and few patients stopped the treatment because of side effects. As expected, the most common side effects reported are cough, peripheral edema, flushing, dizziness and vertigo, occurring in 1-5% of patients. This new fixed-dose combination is a useful adjunct to the present treatment and should increase compliance and help reduce hypertension-related costs. 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors

  17. Criteria for seismic evaluation and potential design fixes for WWER type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose for this document is to provide a criteria for the seismic evaluation and development of potential design fixes for structures, systems and components for the WWER type Nuclear power plants. The design fixes are divided into two categories, detailed and easy fixes. Detailed fixes are typically applicable to building structures, components for which there is little or no seismic capacity information, large tanks and vital systems and components which make up the reactor cooling system and components which perform support or auxiliary functions. In case of the design of 'easy fixes', the criteria presented may be used for both the seismic design as well as for the evaluation of structures, systems and components to which easy fix design applies. Easy fixes are situations where seismic capacities of structures, systems and components can be significantly increased with relatively minor, inexpensive fixes usually associated with anchorage modification of safety related structures, systems and components or those that could interact with safety related structures, systems and components. Often these fixes can be accomplished while the plant is in operation

  18. Criteria for seismic evaluation and potential design fixes for WWER type nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose for this document is to provide a criteria for the seismic evaluation and development of potential design fixes for structures, systems and components for the WWER type Nuclear power plants. The design fixes are divided into two categories, detailed and easy fixes. Detailed fixes are typically applicable to building structures, componentsfor which there is little or no seismic capacity information, large tanks and vital systems and components which make up the reactor cooling system and components which perform support or auxiliary functions. In case of the design of 'easy fixes', the criteria presented may be used for both the seismic design as well as for the evaluation of structures, systems and components to which easy fix design applies. Easy fixes are situations where seismic capacities of structures, systems and components can be significantly increased with relatively minor, inexpensive fixes usually associated with anchorage modification of safety related structures, systems and components or those that could interact with safety related structures, systems and components. Often these fixes can be accomplished while the plant is in operation.

  19. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  20. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  1. CHIS - Annual adjustment of benefits and fixed contributions

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    As foreseen by the CHIS Rules, an annual adjustment is applied to: ceilings for certain benefits contributions for voluntary membership as well as supplementary contributions for spouses/partners. Benefits The ceilings have been maintained at the level of 2009. The full list of benefits is available on the CHIS Website.   Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on reference salary II is now 975 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntary affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this rate (487 CHF) is applied to apprentices as well as to voluntary affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. A rate of 390 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and temporarily basis.   Supplementary contributions From 1st January 2010 the supplementary contribution for the spouse or registered partner of a staff member, fellow or pensioner is as follow...

  2. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  3. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  4. The 1994 Fermilab Fixed Target Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper highlights the results of the Fermilab Fixed Target Program that were announced between October, 1993 and October, 1994. These results are drawn from 18 experiments that took data in the 1985, 1987 and 1990/91 fixed target running periods. For this discussion, the Fermilab Fixed Target Program is divided into 5 major topics: hadron structure, precision electroweak measurements, heavy quark production, polarization and magnetic moments, and searches for new phenomena. However, it should be noted that most experiments span several subtopics. Also, measurements within each subtopic often affect the results in other subtopics. For example, parton distributions from hadron structure measurements are used in the studies of heavy quark production

  5. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  6. Fixing noble gas in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Dorea, A.L. da.

    1980-09-01

    In order to increase safety during the long-term storage of Kr-85 it has been proposed to encaosulate this gas in zeolite 5A. Due to the decay heat of Kr-85 it is expected, however, that the inorganic matrix will be at an increased temperature over several decades. Below 600 0 C only very small Kr-desorption rates are observed when a linear temperature gradient is applied to a loaded 5A zeolite sample. If heating is interrupted and the temperature kept konstant at a certain value (>600 0 C), it is observed that the desorption rate either decreased below the detection limit or stayed constant at some measurable value. The overall activation energy in the temperature range 570 0 C-745 0 C is found to be 250 kJ/mol. At temperature above 790 0 C the total encapsulated gas is rapidly liberated. No significant leakage was apparent from zeolite 5A samples containing between 19 and 57 cm 3 STP Kr/g kept at 200 0 C for up to 2500 h and 400 0 C for up to 3500 h. From these studies it is found that type 5A zeolites are particularly suitable as a matrix for the inmobilization of Kr-85. (Author) [pt

  7. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  8. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  9. FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update) ... In several cases, specific approaches recommended by the TEHIP team have been acted upon regionally and internationally, including the ... Related articles ...

  10. Fixed-Point Configurable Hardware Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Romuald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between the VLSI technology capability and the designer productivity, design reuse based on IP (intellectual properties is commonly used. In terms of arithmetic accuracy, the generated architecture can generally only be configured through the input and output word lengths. In this paper, a new kind of method to optimize fixed-point arithmetic IP has been proposed. The architecture cost is minimized under accuracy constraints defined by the user. Our approach allows exploring the fixed-point search space and the algorithm-level search space to select the optimized structure and fixed-point specification. To significantly reduce the optimization and design times, analytical models are used for the fixed-point optimization process.

  11. Anderson Acceleration for Fixed-Point Iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Homer F. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to support research on acceleration methods for fixed-point iterations, with applications to computational frameworks and simulation problems that are of interest to DOE.

  12. Topological fixed point theory of multivalued mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Górniewicz, Lech

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a broad introduction to the topological fixed point theory of multivalued (set-valued) mappings, treating both classical concepts as well as modern techniques. A variety of up-to-date results is described within a unified framework. Topics covered include the basic theory of set-valued mappings with both convex and nonconvex values, approximation and homological methods in the fixed point theory together with a thorough discussion of various index theories for mappings with a topologically complex structure of values, applications to many fields of mathematics, mathematical economics and related subjects, and the fixed point approach to the theory of ordinary differential inclusions. The work emphasises the topological aspect of the theory, and gives special attention to the Lefschetz and Nielsen fixed point theory for acyclic valued mappings with diverse compactness assumptions via graph approximation and the homological approach. Audience: This work will be of interest to researchers an...

  13. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1), 181-190 (2011)] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011)]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract....

  14. Optimal Licensing Strategy: Royalty or Fixed Fee?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Fosfuri; Esther Roca

    2004-01-01

    Licensing a cost-reducing innovation through a royalty has been shown to be superior to licensing by means of a fixed fee for an incumbent licensor. This note shows that this result relies crucially on the assumption that the incumbent licensor can sell its cost-reducing inno-vation to all industry players. If, for any reason, only some competitors could be reached through a licensing contract, then a fixed fee might be optimally chosen.

  15. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2014-08-28

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  16. Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given $\\theta$ is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of...

  17. Fixed target physics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    The number and type of fixed target experiments that can be pursued at a proton synchrotron are very large. The advent of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator, the Tevatron, will extend and improve the results which are given here from recent CERN and Fermilab experiments. The sample of experiments given in this paper is neither meant to be inclusive nor intensive. Hopefully, it will give the flavor of contemporary fixed target physics to a predominantly cosmic ray oriented audience. (author)

  18. Characterizations of fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Let φ A be a general quantum operation. An operator B is said to be a fixed point of φ A , if φ A (B)=B. In this note, we shall show conditions under which B, a fixed point φ A , implies that B is compatible with the operation element of φ A . In particular, we offer an extension of the generalized Lueders theorem.

  19. THE Economics of Match-Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Raul

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of match-fixing does constitute a constant element of sport contests. This paper presents a simple formal model in order to explain it. The intuition behind is that an asymmetry in the evaluation of the stake is the key factor leading to match-fixing. In sum, this paper considers a partial equilibrium model of contest where two asymmetric, rational and risk-neutral opponents evaluate differently a contested stake. Differently from common contest models, agents have the option ...

  20. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Emira, Ahmed A.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  1. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  2. INNOVATIVE SYSTEM OF FIXED CAPITAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Merzlikina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic problems of fixed capital reproduction. There are considered a significant depreciation of fixed assets of Russian enterprises. There are presented arguments in favor of urgency of the problem of reproduction of fixed assets of the Russian Federation. The paper presents theoretical evidence base basic types of fixed capital reproduction. There are identified all possible sources of simple and expanded reproduction of capital. There are considered the role of value and feasibility of depreciation in the formation of Reserve reproduction. Suggested the formation of accounting and analytical management provision fixed capital, as well as an innovative system of fixed capital reproduction, which implies the creation of depreciation , capital, revaluation, liquidation reserves. The algorithm of business valuation based on an innovative system of capital reproduction. The algorithm and the possibility of formation of reserves are considered on a concrete example of one of the industrial enterprises of the city Volgograd. On the basis of the algorithm presented calculations of business valuation of the enterprise. Calculations have shown an increase in value of the business condition of the formation of special reserves, which underlines the necessary and urgency of their formation in accounting policy and economy organizations and enterprises of Russia as a whole.

  3. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. A New Approximation Method for Solving Variational Inequalities and Fixed Points of Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klin-eam Chakkrid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new approximation method for solving variational inequalities and fixed points of nonexpansive mappings is introduced and studied. We prove strong convergence theorem of the new iterative scheme to a common element of the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mapping and the set of solutions of the variational inequality for the inverse-strongly monotone mapping which solves some variational inequalities. Moreover, we apply our main result to obtain strong convergence to a common fixed point of nonexpansive mapping and strictly pseudocontractive mapping in a Hilbert space.

  7. Stochastic quantization and gauge-fixing of the linearized gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.; Rumpf, H.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean gravitational action the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme fails in the case of the gravitational field. Therefore we apply a recently proposed modification of stochastic quantization that works in Minkowski space and preserves all the advantages of the original Parisi-Wu method; in particular no gauge-fixing is required. Additionally stochastic gauge-fixing may be introduced and is also studied in detail. The graviton propagators obtained with and without stochastic gauge-fixing all exhibit a noncausal contribution, but apart from this effect the gauge-invariant quantities are the same as those of standard quantization. (Author)

  8. Fixed point theorems for generalized α -β-weakly contraction mappings in metric spaces and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Abdul; Mongkolkeha, Chirasak; Sintunavarat, Wutiphol

    2014-01-01

    We extend the notion of generalized weakly contraction mappings due to Choudhury et al. (2011) to generalized α-β-weakly contraction mappings. We show with examples that our new class of mappings is a real generalization of several known classes of mappings. We also establish fixed point results for such mappings in metric spaces. Applying our new results, we obtain fixed point results on ordinary metric spaces, metric spaces endowed with an arbitrary binary relation, and metric spaces endowed with graph.

  9. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles i...

  10. The fixed bed nuclear reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.; Sefidvash, F.

    2007-01-01

    The core of a water moderated Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR), possessing, for instance, an electrical power of 40 MW, consists of 1.35 million fuel pellets (9.5 t) with a diameter of 1.5 cm each. The low enriched uranium fuel is made of TRISO type microspheres used in the HTGR, embedded in a graphite matrix and cladded by a shell of 1 mm SiC. Under any thinkable operational condition the fuel temperature will be below 400 C whereas its stability limit is at about 1600 C. The first characteristic of the FBNR is, therefore, its robust fuel under relatively 'cold' operating conditions and - due to the outer SiC - shell layer - the freedom from any hydrogen production. To operate the reactor the fuel pellets are pumped by a flow of water from below into the core regions where they form a stable fixed bed of about 4 cubic meter and become critical for energy production heating the outlet water to about 330 C (at 160 bar) which feeds a steam generator. The new safety feature is now the following: In case of any abnormity (e.g. external power failure, overheating etc.) the circulating pump stops and - due to gravity - the fuel pellets fall automatically out of the core region into a helical 'fuel chamber' underneath the core where their decay heat is transferred passively by natural circulation to a water tank housing the fuel chamber. The safety principle, applied here, is: The loss of an active component (circulating pump) induces a self-controlled, passively working shut-down manoeuvre accompanied by a foolproof decay heat removal without any emergency power system or any human interaction. The fuel chamber is sealed and is transported as the only reactor component to and from the reactor site. There is no possibility to irradiate fertile fuel, too. For a long-life core (larger than a 10 years cycle time) the fuel can either be poisoned by gadolinium-oxide or by a piston type core limiter adjusting the height and controlling thereby the number of the fuel pellets in

  11. Anaerobic treatment of winery wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Rajinikanth, Rajagopal; Thanikal, Joseph V; Ramanujam, Ramamoorty Alwar; Torrijos, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater in three upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors (S9, S30 and S40) with low density floating supports of varying size and specific surface area was investigated. A maximum OLR of 42 g/l day with 80 +/- 0.5% removal efficiency was attained in S9, which had supports with the highest specific surface area. It was found that the efficiency of the reactors increased with decrease in size and increase in specific surface area of the support media. Total biomass accumulation in the reactors was also found to vary as a function of specific surface area and size of the support medium. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic model predicted satisfactorily the performance of the reactors. The maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) was 161.3, 99.0 and 77.5 g/l day and the saturation value constant (K(B)) was 162.0, 99.5 and 78.0 g/l day for S9, S30 and S40, respectively. Due to their higher biomass retention potential, the supports used in this study offer great promise as media in anaerobic fixed bed reactors. Anaerobic fixed-bed reactors with these supports can be applied as high-rate systems for the treatment of large volumes of wastewaters typically containing readily biodegradable organics, such as the winery wastewater.

  12. The computation of fixed points and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Michael J

    1976-01-01

    Fixed-point algorithms have diverse applications in economics, optimization, game theory and the numerical solution of boundary-value problems. Since Scarf's pioneering work [56,57] on obtaining approximate fixed points of continuous mappings, a great deal of research has been done in extending the applicability and improving the efficiency of fixed-point methods. Much of this work is available only in research papers, although Scarf's book [58] gives a remarkably clear exposition of the power of fixed-point methods. However, the algorithms described by Scarf have been super~eded by the more sophisticated restart and homotopy techniques of Merrill [~8,~9] and Eaves and Saigal [1~,16]. To understand the more efficient algorithms one must become familiar with the notions of triangulation and simplicial approxi- tion, whereas Scarf stresses the concept of primitive set. These notes are intended to introduce to a wider audience the most recent fixed-point methods and their applications. Our approach is therefore ...

  13. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  14. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  15. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on donor screening in transfusion medicine tends to distinguish between social concerns about discrimination and medical concerns about safety. In this article, we argue that the bifurcation into social and medical concerns is problematic. We build our case on a qualitative...... study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...

  16. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting for long periods. If you travel by airplane, walk the aisle periodically. For long car trips, ... Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016. What causes excessive ...

  17. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Immobility (including prolonged inactivity, long trips by plane or car ) Smoking Oral contraceptives Certain cancers Trauma Certain surgeries Age (increased risk for people over age 60) A family history of blood clots Chronic inflammatory diseases Diabetes High ...

  18. A fixed target facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Morfin, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required

  19. Fixed point algebras for easy quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Weber, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Compact matrix quantum groups act naturally on Cuntz algebras. The first author isolated certain conditions under which the fixed point algebras under this action are Kirchberg algebras. Hence they are completely determined by their K-groups. Building on prior work by the second author,we prove...... that free easy quantum groups satisfy these conditions and we compute the K-groups of their fixed point algebras in a general form. We then turn to examples such as the quantum permutation group S+ n,the free orthogonal quantum group O+ n and the quantum reflection groups Hs+ n. Our fixed point......-algebra construction provides concrete examples of free actions of free orthogonal easy quantum groups,which are related to Hopf-Galois extensions....

  20. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

  1. Fixed-site physical protection system modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of a fixed-site safeguard security system must consider the interrelationships of barriers, alarms, on-site and off-site guards, and their effectiveness against a forcible adversary attack whose intention is to create an act of sabotage or theft. A computer model has been developed at Sandia Laboratories for the evaluation of alternative fixed-site security systems. Trade-offs involving on-site and off-site response forces and response times, perimeter alarm systems, barrier configurations, and varying levels of threat can be analyzed. The computer model provides a framework for performing inexpensive experiments on fixed-site security systems for testing alternative decisions, and for determining the relative cost effectiveness associated with these decision policies

  2. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures

  3. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  4. The danger of fixed drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, H

    1975-07-01

    After the second world war a number of pharmaceutical firms which were not able to create new therapeutic substances by their own research, put a great number of fixed drug combinations on the market. Their number quickly increased, as the efficiency of these compounds required no legal proof and as, with appropriate propaganda, large profits could be earned. The number of firms doing this sort of production also increased, and in West Germany, for instance, more than 3/4 of all drugs on the official list are now fixed combinations. Our task is, therefore, to ask for regulations which limit fixed combinations to such preparation the efficiency of which has been shown and whose advantages more than outweigh their disadvantages. The advantages of these preparations are convenience to the patient, avoidance of potential mistakes made possible by too many drugs given on the same day and, perhaps, lower prices. The disadvantages are: 1. The individual optimum dose for a patient cannot be achieved, because in case of a change of dosis all components are changed. 2. Different components may have different duration of action. 3. Different components may have a different bioavailability. 4. Different components may interact. 5. Some components may create tolerance, others not. In many cases fixed combinations have been used to make drugs with poor efficiency financially viable by combining them with very efficient drugs. The existence of thousands of fixed combinations makes the drug market indiscernible and useless. They obscure the relatively few essential drugs and make it difficult for the doctor to find his way amongst the mass of offered medicaments. Few fixed combinations are justifiable. These are well known and they should be permitted as before. All others should be banned until it has been shown that their advantages are greater than their disadvantages.

  5. Gauge-fixing ambiguity and monopole number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Gauge-fixing ambiguities of lattice SU(2) QCD are studied in the maximally abelian and unitary gauges. In the former, we find local maxima of a gauge-fixing function which may correspond to Gribov copies. There is a definite anti-correlation between the number of monopoles and the value of the function. Errors of measured quantities coming from the ambiguity are found to be less than inherent dispersion in the ensemble average. No ambiguity is found in the unitary gauges. (orig.)

  6. Quantum entanglement and fixed-point bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Milburn, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    How does the classical phase-space structure for a composite system relate to the entanglement characteristics of the corresponding quantum system? We demonstrate how the entanglement in nonlinear bipartite systems can be associated with a fixed-point bifurcation in the classical dynamics. Using the example of coupled giant spins we show that when a fixed point undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, the corresponding quantum state--the ground state--achieves its maximum amount of entanglement near the critical point. We conjecture that this will be a generic feature of systems whose classical limit exhibits such a bifurcation

  7. Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkowitz Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, any map and the th power map. Duan proved that has a fixed point if . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a -structure as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that and each has a fixed point.

  8. Fixed mass and scaling sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.F.L.

    1975-01-01

    Using the correspondence principle (continuity in dynamics), the approach of Keppell-Jones-Ward-Taha to fixed mass and scaling current algebraic sum rules is extended so as to consider explicitly the contributions of all classes of intermediate states. A natural, generalized formulation of the truncation ideas of Cornwall, Corrigan, and Norton is introduced as a by-product of this extension. The formalism is illustrated in the familiar case of the spin independent Schwinger term sum rule. New sum rules are derived which relate the Regge residue functions of the respective structure functions to their fixed hadronic mass limits for q 2 → infinity. (Auth.)

  9. Fix og færdig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Pedersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fix & Finish “WHO CAN FIX IT?” is an investigation of the needles left behind by drug users in Copenhagen’s Vesterbro district. Based on the praxiological methods developed by Annemarie Mol as well as processes of objectification as described by Daniel Miller, the used needle appears to be a multiple object that is related to opportunities, fear, good intentions and trash. This article is an invitation to study material culture and material practices as a part of semiotic and discursive analyses in order to sharpen a researcher’s analytical focus while remaining grounded in reality.

  10. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  13. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  14. Gauge fixing and classical dynamical r-matrices in (2+1)-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    We apply the Dirac gauge fixing procedure to the combinatorial description of the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. This is motivated by two goals: one originates from physics while the other is of a mathematical nature. The first goal is to investigate the application of gauge fixing in Lorentzian (2+1)-gravity with vanishing cosmological constant, whose phase space is closely related to the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. To this end, we first show that specifying gauge fixing conditions amounts to introducing an observer into the theory. Then we determine explicit expressions for the Dirac brackets of specific sets of gauge fixing conditions and give a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the geometry of spacetimes and their effective symmetries. To investigate the mathematical structures underlying the Dirac gauge fixing procedure we then consider general gauge fixing conditions. We first show that the resulting Dirac brackets are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation. We then analyze the relation between the Dirac brackets associated with two different sets of gauge fixing conditions. We find that this relation is given by the action of certain dynamical Poincare transformations which generalize the gauge transformations of classical dynamical r-matrices. Using these transformations, we give a classification of all resulting Dirac brackets and the associated solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation.

  15. Gauge fixing and classical dynamical r-matrices in (2+1)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, Torsten

    2012-11-20

    We apply the Dirac gauge fixing procedure to the combinatorial description of the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. This is motivated by two goals: one originates from physics while the other is of a mathematical nature. The first goal is to investigate the application of gauge fixing in Lorentzian (2+1)-gravity with vanishing cosmological constant, whose phase space is closely related to the moduli space of flat ISO(2,1)-connections. To this end, we first show that specifying gauge fixing conditions amounts to introducing an observer into the theory. Then we determine explicit expressions for the Dirac brackets of specific sets of gauge fixing conditions and give a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the geometry of spacetimes and their effective symmetries. To investigate the mathematical structures underlying the Dirac gauge fixing procedure we then consider general gauge fixing conditions. We first show that the resulting Dirac brackets are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation. We then analyze the relation between the Dirac brackets associated with two different sets of gauge fixing conditions. We find that this relation is given by the action of certain dynamical Poincare transformations which generalize the gauge transformations of classical dynamical r-matrices. Using these transformations, we give a classification of all resulting Dirac brackets and the associated solutions of the classical dynamical Yang-Baxter equation.

  16. Gauge-fixing parameter dependence of two-point gauge-variant correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, C.

    1996-01-01

    The gauge-fixing parameter ξ dependence of two-point gauge-variant correlation functions is studied for QED and QCD. We show that, in three Euclidean dimensions, or for four-dimensional thermal gauge theories, the usual procedure of getting a general covariant gauge-fixing term by averaging over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions leads to a nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence in gauge-variant two-point correlation functions (e.g., fermion propagators). This nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence modifies the large-distance behavior of the two-point correlation functions by introducing additional exponentially decaying factors. These factors are the origin of the gauge dependence encountered in some perturbative evaluations of the damping rates and the static chromoelectric screening length in a general covariant gauge. To avoid this modification of the long-distance behavior introduced by performing the average over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions, one can either choose a vanishing gauge-fixing parameter or apply an unphysical infrared cutoff. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

    1995-01-01

    Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

  18. Empirical Studies on Sovereign Fixed Income Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Duyvesteyn (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation presents evidence of five studies showing that sovereign fixed income markets are not always price efficient. The emerging local currency debt market has grown to a large size of more than 1.5 trill ion US Dollars at the end of 2012. The factors

  19. [Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed

  20. Physics landscape-fixed target energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.

    1989-10-01

    An introductory review is presented of physics issues and opportunities at Fermilab fixed-target energies. Included are discussions of precision electroweak studies; deep inelastic lepton scattering; heavy quark production, spectroscopy, and decays; perturbative QCD; prompt photon production; massive lepton production; and spin dependence. 79 refs., 7 figs

  1. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  2. Raman imaging using fixed bandpass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, L.; Kullander, F.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, P.

    2017-05-01

    By using fixed narrow band pass optical filtering and scanning the laser excitation wavelength, hyperspectral Raman imaging could be achieved. Experimental, proof-of-principle results from the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) tabun (GA) as well as the common CWA simulant tributyl phosphate (TBP) on different surfaces/substrates are presented and discussed.

  3. Fixed expressions and the production of idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD-thesis explores the mental representations of Fixed Expressions (FEs). Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the field of FEs and provides an overview of Chapters 2-5. In Chapter 2, research on the frequency of Dutch FEs is reported. The results suggest that about 7% of written Dutch language

  4. Management strategy 3: fixed rate fertilizer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous chapters outlined management strategies for pond fertilization that take into account specific individual pond nutrient needs. Those methods would most likely be more ecologically efficient than a pre-determined fixed-rate nutrient addition strategy. However, the vast majority of available ...

  5. Some Generalizations of Jungck's Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to generalize the Jungck's fixed point theorem for commuting mappings by mean of the concepts of altering distance functions and compatible pair of mappings, as well as, by using contractive inequalities of integral type and contractive inequalities depending on another function.

  6. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  7. Fixed points and self-reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond M. Smullyan

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how Gödel's famous diagonal argument and a generalization of the recursion theorem are derivable from a common construation. The abstract fixed point theorem of this article is independent of both metamathematics and recursion theory and is perfectly comprehensible to the non-specialist.

  8. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  9. Fixed Point Approach to Bagley Torvik Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale CONA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a sufficient condition for existence and uniqueness of Bagley Torvik problem is obtained. The theorem on existence and uniqueness is established. This approach permits us to use fixed point iteration method to solve problem for differential equation involving derivatives of nonlinear order.

  10. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  11. The Deceptive Resilience of Fixed Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mushin, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the experience of exchange-rate systems since 1978. Despite the accelerating trend in favour of floating exchange rates, a substantial minority of IMF members have continued to fix the value of their currencies. The recent incidence of each of the principal types of exchange-rate peg is described.

  12. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  13. ConSpeciFix: Classifying prokaryotic species based on gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ellis, Brian Shin-Hua; Ochman, Howard

    2018-05-16

    Classification of prokaryotic species is usually based on sequence similarity thresholds, which are easy to apply but lack a biologically-relevant foundation. Here, we present ConSpeciFix, a program that classifies prokaryotes into species using criteria set forth by the Biological Species Concept, thereby unifying species definition in all domains of life. ConSpeciFix's webserver is freely available at www.conspecifix.com. The local version of the program can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/Bobay-Ochman/ConSpeciFix. ConSpeciFix is written in Python 2.7 and requires the following dependencies: Usearch, MCL, MAFFT and RAxML. ljbobay@uncg.edu.

  14. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $[Insert the appropriate amount]. (End...

  16. 12 CFR 701.36 - FCU ownership of fixed assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FCU ownership of fixed assets. 701.36 Section... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.36 FCU ownership of fixed assets. (a) Investment in Fixed Assets. (1) No Federal credit union with $1,000,000 or more in assets may invest in any fixed...

  17. Radiolabelled blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    After the introduction of gamma-emitting labels for blood-cells the use of radio-labelled blood cells is not only limited to kinetics of blood cells but it is also possible to localise inflammations, abscesses and thrombus. The most commonly applied label for red cells is Tc-99m. The most widely used technique for labelling granulocytes or platelets is In-111-oxine. In future the labelling of blood cells will be more simple and more specific due to monoclonal antibodies onto the platelet or the granulocyte cell surface. Labelled red cells have their main application in blood-pool imaging and in localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding. Besides the determination of the platelet life-span in haematologic disorders labelled platelets allow to localise thrombus and to show abnormal vasculature in the rejecting kidney. The commonest application for In-111-oxin labelled granulocytes is to show abdominal inflammations to localise inflamed bowel segments and to assess the inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover brain abscesses, bone sepsis and lung sepsis can be identified.

  18. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign ... fall outside the normal range for many reasons. Abnormal results might be a sign of a disorder or disease. Other factors—such as diet, menstrual ...

  19. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  20. PIV validation of blood-heart valve leaflet interaction modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, R; Dumont, K; Weber, H; Schroll, M; Verdonck, P

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results of a moving heart valve based on a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) algorithm with experimental measurements. Firstly, a pulsatile laminar flow through a monoleaflet valve model with a stiff leaflet was visualized by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The inflow data sets were applied to a CFD simulation including blood-leaflet interaction. The measurement section with a fixed leaflet was enclosed into a standard mock loop in series with a Harvard Apparatus Pulsatile Blood Pump, a compliance chamber and a reservoir. Standard 2D PIV measurements were made at a frequency of 60 bpm. Average velocity magnitude results of 36 phase-locked measurements were evaluated at every 10 degrees of the pump cycle. For the CFD flow simulation, a commercially available package from Fluent Inc. was used in combination with inhouse developed FSI code based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Then the CFD code was applied to the leaflet to quantify the shear stress on it. Generally, the CFD results are in agreement with the PIV evaluated data in major flow regions, thereby validating the FSI simulation of a monoleaflet valve with a flexible leaflet. The applicability of the new CFD code for quantifying the shear stress on a flexible leaflet is thus demonstrated.

  1. Tranexamic acid-induced fixed drug eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Matsumura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old male showed multiple pigmented patches on his trunk and extremities after he took tranexamic acid for common cold. He stated that similar eruptions appeared when he was treated with tranexamic acid for influenza 10 months before. Patch test showed positive results at 48 h and 72 h by 1% and 10% tranexamic acid at the lesional skin only. To our knowledge, nine cases of fixed drug eruption induced by tranexamic acid have been reported in Japan. Tranexamic acid is a safe drug and frequently used because of its anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects, but caution of inducing fixed drug eruption should be necessary.

  2. Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.; Brown, C.N.; Montgomery, H.E.; Corcoran, M.D.

    1990-02-01

    The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs

  3. Duan's fixed point theorem: proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and p k :X→X the k th power map. Duan proved that p k f :X→X has a fixed point if k≥2 . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ -structure μ θ :X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μ θ f and f μ θ each has a fixed point.

  4. Fixed point of the parabolic renormalization operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lanford III, Oscar E

    2014-01-01

    This monograph grew out of the authors' efforts to provide a natural geometric description for the class of maps invariant under parabolic renormalization and for the Inou-Shishikura fixed point itself as well as to carry out a computer-assisted study of the parabolic renormalization operator. It introduces a renormalization-invariant class of analytic maps with a maximal domain of analyticity and rigid covering properties and presents a numerical scheme for computing parabolic renormalization of a germ, which is used to compute the Inou-Shishikura renormalization fixed point.   Inside, readers will find a detailed introduction into the theory of parabolic bifurcation,  Fatou coordinates, Écalle-Voronin conjugacy invariants of parabolic germs, and the definition and basic properties of parabolic renormalization.   The systematic view of parabolic renormalization developed in the book and the numerical approach to its study will be interesting to both experts in the field as well as graduate students wishi...

  5. THE MAIN QUESTION OF FIXED ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan A. B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methods of selecting the best type of fixed assets (real investment. Explore the current situation where the investor has to compare the different-parametrical alternatives (DPA. The DPA are the fixed assets which have similar functions, but different in price, durability and periodic effects. In the general case the DPA are the investment projects which have different amounts of investment, accounting periods and net cash flow. Net present value (NPV and internal rate of return (IRR are criticized. The author describes his indicator «speed index of unit value increase» (IS. The author proves on numerical examples that the economy, the subjects of which use IS instead of NPV and IRR, has accelerated the pace of development.

  6. Branes, superpotentials and superconformal fixed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharony, O.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze various brane configurations corresponding to field theories in three, four and five dimensions. We find brane configurations which correspond to three-dimensional N=2 and four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric QCD theories with quartic superpotentials, in which what appear to be ''hidden parameters'' play an important role. We discuss the construction of five-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories and superconformal fixed points using branes, which leads to new five-dimensional N=1 superconformal field theories. The same five-dimensional theories are also used, in a surprising way, to describe new superconformal fixed points of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric theories, which have both ''electric'' and ''magnetic'' Coulomb branches. (orig.)

  7. Shaper for time fixing of photomultiplier pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Merzlyakov, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A shaper for time fixing of photoelectron multiplier pulses is described. The shaper is a part of gamma telescope time-of-flight system used for prolonged astrophysical observations. Nonlinear attenuation is provided when shaping a bipolar signal. This permits to conduct discrimination not at zero level but at a higher level in order to increase noise immunity and long-time stability. The shaper is based on the integrated circuits of the 100 series. The accuracy of the time fixing in the amplitude range of 0.5-5 V constitutes +-0.1 ns. The proper delay of the shaper is about 30 ns. Tests of several shapers in the temperature range of 25-55 deg C have shown that the mean increase in the output signal delay constitutes 0.2 ns per 10 deg C. The component proper selection permits to decrease the drift of delay for different specimens up to [ru

  8. Esthetic double-structure fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasini, G; Ugolini, G; Ravasini, F

    1996-04-01

    A new technical procedure for fixed partial dentures and single inlays allows the use of a metal supporting structure with independent ceramic coverage. The advantages of the technique are the bonding of metal to beveled dentinal margins with conventional cement and the acid-etched resin composite cementation of the ceramic, which permits more conservative preparation of the teeth. The complexity of the structure, the laboratory costs, and the doubling of the cementation procedures are the main disadvantages of the technique.

  9. Ultrasonic imaging with a fixed instrument configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, A.; Tuggle, J.; Waag, R.C.

    1988-07-04

    Diffraction tomography is a technique based on an inversion of the wave equation which has been proposed for high-resolution ultrasonic imaging. While this approach has been considered for diagnostic medical applications, it has, until recently, been limited by practical limitations on the speed of data acquisition associated with instrument motions. This letter presents the results of an experimental study directed towards demonstrating tomography utilizing a fixed instrument configuration.

  10. Impulsive differential inclusions a fixed point approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ouahab, Abdelghani; Henderson, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations have been developed in modeling impulsive problems in physics, population dynamics, ecology, biotechnology, industrial robotics, pharmacokinetics, optimal control, etc. The questions of existence and stability of solutions for different classes of initial values problems for impulsive differential equations and inclusions with fixed and variable moments are considered in detail. Attention is also given to boundary value problems and relative questions concerning differential equations. This monograph addresses a variety of side issues that arise from its simple

  11. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  12. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  13. Optimal investment with fixed refinancing costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jason G. Cummins; Ingmar Nyman

    2001-01-01

    Case studies show that corporate managers seek financial independence to avoid interference by outside financiers. We incorporate this financial xenophobia as a fixed cost in a simple dynamic model of financing and investment. To avoid refinancing in the future, the firm alters its behavior depending on the extent of its financial xenophobia and the realization of a revenue shock. With a sufficiently adverse shock, the firm holds no liquidity. Otherwise, the firm precautionarily saves and hol...

  14. Analysis of baseline, average, and longitudinally measured blood pressure data using linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ahmed; Beyene, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article compares baseline, average, and longitudinal data analysis methods for identifying genetic variants in genome-wide association study using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data. We apply methods that include (a) linear mixed models with baseline measures, (b) random intercept linear mixed models with mean measures outcome, and (c) random intercept linear mixed models with longitudinal measurements. In the linear mixed models, covariates are included as fixed effects, whereas relatedness among individuals is incorporated as the variance-covariance structure of the random effect for the individuals. The overall strategy of applying linear mixed models decorrelate the data is based on Aulchenko et al.'s GRAMMAR. By analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which are used separately as outcomes, we compare the 3 methods in identifying a known genetic variant that is associated with blood pressure from chromosome 3 and simulated phenotype data. We also analyze the real phenotype data to illustrate the methods. We conclude that the linear mixed model with longitudinal measurements of diastolic blood pressure is the most accurate at identifying the known single-nucleotide polymorphism among the methods, but linear mixed models with baseline measures perform best with systolic blood pressure as the outcome.

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  16. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  19. Stitching-aware in-design DPT auto fixing for sub-20nm logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Han; Sai Krishna, K. V. V. S.; Pemberton-Smith, David

    2017-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 20nm, Double Patterning Technology (DPT) becomes one of the mandatory solutions for routing metal layers. From the view point of Place and Route (P&R), the major concerns are how to prevent DPT odd-cycles automatically without sacrificing chip area. Even though the leading-edge P&R tools have advanced algorithms to prevent DPT odd-cycles, it is very hard to prevent the localized DPT odd-cycles, especially in Engineering Change Order (ECO) routing. In the last several years, we developed In-design DPT Auto Fixing method in order to reduce localized DPT odd-cycles significantly during ECO and could achieve remarkable design Turn-Around Times (TATs). But subsequently, as the design complexity continued increasing and chip size continued decreasing, we needed a new In-design DPT Auto Fixing approach to improve the auto. fixing rate. In this paper, we present the Stitching-Aware In-design DPT Auto Fixing method for better fixing rates and smaller chip design. The previous In-design DPT Auto Fixing method detected all DPT odd-cycles and tried to remove oddcycles by increasing the adjacent space. As the metal congestions increase in the newer technology nodes, the older Auto Fixing method has limitations to increase the adjacent space between routing metals. Consequently, the auto fixing rate of older method gets worse with the introduction of the smaller design rules. With DPT stitching enablement at In-design DRC checking procedure, the new Stitching-Aware DPT Auto Fixing method detects the most critical odd-cycles and revolve the odd-cycles automatically. The accuracy of new flow ensures better usage of space in the congested areas, and helps design more smaller chips. By applying the Stitching-Aware DPT Auto Fixing method to sub-20nm logic devices, we can confirm that the auto fixing rate is improved by 2X compared with auto fixing without stitching. Additionally, by developing the better heuristic algorithm and flow for DPT

  20. Is the fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide a good approach to treat hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Maillard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Marc P Maillard, Michel BurnierService of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, SwitzerlandAbstract: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with selective AT1 receptor antagonists is recognized as an effective mean to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Among the class of AT1 receptor antagonists, telmisartan offers the advantage of a very long half-life. This enables blood pressure control over 24 hours using once-daily administration. The combination of telmisartan with hydrochlorothiazide is a logical step because numerous previous studies have demonstrated that sodium depletion enhances the antihypertensive efficacy of drugs interfering with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. In accordance with past experience using similar compounds blocking the RAS, several controlled studies have now demonstrated that the fixed-dose combination of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide is superior in lowering blood pressure than either telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide alone. Of clinical interest also is the observation that the excellent clinical tolerance of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist is not affected by the association of the low-dose thiazide. Thus telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide is an effective and well-tolerated antihypertensive combination. Finally, the development of fixed-dose combinations should improve drug adherence because of the one-pill-a-day regimen.Keywords: telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide, fixed-dose combinations, antihypertensive agent, safety, compliance

  1. PROBLEMS OF APPLYING FIXED FORMULAE TO SAFETY CRITERIA AND SITE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W. K.

    1963-10-15

    The problem of developing a formula or calculation procedure for that could more-or-less automatically indicate whether or not a nuclear plant would be considered safe at a particular location is discussed. The difficulties and impossibilities of any sach formula for making decisions on siting and safety involving large amounts of money and public safety are considered. (P.C.H.)

  2. Suppression of fixed pattern noise for infrared image system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changhan; Han, Jungsoo; Bae, Kyung-Hoon

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose suppression of fixed pattern noise (FPN) and compensation of soft defect for improvement of object tracking in cooled staring infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) imaging system. FPN appears an observable image which applies to non-uniformity compensation (NUC) by temperature. Soft defect appears glittering black and white point by characteristics of non-uniformity for IR detector by time. This problem is very important because it happen serious problem for object tracking as well as degradation for image quality. Signal processing architecture in cooled staring IRFPA imaging system consists of three tables: low, normal, high temperature for reference gain and offset values. Proposed method operates two offset tables for each table. This is method which operates six term of temperature on the whole. Proposed method of soft defect compensation consists of three stages: (1) separates sub-image for an image, (2) decides a motion distribution of object between each sub-image, (3) analyzes for statistical characteristic from each stationary fixed pixel. Based on experimental results, the proposed method shows an improved image which suppresses FPN by change of temperature distribution from an observational image in real-time.

  3. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  4. Fourier acceleration in lattice gauge theories. I. Landau gauge fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, C.T.H.; Batrouni, G.G.; Katz, G.R.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Lepage, G.P.; Wilson, K.G.; Rossi, P.; Svetitsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fourier acceleration is a useful technique which can be applied to many different numerical algorithms in order to alleviate the problem of critical slowing down. Here we describe its application to an optimization problem in the simulation of lattice gauge theories, that of gauge fixing a configuration of link fields to the Landau gauge (partial/sub μ/A/sup μ/ = 0). We find that a steepest-descents method of gauge fixing link fields at β = 5.8 on an 8 4 lattice can be made 5 times faster using Fourier acceleration. This factor will grow as the volume of the lattice is increased. We also discuss other gauges that are useful to lattice-gauge-theory simulations, among them one that is a combination of the axial and Landau gauges. This seems to be the optimal gauge to impose for the Fourier acceleration of two other important algorithms, the inversion of the fermion matrix and the updating of gauge field configurations

  5. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses 2. Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate strength of a dental prosthesis is defined as the strongest loading force applied to the prosthesis until afracture failure occurs. Important key terms are strength, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Relatively prevalent complications of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are

  6. New versions of the Fan-Browder fixed point theorem and existence of economic equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sehie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized form of the Fan-Browder fixed point theorem and apply to game-theoretic and economic equilibrium existence problem under the more generous restrictions. Consequently, we state some of recent results of Urai (2000 in more general and efficient forms.

  7. 48 CFR 3452.216-71 - Negotiated overhead rates-fixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptability of cost allocation methods shall be determined in accordance with part 31 of the Federal... different period, for which the rates apply, and (4) the specific items treated as direct costs or any changes in the items previously agreed to be direct costs. (e) Pending establishment of fixed overhead...

  8. An application of a discrete fixed point theorem to the Cournot model

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a discrete fixed point theorem of [7] to the Cournot model [1]. Then we can deal with the Cournot model where the production of the enterprises is discrete. To handle it, we define a discrete Cournot-Nash equilibrium, and prove its existence.

  9. Programmatic blood conservation in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralley, Fiona E

    2007-12-01

    Despite efforts to reduce blood transfusion rates in cardiac surgery over the past 40 years, cardiac surgery still consumes 10% to 20% of the blood transfused in the United States. This large demand has not only placed a significant pressure on the national blood supply, resulting in frequent shortages, but also has lead to many technical and pharmacological advances in blood conservation strategies in recent years. Recently, studies have shown that an organized approach to blood conservation in cardiac surgery is effective in significantly reducing the perioperative use of allogeneic blood and blood products. However, blood conservation techniques are multiple, varied, and in many situations costly and thus cannot be uniformly applied to all patients. Early preoperative planning and a coordinated perioperative plan allow the appropriate use of blood conservation modalities to ensure that their benefits span the entire perioperative period. This article describes some of the modalities currently used in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  10. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  11. Three Boundary Conditions for Computing the Fixed-Point Property in Binary Mixture Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leendert van Maanen

    Full Text Available The notion of "mixtures" has become pervasive in behavioral and cognitive sciences, due to the success of dual-process theories of cognition. However, providing support for such dual-process theories is not trivial, as it crucially requires properties in the data that are specific to mixture of cognitive processes. In theory, one such property could be the fixed-point property of binary mixture data, applied-for instance- to response times. In that case, the fixed-point property entails that response time distributions obtained in an experiment in which the mixture proportion is manipulated would have a common density point. In the current article, we discuss the application of the fixed-point property and identify three boundary conditions under which the fixed-point property will not be interpretable. In Boundary condition 1, a finding in support of the fixed-point will be mute because of a lack of difference between conditions. Boundary condition 2 refers to the case in which the extreme conditions are so different that a mixture may display bimodality. In this case, a mixture hypothesis is clearly supported, yet the fixed-point may not be found. In Boundary condition 3 the fixed-point may also not be present, yet a mixture might still exist but is occluded due to additional changes in behavior. Finding the fixed-property provides strong support for a dual-process account, yet the boundary conditions that we identify should be considered before making inferences about underlying psychological processes.

  12. Accounting for Missing Correlation Coefficients in Fixed-Effects MASEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Suzanne; Cheung, Mike W-L

    2018-01-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) is increasingly applied to advance theories by synthesizing existing findings. MASEM essentially consists of two stages. In Stage 1, a pooled correlation matrix is estimated based on the reported correlation coefficients in the individual studies. In Stage 2, a structural model (such as a path model) is fitted to explain the pooled correlations. Frequently, the individual studies do not provide all the correlation coefficients between the research variables. In this study, we modify the currently optimal MASEM-method to deal with missing correlation coefficients, and compare its performance with existing methods. This study is the first to evaluate the performance of fixed-effects MASEM methods under different levels of missing correlation coefficients. We found that the often used univariate methods performed very poorly, while the multivariate methods performed well overall.

  13. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  14. Efficacy of fix dose combination (atorvastatin and amlodipine) in treatment of uncontrolled hypertension and dyslipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Sherwani, M.U.K.; Batool, A.

    2012-01-01

    The fixed-dose combination containing the antihypertensive agent amlodipine and the statin, atorvastatin, is the first combination of its kind designed to treat two risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), i.e., hypertension and dyslipidemia. in this study, blood pressure and lipid lowering effects of combination of amlodipine and atorvastatin were evaluated in uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Methods: Thirty patients both male and female in the age group 35-60 years attending the hypertensive clinic of PMRC FJMC suffering from uncontrolled hypertension were selected. baseline blood pressure was checked after half hour rest in sitting and standing position using mercury sphygmomanometer. Blood sample was collected from all patients after overnight fasting for assessment of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. they were prescribed with fixed dose combination of 5 mg amlodipine and 10 mg atorvastatin. Patients were followed for their blood pressure measurement after every 4 weeks up to 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks their fasting blood sample was taken again for determination of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, IDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Results: Systolic blood pressure after 4, 8 and 12 weeks was significantly lower at all intervals from baseline. when systolic blood pressure after 8 and 12 weeks was compared with 4 weeks, the effect was again significant (p=0.024, p=0.002 respectively). There was no significant reduction seen in 8 versus 12 weeks (p=0.493). Diastolic blood pressure at 4, 8 and 12 weeks was significantly lower from baseline. Diastolic blood pressure after 4 and 8 weeks when compared with 8 and 12 weeks was not significantly low (p=0.99 and 0.91 respectively). Lipid profile of the patients was significantly reduced from baseline after twelve weeks of fixed dose combination of treatment (p<0.000). Conclusion: Combination therapy proved to be effective in controlling hypertension and dyslipidemia than single

  15. Efficacy of fix dose combination (atorvastatin and amlodipine) in treatment of uncontrolled hypertension and dyslipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, S; Sherwani, M U.K.; Batool, A [Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    The fixed-dose combination containing the antihypertensive agent amlodipine and the statin, atorvastatin, is the first combination of its kind designed to treat two risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), i.e., hypertension and dyslipidemia. in this study, blood pressure and lipid lowering effects of combination of amlodipine and atorvastatin were evaluated in uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Methods: Thirty patients both male and female in the age group 35-60 years attending the hypertensive clinic of PMRC FJMC suffering from uncontrolled hypertension were selected. baseline blood pressure was checked after half hour rest in sitting and standing position using mercury sphygmomanometer. Blood sample was collected from all patients after overnight fasting for assessment of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. they were prescribed with fixed dose combination of 5 mg amlodipine and 10 mg atorvastatin. Patients were followed for their blood pressure measurement after every 4 weeks up to 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks their fasting blood sample was taken again for determination of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, IDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Results: Systolic blood pressure after 4, 8 and 12 weeks was significantly lower at all intervals from baseline. when systolic blood pressure after 8 and 12 weeks was compared with 4 weeks, the effect was again significant (p=0.024, p=0.002 respectively). There was no significant reduction seen in 8 versus 12 weeks (p=0.493). Diastolic blood pressure at 4, 8 and 12 weeks was significantly lower from baseline. Diastolic blood pressure after 4 and 8 weeks when compared with 8 and 12 weeks was not significantly low (p=0.99 and 0.91 respectively). Lipid profile of the patients was significantly reduced from baseline after twelve weeks of fixed dose combination of treatment (p<0.000). Conclusion: Combination therapy proved to be effective in controlling hypertension and dyslipidemia than single

  16. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  18. Fixed-target physics at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Emilie Amandine

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target SMOG. The energy scale achievable at the LHC and the excellent detector capabilities for vertexing, tracking and particle identification allow a wealth of measurements of great interest for cosmic ray and heavy ions physics. We report the first measurements made in this configuration: the measurement of antiproton production in proton-helium collisions and the measurements of open and hidden charm production in proton-argon collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\textrm{NN}} =$ 110 GeV.

  19. Efficient Fixed-Offset GPR Scattering Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Chen, Xianyao

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering by buried three-dimensional penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of ground penetrating radar systems, is calculated using the extended Born approximation. The involved scattering tensor is calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFT's). We incorporate...... in the scattering calculation the correct radiation patterns of the ground penetrating radar antennas by using their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. Finally, we derive an efficient FFT-based method to analyze a fixed-offset configuration in which the location of the transmitting antenna is different...

  20. Criterions for fixing regulatory seismic acceleration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1988-03-01

    Acceleration coeffficients to be taken into account in seismic areas for calculation of structures are defined in national seismic regulations. Joined to the described qualitative requirements, these coefficients represent a balance between precaution costs and avoided damages, both in terms of material repairing costs and damage to human life. Persons in charge of fixing these coefficients must be informed of corresponding quantitative aspects. Data on seismic motions occurrencies and consequences are gathered here and convoluted to mean damage evaluations. Indications on precaution costs are joined, which shows that currently recommended levels of seismic motions are high relatively to financial profitability, and represent in fact an aethical choice about human life value [fr

  1. New Tests of the Fixed Hotspot Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Andrews, D. L.; Horner-Johnson, B. C.; Kumar, R. R.

    2005-05-01

    We present new methods for estimating uncertainties in plate reconstructions relative to the hotspots and new tests of the fixed hotspot approximation. We find no significant motion between Pacific hotspots, on the one hand, and Indo-Atlantic hotspots, on the other, for the past ~ 50 Myr, but large and significant apparent motion before 50 Ma. Whether this motion is truly due to motion between hotspots or alternatively due to flaws in the global plate motion circuit can be tested with paleomagnetic data. These tests give results consistent with the fixed hotspot approximation and indicate significant misfits when a relative plate motion circuit through Antarctica is employed for times before 50 Ma. If all of the misfit to the global plate motion circuit is due to motion between East and West Antarctica, then that motion is 800 ± 500 km near the Ross Sea Embayment and progressively less along the Trans-Antarctic Mountains toward the Weddell Sea. Further paleomagnetic tests of the fixed hotspot approximation can be made. Cenozoic and Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from the Pacific plate, along with reconstructions of the Pacific plate relative to the hotspots, can be used to estimate an apparent polar wander (APW) path of Pacific hotspots. An APW path of Indo-Atlantic hotspots can be similarly estimated (e.g. Besse & Courtillot 2002). If both paths diverge in similar ways from the north pole of the hotspot reference frame, it would indicate that the hotspots have moved in unison relative to the spin axis, which may be attributed to true polar wander. If the two paths diverge from one another, motion between Pacific hotspots and Indo-Atlantic hotspots would be indicated. The general agreement of the two paths shows that the former is more important than the latter. The data require little or no motion between groups of hotspots, but up to ~10 mm/yr of motion is allowed within uncertainties. The results disagree, in particular, with the recent extreme interpretation of

  2. The universal cardinal ordering of fixed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Martin, Jesus; Moscoso, Ma Jose; Gonzalez Gomez, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the theorem which determines, by a permutation, the cardinal ordering of fixed points for any orbit of a period doubling cascade. The inverse permutation generates the orbit and the symbolic sequence of the orbit is obtained as a corollary. Interestingly enough, it is important to point that this theorem needs no previous information about any other orbit; also the cardinal ordering is achieved automatically with no need to compare numerical values associated with every point of the orbit (as would be the case if kneading theory were used).

  3. Stroke infarct volume estimation in fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Vibeke; Kjølby, Birgitte F; Iversen, Nina K

    2018-01-01

    be investigated in fixed tissue and therefore allows a more direct comparison between lesion volumes from MRI and histology. Additionally, the larger MKT infarct lesion indicates that MKT do provide increased sensitivity to microstructural changes in the lesion area compared to MD....... and prepared. The infarct was clearly visible in both MD and MKT maps. The MKT lesion volume was roughly 31% larger than the MD lesion volume. Subsequent histological analysis (hematoxylin) revealed similar lesion volumes to MD. Our study shows that structural components underlying the MD/MKT mismatch can...

  4. Fixed and variable cost of automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    costs of various quality aspects using an extensive Danish data set. We show that under suitable assumptions the marginal willingness to pay for quality aspects is a structural parameter of the consumer’s preference. We use our results to investigate this structural parameter and study its relationship......Recent empirical analyses have found strong reactions of car prices to changes in fuel costs. We develop a model of car quality choice to further investigate this relationship. We show that in the empirically relevant case quality characteristics increase fixed as well as variable costs, and our...

  5. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbincius, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs

  6. Deformability measurement of red blood cells using a microfluidic channel array and an air cavity in a driving syringe with high throughput and precise detection of subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-07

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been considered a potential biomarker for monitoring pathological disorders. High throughput and detection of subpopulations in RBCs are essential in the measurement of RBC deformability. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure RBC deformability by evaluating temporal variations in the average velocity of blood flow and image intensity of successively clogged RBCs in the microfluidic channel array for specific time durations. In addition, to effectively detect differences in subpopulations of RBCs, an air compliance effect is employed by adding an air cavity into a disposable syringe. The syringe was equally filled with a blood sample (V(blood) = 0.3 mL, hematocrit = 50%) and air (V(air) = 0.3 mL). Owing to the air compliance effect, blood flow in the microfluidic device behaved transiently depending on the fluidic resistance in the microfluidic device. Based on the transient behaviors of blood flows, the deformability of RBCs is quantified by evaluating three representative parameters, namely, minimum value of the average velocity of blood flow, clogging index, and delivered blood volume. The proposed method was applied to measure the deformability of blood samples consisting of homogeneous RBCs fixed with four different concentrations of glutaraldehyde solution (0%-0.23%). The proposed method was also employed to evaluate the deformability of blood samples partially mixed with normal RBCs and hardened RBCs. Thereafter, the deformability of RBCs infected by human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was measured. As a result, the three parameters significantly varied, depending on the degree of deformability. In addition, the deformability measurement of blood samples was successfully completed in a short time (∼10 min). Therefore, the proposed method has significant potential in deformability measurement of blood samples containing hematological diseases with high throughput and precise detection of

  7. Fixed Point Theorems for Generalized α-β-Weakly Contraction Mappings in Metric Spaces and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the notion of generalized weakly contraction mappings due to Choudhury et al. (2011 to generalized α-β-weakly contraction mappings. We show with examples that our new class of mappings is a real generalization of several known classes of mappings. We also establish fixed point results for such mappings in metric spaces. Applying our new results, we obtain fixed point results on ordinary metric spaces, metric spaces endowed with an arbitrary binary relation, and metric spaces endowed with graph.

  8. Application of fixed point theory to chaotic attractors of forced oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, H.B.

    1990-11-01

    A review of the structure of chaotic attractors of periodically forced second order nonlinear oscillators suggests that the theory of fixed points of transformations gives information about the fundamental topological structure of attractors. First a simple extension of the Levinson index formula is proved. Then numerical evidence is used to formulate plausible conjectures about absorbing regions containing chaotic attractors in forced oscillators. Applying the Levinson formula suggests a fundamental relation between the number of fixed points or periodic points in a section of the chaotic attractor on the one hand, and a topological invariant of an absorbing region on the other hand. (author)

  9. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  10. Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Arkowitz

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and pk:X→X the kth power map. Duan proved that pkf:X→X has a fixed point if k≥2. We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ-structure μθ:X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μθf and fμθ each has a fixed point.

  11. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tattersall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  12. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  13. Mining Repair Actions for Guiding Automated Program Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez , Matias; Monperrus , Martin

    2012-01-01

    Automated program fixing consists of generating source code in order to fix bugs in an automated manner. Our intuition is that automated program fixing can imitate human-based program fixing. Hence, we present a method to mine repair actions from software repositories. A repair action is a small semantic modification on code such as adding a method call. We then decorate repair actions with a probability distribution also learnt from software repositories. Our probabilistic repair models enab...

  14. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a navigable...

  15. 48 CFR 16.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firm-fixed-price contracts. 16.202 Section 16.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202 Firm-fixed-price...

  16. 48 CFR 52.243-1 - Changes-Fixed-Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-Fixed-Price. 52....243-1 Changes—Fixed-Price. As prescribed in 43.205(e), insert the following clause: Changes—Fixed-Price (AUG 1987) (a) The Contracting Officer may at any time, by written order, and without notice to...

  17. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-10-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  18. Is the Price Right? An Analysis of ETP's Fixed Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard W.; Blake, Daniel R.; Honig, Michele L.; Cohen, Michael D.

    The Employment Training Panel (ETP) contracted with California State University-Northridge to review the fixed fee structure ETP used to pay contractors for training provided under ETP. Three research questions were investigated: what other institutions use the fixed fee and what they pay for; whether ETP's fixed-fee rates were reasonable in…

  19. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper the author reviews recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  20. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  2. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  3. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  5. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  6. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  9. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a blood cell that carries oxygen.

  10. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  11. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  13. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Email Updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  16. Titrated flow versus fixed flow Bubble Nasal CPAP for respiratory distress in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas eMurki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical effects of a pre-fixed flow of air-oxygen versus a flow titrated according to visible bubbling are not well understood.Objective: To compare the effects of a fixed flow (5 L/min and titrated flow ( flow just enough to ensure bubbling at different set pressures on delivered intra-prong pressure, gas exchange and clinical parameters in preterm infants on bubble CPAP for respiratory distress.Methods: Preterm infants less than 35 weeks gestation on bubble CPAP and less than 96 h of age, were enrolled in this cross over study. They were subjected to 30 minute periods of titrated flow and fixed flow. At the end of both epochs, gas flow rate, set pressure, FiO2, SpO2, Silverman retraction score, respiratory rate , abdominal girth, and blood gases were recorded. The delivered intra-prong pressure was measured by an electronic manometer. Results: Sixty nine recordings were made in 54 infants. For each of the set CPAP pressures (4, 5 and 6 cm H2O, the mean delivered pressure with a fixed flow of 5 L/min was higher than that delivered by the titrated flow. During the fixed flow epoch, the delivered pressure was closer to and higher than the set pressure resulting in higher PaO2 and lower PaCO2 as compared to titrated flow epoch. In the titrated flow period, the delivered pressure was consistently lower than the set pressure. Conclusion: In preterm infants on bubble CPAP with set pressures of 4 to 6 cm H2O, a fixed flow of 5 L/min is more effective than a flow titrated to ensure adequate visible bubbling. It achieves higher delivered pressures, better oxygenation and ventilation.

  17. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  18. Competition and facilitation between unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and non-nitrogen-fixing phytoplankton species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agawin, N.S.; Rabouille, S.; Veldhuis, M.; Servatius, L.; Hol, S.; van Overzee, H.M.J.; Huisman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Recent discoveries show that small unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are more widespread than previously thought and can make major contributions to the nitrogen budget of the oceans. We combined theory and experiments to investigate competition for nitrogen and light between these

  19. In vivo evaluation of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass-Spiral Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leme, Juliana; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron; Zavaglia, Cecília

    2013-11-01

    The Spiral Pump (SP), a centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been developed at the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology/Adib Jatene Foundation laboratories, with support from Sintegra Company (Pompeia, Brazil). The SP is a disposable pump with an internal rotor-a conically shaped fuse with double entrance threads. This rotor is supported by two ball bearings, attached to a stainless steel shaft fixed to the housing base. Worm gears provide axial motion to the blood column, and the rotational motion of the conically shaped impeller generates a centrifugal pumping effect, improving pump efficiency without increasing hemolysis. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the SP's hydrodynamic performance, and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate hemodynamic impact during usual CPB. A commercially available centrifugal blood pump was used as reference. In vivo experiments were conducted in six male pigs weighing between 60 and 90 kg, placed on CPB for 6 h each. Blood samples were collected just before CPB (T0) and after every hour of CPB (T1-T6) for hemolysis determination and laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical). Values of blood pressure, mean flow, pump rotational speed, and corporeal temperature were recorded. Also, ergonomic conditions were recorded: presence of noise, difficulty in removing air bubbles, trouble in installing the pump in the drive module (console), and difficulties in mounting the CPB circuit. Comparing the laboratory and hemolysis results for the SP with those of the reference pump, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two devices. In addition, reports made by medical staff and perfusionists described a close similarity between the two devices. During in vivo experiments, the SP maintained blood flow and pressure at physiological levels, consistent with those applied in cardiac surgery with CPB, without presenting any malfunction. Also, the SP needed lower rotational

  20. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution......Many car characteristics, for instance cabin space and engine power, have a positive impact on fixed and variable costs. We extend the hedonic model, that considers only one type of cost, to the situation in which fixed as well as variable costs depend on the characteristics of the durable...... of the variable costs in total willingness to pay. Next we show that under suitable assumptions a structural interpretation of our estimates is possible. We show that the willingness to pay per kilometer driven can be interpreted as a parameter of the utility function and study how it is related to household...

  1. Amlodipine and valsartan as components of a rational and effective fixed-dose combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Waeber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Waeber1, Luis M Ruilope21Division of Clinical Pathophysiology, University Hospital, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Hypertension Unit, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Pharmacological treatment of hypertension is effective in preventing cardiovascular and renal complications. Calcium antagonists and blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are widely used today to initiate antihypertensive therapy but, when given as monotherapy, do not suffice in most patients to normalize blood pressure. Combining the two types of agents considerably increases the antihypertensive efficacy, but not at the expense of a deterioration of tolerability. This is exemplified by the experience accumulated with the recently developed fixed dose combination containing the AT1-receptor blocker valsartan (160 mg and the dihydropyridine amlodipine (5 or 10 mg. In a randomized trial, an 8-week treatment normalized blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg within 8 weeks in a large fraction of hypertensive patients (78.4% and 85.2% using the 5/160 [n = 371] and 10/160 mg [n = 377] dosage, respectively. Like all AT1-receptor blockers valsartan has a placebo-like tolerability. Valsartan prevents to a large extent the occurrence amlodipine-induced peripheral edema. Both amlodipine and valsartan have beneficial effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as protective effects on renal function. The co-administration of these two agents is therefore very attractive, as it enables a rapid and sustained blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. The availability of a fixed-dose combination based on amlodipine and valsartan is expected therefore to facilitate the management of hypertension, to improve long-term adherence with antihypertensive therapy and, ultimately, to have a positive impact on cardiovascular and renal outcomes.Keywords: antihypertensive therapy, fixed-dose combination, calcium antagonists

  2. Comparing topological charge definitions using topology fixing actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Gruber, Florian; Jansen, Karl; Marinkovic, Marina; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc

    2009-05-01

    We investigate both the hyperbolic action and the determinant ratio action designed to fix the topological charge on the lattice. We show to what extent topology is fixed depending on the parameters of these actions, keeping the physical situation fixed. At the same time the agreement between different definitions of topological charge - the field theoretic and the index definition - is directly correlated to the degree topology is fixed. Moreover, it turns out that the two definitions agree very well. We also study finite volume effects arising in the static potential and related quantities due to topology fixing. (orig.)

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid induced generalized fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Calka, Omer; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Bulut, Gulay

    2014-09-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare form of drug allergies that recur at the same cutaneous or mucosal site in every usage of drug. Single or multiple round, sharply demarcated and dusky red plaques appear soon after drug exposure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA: 3α,7β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid) is used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Some side effects may be observed, such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, pruritus and headaches. We encountered only three cases of lichenoid reaction regarding the use of UDCA among previous studies. In this article, we reported a generalized FDE case related to UDCA intake in a 59-year-old male patient with cholestasis for the first time in the literature.

  4. Conventional radiology: fixed installations in medical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the different procedures, the different types of specific hazards, the analysis of risks, their assessment and the preventive methods with regard to radioprotection in the case of fixed conventional radiology equipment in medical environment. It indicates and describes the concerned personnel, the course of procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels (definition of regulated areas, personnel categories), the strategy aimed at controlling the risk (risk reduction, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention, incident), the different measures of medical monitoring, the assessment of risk control, and other risks. An appendix proposes an example of workstation assessment

  5. Fixed point theorems for generalized Lipschitzian semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Soo Jung

    2001-01-01

    semigroup of K into itself, that is, for s∈G, ‖Tsx−Tsy‖≤as‖x−y‖+bs(‖x−Tsx‖+‖y−Tsy‖+cs(‖x−Tsy‖+‖y−Tsx‖, for x,y∈K where as,bs,cs>0 such that there exists a t1∈G such that bs+cs<1 for all s≽t1. It is proved that if there exists a closed subset C of K such that ⋂sco¯{Ttx:t≽s}⊂C for all x∈K, then with [(α+βp(αp⋅2p−1−1/(cp−2p−1βp⋅Np]1/p<1 has a common fixed point, where α=lim sups(as+bs+cs/(1-bs-cs and β=lim sups(2bs+2cs/(1-bs-cs.

  6. Steiner trees for fixed orientation metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazil, Marcus; Zachariasen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing Steiner minimum trees for a metric defined by a polygonal unit circle (corresponding to s = 2 weighted legal orientations in the plane). A linear-time algorithm to enumerate all angle configurations for degree three Steiner points is given. We provide...... a simple proof that the angle configuration for a Steiner point extends to all Steiner points in a full Steiner minimum tree, such that at most six orientations suffice for edges in a full Steiner minimum tree. We show that the concept of canonical forms originally introduced for the uniform orientation...... metric generalises to the fixed orientation metric. Finally, we give an O(s n) time algorithm to compute a Steiner minimum tree for a given full Steiner topology with n terminal leaves....

  7. Fixed pigmented erythema due to cimetidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almamy Diabaté

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed pigmented erythema (EPF is pathognomonic of drug-induced toxicity. Antisecretory drugs are among the most commonly not responsible drugs. EPF secondary to cimetidine administration has rarely been described. We report an EPF case during a cimetidine-based treatment in Bouake. A 43-year-old patient, HIV negative, consults for an EPF located on both sides of the breasts, on the 5th day of an antiulcer treatment comprising compressed cimetidine and gastric dressing based on phosphatase d ‘aluminum. The diagnosis is made in front of the characteristic aspect of the lesion of EPF and the early reappearance of lesions recurring exactly in the same places, after the reintroduction of cimetidine. The discovery of an EPF imposes a strict etiological approach in search of the responsible drug. During anti-ulcer treatment, the practitioner should bear in mind the potential role of cimetidine.

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ...

  9. Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C J; Shin, J S; Cha, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 +/- 0.15, 37 degrees C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 x .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco's copper NiTi and Tomy's Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500 degrees C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

  10. Surface coating for blood-contacting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajit Kumar Balakrishnan

    The major problems always encountered with the blood-contacting surfaces are their compatibility, contact blood damage, and thrombogenicity. Titanium nitride (TiN) is a hard, inert, ceramic material that is widely used in the engineering industry. TiN has been proven to be a good biomaterial in its crystalline form, in orthopedic, and in tissue implant applications. This dissertation describes a method to coat amorphous TiN on the blood-contacting surfaces of certain medical devices using the room-temperature sputtering process and to characterize, to test, and to evaluate the coating for a reliable, durable, and compatible blood-contacting surface The blood-compatibility aspects were evaluated with standard, established protocols and procedures to prove the feasibility. An amorphous TiN coating is developed, characterized, tested, and blood compatibility evaluated by applying to the blood-contacting surfaces of stainless steel, catheters, and blood filters. The flexibility characteristics were proven by applying it to the diaphragms of the pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device. The results show that amorphous titanium nitride is flexible and adherent to polymeric substrates like polyurethane and polyester. Blood compatibility evaluation showed comparable results with catheters and superior behavior with stainless steel and polyester filters. It is concluded that amorphous titanium nitride can be considered to be applied to the surfaces of some of the medical devices in order to improve blood compatibility.

  11. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  12. Modeling and simulation of blood collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Edgar; Xie, Xiaolan; Augusto, Vincent; Garraud, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses the modeling and simulation of blood collection systems in France for both fixed site and mobile blood collection with walk in whole blood donors and scheduled plasma and platelet donors. Petri net models are first proposed to precisely describe different blood collection processes, donor behaviors, their material/human resource requirements and relevant regulations. Petri net models are then enriched with quantitative modeling of donor arrivals, donor behaviors, activity times and resource capacity. Relevant performance indicators are defined. The resulting simulation models can be straightforwardly implemented with any simulation language. Numerical experiments are performed to show how the simulation models can be used to select, for different walk in donor arrival patterns, appropriate human resource planning and donor appointment strategies.

  13. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    .05), but there was no sign of developmental changes in whole blood coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P reach statistical significance. Citrate-anticoagulated blood showed...

  14. Infrared fixed points and fixed lines in the top-bottom-tau sector in supersymmetric grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.

    1994-10-01

    The two loop 'top-down' renormalization group flow for the top, bottom and tau Yukawa couplings, from μ=M GUT ≅O(10 16 GeV) to μ≅m t , is explored in the framework of supersymmetric grand unification; reproduction of the physical bottom and tau masses is required. Instead of following the recent trend of implementing exact Yukawa coupling unification i) a search for infrared (IR) fixed lines and fixed points in the m t pole -tan β plane is performed and ii) the extent to which these imply approximate Yukawa unification is determined. In the m t pole -tan β plane two IR fixed lines, intersecting in an IR fixed point, are located. The more attractive fixed line has a branch of almost constant top mass, m t pole ≅168≅180 GeV (close to the experimental value), for the large interval 2.5 GUT approximately. The less attractive fixed line as well as the fixed point at m t pole ≅170 GeV, tan β≅55 implement approximate top-bottom Yukawa unification at all scales μ. The renormalization group flow is attracted towards the IR fixed point by way of the more attractive IR fixed line. The fixed point and lines are distinct from the much quoted effective IR fixed point m t pole ≅O(200 GeV) sin β. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Huys, Maxime; Pariat, Jacques; Roubineau, François; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Dubory, Arnaud

    2018-02-01

    There is no information comparing the results of fixed-bearing total knee replacement and mobile-bearing total knee replacement in the same patients previously treated by high tibial osteotomy. The purpose was therefore to compare fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee replacements in patients treated with previous high tibial osteotomy. We compared the results of 57 patients with osteoarthritis who had received a fixed-bearing prosthesis after high tibial osteotomy with the results of 41 matched patients who had received a rotating platform after high tibial osteotomy. The match was made for length of follow-up period. The mean follow-up was 17 years (range, 15-20 years). The patients were assessed clinically and radiographically. The pre-operative knee scores had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. So was the case with the intra-operative releases, blood loss, thromboembolic complications and infection rates in either group. There was significant improvement in both groups of knees, and no significant difference was observed between the groups (i.e., fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing knees) for the mean Knee Society knee clinical score (95 and 92 points, respectively), or the Knee Society knee functional score (82 and 83 points, respectively) at the latest follow-up. However, the mean post-operative knee motion was higher for the fixed-bearing group (117° versus 110°). In the fixed-bearing group, one knee was revised because of periprosthetic fracture. In the rotating platform mobile-bearing group, one knee was revised because of aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship for revision at ten years of follow-up was 95.2% for the fixed bearing prosthesis and 91.1% for the rotating platform mobile-bearing prosthesis. Although we did manage to detect significant differences mainly in clinical and radiographic results between the two groups, we found no superiority or inferiority of the mobile

  16. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application

  17. Design and implementation of fixed-order robust controllers for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Hsuan-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    This paper applies fixed-order multivariable robust control strategies to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, and implements the designed controllers on a microchip for system miniaturization. In previous studies, robust control was applied to guarantee system stability and to reduce hydrogen consumption for a PEMFC system. It was noted that for standard robust control design, the order of resulting H{sub {infinity}} controllers is dictated by the plants and weighting functions. However, for hardware implementation, controllers with lower orders are preferable in terms of computing efforts and cost. Therefore, in this paper the PEMFC is modeled as multivariable transfer matrices, then three fixed-order robust control algorithms are applied to design controllers with specified orders for a PEMFC. Finally, the designed controllers are implemented on a microchip to regulate the air and hydrogen flow rates. From the experimental results, fixed-order robust control is deemed effective in supplying steady power and reducing fuel consumption. (author)

  18. THE PROBLEMS OF FIXED ASSETS CLASSIFICATION FOR ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophiia Kafka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical analysis of research in accounting of fixed assets; the basic issues of fixed assets accounting that have been developed by the Ukrainian scientists during 1999-2016 have been determined. It is established that the problems of non-current assets taxation and their classification are the most noteworthy. In the dissertations the issues of fixed assets classification are of exclusively particular branch nature, so its improvement is important. The purpose of the article is developing science-based classification of fixed assets for accounting purposes since their composition is quite diverse. The classification of fixed assets for accounting purposes have been summarized and developed in Figure 1 according to the results of the research. The accomplished analysis of existing approaches to classification of fixed assets has made it possible to specify its basic types and justify the classification criteria of fixed assets for the main objects of fixed assets. Key words: non-current assets, fixed assets, accounting, valuation, classification of the fixed assets. JEL:G M41  

  19. Breakdown localization in the fixed gap system

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamaki, Robin; Wuensch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Accurate localization of breakdowns in vacuum could help shed light on breakdown related processes that are not yet fully understood. At the DC spark lab at CERN, an instrument called the Fixed Gap System (FGS) has been developed partially for this purpose. Among other things, the FGS has four built-in antennas, which are intended for breakdown localization. The capability of this aspect of the FGS was explored in this report. Specifically, the feasibility of using a method similar to that which is used in cavity Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was investigated. The usable frequency range of the current experimental setup was also studied. Firstly, a modal analysis of the inner geometry of the FGS was done in HFSS. This showed that the two first modes to be expected in the spark gap quite differ from those of the ideal pillbox – both in field pattern and in frequency ( 4 and 6 GHz vs. 0.2 and 3 GHz). Secondly, S-parameters of the system were measured. These showed that the coupling between antennas is weak...

  20. Interdisciplinary interface between fixed prosthodontics and periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl M

    2017-06-01

    Although periodontal factors do not usually have a direct effect on the survival of a fixed prosthesis, harmony between the prosthesis and the periodontium is critical otherwise esthetics, the longevity of the prosthesis and the periodontium will be compromised. A close interdisciplinary relationship between periodontics and prosthodontics is therefore necessary to avoid an unsatisfactory treatment outcome, requiring extensive and expensive retreatment. The design of the prosthesis, the number and quality of the abutment teeth, the preparation and the pontic, the occlusion and the material need to be considered when planning prosthodontic treatment. The location of the preparation margin and the contour and emergence profile of the prosthesis will influence the response of the gingival tissues to the prosthesis. Pontic design and cleansibility also contribute to the response of the gingival tissues as well as to the clinical and esthetic outcome. Even an optimal pontic design will not prevent inflammation of the mucosa adjacent to the pontic if pontic hygiene is not maintained by removal of plaque. Case selection and the patients' ability to carry out adequate oral hygiene are therefore essential for longevity of the prosthesis, and regular reviews provide an opportunity for early detection and treatment of failures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reviving nuclear requires broad technology fix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    What will it take to revive nuclear power in this country? For a beginning, nuclear plants must be the lowest-cost alternative to providing additional energy supplies; they must be smaller in size and easier to build and license than in the past, and public confidence in nuclear power must be restored. But even this is not enough to attract investors, he says. Regulatory policies, corporate structures, and financial arrangements must change as well. Hyman offers some ideas for changes that would be attractive to investors: place construction work in progress in the rate base, create a pay-as-you-go approach to construction; federal rather than state regulation of power rates; and ownership and construction by a consortium of electrical equipment manufacturers, engineering and construction firms, utilities, and fuel supplies. But even then, Hyman is not optimistic. Fixing nuclear power is possible only if there is a need for the product, the price is right, the profit is adequate, the people want it, the waste is disposed of, and somebody will take the risk of financing its revival

  2. Perturbed solutions of fixed boundary MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portone, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the fixed boundary plasma MHD equilibrium problem is solved by the finite element method; then, by perturbing the flux at the plasma boundary nodes, linear formulae are derived linking the variation of several plasma parameters of interest to the variation of the currents flowing in the external circuits. On the basis of these formulae it is shown how it is possible to efficiently solve two central problems in plasma engineering, namely (1) the optimization of the currents in a given set of coils necessary to maintain a specified equilibrium configuration and (2) the derivation of a linear dynamic model describing the plasma axisymmetric displacement (n = 0 mode) about a given magnetic configuration. A case study-based on the ITER reference equilibrium magnetic configuration at burn-is analysed both in terms of equilibrium currents optimality as well as axisymmetric stability features. The results obtained by these formulae are also compared with the predictions of a non-linear free boundary code and of a linear, dynamic model. As shown, the formulae derived here are in good agreement with such predictions, confirming the validity of the present approach. (author)

  3. How safe should donor blood be?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2018-01-01

    Blood services apply various safety measures to prevent the transmission of infections through blood transfusion, some of which have very high cost-effectiveness ratios (over €1.000.000 per quality-adjusted life-year or QALY saved). This dissertation considers whether it is ethically acceptable to

  4. Fixed drug eruption: topical provocation and subsequent phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahboob, A; Haroon, T S [Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Dermatology; Haroon, T S [King Edward Medical Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Dematology; Iqbal, Z; Iqbal, F [Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Medicine

    2006-12-15

    To determine the usefulness of topical provocation in detecting the incriminated drug causing fixed eruption. Three hundred and five, clinically diagnosed cases of Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE) of either gender and of any age were subjected to topical provocation with different drugs by using concentration of 1% (n=203), 2% (n=210) and 5% (n=235) in white soft paraffin. Drug ointment of one strength was applied one at a time on normal skin of flexor surface of right or left forearm. The effects of tests on involved and uninvolved skin were observed for 48 hours. The changes in lesions like erythema, hyperpigmentation, itching, burning or appearance of new lesion were considered a positive response. In case of no change, the patients (n=5) were subjected to oral provocation test, by giving half to full therapeutic dose of the suspected drug depending upon the severity of the initial attack. A patient who exhibited see-sawing phenomenon with 5% metamizole TPT was given oral challenge with same drug. Control topical tests were repeated in equal number of normal persons with various drug ointments and in patients of FDE with white soft paraffin on normal and affected skin. One hundred and thirty-seven patients were males and one hundred and sixty-eight patients were females. Maximum number of patients belonged to third decade. With 1% drug preparations 12 out of 316, with 2% drug preparations 28 out of 422 and with 5% drug preparations, 312 out of 523 TPTs were positive. The comparison revealed a highly significant association (Chi-square 448.1 and p<0.000) among various strengths of preparations and positive response. Sulphamethoxazole was found to be the most commonly incriminated cause of FDE applied in 5% concentration yielded sensitivity rate of 91% compared to 4% with lower concentrations. Positive patch test was also observed with oxytetracycline. Five patients who were given oral provocation with different drugs were found to be positive to tinidazole, dapsone

  5. Fixed drug eruption: topical provocation and subsequent phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, A.; Haroon, T.S.; Haroon, T.S.; Iqbal, Z.; Iqbal, F.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of topical provocation in detecting the incriminated drug causing fixed eruption. Three hundred and five, clinically diagnosed cases of Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE) of either gender and of any age were subjected to topical provocation with different drugs by using concentration of 1% (n=203), 2% (n=210) and 5% (n=235) in white soft paraffin. Drug ointment of one strength was applied one at a time on normal skin of flexor surface of right or left forearm. The effects of tests on involved and uninvolved skin were observed for 48 hours. The changes in lesions like erythema, hyperpigmentation, itching, burning or appearance of new lesion were considered a positive response. In case of no change, the patients (n=5) were subjected to oral provocation test, by giving half to full therapeutic dose of the suspected drug depending upon the severity of the initial attack. A patient who exhibited see-sawing phenomenon with 5% metamizole TPT was given oral challenge with same drug. Control topical tests were repeated in equal number of normal persons with various drug ointments and in patients of FDE with white soft paraffin on normal and affected skin. One hundred and thirty-seven patients were males and one hundred and sixty-eight patients were females. Maximum number of patients belonged to third decade. With 1% drug preparations 12 out of 316, with 2% drug preparations 28 out of 422 and with 5% drug preparations, 312 out of 523 TPTs were positive. The comparison revealed a highly significant association (Chi-square 448.1 and p<0.000) among various strengths of preparations and positive response. Sulphamethoxazole was found to be the most commonly incriminated cause of FDE applied in 5% concentration yielded sensitivity rate of 91% compared to 4% with lower concentrations. Positive patch test was also observed with oxytetracycline. Five patients who were given oral provocation with different drugs were found to be positive to tinidazole, dapsone

  6. СURRENT TRENDS OF THE FIXED CAPITAL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Gayfulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research article is devoted to the current trends of the fixed capital consumption, to the problems connected with the fixed capital consumption and to the innovations in the Russian economy where the increase of fixed capital consumption efficiency is of the great importance. Under the conditions of the exchange relations formation and escalating competition only those commodity producers who can make the best use of all kinds of the resources will win. The fixed capital consumption efficiency is defined as a set of a measures which is taken by the economic entities. Some of a measures are partially described in this article. Nowadays the fixed capital consumption problem is connected with the performance enhancement and optimization of the fixed assets items.

  7. The colorimetric analysis of anti-tuberculosis fixed-dose combination tablets and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellard, G A

    1999-11-01

    The perceived need to demonstrate whether or not the actual amounts of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in fixed-dose combination tablets or capsules correspond to their stated drug contents. To adapt specific, robust and simple colorimetric methods that have been previously applied to measuring plasma and urinary rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations to estimate tablet and capsule drug contents. The methods were applied to the analysis of 14 commercially manufactured fixed-dose combinations: two capsule and three tablet formulations containing rifampicin and isoniazid; seven tablet formulations containing rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide; and two tablet formulations containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. All the combined formulations contained near to their stated drug contents. Replicate analyses confirmed the excellent precision of the drug analyses. Such methods are not only rapid to perform but should be practical in many Third World situations with relatively modest laboratory facilities.

  8. On the Computational Content of the Krasnoselski and Ishikawa Fixed Point Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    This paper is part of a case study in proof mining applied to non-effective proofs in nonlinear functional analysis. More specifically, we are concerned with the fixed point theory of nonexpansive selfmappings f of convex sets C in normed spaces. We study Krasnoselski and more general so-called K......This paper is part of a case study in proof mining applied to non-effective proofs in nonlinear functional analysis. More specifically, we are concerned with the fixed point theory of nonexpansive selfmappings f of convex sets C in normed spaces. We study Krasnoselski and more general so...... and Shafrir (1992) to unbounded sets C. Our explicit bounds also imply new qualitative results concerning the independence of the rate of asymptotic regularity from various data....

  9. Fixed-Wing UAVs Flock Control through Cohesion and Repulsion Behaviours Combined with a Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kownacki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach to swarm control of small fixed-wing UAVs, which combines only two flocking behaviours with a leadership feature. In the presented approach, two fundamental rules of Reynolds flocking are applied, i.e., cohesion and repulsion, as the base of a decentralized control of self-organization of the flock. These rules are combined with a leadership feature, which is responsible for a global behaviour of guidance, as in the case of animals. Such a bio-inspired combination allows the achievement of a coherent collective flight of a flock of fixed-wing UAVs without applying formal behaviours of migration and alignment. This highly simplifies an implementation of the algorithm. The presented results include both numerical simulations and experimental flights, which validate the hardware implementation of the approach.

  10. Cord Blood and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donate their baby’s umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have more than 249,000 cord blood ... stored as a cord blood unit at a public cord blood bank for future use. It can then be listed ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of ...

  12. Nonthermal fixed points and the functional renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Hoffmeister, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Nonthermal fixed points represent basic properties of quantum field theories, in addition to vacuum or thermal equilibrium fixed points. The functional renormalization group on a closed real-time path provides a common framework for their description. For the example of an O(N) symmetric scalar theory it reveals a hierarchy of fixed point solutions, with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium

  13. IMPLICATION OF THE FIXED COMBINATIONS IN THE HYPERTENSION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Kobalava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of fixed combinations in the hypertension (HT treatment is discussed. Theoretical and practical aspects of combination therapy, principles of rational combination therapy are present. Current guidelines on the use of fixed dose combinations, including start antihypertensive therapy are analyzed. Classification of combinations, advantages and limitations of some of them implementation are also presented. Significance of beta-blocker bisoprolol and thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide fixed combination (Lodoz is shown in HT treatment.

  14. Fixed SMRF Sensor Network Application Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Rossum, W.L. van; Smits, F.M.A.; Theije, P.A.M. de; Monni, S.; Huizing, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) sensors and networked operation of sensors are well-known. Some advantages are surveillance persistence, multipath resistance, and interference resistance. The particular benefits of applying multifunction RF sensors in a network still need to be

  15. A comparative evaluation of Losartan/Hydrochlorothiazide (fixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were comparable ... blood pressure. KEY WORDS: Anti-hypertensive efficacy, Losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide combination, ... Patients of secondary hypertension ...

  16. A simple and secure method to fix laparoscopic trocars in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K F; Tam, P K H; Li, M K W

    2006-04-01

    We introduce a simple method of fixing trocars to the abdominal wall in children. Before anchoring the trocar, a piece of Tegaderm polyurethrane adhesive (3M Healthcare, St. Paul, Minnesota) is attached to the trocar. A silk stitch is anchored to neighboring skin, and then transfixed over the shaft of the trocar through the adhesive. Both inward and outward movement of the trocar can be restrained. This method is simple, fast, secure, and can be applied to trocars of any size.

  17. Development and evaluation of fixed phrase registration function for disaster response management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu; Tsuda, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    It is important that three elements such as what happened, how it will advance, and how people should act are intelligibly transferred in disaster information from administrative organs to local residents. In this paper, authors developed the fixed phrase registration function and it was implemented in disaster response management system authors have previously developed. The system was applied to disaster response exercise in Mitsuke City, Niigata prefecture and the function was highly evaluated by employees of Mitsuke City. (author)

  18. Positive Solutions for Fractional Differential Equations from Real Estate Asset Securitization via New Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tao

    2012-01-01

    analysis of real estate asset securitization by using the generalized fixed point theorem for weakly contractive mappings in partially ordered sets. Based on the analysis for the existence and uniqueness of the solution and scientific numerical calculation of the solution, in further study, some optimization schemes for traditional risk control process will be obtained, and then the main results of this paper can be applied to the forefront of research of real estate asset securitization.

  19. Structural Analysis Approach to Fault Diagnosis with Application to Fixed-wing Aircraft Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a structural analysis based method for fault diagnosis purposes. The method uses the structural model of the system and utilizes the matching idea to extract system's inherent redundant information. The structural model is represented by a bipartite directed graph. FDI...... Possibilities are examined by further analysis of the obtained information. The method is illustrated by applying on the LTI model of motion of a fixed-wing aircraft....

  20. Structural Analysis Approach to Fault Diagnosis with Application to Fixed-wing Aircraft Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a structural analysis based method for fault diagnosis purposes. The method uses the structural model of the system and utilizes the matching idea to extract system's inherent redundant information. The structural model is represented by a bipartite directed graph. FDI...... Possibilities are examined by further analysis of the obtained information. The method is illustrated by applying on the LTI model of motion of a fixed-wing aircraft....

  1. Fixed points of quantum gravity in extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Litim, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    We study quantum gravity in more than four dimensions with renormalisation group methods. We find a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point in the Einstein-Hilbert action. The fixed point connects with the perturbative infrared domain through finite renormalisation group trajectories. We show that our results for fixed points and related scaling exponents are stable. If this picture persists at higher order, quantum gravity in the metric field is asymptotically safe. We discuss signatures of the gravitational fixed point in models with low scale quantum gravity and compact extra dimensions

  2. Chemical-looping combustion in a reverse-flow fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    A reverse-flow fixed bed reactor concept for CLC (chemical-looping combustion) is explored. The limitations of conventional fixed bed reactors, as applied to CLC, are overcome by reversing the gas flow direction periodically to enhance the mixing characteristics of the bed, thus improving oxygen carrier utilization and energy efficiency with respect to power generation. The reverse-flow reactor is simulated by a dusty-gas model and compared with an equivalent fixed bed reactor without flow reversal. Dynamic optimization is used to calculate conditions at which each reactor operates at maximum energy efficiency. Several cases studies illustrate the benefits of reverse-flow operation for the CLC with CuO and NiO oxygen carriers and methane and syngas fuels. The results show that periodic reversal of the flow during reduction improves the contact between the fuel and unconverted oxygen carrier, enabling the system to suppress unwanted catalytic reactions and axial temperature and conversion gradients. The operational scheme presented reduces the fluctuations of temperature during oxidation and increases the high-temperature heat produced by the process. CLC in a reverse-flow reactor has the potential to achieve higher energy efficiency than conventional fixed bed CLC reactors, when integrated with a downstream gas turbine of a combined cycle power plant. - Highlights: • Reverse-flow fixed bed CLC reactors for combined cycle power systems. • Dynamic optimization tunes operation of batch and transient CLC systems. • The reverse-flow CLC system provides stable turbine-ready gas stream. • Reverse-flow CLC fixed bed reactor has superior CO 2 capture and thermal efficiency.

  3. Auxins upregulate nif and fix genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    In a recent publication we analyzed the global effects triggered by IAA overproduction in S. meliloti RD64 under free-living conditions by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild type 1021 with that of RD64 and 1021 treated with IAA and other four chemically or functionally related molecules. Among the genes differentially expressed in RD64 and IAA-treated 1021 cells we found two genes of pho operon, phoT and phoC. Based on this finding we examined the mechanisms for mineral P solubilization in RD64 and the potential ability of this strain to improve Medicago growth under P-starved conditions. Here, we further analyze the expression profiles obtained in microarray analysis and evaluate the specificity and the extent of overlap between all treatments. Venn diagrams indicated that IAA- and 2,4-D-regulated genes were closely related. Furthermore, most differentially expressed genes from pSymA were induced in 1021 cells treated with 2,4-D, ICA, IND and Trp as compared to the untreated 1021 cells. RT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the differential expression patterns of nitrogen fixation genes under free-living and symbiotic conditions. Under symbiotic condition, the relative expression levels of nif and fix genes were significantly induced in Mt- RD64 plants and in Mt-1021 plants treated with IAA and 2,4-D whereas they were unchanged or repressed in Mt-1021 plants treated with the other selected compounds when compared to the untreated Mt-1021 plants. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  4. Small Angle Neutron Scattering (sans) Studies on "SIDE-END FIXED" and "SIDE-ON FIXED" Liquid Crystal Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, F.; Noirez, L.; Keller, P.; Leroux, N.; Cotton, J. P.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental * Results and discussion * Determination of the backbone conformation in the nematic and smectic A phases of "side-end fixed" L.C. polymethacrylates (PMA) or polyacrylates (PA) * Determination of the global and backbone conformation in the nematic and smectic A phases of "side-end fixed" L.C. polysiloxanes (PMS) * Determination of the backbone conformation in the unique nematic phase (without smectic A phase) or in the reentrant nematic phase (below smectic A phase) of "side-end fixed" L.C. polyacrylates (PA) * Determination of the global conformation in the nematic phase of "side-on fixed" L.C. polysiloxanes (PMS) * Determination of the global conformation in the nematic phase of "diluted side-on fixed" L.C. copolysiloxanes * Determination of the backbone conformation in the nematic phase of "side-on fixed" L.C. polyacrylates * Conclusions * References

  5. Can a decentralized blood system ensure self-sufficiency and blood safety? The Lebanese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Antoine; Bou Assi, Tarek; Garraud, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Lebanon has adopted a liberal economic system that also applies to healthcare procurement. There is no national Lebanese blood transfusion service and the blood supply is divided between a large number of licensed (45 per cent) and unlicensed (55 per cent) blood banks, many of them issuing a very limited number of blood components. All blood banks are hospital based and operate the entire transfusion chain, from collection to the release of blood units. Blood donation is voluntary and non-remunerated in 20-25 per cent of donations; it relies principally on replacement donations. Recently, Lebanon has faced political instability and war, and now welcomes an enormous number of refugees from neighboring countries at war. This has had an important impact on heath care and on the transfusion supply. We discuss the impact of the blood donation organization on the transfusion safety and ethics, to set the foundation for a more developed and safer transfusion programs.

  6. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, Θ must satisfy the equation Θx = x(Θx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs

  7. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  8. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  10. Blood in Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood in semen By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood in semen (hematospermia) can be frightening, but the cause of this uncommon condition is usually benign. Typically, blood in semen goes away on its own. If you're ...

  11. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  13. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . ...

  16. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  17. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... app (over 1 million downloads and counting!) and online scheduler make it quick to set up your ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  19. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  3. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  5. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  6. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  7. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  8. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  9. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  10. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  11. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  12. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  13. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  14. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  15. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  16. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  17. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ... potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  3. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or immune system proteins can cause increased blood viscosity (thickening of the blood). Increased platelets or blood ... by anemia Pica (eating of ice, dirt, or clay) suggests iron deficiency anemia Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  4. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  5. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  6. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  8. Linkage of reproductive sciences: from 'quick fix' to 'integrated' conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, D E; Ellis, S; Howard, J G

    2001-01-01

    Our laboratory has experienced four phases in understanding how the reproductive sciences contribute to genuine conservation of biodiversity. The first is the 'quick fix phase' in which the erroneous assumption is made that extant knowledge and techniques are readily adaptable to an unstudied wild animal to produce offspring rapidly. The second is the 'species-specificity phase' in which it is recognized that every species has evolved unique reproductive mechanisms that must be mastered before propagation can be enhanced. The third is the 'applicability phase' in which one grasps that all the new knowledge and technology are of minimal relevance without the cooperation of wildlife managers. The final phase is 'integration', the realization that reproduction is only one component in an abundantly complex conservation puzzle that requires interweaving many scientific disciplines with elaborate biopolitical, economic and habitat variables. These phases are illustrated using 20 years of experience with wildlife species, including the cheetah, black-footed ferret and giant panda. We conclude that the foremost value of the reproductive sciences for conserving endangered species is the discipline's powerful laboratory tools for understanding species-specific reproductive mechanisms. Such scholarly information, when applied holistically, can be used to improve management by natural or, occasionally, assisted breeding. Genuine conservation is achieved only when the reproductive knowledge and technologies are integrated into multidisciplinary programmes that preserve species integrity ex situ and preferably in situ.

  9. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ... Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  11. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)

  12. Nebivolol/valsartan: Fixed-dose combination for treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, D M

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials demonstrated that a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of the beta-blocker nebivolol (5 mg) and the angiotensin II antagonist valsartan (80 mg) produced a significant reduction of both diastolic and systolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Both nebivolol and valsartan contributed to this effect, partial additivity of 86.6% and 82.2% being observed for diastolic and systolic blood pressure, respectively. These values are very similar to the additivity ratios of other recently approved FDCs for hypertension. Use of the FDC nebivolol 5 mg/valsartan 80 mg formulation was associated with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse effects and of serious adverse effects. There was no evidence of adverse effects due to beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The FDC (Byvalson) was approved and launched in 2016 in the U.S. for the treatment of hypertension. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  13. Blood Glutamate Scavenging: Insight into Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zlotnik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain’s extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging.

  14. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  15. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Experts Can Answer Your Questions! The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation's team of experts is available to answer ... a law firm. Read more about the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation . TO GET HELP CALL: (877) End-Meso ...

  16. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  17. Analysis of fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    monthly adjustment, horizontal axis with daily adjustment, horizontal axis with continuous adjustment and two axis tracking system generate 4.88–26.29% more energy per year than the existing fixed tilt photovoltaic system. The cost of energy is found to be more for two axis tracking than all tracking systems and fixed tilted photovoltaic system. However, two axis tracking is found to be more advantageous than other systems despite higher costs to maximize power output of the hybrid systems. The methodology followed can be applied to improve the power generation potential of photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid systems for any location worldwide.

  18. A model for integrated dictionaries of fixed expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bothma, Theo; Gouws, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a project for the creation of a theoretical model for integrated e-dictionaries, illustrated by means of an e-information tool for the presentation and treatment of fixed expressions using Afrikaans as example language. To achieve this a database of fixed expressions...

  19. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  20. Nitrogen availability for nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria upon growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 is able to convert dinitrogen to ammonia in the absence of combined nitrogen. The expression of 20% of coding sequences from all major metabolic categories was examined in nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing growth conditions. The expression data were correlated ...

  1. Fixed points for weak contractions in metric type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we prove some fixed point theorems in metric type spaces. This article is just a generalization some results previously proved in \\cite{niyi-gaba}. In particular, we give some coupled common fixed points theorems under weak contractions. These results extend well known similar results existing in the literature.

  2. ORIGINAL Some Generalized Fixed Point Results on Compact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The goal of this research is to study some generalized fixed point results in compact metric space. It mainly focuses on the existence and unique fixed point of a selfmap on a compact metric space and its generalizations. In this study iterative techniques due to. Edelstein, Bhardwaj et al. and Sastry et al. are used to ...

  3. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  4. 48 CFR 1816.202 - Firm-fixed-price contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Firm-fixed-price contracts. 1816.202 Section 1816.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1816.202 Firm...

  5. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25.277 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations...

  6. 12 CFR 619.9170 - Fixed interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed interest rate. 619.9170 Section 619.9170 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9170 Fixed interest rate. The rate of interest specified in the note or loan document which will prevail as the maximum...

  7. A hierarchical model exhibiting the Kosterlitz-Thouless fixed point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, D.H.U.; Perez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A hierarchical model for 2-d Coulomb gases displaying a line stable of fixed points describing the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition is constructed. For Coulomb gases corresponding to Z sub(N)- models these fixed points are stable for an intermediate temperature interval. (Author) [pt

  8. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Daniel; Chillet, Daniel; Sentieys, Olivier

    2006-12-01

    Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  9. Membrane potentials of membranes with fixed ionic sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van der Wal, P.D.; van der Wal, P.D.; Skowronska-ptasinska, M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Sudholter, Ernst; Bergveld, Piet; Reinhoudt, David

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed to simulate the formation of a membrane potential as a function of physically accessible parameters. The description is an extension of the well-known Teorell-Meyer-Sievers (TMS) model, now including free and fixed ionic sites and free and fixed neutral

  10. The importance of fixed costs in animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C A; Adamson, D

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic. The authors also assess the extent to which it pays to reduce fixed costs and to try to compensate for this by increasing variable costs. Fixed costs have major implications for the industrial structure of the animal health products industry and for the structure of the private veterinary services industry. In the former, they favour market concentration and specialisation in the supply of products. In the latter, they foster increased specialisation. While cooperation by individual farmers may help to reduce their individual fixed costs, the organisational difficulties and costs involved in achieving this cooperation can be formidable. In such cases, the only solution is government provision of veterinary services. Moreover, international cooperation may be called for. Fixed costs also influence the nature of the provision of veterinary education.

  11. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  12. Fixed Points on Abstract Structures without the Equality Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to present a study of definability properties of fixed points of effective operators on abstract structures without the equality test. The question of definability of fixed points of -operators on abstract structures with equality was first studied by Gandy, Barwise, Mosch...

  13. [Microanalytical determinations of gold alloys for fixed dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, M; Negri, P; Fraschini, M

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors analyse gold alloys for fixed prosthesis by X-ray spectrometry in energy dispersion (EDS). The results of this analysis, given in graphic and table form, show remarkable differences in alloy composition. For this reason recommended dentists are to be attentive and severe in the control of gold alloys for fixed prosthesis.

  14. Brouwer's ε-fixed point from Sperner's lemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, D. van

    It is by now common knowledge that Brouwer gave mathematics in 1911 a miraculous tool, the fixed point theorem, and that later in life, he disavowed it. It usually came as a shock when he replied to the question “is the fixed point theorem correct ?” with a point blank “no”. This rhetoric exchange

  15. A new automatic fixed peak technology of microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liguo; Wang Dequan; Zhang Damin; Li Jun; Liu Yuwen; Guo Qingxue; Wang Guifeng

    1999-01-01

    The microcontroller automatic fixed peak technology which differs from fashion half channel fixed peak is described. It bases on the principles of selecting double single channel and readjusting the voltage of power source. This technology is suitable to the industrial isotope instruments with various radioactive sources

  16. Fixed export costs and multi-product firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, H.; Smeets, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper has two aims. First, we uncover some salient components of fixed export costs, which play a crucial role in recent heterogeneous firms models of international trade. Second, we investigate whether the importance of these fixed export costs varies with the size of a firms export product

  17. Applied Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact

  18. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p + ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p + contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n + contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation

  19. Fixed-point image orthorectification algorithms for reduced computational cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Joseph Clinton

    Imaging systems have been applied to many new applications in recent years. With the advent of low-cost, low-power focal planes and more powerful, lower cost computers, remote sensing applications have become more wide spread. Many of these applications require some form of geolocation, especially when relative distances are desired. However, when greater global positional accuracy is needed, orthorectification becomes necessary. Orthorectification is the process of projecting an image onto a Digital Elevation Map (DEM), which removes terrain distortions and corrects the perspective distortion by changing the viewing angle to be perpendicular to the projection plane. Orthorectification is used in disaster tracking, landscape management, wildlife monitoring and many other applications. However, orthorectification is a computationally expensive process due to floating point operations and divisions in the algorithm. To reduce the computational cost of on-board processing, two novel algorithm modifications are proposed. One modification is projection utilizing fixed-point arithmetic. Fixed point arithmetic removes the floating point operations and reduces the processing time by operating only on integers. The second modification is replacement of the division inherent in projection with a multiplication of the inverse. The inverse must operate iteratively. Therefore, the inverse is replaced with a linear approximation. As a result of these modifications, the processing time of projection is reduced by a factor of 1.3x with an average pixel position error of 0.2% of a pixel size for 128-bit integer processing and over 4x with an average pixel position error of less than 13% of a pixel size for a 64-bit integer processing. A secondary inverse function approximation is also developed that replaces the linear approximation with a quadratic. The quadratic approximation produces a more accurate approximation of the inverse, allowing for an integer multiplication calculation

  20. Analysis of offshore platforms lifting with fixed pile structure type (fixed platform) based on ASD89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, Agus; Indriani, Andi Marini

    2017-11-01

    Platform construction GTS (Gathering Testing Sattelite) is offshore construction platform with fix pile structure type/fixed platform functioning to support the mining of petroleum exploitation. After construction fabrication process platform was moved to barges, then shipped to the installation site. Moving process is generally done by pull or push based on construction design determined when planning. But at the time of lifting equipment/cranes available in the work area then the moving process can be done by lifting so that moving activity can be implemented more quickly of work. This analysis moving process of GTS platform in a different way that is generally done to GTS platform types by lifting using problem is construction reinforcement required, so the construction can be moved by lifting with analyzing and checking structure working stress that occurs due to construction moving process by lifting AISC code standard and analysis using the SAP2000 structure analysis program. The analysis result showed that existing condition cannot be moved by lifting because stress ratio is above maximum allowable value that is 0.950 (AISC-ASD89). Overstress occurs on the member 295 and 324 with stress ratio value 0.97 and 0.95 so that it is required structural reinforcement. Box plate aplication at both members so that it produces stress ratio values 0.78 at the member 295 and stress ratio of 0.77 at the member 324. These results indicate that the construction have qualified structural reinforcement for being moved by lifting.

  1. FIX-II/3025, BWR FIX-II Pump Trip Experiment 3025, Immediate Split Size Break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NILSSON, Lars; GUSTAFSSON, Per-Ake; GUSTAFSON, Lennart; JANCZAK, Rajmund; OESTERLUNDH, Ingrid

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The FIX-II facility is a volume scaled 1:777 representation of a Swedish BWR with external pumps. The pressure vessel contains a 36 rod full length bundle and a spray condenser at the top to allow steady state operation. The downcomer, bypass channels and guide tube volumes are represented by external piping. The intact loop represents three of the four external reactor loops. The broken loop is constructed such that both guillotine breaks and split breaks may be simulated. The facility is equipped with ADS-simulation, but no ECCS injection are included. The FIX-II loop is also suited to investigate response of pump trips and MSIV closures in internal pump reactors. 2 - Description of test: Test 3025 simulates an intermediate size split break in one of the four main recirculation lines. The break area was 31 per cent of the scaled down pipe area of the reactor. The initial power of the 36-rod bundle was 3.38 MW, corresponding to the hot channel power of the reactor

  2. Fixed drug eruption resulting from fluconazole use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavallaee Mahkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with a possible side effect of fixed drug eruption. However, this adverse drug effect is absent from the reported list of possible side effects of fluconazole. We are presenting a rare case in our report. Case presentation A 25-year-old Iranian woman developed fixed drug eruptions on different sites of her body after taking five doses of fluconazole to treat vaginal candidiasis. A positive patch test, positive oral challenge test and skin biopsy were all found to be consistent with fixed drug eruption. Conclusion Fluconazole is a widely prescribed drug, used mainly to treat candidiasis. Fixed drug eruption as a possible side effect of Fluconazole is not well known and thus, the lesions may be misdiagnosed and mistreated. Based on our findings, which are consistent with a number of other practitioners, we recommend adding fixed drug eruption to the list of possible side effects of fluconazole.

  3. Fixed-Time Stability of the Hydraulic Turbine Governing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoyuan Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of fixed-time stability of hydraulic turbine governing system with the elastic water hammer nonlinear model. To control and improve the quality of hydraulic turbine governing system, a new fixed-time control strategy is proposed, which can stabilize the water turbine governing system within a fixed time. Compared with the finite-time control strategy where the convergence rate depends on the initial state, the settling time of the fixed-time control scheme can be adjusted to the required value regardless of the initial conditions. Finally, we numerically show that the fixed-time control is more effective than and superior to the finite-time control.

  4. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...

  5. Equilibrium blood pool scanning in the evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.; Green, D.; Rana, N.A.; Milgram, J.W.; Mintzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Arthropathy was evaluated in six patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII<1%) using the technique of blood pool scanning. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labelling with technetium-99m, a dynamic perfusion sequence was obtained using a scintillation camera over the joint(s) to be examined. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the joints were obtained to determine regional blood volume. In young patients with repeated episodes of acute hemarthrosis, increased vascularity and increased blood pool in the affected joints were demonstrated. In older patients with fixed, contracted joints and degenerative arthropathy, vascularity and regional blood volume were not abnormal. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments the clinical and radiographic examination of the joints. The method is helpful in distinguishing acute joint bleeding from chronic synovitis and arthritis, and may prove useful in selecting patients for synovectomy. (author)

  6. An R2 statistic for fixed effects in the linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lloyd J; Muller, Keith E; Wolfinger, Russell D; Qaqish, Bahjat F; Schabenberger, Oliver

    2008-12-20

    Statisticians most often use the linear mixed model to analyze Gaussian longitudinal data. The value and familiarity of the R(2) statistic in the linear univariate model naturally creates great interest in extending it to the linear mixed model. We define and describe how to compute a model R(2) statistic for the linear mixed model by using only a single model. The proposed R(2) statistic measures multivariate association between the repeated outcomes and the fixed effects in the linear mixed model. The R(2) statistic arises as a 1-1 function of an appropriate F statistic for testing all fixed effects (except typically the intercept) in a full model. The statistic compares the full model with a null model with all fixed effects deleted (except typically the intercept) while retaining exactly the same covariance structure. Furthermore, the R(2) statistic leads immediately to a natural definition of a partial R(2) statistic. A mixed model in which ethnicity gives a very small p-value as a longitudinal predictor of blood pressure (BP) compellingly illustrates the value of the statistic. In sharp contrast to the extreme p-value, a very small R(2) , a measure of statistical and scientific importance, indicates that ethnicity has an almost negligible association with the repeated BP outcomes for the study.

  7. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  8. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. As ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  10. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  11. A Fixed Flow is More Effective than Titrated Flow during Bubble Nasal CPAP for Respiratory Distress in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murki, Srinivas; Das, Ratan Kumar; Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of a pre-fixed flow of air-oxygen versus a flow titrated according to visible bubbling are not well understood. To compare the effects of a fixed flow (5 L/min) and titrated flow (flow just enough to ensure bubbling) at different set pressures on delivered intra-prong pressure, gas exchange and clinical parameters in preterm infants on bubble CPAP for respiratory distress. Preterm infants rate, set pressure, FiO2, SpO2, Silverman retraction score, respiratory rate, abdominal girth, and blood gases were recorded. The delivered intra-prong pressure was measured by an electronic manometer. 69 recordings were made in 54 infants. For each of the set CPAP pressures (4, 5, and 6 cm H2O), the mean delivered pressure with a fixed flow of 5 L/min was higher than that delivered by the titrated flow. During the fixed flow epoch, the delivered pressure was closer to and higher than the set pressure resulting in higher PaO2 and lower PaCO2 as compared to titrated flow epoch. In the titrated flow period, the delivered pressure was consistently lower than the set pressure. In preterm infants on bubble CPAP with set pressures of 4-6 cm H2O, a fixed flow of 5 L/min is more effective than a flow titrated to ensure adequate visible bubbling. It achieves higher delivered pressures, better oxygenation and ventilation.

  12. DC feedback for wide band frequency fixed current source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoday Hashim Mohamad Al-Rawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternating current sources are mainly used in bioelectrical impedance devices. Nowadays 50 – 100 kHz bioelectrical impedance devices are commonly used for body composition analysis. High frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices are mostly used in bioimpedance tomography and blood analysis. High speed op-amps and voltage comparators are used in this circuit. Direct current feedback is used to prevent delay. An N-Channel J-FET transistor was used to establish the voltage controlled gain amplifier (VCG. A sine wave signal has been applied as input voltage. The value of this signal should be constant in 170 mV rms to keep the output current in about 1 mA rms. Four frequencies; 100 kHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz and 3.2 MHz were applied to the circuit and the current was measured for different load resistances. The results showed that the current was stable for changes in the resistor load, bouncing around an average point as a result of bouncing DC feedback.

  13. Fixed-time stability of dynamical systems and fixed-time synchronization of coupled discontinuous neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Yu, Juan; Chen, Zhanheng; Jiang, Haijun; Huang, Tingwen

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the fixed-time stability of dynamical systems and the fixed-time synchronization of coupled discontinuous neural networks are investigated under the framework of Filippov solution. Firstly, by means of reduction to absurdity, a theorem of fixed-time stability is established and a high-precision estimation of the settling-time is given. It is shown by theoretic proof that the estimation bound of the settling time given in this paper is less conservative and more accurate compared with the classical results. Besides, as an important application, the fixed-time synchronization of coupled neural networks with discontinuous activation functions is proposed. By designing a discontinuous control law and using the theory of differential inclusions, some new criteria are derived to ensure the fixed-time synchronization of the addressed coupled networks. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness and validity of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Principal sources of EMI identification and fixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The sources of disruptive energy involved in an EMI episode all fall in one or the other of two types: intentional emitters or incidental emitters. Intentional emitters, such as communications transmitters, radars, walkie talkies etc., depend on emitting energy to satisfy the functional role assigned to the. Incidental emitters are those devices that emit energy unintentionally and are not dependent on those emissions to fulfill the assigned function. Power line conducted emissions typically fall in this latter category. The corrective action to be taken in controlling a problem that is present in a system is quite different if an incidental emitter is involved from that which is proper if an intentional emitter is present. Some of the methods that can be used to identify the emission sources which are contributing to a problem are presented in this paper along with some of the possible corrective actions that can be applied. 7 figs

  15. Evidence-Based Design of Fixed-Dose Combinations: Principles and Application to Pediatric Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elin M; Yngman, Gunnar; Denti, Paolo; McIlleron, Helen; Kjellsson, Maria C; Karlsson, Mats O

    2018-05-01

    Fixed-dose combination formulations where several drugs are included in one tablet are important for the implementation of many long-term multidrug therapies. The selection of optimal dose ratios and tablet content of a fixed-dose combination and the design of individualized dosing regimens is a complex task, requiring multiple simultaneous considerations. In this work, a methodology for the rational design of a fixed-dose combination was developed and applied to the case of a three-drug pediatric anti-tuberculosis formulation individualized on body weight. The optimization methodology synthesizes information about the intended use population, the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs, therapeutic targets, and practical constraints. A utility function is included to penalize deviations from the targets; a sequential estimation procedure was developed for stable estimation of break-points for individualized dosing. The suggested optimized pediatric anti-tuberculosis fixed-dose combination was compared with the recently launched World Health Organization-endorsed formulation. The optimized fixed-dose combination included 15, 36, and 16% higher amounts of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide, respectively. The optimized fixed-dose combination is expected to result in overall less deviation from the therapeutic targets based on adult exposure and substantially fewer children with underexposure (below half the target). The development of this design tool can aid the implementation of evidence-based formulations, integrating available knowledge and practical considerations, to optimize drug exposures and thereby treatment outcomes.

  16. Homogeneity of Continuum Model of an Unsteady State Fixed Bed Reactor for Lean CH4 Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the homogeneity of the continuum model of a fixed bed reactor operated in steady state and unsteady state systems for lean CH4 oxidation is investigated. The steady-state fixed bed reactor system was operated under once-through direction, while the unsteady-state fixed bed reactor system was operated under flow reversal. The governing equations consisting of mass and energy balances were solved using the FlexPDE software package, version 6. The model selection is indispensable for an effective calculation since the simulation of a reverse flow reactor is time-consuming. The homogeneous and heterogeneous models for steady state operation gave similar conversions and temperature profiles, with a deviation of 0.12 to 0.14%. For reverse flow operation, the deviations of the continuum models of thepseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous models were in the range of 25-65%. It is suggested that pseudo-homogeneous models can be applied to steady state systems, whereas heterogeneous models have to be applied to unsteady state systems.

  17. Blood doping and its detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Lundby, Carsten

    2011-09-01

    Hemoglobin mass is a key factor for maximal exercise capacity. Some athletes apply prohibited techniques and substances with intent to increase hemoglobin mass and physical performance, and this is often difficult to prove directly. Autologous red blood cell transfusion cannot be traced on reinfusion, and also recombinant erythropoietic proteins are detectable only within a certain timeframe. Novel erythropoietic substances, such as mimetics of erythropoietin (Epo) and activators of the Epo gene, may soon enter the sports scene. In addition, Epo gene transfer maneuvers are imaginable. Effective since December 2009, the World Anti-Doping Agency has therefore implemented "Athlete Biologic Passport Operating Guidelines," which are based on the monitoring of several parameters for mature red blood cells and reticulocytes. Blood doping may be assumed, when these parameters change in a nonphysiologic way. Hematologists should be familiar with blood doping practices as they may play an important role in evaluating blood profiles of athletes with respect to manipulations, as contrasted with the established diagnosis of clinical disorders and genetic variations.

  18. Effect on osmotic fragility of red blood cells of whole blood submitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... hertz (Hz)], vibration magnitude measured as amplitude. [displacement of the ... the work in the OP and the body position/posture on the platform. ... place through the pressure applied from outside on blood vessels when ...

  19. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  20. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale