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Sample records for applied mechanics

  1. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  2. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  3. CHINESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Analytical analysis of supporting circular tunnel construction in viscoelastic rock mass Wang Huaning Zhong Zheng (School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 200092, Shanghai, China) Abstract: Tunnel excavation and supporting are continuous processes. The time related deformation is due to rheologie behavior of rock mass and construction process. Time-varying function of radius is established to simulate the circular tunnel excavation process. The stresses and displacement general solutions of viscoelastic rock mass with elastic support during construction are derived by Laplace transformation method, which contains the undetermined supporting force. Volterra integral equation of supporting force is established by substituting different radius excavation function and surface force of excavation and supporting stage into the contact conditions. For Boltzmann viscoelastic model, supporting force can be calculated exactly. The expression and example show that radial displacement after supporting is increased with exponential form and stabilized to one value. If final tunnel is the same size and supported immediately in the finish time but excavated with different velocity, the displacement of cases with high velocity is larger in the beginning and smaller after some time. The final steady displacement is also smaller when excavated faster, but the displacement occurred after supporting is larger. The solutions can be calculated for cases with arbitrary time-varying radius and the method is applicable for the analysis of other viscoelastic models. Keywords: viscoelasticity, construction process, support, analytical analysis

  4. CHINESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A decomposed theorem of axisymmetric thermoelastic circular cylinder with transversely isotropic Wu Di Zhao Baosheng (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, 114051, Anshan, China) Abstract: For analyzing the exact stress field, the exact displacement field and the exact temperature field in axisymmetric thermoelastic circular cylinder with transversely isotropic,a decomposed theorem of axisymmetric deformation of a circular cylinder is given by using Bessel's function and the solution of the axisymmetric thermoelastic circular cylinder with transversely isotropic directly from the general solution. Without employing ad hoc assumptions, the refined equation of an axisymmetric thermoelastic circular cylinder with transversely isotropic is obtained. The stress field satisfies the equilibrium equations without body force and the compatibility equations.

  5. Quantum mechanics for applied physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fromhold, Albert T

    2011-01-01

    This excellent text, directed to upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering and applied physics, introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, emphasizing those aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics essential to an understanding of solid-state theory. A heavy background in mathematics and physics is not required beyond basic courses in calculus, differential equations, and calculus-based elementary physics.The first three chapters introduce quantum mechanics (using the Schrödinger equations), quantum statistics, and the free-electron theory of metals. Ch

  6. 12th International Congress of Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenti, Walter

    1969-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Applied Mechanics, held at Stanford University on August 26 to 31, 1968. The Congress was organized by the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; members of the IUTAM Congress Committee and Bureau are listed under Congress Organization. The members of the Stanford Organizing Committee, which was responsible for the detailed organization of the Congress, are also given, as are the names of the sponsors and the industrial and educational organizations that contributed so generously to the financial support of the meeting. Those attending the Congress came from 32 countries and totaled 1337 persons, plus wives and children. A list of the registered participants is included in the volume. The technical sessions of the Congress comprised four General Lectures and 281 contributed papers, the latter being presented in groups of five simultaneous sessions. The final choice of the contributed papers was made on the basis o...

  7. Applied game theory and optimal mechanism design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to study optimal toehold bidding strategies during takeover competition, the problem of optimal design of voting rules and the design of package bidding mechanism to implement the core allocations. It documents three different research questions that are all related to auction theory. Chapter 2 develops a two-stage takeover game to explain toehold puzzle in the context of takeover. Potential bidders are allowed to acquire target shares in the open market, subje...

  8. Patterns and perspectives in applied fracture mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    This lecture begins with a overview of applied fracture mechanics pertinent to safety of pressure vessels. It then progresses to a chronological panorama of experimental and analytical results. To be useful and dependable in safety analysis of real structures, new analysis developments must be physically realistic, which means that they must accurately describe physical cause and effect. Consequently, before mathematical modeling can begin, cause and effect must be established from experimental data. This can be difficult and time consuming, but worth the effort. Accordingly, the theme of this paper is that the search for patterns is constant and vital. This theme is illustrated by the development of small, single-specimen, fracture toughness testing techniques. It is also illustrated by the development, based on two different published large-strain, elastic-plastic, three-dimensional finite-element analyses, of a hypothesis concerning three-dimensional loss of constraint. When a generalization of Irwin`s thickness-normalized plastic-zone parameter, reaches a value close to 2{pi}, the through-thickness contraction strain at the apex of the near-tip logarithmic-spiral slip-line region becomes the dominant negative strain accommodating crack opening. Because slip lines passing from the midplane to the stress-free side surfaces do not have to curve, once these slip lines are established, stresses near the crack tip are only elevated by strain hardening and constraint becomes significantly relaxed. This hypothesis, based on published three-dimensional elastic-plastic analyses, provides a potentially valuable means for gaining additional insight into constraint effects on fracture toughness by considering the roles played by the plastic strains as well as the stresses that develop near a crack tip.

  9. Introductory quantum mechanics for applied nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dae Mann

    2015-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers fundamental quantum mechanics from an application perspective, considering optoelectronic devices, biological sensors and molecular imagers as well as solar cells and field effect transistors. The book provides a brief review of classical and statistical mechanics and electromagnetism, and then turns to the quantum treatment of atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds. Aiming at senior undergraduate and graduate students in nanotechnology related areas like physics, materials science, and engineering, the book could be used at schools that offer interdisciplinary but focused training for future workers in the semiconductor industry and for the increasing number of related nanotechnology firms, and even practicing people could use it when they need to learn related concepts. The author is Professor Dae Mann Kim from the Korea Institute for Advanced Study who has been teaching Quantum Mechanics to engineering, material science and physics students for over 25 years in USA and Asia.

  10. 22nd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The 22nd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM) of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics was hosted by the Australasian mechanics community in the city of Adelaide during the last week of August 2008. Over 1200 delegates met to discuss the latest development in the fields of theoretical and applied mechanics. This volume records the events of the congress and contains selected papers from the sectional lectures and invited lectures presented at the congresses six mini-symposia.

  11. 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Crone, Wendy; Jin, Helena; Sciammarella, Cesar; Furlong, Cosme; Furlong, Cosme; Chalivendra, Vijay; Song, Bo; Casem, Daniel; Antoun, Bonnie; Qi, H; Hall, Richard; Tandon, GP; Lu, Hongbing; Lu, Charles; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Shaw, Gordon; Prorok, Barton; Barthelat, François; Korach, Chad; Grande-Allen, K; Lipke, Elizabeth; Lykofatitits, George; Zavattieri, Pablo; Starman, LaVern; Patterson, Eann; Backman, David; Cloud, Gary; Vol.1 Dynamic Behavior of Materials; Vol.2 Challenges in Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials and Processes in Conventional and Multifunctional Materials; Vol.3 Imaging Methods for Novel Materials and Challenging Applications; Vol.4 Experimental and Applied Mechanics; Vol.5 Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials; Vol.6 MEMS and Nanotechnology; Vol.7 Composite Materials and Joining Technologies for Composites

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the fourth volume of seven from the Conference, brings together 54 contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Experimental and Applied Mechanics, including papers on:  Fracture & Fatigue Microscale & Microstructural Effects in Fatigue & Fracture Material Applications Composite Characterization Using Digital Image Correlation Techniques Multi-Scale Simulation and Testing of Composites Residual Stress Inverse Problems/Hybrid Methods Nano-Composites Microstructure Material Characterization Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification Impact Behavior of Composites.

  12. 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Korach, Chad; Zavattieri, Pablo; Prorok, Barton; Grande-Allen, K; Carroll, Jay; Daly, Samantha; Qi, H; Antoun, Bonnie; Hall, Richard; Lu, Hongbing; Arzoumanidis, Alex; Silberstein, Meredith; Furmanski, Jevan; Amirkhizi, Alireza; Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Jin, Helena; Sciammarella, Cesar; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Lamberti, Luciano; Sottos, Nancy; Rowlands, Robert; Dannemann, Kathryn; Tandon, Gyaneshwar; Song, Bo; Casem, Daniel; Kimberley, Jamie; Starman, LaVern; Hay, Jennifer; Shaw, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the seventh volume of eight from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering.  The collection presents early findings and case studies on a wide range of areas, including: Soft Tissues Mechanics Natural Materials & Bio-Inspiration Tissue Engineering Cells Mechanics

  13. Numerical continuation applied to landing gear mechanism analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, J.; Krauskopf, B; Lowenberg, MH

    2010-01-01

    A method of investigating quasi-static mechanisms is presented and applied to an overcentre mechanism and to a nose landing gear mechanism. The method uses static equilibrium equations along with equations describing the geometric constraints in the mechanism. In the spirit of bifurcation analysis, solutions to these steady-state equations are then continued numerically in parameters of interest. Results obtained from the bifurcation method agree with the equivalent results obtained from two ...

  14. Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

  15. [Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

  16. 2013 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Casem, Dan; Kimberley, Jamie; Barthelat, François; Zavattieri, Pablo; Antoun, Bonnie; Qi, H; Hall, Richard; Tandon, G; Lu, Hongbing; Lu, Charles; Furmanski, Jevan; Amirkhizi, Alireza; Korach, Chad; Prorok, Barton; Grande-Allen, K; III, Gordon; Prorok, Barton; Starman, LaVern; Furlong, Cosme; Tandon, G; Tekalur, Srinivasan; Ralph, Carter; Sottos, Nancy; Blaiszik, Benjamin; Jay, Carroll; Rossi, Marco; Sasso, Marco; Connesson, Nathanael; Singh, Raman; DeWald, Adrian; Backman, David; Gloeckner, Paul; Jin, Helena; Sciammarella, Cesar; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Lamberti, Luciano; Vol.1 Dynamic Behavior of Materials; Vol.2 Challenges In Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials and Processes in Conventional and Multifunctional Materials; Vol.3 Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics; Vol.4 Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials; Vol.5 MEMS and Nanotechnology; Vol.6 Experimental Mechanics of Composite, Hybrid, and Multifunctional Materials; Vol.7 Fracture and Fatigue; Vol.8 Residual Stress, Thermomechanics & Infrared Imaging, Hybrid Techniques and Inverse Problems; SEM 2013

    2014-01-01

    This critical collection examines a range of topics in fracture and fatigue, including environmental and loading effects in fracture and fatigue and DIC and fracture, as presented in early findings and case studies from the Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. The collection includes papers in the following general technical research areas: • Microstructural Effects in Fatigue & Fracture • Fracture of Interfaces • Fracture of Composites and Interface Cracks • Fatigue & Fracture: Environmental & Loading Eff ects • Fracture & Digital Image Correlation Fracture and Fatigue

  17. Applied Bohmian mechanics from nanoscale systems to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mompart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Most textbooks explain quantum mechanics as a story where each step follows naturally from the one preceding it. However, the development of quantum mechanics was exactly the opposite. It was a zigzagging route full of personal disputes where scientists were forced to abandon well-established classical concepts and to explore new and imaginative routes. This book demonstrates the huge practical utility of another of these routes in explaining quantum phenomena in various research fields. Bohmian mechanics -- the formulation of the quantum theory pioneered by Louis de Broglie and David Bohm -- offers an alternative mathematical formulation of quantum phenomena in terms of quantum trajectories. It sheds light on the limits and extensions of our present understanding of quantum mechanics toward other paradigms such as relativity or cosmology.

  18. Mechanical Decoupling Algorithm Applied to Electric Drive Test Bed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    New approach and analysis are proposed in this paper to enhance the steady and rapidity of the electric drive test bed. Based on a basic drive motor dynamometer system (DMDS) test bed, detailed mathematical model and process control are established and analyzed. Relative gain array (RGA) method and diagonal matrix method are used to analyze the mechanical coupling caused by mechanical connection on the DMDS test bed, and the structure and algorithm of dynamic decoupling are proposed. Simulati...

  19. Mechanism of Carbon Nanotubes Aligning along Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shao-Jie; GUO Wan-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTS)aligning in the direction of external electric field is studied by quantum mechanics calculations.The rotational torque on the carbon nanotubes is proportional to the difference between the longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities and varies with the angle of SWCNTs to the external electric field.The longitudinal polarizability increases with second power of length,while the transverse polarizability increases linearly with length.A zigzag SWCNT has larger longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities than an armchair SWCNT with the same diameter and the discrepancy becomes larger for longer tubes.

  20. Fracture mechanics applied to the machining of brittle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, G.D.; Strenkowski, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Research has begun on incorporating fracture mechanics into a model of the orthogonal cutting of brittle materials. Residual stresses are calculated for the machined material by a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian finite element models and then used in the calculation of stress intensity factors by the Green`s Function Method.

  1. Steered Molecular Dynamics Methods Applied to Enzyme Mechanism and Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, C L; Martí, M A; Roitberg, A E

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of chemistry is to understand the underlying principles of chemical reactions, in terms of both its reaction mechanism and the thermodynamics that govern it. Using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-based methods in combination with a biased sampling scheme, it is possible to simulate chemical reactions occurring inside complex environments such as an enzyme, or aqueous solution, and determining the corresponding free energy profile, which provides direct comparison with experimental determined kinetic and equilibrium parameters. Among the most promising biasing schemes is the multiple steered molecular dynamics method, which in combination with Jarzynski's Relationship (JR) allows obtaining the equilibrium free energy profile, from a finite set of nonequilibrium reactive trajectories by exponentially averaging the individual work profiles. However, obtaining statistically converged and accurate profiles is far from easy and may result in increased computational cost if the selected steering speed and number of trajectories are inappropriately chosen. In this small review, using the extensively studied chorismate to prephenate conversion reaction, we first present a systematic study of how key parameters such as pulling speed, number of trajectories, and reaction progress are related to the resulting work distributions and in turn the accuracy of the free energy obtained with JR. Second, and in the context of QM/MM strategies, we introduce the Hybrid Differential Relaxation Algorithm, and show how it allows obtaining more accurate free energy profiles using faster pulling speeds and smaller number of trajectories and thus smaller computational cost. PMID:27497165

  2. Applied environmental fluid mechanics: what's the weather in your backyard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, F. K.

    2011-12-01

    The microclimates of the San Francisco Bay Area can lead to 30-40F differences in temperature from the coast to just 30 miles inland. The reasons for this include local topography which affects development of the atmospheric boundary layer. A Bay Area resident's experience of fog, air pollution, and weather events therefore differs greatly depending on exactly where they live. Such local weather phenomena provide a natural topic for introduction to boundary layer processes and are the basis of a new course developed at the University of California, Berkeley. This course complements the PI's research focus on numerical methods applied to atmospheric boundary layer flow over complex terrain. This new outreach and research-based course was created to teach students about the boundary layer and teach them how to use a community weather prediction model, WRF, to simulate conditions in the local area, while at the same time being actively involved in public outreach. The course was offered in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department with the collaboration and support of the Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley's public science museum. The students chose topics such as air quality, wind energy, climate change, and plume dispersion, all applied to the local San Francisco Bay Area. The students conducted independent research on their team projects, involving literature reviews, numerical model setup, and analysis of model results through comparison with field observations. The outreach component of the course included website design and culminated in demonstrations at the Lawrence Hall of Science. The seven student teams presented hands-on demos to 300-400 visitors, mostly kids 4-9 years old and their parents. Involving students directly in outreach efforts is hoped to encourage continued integration of research and education in their own careers. Early exposure to numerical modeling also improves student technical skills for future career experiences . Given

  3. Fractographic principles applied to Y-TZP mechanical behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carla Müller; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Rubo, José Henrique; Wang, Linda; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of fractography principles to determine the fracture toughness of Y-TZP dental ceramic in which KIc was measured fractographically using controlled-flaw beam bending techniques and to correlate the flaw distribution with the mechanical properties. The Y-TZP blocks studied were: Zirconia Zirklein (ZZ); Zirconcad (ZCA); IPS e.max ZirCad (ZMAX); and In Ceram YZ (ZYZ). Samples were prepared (16mm×4mm×2mm) according to ISO 6872 specifications and subjected to three-point bending at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Weibull probability curves (95% confidence bounds) were calculated and a contour plot with the Weibull modulus (m) versus characteristic strength (σ0) was used to examine the differences among groups. The fractured surface of each specimen was inspected in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for qualitative and quantitative fractographic analysis. The critical defect size (c) and fracture toughness (KIc) were estimated. The fractured surfaces of the samples from all groups showed similar fractographic characteristics, except ZCA showed pores and defects. Fracture toughness and the flexural strength values were not different among the groups except for ZCA. The characteristic strength (pzirconia polycrystalline ceramics. PMID:26722988

  4. Local-equilibrium formalism applied to mechanics of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The lecture starts with an expression of good wishes to George Herrmann on the occasion of his seventieth birthday and continues with a lament that the majority of research workers in the field of solid mechanics have failed to appreciate the power and relevance of conventional'' thermodynamics which is based on the acceptance of the hypothesis of local equilibrium (principle of local state). The lecture then proceeds to motivate the essential concepts of conventional thermodynamics and emphasizes the differences between the description of nonequilibrium states in physical space and equilibrium states in the Gibbsian phase space. It is asserted that the subject acquires its simplest form by the recognition of the relevance of Bridgman's internal variables. With their aid it is possible to define the accompanying equilibrium state and the accompanying reversible process. An elimination of internal energy between the field equation of energy (First Law) and the Gibbs equation in rate form results in an explicit expression for the local rate of entropy production, {theta}. It is asserted that the preceding elements supplemented with appropriate rate equations result in a closed system of partial differential equations whose solution, subject to appropriate initial and boundary conditions, constitutes the process ( history'') under consideration. 11 refs.

  5. Local-equilibrium formalism applied to mechanics of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestin, J.

    1992-08-01

    The lecture starts with an expression of good wishes to George Herrmann on the occasion of his seventieth birthday and continues with a lament that the majority of research workers in the field of solid mechanics have failed to appreciate the power and relevance of ``conventional`` thermodynamics which is based on the acceptance of the hypothesis of local equilibrium (principle of local state). The lecture then proceeds to motivate the essential concepts of conventional thermodynamics and emphasizes the differences between the description of nonequilibrium states in physical space and equilibrium states in the Gibbsian phase space. It is asserted that the subject acquires its simplest form by the recognition of the relevance of Bridgman`s internal variables. With their aid it is possible to define the accompanying equilibrium state and the accompanying reversible process. An elimination of internal energy between the field equation of energy (First Law) and the Gibbs equation in rate form results in an explicit expression for the local rate of entropy production, {theta}. It is asserted that the preceding elements supplemented with appropriate rate equations result in a closed system of partial differential equations whose solution, subject to appropriate initial and boundary conditions, constitutes the process (``history``) under consideration. 11 refs.

  6. Applied mechanics and mechatronics special topic volume with invited peer reviewed papers only

    CERN Document Server

    Trebuňa, František

    2014-01-01

    The issue ""Applied Mechanics and Mechatronics"" contains results of research from researchers and designers from several prominent universities and research institutes of Central Europe.The publication is divided into three following chapters: Modeling and Simulation of Mechanic and Mechatronic SystemsAnalysis and Design of Mechanic and Mechatronic SystemsExperimental methods in Mechanics and Mechatronics. The submitted publication provides insight on modern approaches and methods in designing, modeling and experimental analyzing of mechanic and mechatronics systems.

  7. Interdisciplinary Research Drivers and Serendipity Factor: An Applied Mechanics Perspective on Some Past Application Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Kung Lee; Po-Cheng Lai; Wen-Chi Chang; Yi-Ching Kuo; Pei-I Tsai; Ming-Han Chung; Julie T. Lee

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, interdisciplinary research has been the main focus of academia, research institutes, and industry.  Out of the many interdisciplinary research fields, Applied Mechanics continues to play an essential role due to its fundamental nature and its influence to many emerging fields.  The search for the appropriate interdisciplinary organization, either through a matrix organization or by a formal organization, has been a focus of concern within the Applied Mechanics leadership.  Th...

  8. Methods for Increasing Power Efficiency of Heating Furnaces Applied in Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineering Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. German

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper analyzes experimental data and results of balance tests of two continuous heating furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries. Furnace power technological characteristics  and dependences of these characteristics on equipment productivity have been determined in the paper. The analysis has made it possible to reveal reasons of higher efficiency of a heating furnace used at BSW Rolling Mill-320 and formulate recommendations on reduction of fuel consumption in operating and designed combustion furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries.

  9. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  10. Teaching Fluid Mechanics for Undergraduate Students in Applied Industrial Biology: from Theory to Atypical Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Absi, Rafik; Dufour, Florence; Huet, Denis; Bennacer, Rachid; Absi, Tahar

    2011-01-01

    EBI is a further education establishment which provides education in applied industrial biology at level of MSc engineering degree. Fluid mechanics at EBI was considered by students as difficult who seemed somewhat unmotivated. In order to motivate them, we applied a new play-based pedagogy. Students were asked to draw inspiration from everyday life situations to find applications of fluid mechanics and to do experiments to verify and validate some theoretical results obtained in course. In this paper, we present an innovative teaching/learning pedagogy which includes the concept of learning through play and its implications in fluid mechanics for engineering. Examples of atypical experiments in fluid mechanics made by students are presented. Based on teaching evaluation by students, it is possible to know how students feel the course. The effectiveness of this approach to motivate students is presented through an analysis of students' teaching assessment. Learning through play proved a great success in fluid...

  11. 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Aref

    2000-08-27

    The 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000, was held in Chicago, IL, from August 27 - September 2, 2000. It was 32 years since the last of these congresses had been held in USA. A record number of researchers in the mechanical engineering sciences attended and presented their work. The Congress provided an opportunity for the US mechanics community to act as international hosts. Several universities, professional societies, private foundations and individuals, and Federal agencies provided financial support for the Congress.

  12. Interdisciplinary Research Drivers and Serendipity Factor: An Applied Mechanics Perspective on Some Past Application Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, interdisciplinary research has been the main focus of academia, research institutes, and industry.  Out of the many interdisciplinary research fields, Applied Mechanics continues to play an essential role due to its fundamental nature and its influence to many emerging fields.  The search for the appropriate interdisciplinary organization, either through a matrix organization or by a formal organization, has been a focus of concern within the Applied Mechanics leadership.  This paper represents an attempt to reflect on the lessons learned from the rise and fall of the field of Theoretical & Applied Mechanics at various universities and institutes around the world.  In looking through the historical development of the field of Applied Mechanics, we can gain a better understanding of the driving forces of interdisciplinary research organizations.  The collaborations and competition between the various disciplinary research institutes and the more traditional engineering/applied sciences departments will be briefly discussed.  Based on a series of research and development experiences using Nano-BioMEMS/NEMS, Smart Structures, and Electrets as application platforms, we will look at the theoretical architecture and corresponding applications to further strengthen our claim that successful interdisciplinary applied science research requires the establishment of strong industries.  We look at today’s perspective with an added serendipity factor.  This is to say that a prepared mind, derived from a well-trained background, along with an open mind connected to other collaborative research efforts, will know when to seize the moment as new innovative opportunities arise.  We can look on same examples from the past to obtain some hints on how to further foster today’s interdisciplinary research.  The influence of an interdisciplinary organizational structure, its teamwork collaborative framework as well as the influence of

  13. In Memory of Our Honorary Editor-in-Chief Editorial Board of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editorial Board of Applied Mathematics and Mechani

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chien Wei-zang,one of the founders of modern mechanics in China,a world renowned scientist,educator,outstanding social leader,prominent leader of the Chinese Democratic League and a close friend of the Communist Party of China,the Vice Chairman of the 6th,7th,8th,and 9th National Committee of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the Vice Chairman of the 5th, 6th, and 7th Central Committee of Chinese Democratic League, the Honorary Chairman of the 7th, 8th, and 9th Central Committee of Chinese Democratic League, a senior member of Chinese Academy of Science, the President of Shanghai University, the Director of Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, and the Honorary Editor-in Chief of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Passed away at the age of 98 in Shanghai at 6:20 AM on July 30,2010.

  14. Ageing process influence on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The application of polymeric materials for medical purposes is growing very fast. Polymers have found applications in such diverse biomedical fields as tissue engineering, implantation of medical devices and artificial organs, prostheses, ophthalmology, dentistry, bone repair and many other medical fields. The requirements for materials used in the construction of removable dentures are becoming more and more demanding. The introduction of improved flexible materials has been a considerable advance. The aim of this work was to determine how the properties of thermoplastic materials change over time in terms of weight changes and artificial saliva sorption. Purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in dentistry.Design/methodology/approach: Polyamide samples about the diversified content of the glass fibre were produced with method of the injection moulding. Denotation of the absorbency of artificial saliva was performed on standardized samples according to the norm. Samples were dried up to fixed mass, and then they were soaked in artificial saliva. Two temperatures of examination were applied 23°C and 30°C.Findings: An influence of the absorbability on mechanical properties of composites was determined. Examinations allowed to show that the absorbency of artificial saliva through composite is dependent on the temperature.Research limitations/implications: To fully evaluate the influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in human body environment it is planned to continue described research. Simultaneous influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites shall be tested.Originality/value: Applying strengthened thermoplastics with glass fibre on dentures is a new look at materials applied in dentistry.

  15. Use of magnetic particles to apply mechanical forces for bone tissue engineering purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartmell, S H; Keramane, A; Kirkham, G R; Verschueren, S B; Magnay, J L; El Haj, A J; Dobson, J [Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, University of Keele, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to influence osteoblast activity by the application of mechanical forces. There is potential in using these forces for tissue engineering applications in that cell matrix production may be upregulated, resulting in a functional tissue engineered construct created in a shorter culture time. We have been developing a novel technique for applying mechanical forces directly to the cell with the use of magnetic particles. Particles attached to the cell membrane can be manipulated using an external magnetic field thus applying forces in the piconewton range. We have previously demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts respond to this type of stimulus by upregulating bone related gene expression and producing mineralized matrix at early time points. In this paper we discuss the optimization of this technique by presenting data on the effects of this type of force on osteoblast proliferation, phagocytosis and also the potential use of this technique in developing 3D tissue engineered constructs.

  16. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Michael R.; Cao, Thanh V.; Campbell, David H.; Standley, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected...

  17. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-04-10

    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  18. Identifying a cooperative control mechanism between an applied field and the environment of open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Rey-de-Castro, Roberto; Wang, Yaoxiong; Rabitz, Herschel; Shuang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Many systems under control with an applied field also interact with the surrounding environment. Understanding the control mechanisms has remained a challenge, especially the role played by the interaction between the field and the environment. In order to address this need, here we expand the scope of the Hamiltonian-encoding and observable-decoding (HE-OD) technique. HE-OD was originally introduced as a theoretical and experimental tool for revealing the mechanism induced by control fields in closed quantum systems. The results of open-system HE-OD analysis presented here provide quantitative mechanistic insights into the roles played by a Markovian environment. Two model open quantum systems are considered for illustration. In these systems, transitions are induced by either an applied field linked to a dipole operator or Lindblad operators coupled to the system. For modest control yields, the HE-OD results clearly show distinct cooperation between the dynamics induced by the optimal field and the environment. Although the HE-OD methodology introduced here is considered in simulations, it has an analogous direct experimental formulation, which we suggest may be applied to open systems in the laboratory to reveal mechanistic insights.

  19. A review on: atomic force microscopy applied to nano-mechanics of the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1986, AFM has been applied to biological studies along with its widespread use in physics, chemistry and engineering fields. Due to its dual capabilities of imaging nano-materials with an atomic level resolution and of directly manipulating samples with high precision, AFM is now considered an indispensable instrument for nano-technological researchers especially in physically oriented fields. In biology in general, however, and in biotechnology in particular, its usefulness must be critically examined and, if necessary as it certainly is, further explored from a practical point of view. In this review, a new trend of applying AFM based technology to elucidate the mechanical basis of the cellular structure and its interaction with the extracellular matrix including cell to cell interaction is reviewed. Some of the recent studies done by using other force measuring or force exerting methods are also covered in the hope that all the nano-mechanical work on the cellular level will eventually contribute to the emergence of the mechano-chemical view of the cell in a unified manner.

  20. A ``local observables'' method for wave mechanics applied to atomic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Peter J.

    2008-12-01

    An alternative method of deriving the values of the observables of atomic systems is presented. Rather than using operators and eigenvalues the local variables method uses the continuity equation together with current densities derived from wave functions that are solutions of the Dirac or Pauli equation. The method is applied to atomic hydrogen using the usual language of quantum mechanics rather than that of geometric algebra with which the method is often associated. The picture of the atom that emerges is one in which the electron density as a whole is rotating about a central axis. The results challenge some assumptions of conventional quantum mechanics. Electron spin is shown to be a property of the dynamical motion of the electron and not an intrinsic property of the electron, the ground state of hydrogen is shown to have an orbital angular momentum of ℏ, and excited states are shown to have angular momenta that are different from the eigenvalues of the usual quantum mechanical operators. The uncertainty relations are found not to be applicable to the orthogonal components of the angular momentum. No double electron spin gyromagnetic ratio is required to account for the observed magnetic moments, and the behavior of the atom in a magnetic field is described entirely in kinetic terms.

  1. Skin permeation mechanism and bioavailability enhancement of celecoxib from transdermally applied nanoemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celecoxib, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor has been recommended orally for the treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis. Long term oral administration of celecoxib produces serious gastrointestinal side effects. It is a highly lipophilic, poorly soluble drug with oral bioavailability of around 40% (Capsule. Therefore the aim of the present investigation was to assess the skin permeation mechanism and bioavailability of celecoxib by transdermally applied nanoemulsion formulation. Optimized oil-in-water nanoemulsion of celecoxib was prepared by the aqueous phase titration method. Skin permeation mechanism of celecoxib from nanoemulsion was evaluated by FTIR spectral analysis, DSC thermogram, activation energy measurement and histopathological examination. The optimized nanoemulsion was subjected to pharmacokinetic (bioavailability studies on Wistar male rats. Results FTIR spectra and DSC thermogram of skin treated with nanoemulsion indicated that permeation occurred due to the disruption of lipid bilayers by nanoemulsion. The significant decrease in activation energy (2.373 kcal/mol for celecoxib permeation across rat skin indicated that the stratum corneum lipid bilayers were significantly disrupted (p Conclusion Results of skin permeation mechanism and pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the nanoemulsions can be successfully used as potential vehicles for enhancement of skin permeation and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  2. Enhancing combined biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater by applying mechanically disintegrated excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrowska-Sudol, Monika; Walczak, Justyna

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the possibility of applying disintegrated excess sludge as a source of organic carbon to enhance biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The experiment, performed in a sequencing batch reactor, consisted of two two-month series, without and with applying mechanically disintegrated excess sludge, respectively. The effects on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal were observed. It was shown that the method allows enhancement of combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal. After using disintegrated sludge, denitrification effectiveness increased from 49.2 ± 6.8% to 76.2 ± 2.3%, which resulted in a decline in the NOx-N concentration in the effluent from the SBR by an average of 21.4 mg NOx-N/L. Effectiveness of biological phosphorus removal increased from 28.1 ± 11.3% to 96.2 ± 2.5%, thus resulting in a drop in the [Formula: see text] concentration in the effluent by, on average, 6.05 mg PO4(3-)-P/L. The application of disintegrated sludge did not deteriorate effluent quality in terms of COD and NH4(+)-N. The concentration of NH4(+)-N in both series averaged 0.16 ± 0.11 mg NH4(+)-N/L, and the concentration of COD was 15.36 ± 3.54 mg O2/L. PMID:25776916

  3. Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) applied to the study of mechanical behavior of human jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan F.; Moreno de las Cuevas, Vincente; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Suarez, David; Fernandez, Paula; Gallas, Mercedes; Blanchard, Alain

    1996-01-01

    The study of the mechanical behavior of the human jaw during chewing is helpful in several specific medical fields that cover the maxillo-facial area. In this work, electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been applied to study dead jaw bones under external stress which simulates the deformations induced during chewing. Fringes obtained after subtraction of two images of the jaw, the image of the relaxed jaw and that of the jaw under stress, give us information about the most stressed zones. The interferometric analysis proposed here is attractive as it can be done in real time with the jaw under progressive stress. Image processing can be applied for improving the quality of fringes. This research can be of help in orthognathic surgery, for example in diagnosis and treatment of fractured jaws, in oral surgery, and in orthodontics because it would help us to know the stress dispersion when we insert an osseointegrated implant or place an orthodontic appliance, respectively. Studying fragments of human jaw some results about its elasticity and flexibility were obtained.

  4. Mechanical strain applied to human fibroblasts differentially regulates skeletal myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael R; Cao, Thanh V; Campbell, David H; Standley, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Cyclic short-duration stretches (CSDS) such as those resulting from repetitive motion strain increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Myofascial release is a common technique used by clinicians that applies an acyclic long-duration stretch (ALDS) to muscle fascia to repair injury. When subjected to mechanical strain, fibroblasts within muscle fascia secrete IL-6, which has been shown to induce myoblast differentiation, essential for muscle repair. We hypothesize that fibroblasts subjected to ALDS following CSDS induce myoblast differentiation through IL-6. Fibroblast conditioned media and fibroblast-myoblast cocultures were used to test fibroblasts' ability to induce myoblast differentiation. The coculture system applies strain to fibroblasts only but still allows for diffusion of potential differentiation mediators to unstrained myoblasts on coverslips. To determine the role of IL-6, we utilized myoblast unicultures ± IL-6 (0-100 ng/ml) and cocultures ± α-IL-6 (0-200 μg/ml). Untreated uniculture myoblasts served as a negative control. After 96 h, coverslips (n = 6-21) were microscopically analyzed and quantified by blinded observer for differentiation endpoints: myotubes per square millimeter (>3 nuclei/cell), nuclei/myotube, and fusion efficiency (%nuclei within myotubes). The presence of fibroblasts and fibroblast conditioned media significantly enhanced myotube number (P release after repetitive strain increases myoblast differentiation and thus may improve muscle repair in vivo. Neutralization of IL-6 in coculture significantly reduced differentiation, suggesting fibroblast-IL-6 is necessary but not sufficient in this process. PMID:22678963

  5. Viscoelastic cell mechanics and actin remodelling are dependent on the rate of applied pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Pravincumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Living cells are subjected to external and internal mechanical stresses. The effects of these stresses on the deformation and subsequent biological response of the cells remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that the rate at which pressure (or stress is applied influence the viscoelastic properties of the cell associated with differences in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Micropipette aspiration was used to determine the instantaneous and equilibrium moduli and the viscosity of isolated chondrocytes based on the standard linear solid (SLS model and a variation of this incorporating Boltzmann superposition. Cells were visualised for 180 seconds following aspiration to 7 cmH(2O at 0.35, 0.70 and 5.48 cmH(2O/sec. Cell recovery was then examined for a further 180 seconds once the pressure had been removed. Reducing the rate of application of pressure reduced the levels of cell deformation and recovery associated with a significant increase in modulus and viscosity. Using GFP transfection and confocal microscopy, we show that chondrocyte deformation involves distortion, disassembly and subsequent reassembly of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. At faster pressure rates, cell deformation produced an increase in cell volume associated with membrane bleb formation. GFP-actin transfection inhibited the pressure rate dependent variation in cell mechanics indicating that this behaviour is regulated by GFP-sensitive actin dynamics. CONCLUSION: We suggest that slower rates of aspiration pressure enable greater levels of cortical actin distortion. This is partially inhibited by GFP or faster aspiration rates leading to membrane bleb formation and an increase in cell volume. Thus the rate of application of pressure regulates the viscoelastic mechanical properties of living cells through pressure rate sensitive differences in actin dynamics. Therefore cells appear softer when aspirated at a faster rate in

  6. Current research activities: Applied and numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, experiments in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.

  7. LEVEL SET METHOD FOR TOPOLOGICAL OPTIMIZATION APPLYING TO STRUCTURE,MECHANISM AND MATERIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yulin; Wang Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    Based on a level set model,a topology optimization method has been suggested recently.It uses a level set to express the moving structural boundary,which can flexibly handle complex topological changes.By combining vector level set models with gradient projection technology,the level set method for topological optimization is extended to a topological optimization problem with multi-constraints,multi-materials and multi-load cases.Meanwhile,an appropriate nonlinear speed mapping is established in the tangential space of the active constraints for a fast convergence.Then the method is applied to structure designs,mechanism and material designs by a number of benchmark examples.Finally,in order to further improve computational efficiency and overcome the difficulty that the level set method cannot generate new material interfaces during the optimization process,the topological derivative analysis is incorporated into the level set method for topological optimization,and a topological derivative and level set algorithm for topological optimization is proposed.

  8. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design.

  9. A Fresh Look at Potential Mechanisms of Change in Applied Relaxation for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Usmani, Aisha; Lee, Jonathan K.; Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Applied relaxation (AR), which involves noticing early signs of anxiety and responding with a relaxation response, is an empirically supported treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, research on hypothesized mechanisms of AR (e.g., reduced muscle tension) has been mixed, making it likely that additional mechanisms are…

  10. Hormonal and neuromuscular responses to mechanical vibration applied to upper extremity muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Di Giminiani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute residual hormonal and neuromuscular responses exhibited following a single session of mechanical vibration applied to the upper extremities among different acceleration loads. METHODS: Thirty male students were randomly assigned to a high vibration group (HVG, a low vibration group (LVG, or a control group (CG. A randomized double-blind, controlled-parallel study design was employed. The measurements and interventions were performed at the Laboratory of Biomechanics of the University of L'Aquila. The HVG and LVG participants were exposed to a series of 20 trials ×10 s of synchronous whole-body vibration (WBV with a 10-s pause between each trial and a 4-min pause after the first 10 trials. The CG participants assumed an isometric push-up position without WBV. The outcome measures were growth hormone (GH, testosterone, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during bench-press, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during handgrip, and electromyography root-mean-square (EMGrms muscle activity (pectoralis major [PM], triceps brachii [TB], anterior deltoid [DE], and flexor carpi radialis [FCR]. RESULTS: The GH increased significantly over time only in the HVG (P = 0.003. Additionally, the testosterone levels changed significantly over time in the LVG (P = 0.011 and the HVG (P = 0.001. MVC during bench press decreased significantly in the LVG (P = 0.001 and the HVG (P = 0.002. In the HVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the TB (P = 0.006 muscle. In the LVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the DE (P = 0.009 and FCR (P = 0.006 muscles. CONCLUSION: Synchronous WBV acutely increased GH and testosterone serum concentrations and decreased the MVC and their respective maximal EMGrms activities, which indicated a possible central fatigue effect. Interestingly, only the GH response was dependent on the acceleration with respect to the subjects' responsiveness.

  11. Neighbourhood generation mechanism applied in simulated annealing to job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Chávez, Marco Antonio

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a neighbourhood generation mechanism for the job shop scheduling problems (JSSPs). In order to obtain a feasible neighbour with the generation mechanism, it is only necessary to generate a permutation of an adjacent pair of operations in a scheduling of the JSSP. If there is no slack time between the adjacent pair of operations that is permuted, then it is proven, through theory and experimentation, that the new neighbour (schedule) generated is feasible. It is demonstrated that the neighbourhood generation mechanism is very efficient and effective in a simulated annealing.

  12. Process-based Architecture for Robustness Applying Linux isolation mechanism in MG-R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsinger, A.A.J.; Kourzanov, P.; Gopakumar, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains the results of a feasibility study of applyingLinux facilities for isolating and protecting processes, and for communication and synchronisation between processes, to the MG-R architecture so as to improve the robustness. Moreover some guidelines andtrade-offs are discussed how

  13. Improving postural control by applying mechanical noise to ankle muscle tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Liliane; Ribot-Ciscar, Edith

    2016-08-01

    The application of subthreshold mechanical vibrations with random frequencies (white mechanical noise) to ankle muscle tendons is known to increase muscle proprioceptive information and to improve the detection of ankle movements. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of this mechanical noise on postural control, its possible modulation according to the sensory strategies used for postural control, and the consequences of increasing postural difficulty. The upright stance of 20 healthy young participants tested with their eyes closed was analyzed during the application of four different levels of noise and compared to that in the absence of noise (control) in three conditions: static, static on foam, and dynamic (sinusoidal translation). The quiet standing condition was conducted with the eyes open and closed to determine the subjects' visual dependency to maintain postural stability. Postural performance was assessed using posturographic and motion analysis evaluations. The results in the static condition showed that the spectral power density of body sway significantly decreased with an optimal level of noise and that the higher the spectral power density without noise, the greater the noise effect, irrespective of visual dependency. Finally, noise application was ineffective in the foam and dynamic conditions. We conclude that the application of mechanical noise to ankle muscle tendons is a means to improve quiet standing only. These results suggest that mechanical noise stimulation may be more effective in more impaired populations. PMID:27021075

  14. Menzerath-Altmann Law: Statistical Mechanical Interpretation as Applied to a Linguistic Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Sertac

    2014-10-01

    The distribution behavior described by the empirical Menzerath-Altmann law is frequently encountered during the self-organization of linguistic and non-linguistic natural organizations at various structural levels. This study presents a statistical mechanical derivation of the law based on the analogy between the classical particles of a statistical mechanical organization and the distinct words of a textual organization. The derived model, a transformed (generalized) form of the Menzerath-Altmann model, was termed as the statistical mechanical Menzerath-Altmann model. The derived model allows interpreting the model parameters in terms of physical concepts. We also propose that many organizations presenting the Menzerath-Altmann law behavior, whether linguistic or not, can be methodically examined by the transformed distribution model through the properly defined structure-dependent parameter and the energy associated states.

  15. Cable dynamics applied to long-length scale mechanics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, S; Perkins, N C; Meyhofer, E; Goyal, Sachin; Lillian, Todd; Perkins, Noel C.; Meyhofer, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of cable dynamics models as a means to explore the mechanics of DNA on long-length scales. It is on these length scales that DNA forms twisted and curved three-dimensional shapes known as supercoils and loops. These long-length scale DNA structures have a pronounced influence on the functions of this molecule within the cell including the packing of DNA in the cell nucleus, transcription, replication and gene repair. We provide a short background to the mechanics of DNA and suggest the logical connection to the mechanics of a low tension cable. A computational model is then summarized and example results are presented for DNA supercoiling and looping.

  16. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  17. Parameters of the Menzerath-Altmann law: Statistical mechanical interpretation as applied to a linguistic organization

    CERN Document Server

    Eroglu, Sertac

    2013-01-01

    The distribution behavior dictated by the Menzerath-Altmann (MA) law is frequently encountered in linguistic and natural organizations at various structural levels. The mathematical form of this empirical law comprises three fitting parameters whose values tend to be elusive, especially in inter-organizational studies. To allow interpretation of these parameters and better understand such distribution behavior, we present a statistical mechanical approach based on an analogy between the classical particles of a statistical mechanical organization and the number of distinct words in a textual organization. With this derivation, we achieve a transformed (generalized) form of the MA model, termed the statistical mechanical Menzerath-Altmann (SMMA) model. This novel transformed model consists of four parameters, one of which is a structure-dependent input parameter, and three of which are free-fitting parameters. Using distinct word data sets from two text corpora, we verified that the SMMA model describes the sa...

  18. Applying the Decoding the Disciplines Process to Teaching Structural Mechanics: An Autoethnographic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingerthal, John Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using case study methodology and autoethnographic methods, this study examines a process of curricular development known as "Decoding the Disciplines" (Decoding) by documenting the experience of its application in a construction engineering mechanics course. Motivated by the call to integrate what is known about teaching and learning…

  19. Development of a Procedure to Apply Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms to CFD Simulations as Post Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker;

    2003-01-01

    mechanism. It involves post-processing of data extracted from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Application of this approach successfully describes combustion chemistry in a standard swirl burner, the so-called Harwell furnace. Nevertheless, it needs validation against more complex combustion models...

  20. FEATURES OF APPLYING CHINESE CHANG-STYLE TAICHI EXERCISES-EXPLORING MECHANISM OF ACUPUNCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Si Min

    2002-01-01

    @@ Traditional Chinese medicine is extensive and profound with the theory of meridians as its main component part which is also the principle of acupuncture. I wish to introduce the application of the theory of meridian and its integration into Taichi, exploring the mechanism of acupuncture by Qi operation.

  1. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    A. Millonig; K. Mitgutsch

    2014-01-01

    Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics ...

  2. Applying Neural Network with Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Selection Models to Select Equipments for Fully-Mechanized Coal Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-yu; WU Rui-min; FENG Chun-hua

    2004-01-01

    According to the typical engineering samples, a neural net work model with genetic algorithm to optimize weight values is put forward to forecast the productivities and efficiencies of mining faces. By this model we can obtain the possible achievements of available equipment combinations under certain geological situations of fully-mechanized coal mining faces. Then theory of fuzzy selection is applied to evaluate the performance of each equipment combination. By detailed empirical analysis, this model integrates the functions of forecasting mining faces' achievements and selecting optimal equipment combination and is helpful to the decision of equipment combination for fully-mechanized coal mining.

  3. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Greene, N.; Palko, Joseph L.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Sutter, James; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to a previously reported experimental investigation and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel s residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV

  4. Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Ghaffari, Roozbeh [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-31

    While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometer motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.

  5. An investigation of cam-roller mechanism applied in sphere cam engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 潘存云; 徐小军; 徐海军; 张正洲

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative power source for hybrid electrical vehicle(HEV), electric generating system(EGS) driven by sphere cam engine(SCE) is said to own higher power density and integration. In this work, the structure and working principle of EGS were introduced, based on which the advantages of EGS were displayed. The profile of sphere cam was achieved after the desired motion of piston was given. After establishing the dynamic model of power transmission mechanism, the characteristics of cam-roller mechanism were studied. The results show that the optimal cam profile of SCE is a sinusoid curve which has two peaks and two valleys and a mean pressure angle of 47.19°. Because of the special cam shape, the trace of end surface center of piston is an eight-shape curve on a specific sphere surface. SCE running at speed of 3000 r/min can generate the power of 33.81 kW, which could satisfy the need of HEVs. However, the force between cylinder and piston skirt caused by Coriolis acceleration can reach up to 1182 N, which leads to serious wear between cylinder liner and piston skirt and may shorten the lifespan of SCE.

  6. Statistical Mechanics Ideas and Techniques Applied to Selected Problems in Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fort

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem dynamics provides an interesting arena for the application of a plethora concepts and techniques from statistical mechanics. Here I review three examples corresponding each one to an important problem in ecology. First, I start with an analytical derivation of clumpy patterns for species relative abundances (SRA empirically observed in several ecological communities involving a high number n of species, a phenomenon which have puzzled ecologists for decades. An interesting point is that this derivation uses results obtained from a statistical mechanics model for ferromagnets. Second, going beyond the mean field approximation, I study the spatial version of a popular ecological model involving just one species representing vegetation. The goal is to address the phenomena of catastrophic shifts—gradual cumulative variations in some control parameter that suddenly lead to an abrupt change in the system—illustrating it by means of the process of desertification of arid lands. The focus is on the aggregation processes and the effects of diffusion that combined lead to the formation of non trivial spatial vegetation patterns. It is shown that different quantities—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings for the desertification of arid lands. Remarkably, in the onset of a desertification transition the distribution of vegetation patches exhibits scale invariance typical of many physical systems in the vicinity a phase transition. I comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid. Third, I analyze the case of many species interacting in space. I choose tropical forests, which are mega-diverse ecosystems that exhibit remarkable dynamics. Therefore these ecosystems represent a research paradigm both for studies of complex systems dynamics as well as to

  7. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A; Breneman, Curt M

    2016-08-17

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage. PMID:27324304

  8. Vibroacoustic Modeling of Mechanically Coupled Structures: Artificial Spring Technique Applied to Light and Heavy Mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cheng

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the modeling of vibrating structures immersed in both light and heavy fluids, and possible applications to noise control problems and industrial vessels containing fluids. A theoretical approach, using artificial spring systems to characterize the mechanical coupling between substructures, is extended to include fluid loading. A structure consisting of a plate-ended cylindrical shell and its enclosed acoustic cavity is analyzed. After a brief description of the proposed technique, a number of numerical results are presented. The analysis addresses the following specific issues: the coupling between the plate and the shell; the coupling between the structure and the enclosure; the possibilities and difficulties regarding internal soundproofing through modifications of the joint connections; and the effects of fluid loading on the vibration of the structure.

  9. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  10. Remarks on Some Mechanical Small-Scale Tests Applied to Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardu, Marilena; Seccatore, Jacopo

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the results of test campaigns on small-scale strength properties (particularly, micro-hardness) performed on two homogeneous materials: calcite, a very common and widespread mineral that is characterized by its relatively low Mohs hardness and its high reactivity with even weak acids; and glass, an amorphous solid characterized by the absence of the long-range order which defines crystalline materials. After a synthetic description of the principles underlying two of the three classical comminution laws, known as Kick's law and Rittinger's law, experimental results are discussed. The results of the tests performed show that both scale effect and size effect contribute to the non-constancy of mechanical properties at small scale for crystalline materials. On the other hand, for amorphous materials, a theoretical law considering size effects gives considerably different results from empirical measurements. Considerations and an extended discussion address these findings.

  11. Fuzzy Optimization of an Elevator Mechanism Applying the Genetic Algorithm and Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the indefinite character of the value of design parameters and being satisfied with load-bearing capacity and stiffness, the fuzzy optimization mathematical model is set up to minimize the volume of tooth corona of a worm gear in an elevator mechanism. The method of second-class comprehensive evaluation was used based on the optimal level cut set, thus the optimal level value of every fuzzy constraint can be attained; the fuzzy optimization is transformed into the usual optimization.The Fast Back Propagation of the neural networks algorithm are adopted to train feed-forward networks so as to fit a relative coefficient. Then the fitness function with penalty terms is built by a penalty strategy, a neural networks program is recalled, and solver functions of the Genetic Algorithm Toolbox of Matlab software are adopted to solve the optimization model.

  12. Applying the Different Statistical Tests in Analysis of Electrical Breakdown Mechanisms in Nitrogen Filled Gas Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čedomir, A. Maluckov; Saša, A. Rančev; Miodrag, K. Radović

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigations of breakdown mechanisms, as well as a description of their influence on the distributions of time delay distributions, for a gas tube filled with nitrogen at 4 mbar. The values of the time delay are measured for different voltages, and the values of the relaxation times and their distributions and probability plots are analyzed. The obtained density distributions have Gaussian distributions and exponential distributions for different values of relaxation times (Gaussian for small values and exponential for large values of relaxation time). It is shown that for middle values of relaxation time the delay distributions have a shape between Gaussian and exponential distributions, which is a result of the different influences of electrical breakdown.

  13. An introduction to applied quantum mechanics in the Wigner Monte Carlo formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wigner formulation of quantum mechanics is a very intuitive approach which allows the comprehension and prediction of quantum mechanical phenomena in terms of quasi-distribution functions. In this review, our aim is to provide a detailed introduction to this theory along with a Monte Carlo method for the simulation of time-dependent quantum systems evolving in a phase-space. This work consists of three main parts. First, we introduce the Wigner formalism, then we discuss in detail the Wigner Monte Carlo method and, finally, we present practical applications. In particular, the Wigner model is first derived from the Schrödinger equation. Then a generalization of the formalism due to Moyal is provided, which allows to recover important mathematical properties of the model. Next, the Wigner equation is further generalized to the case of many-body quantum systems. Finally, a physical interpretation of the negative part of a quasi-distribution function is suggested. In the second part, the Wigner Monte Carlo method, based on the concept of signed (virtual) particles, is introduced in detail for the single-body problem. Two extensions of the Wigner Monte Carlo method to quantum many-body problems are introduced, in the frameworks of time-dependent density functional theory and ab-initio methods. Finally, in the third and last part of this paper, applications to single- and many-body problems are performed in the context of quantum physics and quantum chemistry, specifically focusing on the hydrogen, lithium and boron atoms, the H2 molecule and a system of two identical Fermions. We conclude this work with a discussion on the still unexplored directions the Wigner Monte Carlo method could take in the next future

  14. An introduction to applied quantum mechanics in the Wigner Monte Carlo formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellier, J.M., E-mail: jeanmichel.sellier@parallel.bas.bg [IICT, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. 25A, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedjalkov, M. [IICT, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. 25A, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29/E360, 1040 Wien (Austria); Dimov, I. [IICT, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. 25A, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-12

    The Wigner formulation of quantum mechanics is a very intuitive approach which allows the comprehension and prediction of quantum mechanical phenomena in terms of quasi-distribution functions. In this review, our aim is to provide a detailed introduction to this theory along with a Monte Carlo method for the simulation of time-dependent quantum systems evolving in a phase-space. This work consists of three main parts. First, we introduce the Wigner formalism, then we discuss in detail the Wigner Monte Carlo method and, finally, we present practical applications. In particular, the Wigner model is first derived from the Schrödinger equation. Then a generalization of the formalism due to Moyal is provided, which allows to recover important mathematical properties of the model. Next, the Wigner equation is further generalized to the case of many-body quantum systems. Finally, a physical interpretation of the negative part of a quasi-distribution function is suggested. In the second part, the Wigner Monte Carlo method, based on the concept of signed (virtual) particles, is introduced in detail for the single-body problem. Two extensions of the Wigner Monte Carlo method to quantum many-body problems are introduced, in the frameworks of time-dependent density functional theory and ab-initio methods. Finally, in the third and last part of this paper, applications to single- and many-body problems are performed in the context of quantum physics and quantum chemistry, specifically focusing on the hydrogen, lithium and boron atoms, the H{sub 2} molecule and a system of two identical Fermions. We conclude this work with a discussion on the still unexplored directions the Wigner Monte Carlo method could take in the next future.

  15. An Implementation Mechanisms of SVM Control Strategies Applied to Five Levels Cascaded Multi-Level Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaichi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the area of the energy control with high voltage and power, the multilevel inverters constitute a relatively recent research orientation. The current applications of this technology are in the domains of the high voltage (over hundred kV, variable speed drives, transport and distribution of a good quality of electrical energy (HVDC, FACTS system, ..... To improve the output voltage for such inverters, many different modulation strategies have been developed. Among these strategies, the SVM (Space Vector Modulation. The technique provide the nearest switching vectors sequence to the reference vector without involving trigonometric functions and provide the additional advantages of superior harmonic quality. In this paper, we analyze different mechanisms of the output voltage synthesis and the problem of even order harmonic production. With the proposed a new trajectory SVM, which can eliminate all the even order harmonics for five levels inverter. Show clearly how to deduce the trajectories from the sequences allowing to have better performances among several possible trajectories. It is dedicated to the application of two particular trajectories.

  16. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction

  17. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Electrochemical Behavior of Ti-Nb-Fe Alloys Applied as Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Éder Sócrates Najar; Salvador, Camilo Augusto Fernandes; Andrade, Denis Renato; Cremasco, Alessandra; Campo, Kaio Niitsu; Caram, Rubens

    2016-06-01

    New β metastable Ti alloys based on Ti-30Nb alloy with the addition of 1, 3, or 5 wt pct Fe have been developed using the bond order and the metal d-orbital energy level ( overline{{Bo}} {-} overline{{Md}} ) design theory. The samples were prepared by arc melting, hot working, and solution heat treatment above the β transus followed by water quenching (WQ) or furnace cooling (FC). The effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure of Ti-30Nb-3Fe wt pct was investigated in detail using a modified Jominy end quench test. The results show that Fe acts as a strong β-stabilizing alloying element. The addition of Fe also leads to a reduction in the ω and α phases volumetric fractions, although the ω phase was still detected in the WQ Ti-30Nb-5Fe samples, as shown by TEM, and α phase clusters were detected by SEM in the FC Ti-30Nb-3Fe samples. Among the WQ samples, the addition of 5 wt pct Fe improves the ultimate tensile strength (from 601 to 689 MPa), reduces the final elongation (from 28 to 16 pct), and impairs the electrochemical corrosion resistance, as evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests in Ringer's solution. The microstructural variation arising from the addition of Fe did not change the elastic modulus (approximately 80 GPa for all experimental WQ samples). This study shows that small Fe additions can tailor the microstructure of Ti-Nb alloys, modifying α and ω phase precipitation and improving mechanical strength.

  18. A polypeptide-DNA hybrid with selective linking capability applied to single molecule nano-mechanical measurements using optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayed, Fatemeh; Mashaghi, Alireza; Tans, Sander J

    2013-01-01

    Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN) and the peptide StrepTag II (ST). We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST). In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV) linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV)-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications.

  19. A polypeptide-DNA hybrid with selective linking capability applied to single molecule nano-mechanical measurements using optical tweezers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moayed

    Full Text Available Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN and the peptide StrepTag II (ST. We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST. In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications.

  20. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  1. Experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of the mechanical behavior of molybdenum under electromagnetically applied compression-shear ramp loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. S.; Ding, J. L.; Asay, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPS experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. In addition, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material model for

  2. Non-contact detection of myocardium's mechanical activity by ultrawideband RF-radar and interpretation applying electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, F.; Kreiseler, D.; Seifert, F.

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic waves can propagate through the body and are reflected at interfaces between materials with different dielectric properties. Therefore the reason for using ultrawideband (UWB) radar for probing the human body in the frequency range from 100 MHz up to 10 GHz is obvious and suggests an ability to monitor the motion of organs within the human body as well as obtaining images of internal structures. The specific advantages of UWB sensors are high temporal and spatial resolutions, penetration into object, low integral power, and compatibility with established narrowband systems. The sensitivity to ultralow power signals makes them suitable for human medical applications including mobile and continuous noncontact supervision of vital functions. Since no ionizing radiation is used, and due to the ultralow specific absorption rate applied, UWB techniques permit noninvasive sensing with no potential risks. This research aims at the synergetic use of UWB sounding combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to gain complementary information for improved functional diagnosis and imaging, especially to accelerate and enhance cardiac MRI by applying UWB radar as a noncontact navigator of myocardial contraction. To this end a sound understanding of how myocardial's mechanic is rendered by reflected and postprocessed UWB radar signals must be achieved. Therefore, we have executed the simultaneous acquisition and evaluation of radar signals with signals from a high-resolution electrocardiogram. The noncontact UWB illumination was done from several radiographic standard positions to monitor selected superficial myocardial areas during the cyclic physiological myocardial deformation in three different respiratory states. From our findings we could conclude that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultrahigh field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it

  3. Effect of applied dc bias voltage on composition, chemical bonding and mechanical properties of carbon nitride films prepared by PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-xuan; XU Tao; HAO Jun-ying; CHEN Jian-min; ZHOU Hui-di; XUE Qun-ji; LIU Hui-wen

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nitride films were deposited on Si (100) substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique from CH4 and N2 at different applied dc bias voltage. The microstructure, composition and chemical bonding of the resulting films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties such as hardness and elastic modulus of the films were evaluated using nano-indentation. As the results, the Raman spectra, showing the G and D bands, indicate the amorphous structure of the films. XPS and FTIR measurements demonstrate the existence of various carbon-nitride bonds in the films and the hydrogenation of carbon nitride phase. The composition ratio of N to C, the nano-hardness and the elastic modulus of the carbon nitride films increase with increasing dc bias voltage and reach the maximums at a dc bias voltage of 300 V, then they decrease with further increase of the dc bias voltage. Moreover, the XRD analyses indicate that the carbon nitride film contains some polycrystalline C3N4 phase embedded in the amorphous matrix at optimized deposition condition of dc bias voltage of 300 V.

  4. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin's pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin's redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism. PMID:26669666

  5. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin's pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin's redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism.

  6. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  7. Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Volume 4 : Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This the fourth volume of six from the Annual Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010, brings together 58 chapters on Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structure. It presents findings from experimental and computational investigations involving a range of imaging techniques including Recovery of 3D Stress Intensity Factors From Surface Full-field Measurements, Identification of Cohesive-zone Laws From Crack-tip Deformation Fields, Application of High Speed Digital Image Correlation for Vibration Mode Shape Analysis, Characterization of Aluminum Alloys Using a 3D Full Field Measurement, and Low Strain Rate Measurements on Explosives Using DIC.

  8. Systematic study of the effects of mass and time scaling techniques applied in numerical rock mechanics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Jansen, Gunnar; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical modeling is a well established tool in rock mechanics studies investigating a wide range of problems. Implicit methods for solving linear equations have the advantage of being unconditionally stable, while explicit methods, although limited by the time step, are often used because of their limited memory demand, their scalability in parallel computing, and simple implementation of complex boundary conditions. In numerical modeling of explicit elastoplastic dynamics where the time step is limited by the material density, mass scaling techniques can be used to overcome this limit and significantly reduce computation time. While often used, the effect of mass and time scaling and how it may influence the numerical results is rarely-mentioned in publications, and choosing the right scaling technique is typically performed by trial and error. To our knowledge, no systematic studies have addressed how mass scaling might affect the numerical results. In this paper, we present results from an extensive and systematic study of the influence of mass and time scaling on the behavior of a variety of rock-mechanical models. We employ a finite difference scheme to model uniaxial and biaxial compression experiments using different mass and time scaling factors, and with physical models of increasing complexity up to a cohesion-weakening frictional-strengthening model (CWFS). We also introduce a normalized energy ratio to assist analyzing mass scaling effects. We find the tested models to be less sensitive to time scaling than to mass scaling, so mass scaling has higher potential for decreasing computational costs. However, we also demonstrate that mass scaling may lead to quantitatively wrong results, so care must be taken in interpreting stress values when mass scaling is used in complicated rock mechanics simulations. Mass scaling significantly influences the stress-strain response of numerical rocks because mass scaling acts as an artificial hardening agent on rock

  9. A molecular structural mechanics model applied to the static behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes: New general formulation

    OpenAIRE

    MERLI GISBERT, RAFAEL; Lazaro, Carlos; Monleón Cremades, Salvador; Domingo Cabo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A new general formulation for the mechanical behavior of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes is presented. Carbon atoms are located at the nodes of an hexagonal honeycomb lattice wrapped into a cylinder. They are linked by covalent C C bonds represented by a truss or spring element, and the three-body interaction among two neighboring covalent bonds is reproduced by a rotational spring. The main advantage of our approach is to allow general load conditions (and any chirality) with no need of speci...

  10. Studies of Radiation Mechanisms as Applied to the Potential Manufacturing Processes: Hydrazine from Ammonia, Nitrogen Fixation and Ozone from Oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slow progress of the past decade toward industrial utilization of radiation in chemical manufacturing is related, among other things, to the tendency to oversimplify or ignore the basic mechanisms and the essential complexity of the radiation chemical systems. The importance of the fundamental approach is illustrated by the radiation systems of hydrazine from ammonia, nitrogen fixation, and ozone from oxygen. Since the First Geneva Conference on the ''Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy'', radiation production of hydrazine has been of interest because of its high traditional cost and its potential large scale use for rocketry. While considerable efforts had been made on the engineering aspects of such a system, little attention was paid to its radiation chemistry. We have examined this system theoretically and experimentally and have identified the basic mechanism by which yields of hydrazine are limited. On the basis of this mechanism we have proposed a method to increase yields, which has been confirmed by experimental studies. Coincidence mass spectrometry shows a major ionization reaction over a wide energy range forming hydrogen radicals and amino ions, NH2+. Workers.studying the photolysis of ammonia have shown that hydrogen radicals destroy hydrazine. Under radiolysis conditions that allow krypton or xenon to absorb nearly all of the radiation energy, the subsequent charge exchange reactions are unable to form hydrogen atoms directly, since the recombination energy of xenon and krypton are such that direct H formation is strongly endothermic: under these conditions we find a significant increase in the yield of hydrazine. By contrast, the charge exchange of ammonia with neon ions to form hydrogen radicals and the amino ion is strongly exothermic: under these conditions we find a large decrease in the hydrazine yield. For nitrogen fixation by irradiation, there is insufficient experimental data to allow confidence in theoretical predictions. Mass spectrometer

  11. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today’s cars need is presented through several experimental results that show t...

  12. Results of studies in rocks mechanics applied to the mining of the coal by means of numeric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this article, it was published in the delivery number 25 of this same magazine; in it the foundations of the methods were given used in the geo-mechanic mining, in this second part we have concentrated on the numeric methods to study three types of problems generated by the exploitation of mines that although, in the text we insist in mines of coal, their results are equally valid for other ore deposit like limestone, gypsum and iron, among others

  13. Atomic force microscopy applied to the quantification of nano-precipitates in thermo-mechanically treated microalloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria-Borja, Luciano [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Av. Tecnologico No. 1500, Lomas de Santiaguito, 58120 Morelia (Mexico); Hurtado-Delgado, Eduardo, E-mail: hurtado@itmorelia.edu.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Av. Tecnologico No. 1500, Lomas de Santiaguito, 58120 Morelia (Mexico); Garnica-Gonzalez, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Av. Tecnologico No. 1500, Lomas de Santiaguito, 58120 Morelia (Mexico); Dominguez-Lopez, Ivan; Garcia-Garcia, Adrian Luis [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN Unidad Queretaro, Cerro Blanco No. 141, Colinas del Cimatario, 76090 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    Quantification of nanometer-size precipitates in microalloyed steels has been traditionally performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in spite of its complicated sample preparation procedures, prone to preparation errors and sample perturbation. In contrast to TEM procedures, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is performed on the as-prepared specimen, with sample preparation requirements similar to those for optical microscopy (OM), rendering three-dimensional representations of the sample surface with vertical resolution of a fraction of a nanometer. In AFM, contrast mechanisms are directly related to surface properties such as topography, adhesion, and stiffness, among others. Chemical etching was performed using 0.5% nital, at time intervals between 4 and 20 s, in 4 s steps, until reaching the desired surface finish. For the present application, an average surface-roughness peak-height below 200 nm was sought. Quantification results of nanometric precipitates were obtained from the statistical analysis of AFM images of the microstructure developed by microalloyed Nb and V-Mo steels. Topography and phase contrast AFM images were used for quantification. The results obtained using AFM are consistent with similar TEM reports. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantified nanometric precipitates in Nb and V-Mo microalloyed steels using AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures of the thermo-mechanically treated microalloyed steels were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Topography and phase contrast AFM images were used for quantification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM results are comparable with traditionally obtained TEM measurements.

  14. In situ synchrotron characterization of mechanically activated self-propagating high-temperature synthesis applied in Mo-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An original experiment was designed to monitor structural and thermal evolutions during the MASHS (Mechanically Activated Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis) process in the Mo-Si system. Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD) coupled with an infrared imaging technique was performed to study, in situ, the formation of the α-MoSi2 phase in the combustion front. Despite a temporal resolution of 50 ms between two consecutive diffractograms, no intermediate phase was observed during the passage of the combustion front. The only reaction responsible for the self-sustentation is Mo + 2Si → MoSi2 in the primary zone inside the combustion wave. The mechanical activation was found to influence Self-propagation High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) parameters such as the propagation front velocity (> 13 mm s), the maximal combustion temperature and the local thermal gradient. After the MASHS process, the α-MoSi2 compound is nanostructured (DMoSi2 = 88 nm) and some explanations are expressed in order to understand why the nanostructure of the as-milled powders can be maintained during the combustion reaction

  15. Postulating hypotheses in experimental doctoral dissertations on Applied Linguistics: A qualitative investigation into rhetorical shifts and linguistic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which research hypotheses need to be incorporated in experimental studies often becomes a subject of discussion among academics supervising the writing of theses and dissertations. While writers are concerned about how hypotheses can be strategically linked with other elements in research reports to effectively present an introductory chapter, instructors are considering ways of guiding learners to use the appropriate language in postulating research hypotheses. Using an analytical framework developed by Swales (1990 & 2004 and specialist informants’ qualitative data, this largely qualitative investigation looks into a corpus of experimental doctoral dissertations submitted to 32 American universities from 2001 to 2009 in order to ascertain (i the degree to which research hypotheses need to be presented in dissertation introductions, (ii how hypotheses are strategically linked with other rhetorical segments, and (iii the salient linguistic mechanisms used to achieve the communicative functions. This study has revealed (i how writers shift from pertinent communicative moves to the postulation of hypotheses, and (ii the gamut of major language choices employed to postulate these hypotheses. The findings can be used to prepare teaching materials that help learners comprehend and employ the rhetorical strategies and linguistic mechanisms needed in postulating hypotheses in research reports.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: The Quantum Mechanics Solver: How to Apply Quantum Theory to Modern Physics, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbin, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a non-specialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on ground-state energies for many-body systems with two-body interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly non-relativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three

  17. Simplified methods applied to the complete thermal and mechanical behaviour of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, we can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behaviour in the vessel. These simplified methods are low cost alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come. (authors)

  18. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  19. Multifactorial theory applied to the neurotoxicity of paraquat and paraquat-induced mechanisms of developing Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Thompson, Mark; Xu, Yi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory studies involving repeated exposure to paraquat (PQ) in different animal models can induce many of the pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD), such as the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Epidemiological studies identify an increased risk of developing PD in human populations living in areas where PQ exposure is likely to occur and among workers lacking appropriate protective equipment. The mechanisms involved in developing PD may not be due to any single cause, but rather a multifactorial situation may exist where PQ exposure may cause PD in some circumstances. Multifactorial theory is adopted into this review that includes a number of sub-cellular mechanisms to explain the pathogenesis of PD. The theory is placed into an environmental context of chronic low-dose exposure to PQ that consequently acts as an oxidative stress inducer. Oxidative stress and the metabolic processes of PQ-inducing excitotoxicity, α-synuclein aggregate formation, autophagy, alteration of dopamine catabolism, and inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase are positioned as causes for the loss of dopaminergic cells. The environmental context and biochemistry of PQ in soils, water, and organisms is also reviewed to identify potential routes that can lead to chronic rates of low-dose exposure that would replicate the type of response that is observed in animal models, epidemiological studies, and other types of laboratory investigations involving PQ exposure. The purpose of this review is to synthesize key relations and summarize hypotheses linking PD to PQ exposure by using the multifactorial approach. Recommendations are given to integrate laboratory methods to the environmental context as a means to improve on experimental design. The multifactorial approach is necessary for conducting valid tests of causal relations, for understanding of potential relations between PD and PQ exposure, and may prevent further delay in solving what has

  20. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2 is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR, vertical roller mills (VRM, gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and

  1. Multifactorial theory applied to the neurotoxicity of paraquat and paraquat-induced mechanisms of developing Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Thompson, Mark; Xu, Yi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory studies involving repeated exposure to paraquat (PQ) in different animal models can induce many of the pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD), such as the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Epidemiological studies identify an increased risk of developing PD in human populations living in areas where PQ exposure is likely to occur and among workers lacking appropriate protective equipment. The mechanisms involved in developing PD may not be due to any single cause, but rather a multifactorial situation may exist where PQ exposure may cause PD in some circumstances. Multifactorial theory is adopted into this review that includes a number of sub-cellular mechanisms to explain the pathogenesis of PD. The theory is placed into an environmental context of chronic low-dose exposure to PQ that consequently acts as an oxidative stress inducer. Oxidative stress and the metabolic processes of PQ-inducing excitotoxicity, α-synuclein aggregate formation, autophagy, alteration of dopamine catabolism, and inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase are positioned as causes for the loss of dopaminergic cells. The environmental context and biochemistry of PQ in soils, water, and organisms is also reviewed to identify potential routes that can lead to chronic rates of low-dose exposure that would replicate the type of response that is observed in animal models, epidemiological studies, and other types of laboratory investigations involving PQ exposure. The purpose of this review is to synthesize key relations and summarize hypotheses linking PD to PQ exposure by using the multifactorial approach. Recommendations are given to integrate laboratory methods to the environmental context as a means to improve on experimental design. The multifactorial approach is necessary for conducting valid tests of causal relations, for understanding of potential relations between PD and PQ exposure, and may prevent further delay in solving what has

  2. Microstructures and Recording Mechanism of Mo/Si Bilayer Applied for Write-Once Blue Laser Optical Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Liang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mo/Si bilayer thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering and applied to write-once blu-ray disc (BD-R. The microstructures and optical storage properties of Mo/Si bilayer were investigated. From the temperature dependence of reflectivity measurement, it was revealed that a phase change occurred in the range of 255–425°C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the as-deposited film possessed Mo polycrystalline phase. The hexagonal MoSi2 and cubic Mo3Si phases appeared after annealing at 300 and 450°C, respectively. By measuring the optical reflectivity at a wavelength of 405 nm, the optical contrast of Mo/Si bilayer between as-deposited and 450°C-annealed states was evaluated to 25.8%. The optimum jitter value of 6.8% was obtained at 10.65 mW for 4× recording speed. The dynamic tests show that the Mo/Si bilayer has high potential in BD-R applications.

  3. Moving from Capstones towards Cornerstones: Successes and challenges in applying systems biology to identify mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eKopp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The substantial progress in the last few years towards uncovering genetic causes and risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASD has opened new experimental avenues for identifying the underlying neurobiological mechanism of the condition. The bounty of genetic findings has led to a variety of data-driven exploratory analyses aimed at deriving new insights about the shared features of these genes. These approaches leverage data from a variety of different sources such as co-expression in transcriptomic studies, protein-protein interaction networks, Gene Ontologies annotations, or multi-level combinations of all of these. Here, we review the recurrent themes emerging from these analyses and highlight some of the challenges going forward. Themes include findings that ASD associated genes discovered by a variety of methods have been shown to contain disproportionate amounts of neurite outgrowth/cytoskeletal, synaptic, and more recently Wnt-related and chromatin modifying genes. Expression studies have highlighted a disproportionate expression of ASD gene sets during mid fetal cortical development, particularly for rare-variants, with multiple analyses highlighting the striatum and cortical projection and interneurons as well. While these explorations have highlighted potentially interesting relationships among these ASD-related genes, there are challenges in how to best transition these insights into empirically testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, defining shared molecular or cellular pathology downstream of the diverse genes associated with autism spectrum disorders could provide the cornerstones needed to build towards broadly applicable therapeutic approaches.

  4. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart sensors that today’s cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher’s interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  5. New insights into the fouling mechanism of dissolved organic matter applying nanofiltration membranes with a variety of surface chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Wyns, Kenny; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Meynen, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling by DOM remains a major and poorly understood issue. To acquire a better insight we studied the fouling of the DOM fractions humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs), with and without Ca(2+), on native and grafted ceramic NF membranes. Grafting with two methods and three different grafting groups allowed to create a range of membranes with a variety of surface chemistries, and a wide range of surface polarity, much broader than ever used in previous studies. A typical polymer (polyamide) NF membrane was included for comparison. All obtained results reveal that membrane fouling is not determined by membrane hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity as a general and sole criterion, but rather on the whole of the surface chemistry determining the amount and strength of the possible foulant-membrane interactions. As a consequence the effect of inorganic ions on the fouling is also dependent on the surface chemistry. Important new insight in the DOM fouling mechanism was acquired, shedding new light on the state-of-the-art knowledge. PMID:26905798

  6. Study of the oxidation mechanisms between impurities and surfaces applied to the future gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 617, main candidate for the heat exchangers of the gas-cooled next generation of nuclear reactors has been investigated. Two different problems occurring in the cooling system splits the study into two parts. Oxidizing impurities contained in the coolant can cause severe corrosion at 850 C. Radioactive impurities, coming from the fission reaction of the core can, in another hand contaminate the cooling loop and cause radioprotection problem for the maintenance and dismantling operations. Firstly, oxidizing gas partial pressure influence on oxidation of IN 617 at 850 C was investigated varying oxygen and water vapour partial pressure between 1.10-5 mbar and 200 mbar. Oxide layers were characterized using XPS, SEM, EDX, GD-OES, XRD. Influence of partial pressure on layers structure and composition was determined. Effect of water vapour and partial pressure on growth mechanisms were also investigated. The second part of this study is focused on diffusion of Ag, stable isotope of Ag-110m in IN617 alloy and in the oxide layer forming at its surface at 850 C. Concentration profiles were obtained by GD-OES calibrated analysis. Diffusion coefficient could be obtained from these diffusion profiles: volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion coefficients for the diffusion in the alloy, and an apparent diffusion coefficient for the diffusion in the oxide, due to the porosity of the structure. (author)

  7. Modifying the Marketing Mix of Library Services In Accordance With the Market Mechanism (An Applied Study at Jordanian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Anagreh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of this research appeals for the library to be a recreational and scientific organization consistent with the local community, and interacts within the framework of the market mechanism qualifying it to face the challenges of the modern era and as well as creating self-funding library. The traditional presentation of the library services is not in line with the requirements of the marketing concepts. So, the concept of library as service organization has to be modified to meet consumers (customers perceptions of the present generations through highlighting the library as an attractive organization. The development of the activity of the university library requires providing further additional services; such as photocopy services, cinema halls, and entertainment facilities for children, cafeteria, as well as providing the library with natural landscaping scenes and scientific atmospheres that encourage the educational process. Enabling the library to play its leading role as a productive organization in accordance with the ‘’supply and demand mechanism’’ requires also reformulation its marketing mix which allows the library to disseminate knowledge, raise the scientific level of the population categories and delivery of information to the largest number of citizens.

  8. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  9. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  10. Technical approach to resolving issues on rock mechanics as applied to development of a nuclear waste repository in a crystalline rock formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the technical efforts for resolving issues on rock mechanics as applied to development of a nuclear waste repository in a crystalline rock formation. This section provides background information and definitions pertinent to rock mechanics. Section 2.0 presents the rock mechanics issues related to licensing, design, and construction of a waste repository. Section 3.0 presents the technical approach to the resolution of issues and concludes that a multi-faceted approach involving principally site characterization, laboratory testing, numerical modeling and analysis, and in situ testing and monitoring is required. While this technical approach is directed to further scientific understanding and quantification of the phenomena involved accompanying the thermal heating of rock from nuclear waste, it is emphasized that formulation of a design basis for an engineered rock structure will precede the development of a large waste repository. Section 4.0 summarizes the status of resolution activities in the areas of thermomechanical effects, coupled thermal, mechanical, and hydrological phenomena, mine-induced fracturing, mine stability, and seismicity. Section 5.0 gives a concluding statement. Under the present project plans, technical activities are proceeding on multiple fronts involving field, laboratory, and numerical modeling and analysis studies of the important phenomena related to the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The advancement of the state of the art in rock mechanics from these activities will culminate in the risk analysis and the formulation of a design basis for repositories

  11. Exploration on the Practice Teaching of Engineering Mechanics in Applied Undergraduate%应用型本科工程力学实践教学探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊文; 高波

    2012-01-01

    Engineering mechanics is an important basic course in engineering major of applied undergraduate, and the theory is close to practice. According to the training objective of applied undergraduate in our college, the practice teaching is researched on the establishment of content and the scheme of practice teaching, and it will provide a solid foundation for the teaching reform of engineering mechanics.%工程力学是应用型本科工科专业的一门重要专业基础课,也是一门理论与实践紧密结合的课程。结合广东技术师范学院应用型本科人才培养目标,从实践教学内容的设立以及实践教学开展方案两方面进行探讨与研究,为下一步全面实行工程力学教学改革奠定坚实的基础。

  12. Evaluation of mechanical properties and low velocity impact characteristics of balsa wood and urethane foam applied to impact limiter of nuclear spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to evaluate the low velocity impact responses and mechanical properties of balsa wood and urethane foam core materials and their sandwich panels, which are applied as the impact limiter of a nuclear spent fuel shipping cask. For the urethane foam core, which is isotropic, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical tests were conducted. For the balsa wood core, which is orthotropic and shows different material properties in different orthogonal directions, nine mechanical properties were determined. The impact test specimens for the core material and their sandwich panel were subjected to low velocity impact loads using an instrumented testing machine at impact energy levels of 1, 3, and 5J. The experimental results showed that both the urethane foam and the balsa wood core except in the growth direction (z-direction) had a similar impact response for the energy absorbing capacity, contact force, and indentation. Furthermore, it was found that the urethane foam core was suitable as an impact limiter material owing to its resistance to fire and low cost, and the balsa wood core could also be strongly considered as an impact limiter material for a lightweight nuclear spent fuel shipping cask

  13. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  14. Mechanical tension applied to substrate films specifies location of neuritogenesis and promotes major neurite growth at the expense of minor neurite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhang-Qi; Franz, Eric W; Leach, Michelle K; Winterroth, Frank; White, Christina M; Rastogi, Arjun; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Corey, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    One obstacle in neural repair is facilitating axon growth long enough to reach denervated targets. Recent studies show that axonal growth is accelerated by applying tension to bundles of neurites, and additional studies show that mechanical tension is critical to all neurite growth. However, no studies yet describe how individual neurons respond to tensile forces applied to cell bodies and neurites simultaneously; neither do any test motor neurons, a phenotype critical to neural repair. Here we examine the growth of dissociated motor neurons on stretchable substrates. E15 spinal motor neurons were cultured on poly-lactide-co-glycolide films stretched at 4.8, 9.6, or 14.3 mm day(-1). Morphological analysis revealed that substrate stretching has profound effects on developing motor neurons. Stretching increases major neurite length; it also forces neuritogenesis to occur nearest poles of the cell closest to the sources of tension. Stretching also reduces the number of neurites per neuron. These data show that substrate stretching affects neuronal morphology by specifying locations on the cell where neuritogenesis occurs and favoring major neurite growth at the expense of minor neurites. These results serve as a building block for development of new techniques to control and improve the growth of neurons for nerve repair purposes.

  15. Damage mechanics applied to the seismic behavior of concrete structures; Application de la mecanique de l'endommagement pour le comportement de batiments sous seisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavamian, Shahrokh; Bonenfant, J. [NECS, F-92300 Sceaux (France); Jason, L. [CEA Saclay, LM2S, SEMT, DM2S, DEN, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The seismic behavior of reinforced concrete structures is generally evaluated through modal spectral approaches, based on linear elastic analysis. In the case of seismic reevaluation of existing structures using traditional methods, since the nonlinear behavior of materials is not taken into account, these techniques often lead to an overestimation of the needs in reinforcement. In this contribution, it is proposed to highlight how including nonlinearity in the mechanical behavior of concrete and steel can improve the seismic evaluation of RC structures. For this purpose, a pushover technique is applied on an office building. Contrary to a classical approach, the progression of the failure mode and the mechanical degradation can be obtained and used to accurately elaborate the best retrofitting strategy. Some improvements of the constitutive laws are nevertheless needed if the use of this type of approaches is to be extended to more complex structures. However, the maturity of most constitutive models is not enough to allow industrial applications

  16. 乳酸杆菌在畜禽生产中的应用效果%he Mechanism and Effect of Lactobacillus Applied in Animal Feed as Probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 蔡永峰

    2001-01-01

    乳酸杆菌是动物自身肠道中的正常菌株之一,可以通过生物拮抗作用、改善肠道微生物的生态环境、增强肠道上皮细胞的屏障层及提高动物的免疫功能等机制而在畜禽生产中发挥其益生素的作用。许多试验及实际应用都表明了乳酸杆菌作为单一制剂或复合制剂中的一种可以提高畜禽生产性能、发挥预防及治疗腹泻的作用,被国内外公认为有效的益生素。%Lactobacillus is one of the normal microflora in animal intestine. It can exert very important functions through following mechanisms: colonisation resistance, improvement of intestine ecological environment, strengthening epithelial barrier and enhancement of immunity functions, etc. A lot of tests and practical applications have proved that lactobacillus can not only promote animals' growth but also have functions on prevention and treatment of diarrhea. It has been accepted as probiotics applied in animal feed natively and abroad.

  17. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  18. Operation characteristic of a heat pump of mechanical vapor recompression propelled by fans and its performance analysis applied to waste-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weike, Pang; Wenju, Lin; Qilin, Pan; Wenye, Lin; Qunte, Dai; Luwei, Yang; Zhentao, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a set of heat pump (called as Mechanical Vapor Recompression, MVR) propelled by a centrifugal fan is tested and it shows some special characteristic when it works together with a falling film evaporator. Firstly, an analysis of the fan's suction and discharge parameters at stable state, such as its pressure and temperature, indicates that a phenomenon of wet compression is probably to appear during vapor compression. As a result, superheat after saturated vapor is compressed is eliminated, which reduces discharge temperature of the system. It is because drops boil away and absorb the super heat into their latent heat during vapor compression. Meanwhile, drops in the suction vapor add to the compressed vapor, which increase the given heat of the MVR heat pump. Next, assistant electric heat could adjust and keep steady of the operating pressure and temperature of an MVR heat pump. With the evaporation temperature up to be high, heat balance is broken and supplement heat needs to increase. Thirdly, the performance of an MVR heat pump is affect by the balance of falling film and evaporation that has an effect on heat transfer. Then, two parameters standing for the performance are measured as it runs in practical condition. The two important parameters are consumptive electricity power and productive water capacity. According to theoretical work in ideal condition by calculation and fan's input power by measure as running, adiabatic efficiency (ηad) of a centrifugal fan is calculated when it is applied in a heat pump of MVR. Following, based on ηad, practical SMER and COP of an MVR heat pump are discovered to be correlative with it. Finally, in dependence on productive water in theory and in practice, displacement efficiency (ηv) of centrifugal fans is obtained when compressing vapor, and so provide some references of matching a fan for an MVR heat pump. On the other hand, it is helpful to research and develop MVR heat pumps, and also to check

  19. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  20. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  1. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  2. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STEELS, APPLIED FOR PRODUCTION OF CHIPPING KNIVES, RECEIVED BY METHODS OF THERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of chemical composition of chipping knives of foreign and domestic producers are given in the article. Results of mechanical tests of samples with determination of temporary resistance, percentage elongation, ultimate strength at cross bending, bend from the various tool steels, subjected to heat treatment (tempering and thermomechanical processing with low tempering, are given. Recommendations on use of TO and TMO for investigated steels are given.

  4. Metabonomics applied in exploring the antitumour mechanism of physapubenolide on hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting glycolysis through the Akt-p53 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Fan, Bo-Yi; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Hui-Jun; Han, Chao; Gao, Cai-Yun; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics can be used to identify potential markers and discover new targets for future therapeutic interventions. Here, we developed a novel application of the metabonomics method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) for rapidly exploring the anticancer mechanism of physapubenolide (PB), a cytotoxic withanolide isolated from Physalis species. PB inhibited the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by apoptosis-related biochemical events, including the cleavage of caspase-3/7/9 and PARP. Metabolic profiling analysis revealed that PB disturbed the metabolic pattern and significantly decreased lactate production. This suggests that the suppression of glycolysis plays an important role in the anti-tumour effects induced by PB, which is further supported by the decreased expression of glycolysis-related genes and proteins. Furthermore, the increased level of p53 and decreased expression of p-Akt were observed, and the attenuated glycolysis and enhanced apoptosis were reversed in the presence of Akt cDNA or p53 siRNA. These results confirm that PB exhibits anti-cancer activities through the Akt-p53 pathway. Our study not only reports for the first time the anti-tumour mechanism of PB, but also suggests that PB is a promising therapeutic agent for use in cancer treatments and that metabolomic approaches provide a new strategy to effectively explore the molecular mechanisms of promising anticancer compounds. PMID:27416811

  5. pH recycling aqueous two-phase systems applied in extraction of Maitake β-Glucan and mechanism analysis using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huiyun; Cao, Xuejun

    2015-07-31

    In this paper, a recycling aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on two pH-response copolymers PADB and PMDM were used in purification of β-Glucan from Grifola frondosa. The main parameters, such as polymer concentration, type and concentration of salt, extraction temperature and pH, were investigated to optimize partition conditions. The results demonstrated that β-Glucan was extracted into PADB-rich phase, while impurities were extracted into PMDM-rich phase. In this 2.5% PADB/2.5% PMDM ATPS, 7.489 partition coefficient and 96.92% extraction recovery for β-Glucan were obtained in the presence of 30mmol/L KBr, at pH 8.20, 30°C. The phase-forming copolymers could be recycled by adjusting pH, with recoveries of over 96.0%. Furthermore, the partition mechanism of Maitake β-Glucan in PADB/PMDM aqueous two-phase systems was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectra, ForteBio Octet system and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) were introduced for elucidating the partition mechanism of β-Glucan. Especially, LF-NMR was firstly used in the mechanism analysis in partition of aqueous two-phase systems. The change of transverse relaxation time (T2) in ATPS could reflect the interaction between polymers and β-Glucan.

  6. A review of the mechanical stressors efficiency applied to the ultra-thin body & buried oxide fully depleted silicon on insulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pierre; Maitrejean, Sylvain; Allibert, Frederic; Augendre, Emmanuel; Liu, Qing; Loubet, Nicolas; Grenouillet, Laurent; Pofelski, Alexandre; Chen, Kangguo; Khakifirooz, Ali; Wacquez, Romain; Reboh, Shay; Bonnevialle, Aurore; le Royer, Cyrille; Morand, Yves; Kanyandekwe, Joel; Chanemougamme, Daniel; Mignot, Yann; Escarabajal, Yann; Lherron, Benoit; Chafik, Fadoua; Pilorget, Sonia; Caubet, Pierre; Vinet, Maud; Clement, Laurent; Desalvo, Barbara; Doris, Bruce; Kleemeier, Walter

    2016-03-01

    This paper reviews the different stressor techniques used in microelectronics, in the scope of the Ultra-Thin Body & Buried Oxide Fully-Depleted Silicon On Insulator technology (UTBB FD-SOI). We compare the mechanical efficiency of the various stressors and present the impact of device dimensions (active area, gate length and pitch) on their efficiency. Our study emphasizes the high efficiency, for the FD-SOI technology, of the intrinsically strained channels, compared to the traditional embedded raised source/drain and contact-etch stop liner. With these techniques FD-SOI technology has already demonstrated channel stress higher than 1.5 GPa for n type transistor and -2.3 GPa for the p type devices and we envision channel stress values up to ±3 GPa for n and p transistor channel, respectively. This performance is partly due to the mechanical configuration of intrinsically strained channels, in parallel mode rather than in serial mode as for the previous generation of stressors, which makes them less sensitive to the scaling of the contacted gate pitch. We also highlight another key element the high mechanical stability of the UTBB technology, related to the limited channel thickness (around 6 nm) which enables achieving highly stressed channel without substantial adaptation of the integration flows.

  7. Modeling and simulation of three dimensional manipulations of biological micro/nanoparticles by applying cylindrical contact mechanics models by means of AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korayem, M. H., E-mail: hkorayem@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saraee, M. B. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, Z.; Dehghani, S. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    This paper has attempted to investigate the effective forces in 3D manipulation of biological micro/nano particles. Most of the recent researches have only examined 2D spherical geometries but in this paper, the cylindrical geometries, which are much closer to the real geometries, were considered. For achieving a more accurate modeling, manipulation dynamics was also considered to be three dimensional which have been done for the first time. Because of the sensibility to the amount of endurable applied forces, manipulation process of biological micro/nano particles has some restrictions. Therefore, applied forces exerted on the particles in all different directions were simulated in order to restrict all those possible damages cause by operator of the AFM. Those data from simulated forces will bring a more accurate and sensible understanding for the operator to operate. For the validation of results, the proposed model was compared with the model presented for manipulation of gold nanoparticle and then, by reducing the effective parameters in the 3D manipulation, the results were compared with those obtained for the 2D cylindrical model and with the experimental results of spherical nanoparticle in the 2D manipulation.

  8. Modeling and simulation of three dimensional manipulations of biological micro/nanoparticles by applying cylindrical contact mechanics models by means of AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has attempted to investigate the effective forces in 3D manipulation of biological micro/nano particles. Most of the recent researches have only examined 2D spherical geometries but in this paper, the cylindrical geometries, which are much closer to the real geometries, were considered. For achieving a more accurate modeling, manipulation dynamics was also considered to be three dimensional which have been done for the first time. Because of the sensibility to the amount of endurable applied forces, manipulation process of biological micro/nano particles has some restrictions. Therefore, applied forces exerted on the particles in all different directions were simulated in order to restrict all those possible damages cause by operator of the AFM. Those data from simulated forces will bring a more accurate and sensible understanding for the operator to operate. For the validation of results, the proposed model was compared with the model presented for manipulation of gold nanoparticle and then, by reducing the effective parameters in the 3D manipulation, the results were compared with those obtained for the 2D cylindrical model and with the experimental results of spherical nanoparticle in the 2D manipulation

  9. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  10. Effectiveness of the mechanical excitation applied to the olive paste: possible improving of the oil yield, in malaxation phase, by vibration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Gallina Toschi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical vibrations characterized by a frequency lower than 200 Hz could promote the cells breakage and improve the oil extraction process by avoiding, at the same time, the negative effects on the commercial qualitative parameters due to the use of the heating during malaxation. Vibration tests were conducted by means of an electrodynamic shaker in order to find the optimal frequency levels of excitation, able to put in a resonant condition the olive paste. Sinusoidal accelerations at constant acceleration (120 m/s2, in a range between 5 and 200 Hz were explored. The 50 Hz and 80 Hz frequencies were able to put in resonant condition the olive paste. In the vibrated samples at 50 Hz (15 min of treatment, the maximum increment of the extraction efficiency (about 53% in comparison with the control, was observed. Further studies could be conducted in order to assess the synergic effect of the mechanical vibrations and the malaxation on the oil extraction efficiency, with the aim of reducing the time of the whole phase and avoiding changes in the oil quality traits.

  11. An investigation of the constitutive relations for intersubchannel transfer mechanisms in horizontal flows as applied in the ASSERT-4 subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the influence that the constitutive relations used to represent some of the intersubchannel transfer mechanisms has on the predictions of the ASSERT-4 subchannel code for horizontal flows is examined. In particular the choices made in the representation of the gravity driven phase separation phenomena are analyzed. This is done by comparing the predictions of the ASSERT subchannel code with experimental data on void fraction and mass flow rate, obtained for two horizontal interconnected subchannels. ASSERT uses a drift flux model which allows the two phases to have different velocities. In particular ASSERT contains models for the buoyancy effects which cause phase separation between adjacent subchannels in horizontal flows. This feature, which is of great importance in the subchannel analysis of CANDU reactors, is implemented in the constitutive relationship for the relative velocity. In order to isolate different intersubchannel transfer mechanisms, three different subchannel orientations are analyzed. These are the two subchannels at the same elevation, the high void subchannel below the low void subchannel, and the high void subchannel above the low void subchannel. It is observed that for all three subchannel orientations ASSERT does a reasonably good job of predicting the experimental trends. However, certain modifications to the representation of the gravitational phase separation effects which seem to improve the overall predictions are suggested. ((orig.))

  12. Congestion based mechanism for route discovery in a V2I-V2V system applying smart devices and IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Natalia; Donoso, Yezid

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things is a new paradigm in which objects in a specific context can be integrated into traditional communication networks to actively participate in solving a determined problem. The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) technologies are specific cases of IoT and key enablers for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). V2V and V2I have been widely used to solve different problems associated with transportation in cities, in which the most important is traffic congestion. A high percentage of congestion is usually presented by the inappropriate use of resources in vehicular infrastructure. In addition, the integration of traffic congestion in decision making for vehicular traffic is a challenge due to its high dynamic behavior. In this paper, an optimization model over the load balancing in the congestion percentage of the streets is formulated. Later, we explore a fully congestion-oriented route discovery mechanism and we make a proposal on the communication infrastructure that should support it based on V2I and V2V communication. The mechanism is also compared with a modified Dijkstra's approach that reacts at congestion states. Finally, we compare the results of the efficiency of the vehicle's trip with the efficiency in the use of the capacity of the vehicular network. PMID:25835185

  13. Congestion Based Mechanism for Route Discovery in a V2I-V2V System Applying Smart Devices and IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is a new paradigm in which objects in a specific context can be integrated into traditional communication networks to actively participate in solving a determined problem. The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I technologies are specific cases of IoT and key enablers for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. V2V and V2I have been widely used to solve different problems associated with transportation in cities, in which the most important is traffic congestion. A high percentage of congestion is usually presented by the inappropriate use of resources in vehicular infrastructure. In addition, the integration of traffic congestion in decision making for vehicular traffic is a challenge due to its high dynamic behavior. In this paper, an optimization model over the load balancing in the congestion percentage of the streets is formulated. Later, we explore a fully congestion-oriented route discovery mechanism and we make a proposal on the communication infrastructure that should support it based on V2I and V2V communication. The mechanism is also compared with a modified Dijkstra’s approach that reacts at congestion states. Finally, we compare the results of the efficiency of the vehicle’s trip with the efficiency in the use of the capacity of the vehicular network.

  14. Congestion based mechanism for route discovery in a V2I-V2V system applying smart devices and IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Natalia; Donoso, Yezid

    2015-03-31

    The Internet of Things is a new paradigm in which objects in a specific context can be integrated into traditional communication networks to actively participate in solving a determined problem. The Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) technologies are specific cases of IoT and key enablers for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). V2V and V2I have been widely used to solve different problems associated with transportation in cities, in which the most important is traffic congestion. A high percentage of congestion is usually presented by the inappropriate use of resources in vehicular infrastructure. In addition, the integration of traffic congestion in decision making for vehicular traffic is a challenge due to its high dynamic behavior. In this paper, an optimization model over the load balancing in the congestion percentage of the streets is formulated. Later, we explore a fully congestion-oriented route discovery mechanism and we make a proposal on the communication infrastructure that should support it based on V2I and V2V communication. The mechanism is also compared with a modified Dijkstra's approach that reacts at congestion states. Finally, we compare the results of the efficiency of the vehicle's trip with the efficiency in the use of the capacity of the vehicular network.

  15. Some Essential Issues Not to be Ignored in Applying the Viscoelastic Mechanical Models of Polymers(Ⅱ)——In Applying Voigt-Kelvin Model and Four-element Model to Simulate the Mechanical Relaxation Phenomena%高聚物黏弹性力学模型计算中容易被忽视的基本问题(Ⅱ)——有关Voigt-Kelvin模型和四元件模型的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平平; 何平笙; 杨海洋

    2013-01-01

    以高分子物理教学中的几道典型习题及解析为例,阐述了在应用黏弹性力学模型模拟高聚物力学松弛现象时,不能忽视的一些基本问题.%Based on several typical exercises and analysis in the teaching of "Polymer Physics" as examples,it was illustrated in this paper that some essential issues are not to be ignored in applying the viscoelastic mechanical models to simulate the mechanical relaxation phenomena of polymers.

  16. Evaluation of chemical and mechanical resistance of virgin and recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate and poly(methylene oxide when applied as gravel pack in petroleum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Zacarias Ignácio Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNowadays more and more unexpected uses for common materials have been observed, especially when recycled polymers are concerned. In this work, the viability for application of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (PETvir and PETrec, respectively and also poly(methylene oxide (PMO as granular materials (gravel for gravel packing in sand control systems for unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs was studied. Polymer samples were tested in conditions similar to those observed in Campos Basin sandstone formations, in Brazilian Southwest (70 °C and 24.1 MPa. Samples were individually confined in roller cells with chemicals used in formation treatment: hydrochloric acid, pentapotassic DTPA salt (chelant Trilon CK and in a mixture of diesel, xylene and butyl glycol. Mass loss was measured and the changes in molecular mass verified by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Physical shape and grain size distribution were verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and sieving tests. The effects over the polymeric gravel pack confinement resistance and permeability were evaluated using an API permeability cell. PMO proved to have a limited use, whereas PETrec and PETvir samples were not significantly affected, suggesting the viability of applying that recycled polymer in gravel packing for sand control in petroleum wells.

  17. Study of Mechanical Features for Low Cycle Fatigue Samples of Metastable Austenitic Steel AISI 321 by Neutron Stress Analysis under Applied Load

    CERN Document Server

    Taran, Yu V; Eifler, D; Nebel, Th; Schreiber, J

    2002-01-01

    The elastoplastic properties of the austenitic matrix and martensitic volume areas induced during cyclic tensile-compressive loading of low carbon metastable austenitic stainless steel were studied in an in situ neutron diffraction stress rig experiment on the ENGIN instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron facility. Samples prepared from the steel AISI 321 annealed at 1050 ^{\\circ}C and quenched in water were subjected to low-cycle fatigue under total-strain control with an amplitude of 1 % at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Subsequent applied stress?elastic strain responses of the austenitic and martensitic phases were obtained by Rietveld and Le Bail refinements of the neutron diffraction spectra, and were used to determine the elastic constants of the phases as a function of fatigue level. The results of modified refinements accounting for the elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline materials under load are also presented. The residual strains in the austenitic matrix were determined as a function of fatigue cycling, us...

  18. Systemic structural modular generalization of the crystallography of bound water applied to study the mechanisms of processes in biosystems at the atomic and molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main reasons of the modern scientific revolution, one of the consequences of which are nanotechnologies and the development of interdisciplinary overall natural science (which can build potentially possible atomic structures and study the mechanisms of the processes occurring in them), are considered. The unifying role of crystallography in the accumulation of interdisciplinary knowledge is demonstrated. This generalization of crystallography requires the introduction of a new concept: a module which reflects the universal condition for stability of all real and potential and equilibrium and nonequilibrium structures of matter (their connectivity). A modular generalization of crystallography covers all forms of solids, including the structure of bound water (a system-forming matrix for the self-organization and morphogenesis of hierarchical biosystems which determines the metric selection of all other structural components of these systems). A dynamic model of the water surface layer, which serves as a matrix in the formation of Langmuir monolayers and plays a key role in the occurrence of life on the Earth, is developed.

  19. Analysis on the Feasibility of Applying AIS-HMM Hybrid Model to Mechanical Fault Diagnosis System%机械故障诊断系统中应用 AIS-HMM混合模型的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王征录

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical faults are difficult problems confronted by many companies, especially some manufacturing companies which will be affected when facing mechanical faults. Without ef-fective elimination of mechanical faults, greater losses will occur. Currently, there have been a lot of methods to diagnose mechani-cal faults, but with the continuous invention of large-sized ma-chines, machines have become increasingly complicated, leading to more and more difficult diagnosis of mechanical faults, so tra-ditional diagnosis methods can no longer effectively solve the faults of some large-sized mechanical systems. Artificial Immune System (AIS for short) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM for short) can both be applied to mechanical fault diagnosis system, but they have deficiencies in practical application, then whether can AIS and HMM be combined of applying to mechanical fault diagnosis? This paper will analyze the feasibility to apply AIS-HMM hybrid model to mechanical fault diagnosis. If AIS-HMM hybrid model is effectively applied to mechanical fault diagnosis, it will greatly improve the efficiency of mechanical fault diagnosis.%机械故障是很多企业都面临的一个难题,尤其是一些生产企业,当机械出现故障时,就会对生产或经营产生影响。当机械故障不能够有效地解决,带来的损失也将会更大。目前已经有很多机械故障的诊断方法,但随着大型机械的不断出现,机械变得越来越复杂,机械故障的诊断也越来越难,传统的诊断方法已经不能够很好地解决一些大型机械系统的故障。人工免疫系统(Artificial Immune System,简称 AIS)和隐马尔科夫模型(Hidden Markov Models,简称HMM)在机械故障诊断系统中都可以应用,但它们在应用的时候都存在有不足,那么是否能够将 AIS 和 HMM 结合起来应用在机械故障的诊断当中呢?本文将对在机械故障诊断中应用 AIS-HMM 混合模型的可行性进行

  20. Quantification of left ventricular mechanics using vector-velocity imaging, a novel feature tracking algorithm, applied to echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peng; MENG Hong; LIU Shi-zhen; Mani A Vannan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the non-invasive golden standard to measure myocardial deformity.Tissue Doppler Imaging can be used to assess myocardial deformity,however,it has the limitation of angle-dependence.Our study aimed to compare left ventricular torsion and strains measured by velocity-vector imaging (VVI) using echocardiography (echo-VVI) and MRI (MRI-VVI),and to validate them against harmonic phase tagged MRI (HARP MRI).Methods A total number of 34 subjects (14 normal and 20 patients) were evaluated.Apical and basal image of left ventricular short axis view were acquired for measurements of apical and basal rotation.circumferential and radial strain using both echo-VVI and MRI-VVl.An apical four-chamber view was obtained for measuring the distance between the apical and basal levels.Results The correlations of segmental rotations,circumferential and radial strains were high between echo-VVI and HARP MRI,while the agreement of apical rotation was poor.Left ventricular torsion showed much better correlation and agreement between echo-VVI and HARP MRI than apical rotation:the coefficient was 0.97,P <0.001.The correlation between MRI-VVI and HARP MRI in quantifying rotational parameters and strains was similar with echo-VVI and HARP MRI.Echo-VVI could discriminate normal and dysfunctional ventricles on either hypertensive or dilated cardiomyopathy.Conclusion The data from this study show that (1) it is feasible to quantify left ventricular torsion and myocardial strain using echo-VVI and MRI-VVI in normal subjects,patients with left ventricular global systolic dysfunction and segment systolic dysfunction; (2) the agreement among all mechanical parameters derived from echo-VVl,MRI-VVI,and HARP MRI remained with clinically acceptable ranges.

  1. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  2. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  3. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  4. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  5. The Practical Exploration of Emotional Arousal Mechanism for Applying to Higher Vocational Teaching%将情绪唤醒机制运用于高职教学中的实践探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙嫘

    2012-01-01

    针对高职学生的认知特点,情绪唤醒作用机制在高职教学中的运用具有非常重要的意义。引入情绪唤醒机制有助于改善学生在学习抽象知识内容时的理解力和记忆力,能提升学生的自主学习能力和解决问题的能力。在应用中,要有效运用教学手段调动学生情绪,引导学生注意力;注重突出形象思维优势来强化学生记忆;有意识运用负面情绪素材进行唤醒。%Based on the cognitive characteristics of college students,emotional arousal functional mechanism has a very important significance on higher vocational teaching.Bringing in emotional arousal mechanism can be good for improving students' understanding and memory when they learn abstract knowledge.It can increase students' autonomous learning ability and solving-problem ability.In its application it should effectively apply teaching method to transfer students' emotion and guide students' attention.It can pay attention to image thought advantage for strengthening students' memory,and apply negative emotion to arouse consciously.

  6. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kum, O.

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (u{rho}) and (T{rho}), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.

  7. Topics in Applied Continuum Mechanics : Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, F

    1974-01-01

    THE FOUNDATIONS OF THERMOELASTICITY-EXPERIMENTS AND THEORY (A. PHILLIPS) 1. Introduction 2. The initial yield surface 4 3. The subsequent yield surface 6 4. Some theoretical consequences 10 References 13 ON THE PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS OF SELF-STRESSES (E. KRONER) 1. Introduction 22 2. The physical origin of the self-stresses 23 3. Formulation of the mathematical problem of self-stresses 27 4. The method of modified Green's functions 30 5. Concluding remarks 35 References 38 DISTORTION IN MICROPOLAR ELASTICITY (W. NOWACKI) 1. Fundamental relations and equations 39 2. Principle of virtual work 42 3. Theorem of minimum of the complimentary work 43 • 4. Reciprocity theorem 44 5. Equations in displacements and rotations 47 6. Compatibility equations 51 References 57 THE YIELD CRITERION IN THE GENERAL CASE OF NONHOMOGENEOUS STRESS AND DEFORMATION FIELDS (J. A. KONIG and W. OLSZAK) 1. Introduction 58 2. The plasticity condition 61 3. Special cases of the yield condition 62 4. Example: Pure bending 63 5. Criteria f...

  8. 将机械式直线加速器用于采油机械的设想%An idea of applying mechanical linear accelerator to oil pumping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽峰; 李少果; 黄清世

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical linear accelerator is a new transmission devicedesigned on the basis of the parallel straight push rod linear reducer. To make use of its acceleration and stroke increment functions, an idea of applying the mechanical linear accelerator to oil pumping system is put forward. The design schemes for long stroke pumping unit and downhole stroke increment device both equipped with the mechanical linear accelerator are presented. The long stroke pumping unit with the linear accelerator is easy to realize compound balance and is predicted to have high mechanical efficiency and long service life. The downhole stroke increment device with the linear accelerator can increase the stroke of the subsurface pump plunger, therefore it provides the condition for modifying the existing pumping systems to long stroke pumping systems.%机械式直线加速器是根据平行直动推杆传动机构设计而成的新型传动装置,利用其加速和增程功能,提出两种采取对称布置的直线加速器实现长冲程、低冲次的抽油装置设计新方案:(1)采用直线加速器的长冲程抽油机,其结构合理,便于实现复合平衡,预计有较高的机械效率和较长的使用寿命;(2)采用直线加速器的抽油机井下增程装置,可使地面设备结构紧凑,比同类型长冲程抽油机的悬点载荷相对较低,对现有抽油机实施长冲程改造有着重要的实际意义。

  9. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  10. Effects of temperature and Al-concentration on formation mechanism of an aluminide coating applied on superalloy IN738LC through a single step low activity gas diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, H., E-mail: H_rafiee@metaleng.iust.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabi, H. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Processing (CEAMP), School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, IUST (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rastegari, S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-08-27

    Effects of temperature and Al-concentration on formation mechanism of aluminide coating applied on a nickel base superalloy IN738LC via low activity gas phase aluminizing process was studied in this research. In addition, coating microstructures were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopes; EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results showed by increasing the temperature from 850 {sup o}C to 1050 {sup o}C, formation mechanism of the coating changed. At 850 {sup o}C coating formed by inward diffusion of Al, and at 1050 {sup o}C it was initially formed by inward diffusion of Al, followed by outward diffusion of Ni. The coating layer in the sample coated at 1050 {sup o}C using low activity powder consisted of 4 wt% Al and 2 wt% activator, grown outward, while the coating obtained under other conditions grown inward. By increasing the amount of the Al from 2 wt% to 4 wt% and the activator from 1 wt% to 2 wt% in low activity powder mixture, the concentration of diffused Al in the top NiAl layer decreased sufficiently; so that the top layers gradually became rich in Ni from its interface with interdiffusion zone (IDZ). This process finally can lead to annihilation of NiAl phase rich in Al and form a layer of NiAl rich in Ni on the surface layer of the sample.

  11. Effects of temperature and Al-concentration on formation mechanism of an aluminide coating applied on superalloy IN738LC through a single step low activity gas diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of temperature and Al-concentration on formation mechanism of aluminide coating applied on a nickel base superalloy IN738LC via low activity gas phase aluminizing process was studied in this research. In addition, coating microstructures were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopes; EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results showed by increasing the temperature from 850 oC to 1050 oC, formation mechanism of the coating changed. At 850 oC coating formed by inward diffusion of Al, and at 1050 oC it was initially formed by inward diffusion of Al, followed by outward diffusion of Ni. The coating layer in the sample coated at 1050 oC using low activity powder consisted of 4 wt% Al and 2 wt% activator, grown outward, while the coating obtained under other conditions grown inward. By increasing the amount of the Al from 2 wt% to 4 wt% and the activator from 1 wt% to 2 wt% in low activity powder mixture, the concentration of diffused Al in the top NiAl layer decreased sufficiently; so that the top layers gradually became rich in Ni from its interface with interdiffusion zone (IDZ). This process finally can lead to annihilation of NiAl phase rich in Al and form a layer of NiAl rich in Ni on the surface layer of the sample.

  12. Exploration on Soil Mechanics Experimental Teaching Method for Applied Undergraduate Institute%应用型本科院校土力学实验教学方法探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎春林

    2014-01-01

    According to teaching demands of soil mechanics in applied undergraduate institute, some reforming measures about the experimental teaching objectives, teaching method and evaluation policy are taken in soil mechanics. Comprehensive experiment and designing experiment are paid more attention to. In the course of the experiment, engineering practice and developing innovatory ability are given prominence. And student performance is appreciated throughout the experiment. Thanks to the teaching reform, students' enthusiasm for learning and engineering application abilities are promoted during the experiment.%根据应用型本科院校土力学实验的教学要求,对土力学实验课程的教学目标、教学方式和课程评价方法进行了改革,增加了综合性实验和设计性实验,在实验过程中突出工程实践,鼓励学生创新,在教学评价上重视学生在实验过程中的表现,激发学生的学习热情,促进学生工程应用能力的培养。

  13. 应用型本科院校材料力学实验教学改革的探讨%Exploration and practice of the reform in the experimental teaching of material mechanics in applied undergraduate colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱街禄; 兰美娟

    2015-01-01

    针对应用型本科院校材料力学实验教学的现状,提出了重视验证性实验改进实验课程的教学方法和教学模式、加强实验室的建设、建立科学合理的实验考核方式等教学改革措施,以提高学生学习的积极性,为后续课程打下较好的力学基础。%In light of material mechanics experiment teaching status of applied undergraduate colleges,the paper puts forward teaching reform methods,such as emphasizing testing experiment,improving experiment curriculum teaching method and teaching mode,strengthening laboratory construction,and establishing scientific and rational experiment assessment methods,with a view to improve students’learning activity,which has laid a foundation for continuous mechanics learning.

  14. Calibração da técnica de moiré aplicada a perfilometria de protótipos mecânicos Calibration method applied to a moiré technique in experiments of mechanical archetypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Seabra Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A perfilometria é uma técnica amplamente utilizada na construção de mapas e gráficos de relevos aplicados a uma vasta área do conhecimento. Frente às necessidades de suprir a demanda da indústria e da área de desenvolvimento de protótipos quanto a técnicas não invasivas na investigação da superfície de materiais em geral, o presente trabalho buscou propor uma metodologia de calibração aplicada à técnica de moiré para investigações perfilométricas em protótipos mecânicos buscando baixos custos e flexibilidade. A técnica de moiré consiste na comparação de dois retículos periódicos, onde um segue o comportamento da superfície do objeto (retículo modelo - Rm e outro não está deformado, seguindo o comportamento de um plano de referência, (retículo de referência - Rr. A luz que passa entre os retículos se sobrepõe formando padrões de moiré ou franjas de moiré que se comportam como ondas senoidais. Nos ensaios de calibração, usou-se um cone de relevo conhecido para a determinação de uma constante de correção de mapas gerados digitalmente. Os ensaios realizados aplicaram a metodologia para a determinação do perfil de um mouse de computador e para a determinação da deformação de uma chapa metálica. A metodologia proposta para a calibração da técnica de moiré mostrouse capaz de realizar os mapeamentos, com resolução máxima na ordem de centésimos de milímetros, podendo então ser usada em aplicações com níveis de precisão inferiores a essa ordem.Profilometry is a measurement technique widely used in map and relief graphic construction, being applied to vast areas of knowledge. The aim of the present investigation was to introduce a calibration method applied to a moiré technique in experiments of mechanical archetypes, with low cost and flexibility, due to the need for supplying demands from both industry and mechanical archetype development for non-invasive techniques. The moir

  15. Study on Wireless Mesh Network Applied to Remote Monitoring and Control of Electromechanical Equipment in Fully Mechanized Coal Mining Face%无线Mesh网络在综采面机电设备远程监控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓刚; 王忠宾; 周信

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the remote control of the electromechanical equipment applied to the fully mechanized coal mining face, the paper analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the wire industrial ethernet, traditional wireless communication way and the new technical Zigbee and others applied to the underground mine. The research and development of the intrinsic safe wireless network system was provided based on the wireless Mesh technology and a wireless Mesh network was established for the electromechanical equipment of the fully mechanized coal mining face. The paper stated the design principle and operation theory of the general frame and the nodes. The industrial trial results from No. 2 Mine of Pingdingshan Coal Mining Group showed that according to the length and slope of the coal mining face, a certain amount of wireless Mesh switchboards was selected. The critical value of the received signal strength would be -85 dBm. The distance between the Mesh switchboards was adjusted and generally the disposable distance between the two Mesh switchboards would not be over 66 m. The antenna of the switchboard should be installed in horizontal or upward. Thus the wireless Mesh network would have excellent communication effect in the fully mechanized coal mining face and could meet the requirements of the performances data and video transmission of the electromechanical equipment.%为了实现煤矿综采工作面机电装备的远程监控,分析了有线工业以太网、传统无线通信方式及新型技术Zigbee等在煤矿井下应用的优缺点;提出基于无线Mesh技术研发本安型无线网络系统;构建了煤矿综采工作面机电设备的无线Mesh网络;阐述了其总体架构、节点的设计原则及其工作原理.在平煤股份二矿进行的工业性试验结果表明:根据工作面的长度和坡度,选择一定数量的无线Mesh交换机,以接收信号强度-85 dBm为临界点,调整Mesh交换机之间的距离,一般以任意2个

  16. Clinical effect of shallow suction applied in mechanical ventilation in premature infants%浅层吸痰在机械通气早产患儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秋月; 谭芬养; 袁碧丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of shallow suction applied in mechanical ventilation in premature infants,to provide true reference and basis for clinical nursing practice and research in preterm infants. Methods:60 patients with mechanical ventilation of premature infants were randomly divid-ed into experimental group and control group,the control group used the traditional deep sputum suction,while the experimental group used shallow suction. Compared the two sputum drainage methods of clinical the actual effect. Results:In experimental group suction oxygen saturation after 3min was significantly higher than the control group,vital signs (heart rate,respiration,blood pressure) compared with the control group,stable,sputum suction related complica-tions in irritability,vomiting,airway mucosal injury incidence was significantly lower than the control group,the difference has statistical significance (P <0. 05). Conclusion:Using shallow suction can effectively clean premature airway sputum,improve the blood oxygen saturation,reduce the impact on the vital signs,reduce phlegm suction related complications,improve the prognosis of the patients,has good clinical effect,especially suitable for the clinical applica-tion of mechanical ventilation in premature infants.%目的::探讨浅层吸痰在机械通气早产患儿中的应用效果,为早产儿临床研究提供真实的依据。方法:将2012年8月~2014年2月本院60例机械通气早产儿随机等分为试验组与对照组,对照组采用传统深层吸痰,试验组采用浅层吸痰,比较两种吸痰方法的临床效果。结果:试验组吸痰3 min 后患儿血氧饱和度较对照组升高,生命体征(心率、呼吸、血压)较对照组平稳,吸痰相关并发症中烦躁、呕吐、气道黏膜损伤的发生率低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:采用浅层吸痰可有效清理早产儿的气道痰液,提高其血氧饱和度,减少

  17. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  18. Comportamiento Mecánico de Grietas No Coplanares en Tubos Aplicando el Método de los Elementos Finitos/[title] [title language=en]Mechanical Behavior of Non-Coplanar Cracks in Pipes Applying the Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morales

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan grietas del tipo planar formadas a diferentes profundidades del espesor del tubo y que generalmente son causadas por el agrietamiento inducido por hidrógeno. Se modeló la interacción de grietas presurizadas contenidas en la pared del tubo con presión interna previas a su coalescencia, variando el radio de los defectos. Se aplicó el método de los elementos finitos en condiciones no lineales del material bajo la ley de endurecimiento isotrópico y considerando las propiedades del material (API 5L-X52. Los resultados indican la evolución de los campos de esfuerzos y deformaciones en el área de puntas de grieta en función de la presión del defecto. Defectos menores a 38.1 mm resisten una presión de 70 hasta 124 MPa, y mayores de 63.5 mm afectan severamente la integridad mecánica. La función de la presión critica que soportan grietas simétricas es de tipo potencial y esta presión produce la interacción que plastifica la región entre las grietas, previamente al escalonamientoPlanar-type cracks formed at different depths within tube walls, which are generally caused by hydrogen-induced cracking were analyzed. Modeling was carried out on the interaction of pressurized cracks contained within the tube wall with internal pressure prior to their coalescence, varying the radius of the defects. The finite elements method was applied under non-linear conditions of the material following the isotropic hardening law and considering the properties of the material (API 5L-X52. The results suggested the evolution of stress fields and deformations in the crack tips area as a function of the pressure of the defect. Defects of less than 38.1 mm resist a pressure of 70 to 124 MPa, and those larger than 63.5 mm severely affect the mechanical integrity. The function of the critical pressure supported by symmetrical cracks is of the potential type, and this pressure produces the interaction which plastifies the region among the cracks, prior

  19. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  20. Study of the main regulatory mechanisms to encourage renewable and alternative energy applied internationally and in Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos regulatorios de incentivo as fontes renovaveis e alternativas de energia aplicados internacionalmente e no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Juliana M.C.; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Emails: jumcm@fem.unicamp.br, cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The investment in renewable and alternative energy sources has been stimulated by some countries in Europe and Americas through the introduction of encouragement regulatory mechanisms. This paper considers the most important international mechanisms such as Feed-in System, Tender System and Quota System with green certificates. In Brazil, there are three regulatory mechanisms in course: PROINFA, the 1. Tender of Renewable and 1. Tender Reserve. The carried out preliminary analysis made possible to classify PROINFA as a mechanism similar to Feed-in, while the auction of Renewable and Reserve are more like an auction system. This article points out the differences and similarities between the instruments and gives a preliminary analysis of their effectiveness, emphasizing national mechanisms, especially regarding the criteria for capacity increase and cost reduction of the technological bands, such as for biomass and small hydroelectric. (author)

  1. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  2. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  3. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  4. What are applied ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  5. Applied statistics: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D R

    2007-01-01

    The main phases of applied statistical work are discussed in general terms. The account starts with the clarification of objectives and proceeds through study design, measurement and analysis to interpretation. An attempt is made to extract some general notions.

  6. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  7. Applied Mathematics Seminar 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the abstracts of the lectures delivered at 1982 Applied Mathematics Seminar of the DPD/LCC/CNPq and Colloquy on Applied Mathematics of LCC/CNPq. The Seminar comprised 36 conferences. Among these, 30 were presented by researchers associated to brazilian institutions, 9 of them to the LCC/CNPq, and the other 6 were given by visiting lecturers according to the following distribution: 4 from the USA, 1 from England and 1 from Venezuela. The 1981 Applied Mathematics Seminar was organized by Leon R. Sinay and Nelson do Valle Silva. The Colloquy on Applied Mathematics was held from october 1982 on, being organized by Ricardo S. Kubrusly and Leon R. Sinay. (Author)

  8. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Help us raise awareness and ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2013 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  9. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  10. Continuum mechanical and computational aspects of phase field elasticity as applied to phase transitions and fracture. Final report: DE-FG02-97ER25318, June 1, 1997 - May 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E.

    2001-04-20

    The central focus of the research carried out under this grant is the application of continuum mechanics to materials science, specifically to the macroscopic characterization of material behavior at small length scales. Specifically, research was carried out in the following general areas: dislocations in solids; point defects in liquid crystals; dynamic fracture; diffusional phase transitions in deformable solids; incoherent phase interfaces; phase field simulations of twinning and coarsening in solids; crystal plasticity; microforce theories for diffusion and recrystallization; granular flow.

  11. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  12. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  13. 1st National Mechanics Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Nieuwstadt, F

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Applied Mechanics of the Royal Institution of Engineers in the Netherlands (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs) organised on April 2-4, 1990 the first National Applied Mechanics Congress about the theme: "Integration of Theory and Applications in Applied Mechanics" The idea behind this initiative was to bring together the Applied Mechanics communities in The Netherlands and Belgium and to create an environment in which new developments in the field could be discussed and in which connections to other disciplines could be established. Among an extensive list of possible subjects the following were selected as congress topics: - non-linear material behaviour, - chaos, - mechatronics, - liquid-solid interactions, - mathematics and applied mechanics, - integration of Applied Mechanics and other disciplines. Applied Mechanics comprises both solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. These can be subdivided further into: rheology, plasticity, theory of plates and shells, theory of elasticity, multibody...

  14. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  15. Effects of temperature and Al-concentration on formation mechanism of an aluminide coating applied on super alloy IN738LC through a single-step high activity gas diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation mechanism of an aluminide coating on a nickel base superalloy IN738LC via a single step high activity gas diffusion process has been investigated in this research. Effects of coating temperature and aluminum concentration in powder mixture on formation mechanism were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. For this purpose two different packs containing 1 and 2 wtpercentaluminum powder, were used for coating the samples at two temperatures, 850degreeC and l050degreeC. The ratio of Al to activator was kept constant in both packs. By increasing the Al content in high activity powder mixture, the concentration of diffused Al increased in the coating layers, and the thickness of coating increased. At 1050degreeC as the rate of diffused Al to the interdiffusion zone increased, this zone gradually transformed to outer coating phases. At 850degreeC coating formed by inward diffusion of Al, but at 1050degreeC it was initially formed by inward diffusion of Al followed by outward diffusion of Ni.

  16. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  17. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. PMID:27428582

  18. Retransmission Steganography Applied

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the implementation of network steganography method called RSTEG (Retransmission Steganography). The main idea of RSTEG is to not acknowledge a successfully received packet to intentionally invoke retransmission. The retransmitted packet carries a steganogram instead of user data in the payload field. RSTEG can be applied to many network protocols that utilize retransmissions. We present experimental results for RSTEG applied to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) as TCP is the most popular network protocol which ensures reliable data transfer. The main aim of the performed experiments was to estimate RSTEG steganographic bandwidth and detectability by observing its influence on the network retransmission level.

  19. Applied statistics with SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Huizingh, Eelko K R E

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, Applied Statistics Using SPSS is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. Based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, the text's self-help style is designed to boost the skills and confidence of those that will need to use SPSS in the course of doing their research project. The book is pedagogically well developed and contains many screen dumps and exercises, glossary terms and worked examples. Divided into two parts, Applied Statistics Using SPSS covers :

  20. Applied Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.

  1. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding.

  2. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  3. Proposta de um sistema de medição de desempenho aplicado à mecanização agrícola Proposal of a performance measuring system applied to agricultural mechanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Peloia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As organizações líderes dos mais diferentes setores têm como característica medir o próprio desempenho de modo sistêmico, porém nas empresas agrícolas ainda não é comum o emprego desse conceito, incluindo o setor de mecanização. A mecanização tem um forte impacto na composição dos custos de produção, e conhecer o seu desempenho é primordial para o sucesso de empresa agrícola. A importância que as medidas de desempenho têm no auxílio à gestão e o que a mecanização representa para os custos de produção justificaram o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, que tem como objetivo propor um sistema de medição de desempenho integrado para dar suporte à gestão da mecanização agrícola. A metodologia foi dividida em duas etapas: adaptação de um modelo conceitual sistêmico, com base no Balanced Scorecard - BSC; aplicação do modelo a um estudo de caso na agroindústria canavieira. A adaptação e a aplicação do modelo conceitual permitiu obter indicadores de desempenho de modo sistêmico e associados a: custo e prazo (tradicionalmente utilizados; controle e melhoria na qualidade de operações e processos de apoio; preservação ambiental; segurança, saúde, satisfação, motivação e capacitação de colaboradores; desenvolvimento de sistemas de informação. Conclui-se que o modelo auxiliou na elaboração do sistema de medição de desempenho para a gestão de sistemas mecanizados e que os indicadores permitem uma visão integrada da empresa e associada aos objetivos estratégicos.The leaders' organizations of several different sectors have as characteristic to measure their own performance in a systematic way. However, this concept is still unusual in agricultural enterprises, including the mechanization sector. Mechanization has an important role on the production costs and to know its performance is a key factor for the agricultural enterprise success. This work was generated by the importance that measurement of

  4. 校企协同培养应用型工程人才机制的构建与深化%The Construction and Optimization of the Training Applied-engineering Personnel Mechanism by University-enterprise Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋柏

    2014-01-01

    The further innovation of the fostering mechanism of the application-oriented engineering talents requires careful understanding of the basic meaning of the university-enterprise collaboration . Presently there exist problems in university-enterprise collaborated fostering of talents such as the lack of governmental systems or regulations and of the weak consciousness of the university-enterprise collaboration . Therefore , it should be stressed that constant perfection of the relevant policies and laws and the increase of the consciousness of taking responsibilities during the application-oriented engineering talent-fostering mechanism. In addition ,it should be very necessary to set up the form of collaborative federations so as to share the benefits. Furthermore ,it should be stressed that all the businesses in the line take part in it so as to break the bottleneck ,and that the businesses initiatively serve the comunity so as to increase the collaborative attractive force.%进一步创新应用型工程人才培养机制需认真厘清校企协同的基本意涵。当前校企协同培养工程人才存在政府制度规范缺位、企业协同意识淡薄等问题。因此,在建立协同培养应用型工程人才机制过程中需要不断完善相关政策法规,提升责任意识;建立协同联邦,实现利益共赢;行业广泛参与,突破协同瓶颈;主动服务社会,提升协同引力。

  5. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  6. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  7. 沥青路面水泥改性级配碎石力学性能研究%The mechanical performance of cement modified graded crushed rock applied in the basement of asphalt pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志刚; 曾勇; 孙绪康

    2012-01-01

    Graded crushed rock was mixed with a proper amount* of inorganic binder (such as cement, lime, and so on) to form modified graded crused rock. The results show that this method could enhance the shear strength and resistance to deformation for the crushed rock. When this kind of crushed rocks was used as the basement of asphalt pavement, the primary function of the crack and drainage could still be maintained, thus the loading capacity of asphalt pavement can be enhanced, the life of asphalt pavement can be extended. Field testing shows good effects when modified graded crushed rock is applied as the flexible basement of asphalt pavement.%在级配碎石中,掺入适量的无机结合料(如:水泥和石灰等),形成改性级配碎石.研究结果表明:该改性措施可以提高级配碎石的抗剪强度和抗变形能力,用作沥青路面基层时,可继续保持级配碎石基层的抗裂与排水作用,从而增强沥青路面承载能力,延长沥青路面的使用寿命.现场检测证明,应用改性级配碎石柔性基层的沥青路面使用效果良好.

  8. 基于演化博弈的VMI&TPL供应链合作机制研究%The Cooperation Mechanism of VMI &TPL Apply Chain Based on Evolutionary Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超群; 刘志学

    2011-01-01

    基于演化博弈理论的方法,建立了VMI以及VMI&TPL供应链合作机制的演化博弈模型,研究了有限理性的供应商和零售商合作行为演变的动态过程.研究发现,在VMI供应链中,由于供应商收益增加的不确定性,供应商和零售商不合作策略成为演化稳定策略.而在VMI&TPL供应链中,TPL的引入增加了双方的收益,影响了供应商和零售商的合作行为,双方合作与双方不合作策略均成为演化稳定策略;进而,在VMI&TPL供应链中加入监督与惩罚机制对模型进行改进,分析表明在VMI&TPL供应链中,基于长期合作的情景,对不合作设置一定的惩罚机制,供应商和零售商合作策略成为演化稳定策略.最后,通过数值分析验证了结论的正确性.%Drawing on the theory of evolutionary game, this paper develops the evolutionary game model of the cooperation mechanism of VMI&TPL( Vendor-managed Inventory &Third-party logistics) supply chain to analyze dynamic evolutionary procedure of cooperative behavior between bounded rational supplier and retailer. The results show that non-cooperation between supplier and retailer is an ESS (evolutionary stable strategy) in the context of VMI supply chain in that the supplier will lose some profit in this situation. In the context of VMI&TPL supply chain, non-cooperation or cooperation between supplier and retailer is ESS because the introduction of TPL will eventually improve the entire chain performances, also the impact factors for cooperation to become an ESS are analysized. By adding the restrictions factors for the non-cooperation behavior between supplier and retailer, such as supervision and punishment mechanism,into the original model of VMI&TPL supply chain, the ESS of cooperation can be achieved in the long-term cooperation setting. Finally, the paper proves the conclusion through examples of numerical analysis.

  9. Study on the Release Mechanism of N2O in Corn Field Applied Nitrogen Fertilizer and Organic Matter%玉米施用氮肥和有机物N2O释放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海楼; 安景文; 刘慧颖; 董环; 娄春荣; 王秀娟; 张鑫

    2012-01-01

    氧化亚氮(N2O)是除二氧化碳和甲烷之外的一种重要温室气体.N2O通量有明显的季节变化,夏季高于春秋两季;不施肥料及猪粪、秸秆不还田的玉米田N2O排放通量明显高于空地,表明种植玉米促进N2O排放;施用氮肥N2O排放通量在整个玉米生长季均高于不施肥的处理,表明施肥促进土壤N2O排放通量的增加.在施用化肥基础上,玉米秸秆还田、施用猪粪N2O排放通量均高于只施用化肥,在两个排放高峰期表现尤为明显.玉米秸秆、猪粪含有较多的C、N物质,进一步促进了土壤中微生物的硝化和反硝化作用,有利于N2O的生成及排放.在等碳量条件下,施用猪粪N2O排放通量高于玉米秸秆还田;在碳不等量条件下,玉米秸秆还田或猪粪量越高,N2O排放通量越大,表明在一定用量范围内增施有机物料,能增加N2O排放通量.%Nitrous oxide(N2O) is an important greenhouse gas in addition to carbon dioxide and methane. The N2O flux changed obviously with the change of the season. In summer higher than in spring and autumn. Emission amount of N2O in com field with not to fertilizer materials or manure, and straw with not to field was significantly higher than the open space. The N2O release in the field can be accelerated by planting corn, applying nitrogen fertilizer. Applying corn straw and pig manure can also enhance N2O release flux as the abundant carbon, nitrogen content in it. Under the same carbon content, the N2O release flux is higher than that in corn straw; under the different carbon contents, the N2O release flux is increased with the increase of corn straw and pig manure concentration.

  10. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  11. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  12. Applied Economics in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains some plain phenomena in teaching and class management with an economic view. Some basic economic principles mentioned therein are: everything has its opportunity cost; the marginal utility of consumption of any kind is diminishing; Game theory is everywhere. By applying the economic theories to teaching, it is of great help for teachers to understand the students' behavior and thus improve the teaching effectiveness and efficiency.

  13. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, Benno

    2010-01-01

    This thesis consists of 4 chapters in the field of applied microeconomics. Chapter 1 develops a model of international roaming. International alliances emerge endogenously and serve as a commitment device to soften competition on the retail market. Chapter 2 provides an explanation for why political leaders may want to adopt ideological positions. Because voters expect the perceived ideology of office holders to determine their future political actions, politicians are tempted to act ac...

  14. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  15. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Empirical and theoretical topics in applied microeconomics are discussed in this dissertation. The first essay identifies and measures managerial advantages from access to high-quality deals in venture capital investments. The underlying social network of Harvard Business School MBA venture capitalists and entrepreneurs is used to proxy availability of deal access. Random section assignment of HBS MBA graduates provides a key exogenous variation for identification. Being socially connected to...

  16. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  17. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  18. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  19. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2005-01-01

    Master linear regression techniques with a new edition of a classic text Reviews of the Second Edition: ""I found it enjoyable reading and so full of interesting material that even the well-informed reader will probably find something new . . . a necessity for all of those who do linear regression."" -Technometrics, February 1987 ""Overall, I feel that the book is a valuable addition to the now considerable list of texts on applied linear regression. It should be a strong contender as the leading text for a first serious course in regression analysis."" -American Scientist, May-June 1987

  20. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  1. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  2. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  3. Applying Popper's Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century, best known for his doctrine of falsifiability. His axiomatic formulation of probability, however, is unknown to current scientists, though it is championed by several current philosophers of science as superior to the familiar version. Applying his system to problems identified by himself and his supporters, it is shown that it does not have some features he intended and does not solve the problems they have identified.

  4. SIFT applied to CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a challenging task. Common approaches use only low-level features. Notwithstanding, such CBIR solutions fail on capturing some local features representing the details and nuances of scenes. Many techniques in image processing and computer vision can capture these scene semantics. Among them, the Scale Invariant Features Transform~(SIFT has been widely used in a lot of applications. This approach relies on the choice of several parameters which directly impact its effectiveness when applied to retrieve images. In this paper, we discuss the results obtained in several experiments proposed to evaluate the application of the SIFT in CBIR tasks.

  5. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  6. 采用输入输出分解的分区分段演化机制%In-partition in-stage evolutionary mechanism by applying input and output decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚睿; 陈芹芹; 孙艳梅; 张砦; 王友仁

    2015-01-01

    针对演化硬件的可扩展性问题,提出了基于输入输出分解的分区分段并行在线演化机制,用于演化组合逻辑电路。依据输入输出分解策略,将原电路分解为多个具有较少输入、输出的子电路,并对各子电路单独分配进化区域,实现各子电路的并行演化;某些子电路演化完毕,其对应进化区域即可用于其他任何未演化完毕子电路的并行演化;所有子电路均演化成功后,将其进行整合得到顶层电路。在Xilinx Virtex-5 FX构建的自演化系统上,以加法器电路、乘法器电路和部分MCNC基准电路为例进行了验证。结果表明:相对于经典演化方法,该方法可以大大减少演化时间,进化出多达21个输入的组合电路。%To solve the problem of scalability of evolvable hardware, an in-partition in-stage parallel online evolution mechanism based on input and output decomposition is presented for evolving combinational logic circuit.According to the input and output decomposition strategy, the original combinational logic circuit is divided into several sub-circuits with fewer inputs and outputs.Each sub-circuit is assigned to a separate evolution area.This is constructed to realize the parallel evolution of sub-circuits.When the evolutions of some sub-circuits are completed, the corre-sponding areas of evolution can be used for the parallel evolution of any other sub-circuits with uncompleted evolu-tion.After the evolution on all sub-circuits are successfully completed they are integrated into a top circuit.In the self-evolving system built by Xilinx Virtex-5 FX, the adder circuit, multiplier circuit and partial MCNC benchmark circuits are taken as the examples for demonstration.The experimental results showed that compared to the classical evolutionary method, this method may greatly reduce the evolution time and evolve a combinational logic circuit with 21 inputs at most.

  7. The 1989 progress report: Applied Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Applied Mathematics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations reported were performed in the following fields: mathematical and numerical aspects of wave propagation, nonlinear hyperbolic fluid mechanics, numerical simulations and mathematical aspects of semiconductors and electron beams, mechanics of solids, plasticity, viscoelasticity, stochastic, automatic and statistic calculations, synthesis and image processing. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed

  8. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  9. 浅谈高强聚酯纤维柔性网在综采工作面停采铺网工艺上的应用%Roof Pavement Technique of High Strength Polyester Fiber Flexible Mesh Applied to Face Removal of Fully Mechanized Coal Mining Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀伟

    2015-01-01

    分析了四台矿综采工作面现停采铺网工艺及“高强聚酯纤维柔性网”铺顶工艺的方式,并对两种铺网工艺进行了对比,最终得出采用“高强聚酯纤维柔性网”铺顶工艺具有提高综采工作面停采速度及改善工作坏境的效果。%Roof pavement technique of high strength polyester fiber flexible mesh applied to face removal of fully mechanized coal mining face of Sitai Coal Mine is analyzed and get comparison with other technique .At last ,using high strength polyester fiber flexible mesh can speed stopping fully mechanized coal mine face and improve the work environment .

  10. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  11. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  12. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  13. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  14. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Porgram. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. Fusion Plasma Theory has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under Experimental Plasma Research, we are developing the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  15. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  16. Recombinant vaccines: experimental and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved in in...

  17. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical sy...

  18. Applied heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book explains the scientific principles of heterogeneous catalysis while also providing details on the methods used to develop commercially viable catalyst products. A section of the book presents reactor design engineering theory and practices for the profitable application of these catalysts in large-scale industrial processes. A description of the mechanisms and commercial applications of catalysis is followed by a review of catalytic reaction kinetics. There are five chapters on selecting catalyst agents, developing and preparing industrial catalysts, measuring catalyst properties, and analyzing the physico-chemical characteristics of solid catalyst particles. The final chapter reviews the elements of catalytic reactor design, with emphasis on flow regimes vs. reactor types, heat and mass transfer in reactor beds, single- and multi-phase flows, and the effects of thermodynamics and other catalyst properties on the process flow scheme

  19. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  20. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  1. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  2. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  3. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution.

  4. Teaching classical mechanics using an applied example: Modelling and Software

    OpenAIRE

    García-March, M. A.; Isidro, J. M.; M. Zacarés; M. Arevalillo; J.L. González-Santander; Ll. Monreal; C.I. López-Javier

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos la experiencia docente obtenida al utilizar un mecanismo muy común en ingeniería, como el mecanismo biela-manivela-deslizadera, como un ejemplo práctico en la asignatura ”mecánica clásica” que se imparte en los grados de física e ingeniería. También presentamos una interfaz gráfica que permite al estudiante visualizar los resultados obtenidos al simular en el ordenador el movimiento de dicho mecanismo variando las condiciones en las que se realiza el experimento numérico....

  5. Applying Parametric Fault Detection to a Mechanical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felício, P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.;

    2002-01-01

    A way of doing parametric fault detection is described. It is based on the representation of parameter changes as linear fractional transformations (lfts). We describe a model with parametric uncertainty. Then a stabilizing controller is chosen and its robustness properties are studied via mu. Th....... The parameter changes (faults) are estimated based on estimates of the fictitious signals that enter the delta block in the lft. These signal estimators are designed by H-infinity techniques. The chosen example is an inverted pendulum....

  6. Mobile Mechanisms of Cryptography & Security - Applied to Electronic Voting

    OpenAIRE

    González Peon, David

    2014-01-01

    Estudiar i analitzar el suport criptogràfic que existeix actualment en els sistemes operatius mòbils més extesos, per assegurar que existeixen les eines necessàries a l'hora de desenvolupar una aplicació de vot electrònic remot.

  7. Teaching classical mechanics using an applied example: Modelling and Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. García-March

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la experiencia docente obtenida al utilizar un mecanismo muy común en ingeniería, como el mecanismo biela-manivela-deslizadera, como un ejemplo práctico en la asignatura ”mecánica clásica” que se imparte en los grados de física e ingeniería. También presentamos una interfaz gráfica que permite al estudiante visualizar los resultados obtenidos al simular en el ordenador el movimiento de dicho mecanismo variando las condiciones en las que se realiza el experimento numérico.

  8. Applied large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain

    2009-07-28

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity. PMID:19531503

  9. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  10. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  11. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained applied microeconomics essays on topics related to behavioral economics and industrial organization. Chapter 1 studies how sentiment as a result of sports event outcomes affects consumers' tipping behavior in the presence of social norms. I formulate a model of tipping behavior that captures consumer sentiment following a reference-dependent preference framework and empirically test its relevance using the game outcomes of the NBA and the trip and tipping data on New York City taxicabs. While I find that consumers' tipping behavior responds to unexpected wins and losses of their home team, particularly in close game outcomes, I do not find evidence for loss aversion. Coupled with the findings on default tipping, my empirical results on the asymmetric tipping responses suggest that while social norms may dominate loss aversion, affect and surprises can result in freedom on the upside of tipping. Chapter 2 utilizes a novel data source of airline entry and exit announcements and examines how the incumbent airlines adjust quality provisions as a response to their competitors' announcements and the role of timing in such responses. I find no evidence that the incumbents engage in preemptive actions when facing probable entry and exit threats as signaled by the competitors' announcements in either short term or long term. There is, however, evidence supporting their responses to the competitors' realized entry or exit. My empirical findings underscore the role of timing in determining preemptive actions and suggest that previous studies may have overestimated how the incumbent airlines respond to entry threats. Chapter 3, which is collaborated with Benjamin Ho, investigates the habit formation of consumers' thermostat setting behavior, an often implicitly made decision and yet a key determinant of home energy consumption and expenditures. We utilize a high frequency dataset on household thermostat usage and find that

  12. Essays in applied economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  13. Applied mathematics for science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    Prepare students for success in using applied mathematics for engineering practice and post-graduate studies moves from one mathematical method to the next sustaining reader interest and easing the application of the techniques Uses different examples from chemical, civil, mechanical and various other engineering fields Based on a decade's worth of the authors lecture notes detailing the topic of applied mathematics for scientists and engineers Concisely writing with numerous examples provided including historical perspectives as well as a solutions manual for academic adopters

  14. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  15. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  16. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  17. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  18. A Review of Applied Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Ní Shúilleabháin, Aoibhinn

    2015-01-01

    Applied Mahtematics is a subject which deals with problmes arising inthe physical, life, and social sciences as well as in engineering and provides a broad body of knowledge for use in a wide spectrum of research and insdustry. Applied Mathematics is an important school subject which builds students' mathematical and problem solving skills. The subject has remained on the periphery of school time-tables and, without the commitment and enthusiasm of Applied Maths teachers, would likely be omit...

  19. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics etc. Classification-JEL: A23

  20. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  1. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  2. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  3. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  4. Social and Psychological Aspects of Applied Human Genetics: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, James R., Comp.

    This bibliography is a selective compilation of books and articles which focus on the psychological and social issues of applied human genetics. It is centered in particular around problems, issues, and discussions of genetic counseling, the primary mechanism by which human genetics has been applied to date. It includes those entries which, on the…

  5. Distributed computing applied applied to the identification of new drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul; Mayo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This work emphasizes the assets of implementing the distributed computing for the intensive use in computational science devoted to the search of new medicines that could be applied in public healthy problems.

  6. Roof Pavement Technique of High Strength Polyester Fiber Flexible Mesh Applied to Face Removal of Fully Mechanized Coal Mining Face%高强聚酯纤维柔性网铺顶工艺在综采撤面中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔京利; 井贵存; 程相春; 贝太伟

    2013-01-01

    山东省岱庄生建煤矿315采区工作面频繁回撤安装,为保证综采工作面安全高效回撤,在31521综采工作面造撤面条件过程中,采用高强聚酯纤维柔性网铺顶工艺代替金属网片铺、联网工艺,简化了收尾工序,免除了作业人员频繁运网和进入煤壁侧联网作业,降低了作业人员的劳动强度,提高了工作面末采收尾的效率和资源利用率,为支架回撤通道留设、支架撤除期间安全管理提供保障,该工艺对类似开采条件下综采工作面的安全回撤具有推广应用价值.%A removal and assembling was frequently made for the coal mining faces in No. 315 mining block of Shandong Daizhuang Shengjian Mine. In order to ensure a safety and high efficient removal of the fully mechanized coal mining face, during the removal condition created process of No. 31521 fully mechanized coal mining face, the roof pavement technique with high strength polyester fiber flexible meshes was applied to replace the steel mesh pavement and mesh connection technique. The terminal process of the roof pavement was simplified, the frequent mesh transportation and the wall side mesh connection operation by the operation personnel were eliminated and the labor intensity of the miners was reduced. Thus the efficiency of the mining terminal in the coal mining face and the coal resources utilization rate were improved. The protection could be provided for the retained removal gateway of the powered supports and the safety management during the powered support removal period. The roof pavement technique would have the promotion and application value to the safety removal of the fully mechanized coal mining face under the similar mining conditions.

  7. Puzzling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  8. Bohmian Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2009-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics is a theory about point particles moving along trajectories. It has the property that in a world governed by Bohmian mechanics, observers see the same statistics for experimental results as predicted by quantum mechanics. Bohmian mechanics thus provides an explanation of quantum mechanics. Moreover, the Bohmian trajectories are defined in a non-conspiratorial way by a few simple laws.

  9. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  10. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  11. Graduation Credit for Applied Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dennis M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a pilot project in applied academics that involved hiring certified mathemathics and science instructors so that students could obtain academic rather than vocational credit for material that vocational instructors had previously taught. (JOW)

  12. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with...

  13. Applied statistical inference with MINITAB

    CERN Document Server

    Lesik, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Through clear, step-by-step mathematical calculations, Applied Statistical Inference with MINITAB enables students to gain a solid understanding of how to apply statistical techniques using a statistical software program. It focuses on the concepts of confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, validating model assumptions, and power analysis.Illustrates the techniques and methods using MINITABAfter introducing some common terminology, the author explains how to create simple graphs using MINITAB and how to calculate descriptive statistics using both traditional hand computations and MINITAB. Sh

  14. Gulf International Conference on Applied Mathematics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Applied Mathematics

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from the Gulf International Conference in Applied Mathematics, held at the Gulf University for Science & Technology. The proceedings reflects the three major themes of the conference. The first of these was mathematical biology, including a keynote address by Professor Philip Maini. The second theme was computational science/numerical analysis, including a keynote address by Professor Grigorii Shishkin. The conference also addressed more general applications topics, with papers in business applications, fluid mechanics, optimization, scheduling problems, and engineering applications, as well as a keynote by Professor Ali Nayfeh.

  15. The 1989 progress report: applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Applied Optics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The research programs are carried out in the following fields: Ultrafast Physics, including the development of femtoseconds laser sources and their utilization in Physics, Biology and Physical Chemistry; physics of infrared lasers and their applications in space and industries; Guided Optics, including investigations and construction of fiber optics couplers; biomedical studies on muscle mechanics and laser applications. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed

  16. Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    "Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity" presents a comprehensive treatment of piezoelectric materials using linear electroelastic theory, symplectic models, and Hamiltonian systems. It summarizes the current state of practice and presents the most recent research findings in piezoelectricity. It is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of applied mechanics, material science and engineering, computational engineering, and aerospace engineering. Dr. Qinghua Qin is a professor at the School of Engineering, Australian National University, Australia.

  17. 气道分级管理应用于慢性阻塞性肺疾病机械通气患者的效果分析%Effect analysis on airway management based on different grades applied in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯洁惠; 浦其斌; 高春华; 方琏; 徐建宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the intervention effect of airway management based on different grades applied in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Method Divide 65 patients into observation group (n=33) and control group (n=32) by order. Patients in control group receive routine airway management of chest physiotherapy every 2 hours. Patients in observation group receive airway management based on different grades of chest physiotherapy on different frequency according to airway scores. Compare the tidal volume, respiratory rate, PaCOf2 and scores of acute physiology and chronic health of two groups on the 5th and 10th day undergoing mechanical ventilation. Compare the mechanical ventilation time and hospitalization time. Result Tidal volume, respiratory rate, PaCOf2 and scores of acute physiology and chronic health arc significantly better in observation group. Mechanical ventilation time is significantly shorter in observation group. There is no significant difference on hospitalization time between two groups. Conclusion Airway management based on different grades can improve the respiratory function for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease effectively.%目的 评价慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者机械通气期间采用气道分级管理的干预效果.方法 按患者入科顺序将65例患者分为观察组33例和对照组32例.对照组按常规气道管理,每2 h予胸部物理治疗;观察组按气道评分实施气道分级管理,行不同频次物理治疗.比较两组机械通气第5天、第10天的潮气量、呼吸频率、动脉血二氧化碳分压及急性生理与慢性健康评分,比较两组机械通气时间和住院时间.结果 机械通气第10天,观察组潮气量、呼吸频率、动脉血二氧化碳分压的监测值优于对照组,急性生理与慢性健康评分低于对照组,机械通气时间明显少于对照组,经比较,差异均有统计学意义;两组住院时间比

  18. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985, with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics and Applied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Optics and Applied

  19. 特厚煤层综放工作面区段煤柱合理宽度研究%Study on Rational Width of Sectional Coal Pillar Applied to Fully-Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining Face in Ultra Thick Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰奕文

    2014-01-01

    针对塔山矿特厚煤层综放工作面与回采巷道对头施工过程中面临的区段煤柱合理宽度留设、回采动压影响范围确定等问题,采用理论分析、数值模拟及现场应力实测等手段对特厚煤层综放采场覆岩断裂结构、区段煤柱应力分布及区段煤柱合理宽度进行研究。采空区一侧煤体应力,应力剧烈影响范围30~35 m。煤柱应力现场实测表明,相邻工作面回采期间应力沿煤柱宽度大致呈单峰型、非对称分布,应力高峰区距8210回风巷21~30 m、距8208采空区8~17 m,采空区顶板运动稳定滞后距离120~130 m。结果表明,塔山矿特厚煤层综放面对头施工条件下留设38 m煤柱是安全的,从煤柱应力分布角度分析煤柱宽度可减小至30~32 m。%According to the sectional coal pillar rational width applied,mining dynamic influence scope determination and other problems occurred in a face to face construction process of fully-mechanized top coal caving mining face and a mining gateway in ultra thick seam of Tashan Mine,the theoretical analysis,numerical simulation,site stress measurement and other means were applied to study the breaking structure of an overburden strata,stress distribution of the sectional coal pillar and rational width of the sectional coal pillar. The stress in one side of the coal seam in the goaf had a serious influence scope of 30~35 m.The site measurement of the coal pillar stress showed dur-ing a mining period of an adjacent coal mining face,along the coal pillar width,the stress was in a unimodal asymmetric distribution,stress peak zone had a distance of 21~30 m to No.8210 air retuning gateway and had a distance of 8~17 m to No.8208 goaf and the roof move-ment in the goaf was stabilized with a delay distance of over 120~130 m.The study results showed that under the condition of the face to face to construction of the fully-mechanized top coal caving mining face in ultra thick seam of Tashan

  20. On the Motivation Mechanism for the Hotel Trainees-Take the Trainees with the Major of Applied English as an Example%酒店实习生激励机制的探讨--以应用英语专业实习生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小娟

    2015-01-01

    随着校企合作的进一步深化,实习生已经成为酒店业的重要人力资源。酒店业未来的成长和发展需要依靠众多高校毕业生来推动,特别是涉外国际酒店,对应用英语专业的学生求之若渴。如何激励酒店实习生并发挥其最大潜力是众多酒店人力资源管理者们关注的重点。马斯洛需求层次理论认为,人的需要是分层次的,由低到高依次为:生理需要、安全需要、社会需要、尊重需要、自我实现需要。笔者希望通过运用马斯洛需求层次理论,探讨我国酒店行业实习生激励机制。%With the depth of cooperation between the college and the enterprise,the trainees have become the important human resource in the hotel,especially for the international hotel,the students majored in applied English are much needed.How to motivate the hotel trainees to perform their most potential is the focus for the HR managers.The theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs says the people require the needs of physiology,safety,social,esteem,self-actualization step by step.With the use of Maslow's theory,we discuss the motivation mechanism on the trainees in the hotel.

  1. Applied medical statistics using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Der, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    ""Each chapter in the book is well laid out, contains examples with SAS code, and ends with a concise summary. The chapters in the book contain the right level of information to use SAS to apply different statistical methods. … a good overview of how to apply in SAS 9.3 the many possible statistical analysis methods.""-Caroline Kennedy, Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd., Statistical Methods for Medical Research, 2015""… a well-organized and thorough exploration of broad coverage in medical statistics. The book is an excellent reference of statistical methods

  2. Abstractions for Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for discretizing the state space of mechanical systems. This is a first attempt in using reduction techniques for mechanical systems in the partitioning of the state space. The method relies on a combination of transversal and tangential manifolds for the conservative...... mechanical system. The tangential manifolds are generated using constants of motion, which can be derived from Noether's theorem. The transversal manifolds are subsequently generated on a reduced space, given by the Routhian, via action-angle coordinates. The method fully applies for integrable systems. We...

  3. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  4. Applied photonic therapy in veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Terry R.; McLaren, Brian C.

    2005-04-01

    There can be no question that specific systemic physiological results occur, when red light (660nm) is applied to the skin, it is now more a question of detailed mechanisms. Before gathering statistically signifcant clinical trial data, it is important to first enumerate the type of results observed in practice. Case histories are presented highlighting the use of photonic therapy in veterinary medicine. Over 900 surgical procedures have been performed and documented, utilizing the principles of photonic therapy, and while hemostasis, pain relief, and nausea relief, were the primary goals, the peri-operative death rate, the post-operative seroma, and post-operative infection were reduced to almost zero, and there was a noticeable increase in the healing rate. Scientifically applied photonic therapy, rather than supplanting conventional veterinary medicine, compliments and increases the veterinarian's set of skills. This paper proposes a hypothesis of how 660 nm light applied to specific points on the skin, produces various physiological changes in animals. By using animals, there can be no placebo, hypnotic or psychosomatic confounding effects.

  5. Synthesis of Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    These notes describe an automated procedure for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. The analysis method is based on the body coordinate formulation, and the synthesis is based on applying optimization methods, used to minimize the difference between an actual and a desired behaviour...

  6. SEM in applied marketing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey...

  7. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  8. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  9. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  10. Mechanics an intensive course

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Mechanics is one of the oldest and at the same time newest disciplines, in the sense that there are methods and principles developed first in mechanics but now widely used in almost all branches of physics: electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, classical and quantum field theory, special and general theory of relativity, etc. More than that, there are some formalisms like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches, which represent the key stone for the development of the above-mentioned disciplines. During the last 20-25 years, classical mechanics has undergone an important revival associated with the progress in non-linear dynamics, applications of Noether’s theorem and the extension of variational principles in various interdisciplinary sciences (for instance, magnetofluid dynamics). Thus, there ought to exist a book concerned with the applied analytical formalism, first developed in the frame of theoretical mechanics, which has proved to be one of the most efficient tools of investigation in the entire arena of...

  11. Quantum mechanical description of waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Yong; Xiong Cai-Dong; He Bing

    2008-01-01

    Applying the spinor representation of the electromagnetic field,this paper present a quantum-mechanical description of waveguides.As an example of application,a potential qubit generated by photon tunnelling is discussed.

  12. Singular potentials in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Koo, E. Ley [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a review of some mathematical methods as recently developed and applied to deal with singular potentials in Quantum Mechanics. Regular and singular perturbative methods as well as variational treatments are considered. (author). 25 refs.

  13. Modern applied U-statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    A timely and applied approach to the newly discovered methods and applications of U-statisticsBuilt on years of collaborative research and academic experience, Modern Applied U-Statistics successfully presents a thorough introduction to the theory of U-statistics using in-depth examples and applications that address contemporary areas of study including biomedical and psychosocial research. Utilizing a "learn by example" approach, this book provides an accessible, yet in-depth, treatment of U-statistics, as well as addresses key concepts in asymptotic theory by integrating translational and cross-disciplinary research.The authors begin with an introduction of the essential and theoretical foundations of U-statistics such as the notion of convergence in probability and distribution, basic convergence results, stochastic Os, inference theory, generalized estimating equations, as well as the definition and asymptotic properties of U-statistics. With an emphasis on nonparametric applications when and where applic...

  14. Emotional Value of Applied Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2011-01-01

    The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and ‘related products’ for manufacturers of furniture. A ‘related textile product’ is e.g. processing of piece goods......, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers...... of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term ‘emotional value’ as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach...

  15. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  16. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  17. Mechanisms for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Le Letty, R.; Barré, M.; Pasquarella, S.; Bokaie, M.; Bataille, A.; Poiet, G.

    2012-06-01

    All space instruments contain mechanisms or moving mechanical assemblies that must move (sliding, rolling, rotating, or spinning) and their successful operation is usually mission-critical. Generally, mechanisms are not redundant and therefore represent potential single point failure modes. Several space missions have suffered anomalies or failures due to problems in applying space mechanisms technology. Mechanisms require a specific qualification through a dedicated test campaign. This paper covers the design, development, testing, production, and in-flight experience of the PICARD/SODISM mechanisms. PICARD is a space mission dedicated to the study of the Sun. The PICARD Satellite was successfully launched, on June 15, 2010 on a DNEPR launcher from Dombarovskiy Cosmodrome, near Yasny (Russia). SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper) is a 11 cm Ritchey-Chretien imaging telescope, taking solar images at five wavelengths. SODISM uses several mechanisms (a system to unlock the door at the entrance of the instrument, a system to open/closed the door using a stepper motor, two filters wheels using a stepper motor, and a mechanical shutter). For the fine pointing, SODISM uses three piezoelectric devices acting on the primary mirror of the telescope. The success of the mission depends on the robustness of the mechanisms used and their life.

  18. The MRC Applied Psychology Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This transcript considers the origins and impact of the MRC Applied Psychology Unit’s work from 1944 to 1998. Psychologists, clinicians, and industrial, ergonomic and occupational psychologists discuss the evolution of work from quite narrow postwar industrial and military concerns to more recent applications in, for example, ageing, dyslexia, depression, form design, information and semantics. Those who contributed included Professor Alan Baddeley, Dr Philip Barnard, Dr Ivan Brown, Professor...

  19. Three essays on applied economics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yunrong

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the application of empirical research methods to different economic topics. The first chapter examines production effects of subsidies with different characteristics. The second chapter evaluates the impact of an oldage pension program on the welfare of the recipient’s family members. The third chapter applies an income inequality model to study the influence of differences in citation practices across scientific fields on the overall citation inequality. ...

  20. Three Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In these essays, I study the following three topics in Applied Microeconomics using datasets of China: (1) The impact of political movements in the first thirty years of People's Republic of China on the intergenerational and multigenerational transmission of education; (2) The relationship between health insurance and households' consumption; (3) The effect of health insurance on out-of-pocket medical expenditures. The first chapter investigates the effect of family class origin on education...

  1. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  2. An Applied Physicist Does Econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, L. G.

    2010-02-01

    The biggest problem those attempting to understand econometric data, via modeling, have is that economics has no F = ma. Without a theoretical underpinning, econometricians have no way to build a good model to fit observations to. Physicists do, and when F = ma failed, we knew it. Still desiring to comprehend econometric data, applied economists turn to mis-applying probability theory---especially with regard to the assumptions concerning random errors---and choosing extremely simplistic analytical formulations of inter-relationships. This introduces model bias to an unknown degree. An applied physicist, used to having to match observations to a numerical or analytical model with a firm theoretical basis, modify the model, re-perform the analysis, and then know why, and when, to delete ``outliers'', is at a considerable advantage when quantitatively analyzing econometric data. I treat two cases. One is to determine the household density distribution of total assets, annual income, age, level of education, race, and marital status. Each of these ``independent'' variables is highly correlated with every other but only current annual income and level of education follow a linear relationship. The other is to discover the functional dependence of total assets on the distribution of assets: total assets has an amazingly tight power law dependence on a quadratic function of portfolio composition. Who knew? )

  3. Applied Mechanism of A Cross-country Skiing Specialized Strength Training Aids Basing on the Kinematic Characteristics%基于运动学特征的越野滑雪专项力量训练器应用机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵宝; 杨春怀; 郭静璐

    2014-01-01

    利用运动图像解析法,通过与越野滑雪传统式同时推进技术动作的运动学特征进行对比分析,探讨一种新型越野滑雪专项力量辅助训练器的应用机理。发现这种训练器运动学特征与雪上传统式同时推进技术动作存在一定相关性。这种训练器较好地模拟了雪上传统式同时推进技术动作特点,丰富了陆地夏训期传统专项训练方法体系,有助于越野滑雪陆地、雪上专项化训练方法有效衔接。越野滑雪专项力量辅助训练器在运动学特征上对雪上专项技术动作的模拟性,可为发展有效的专项训练方法与手段提供理论依据。%With the method of moving image analysis,by comparing with the classical bilateral push technique of cross-country skiing basing on the kinematic characteristics,the paper discusses the applied mechanism of a new specialized strength training aids. It indicates the training movement on the aids is related to the snow movement in kinematic characteristics. The aids can well simulate the characteristics of classical bilateral push technique,and enrich the system of cross-country skiing specialized dry-land training methods,which is helpful to the effective connection from dry-land to snow specialized training methods. The aids’simulation of snow specialized technique basing on the kinematic characteristics can be a theoretical reference for developing more effective specialized training methods and means.

  4. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  5. Discrete mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  6. Applied superconductivity handbook on devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the latest applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in the field. Readers looking for a systematic overview on superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors, including organic and magnetic materials. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for several geometries, but the main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in power engineering or passive devices, such as filter and antenna or magnetic shields. The reader will also find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications in mechanical engineering, particle physics, fusion research, medicine and biomagnetism, as well as materials processing. SQUIDS and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered as are applications in quantum metrology, and, las...

  7. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... that were in concordance with their effects in experimental animals. In project II, I profiled the effects on rat liver gene expression levels following exposure to a 14-chemical mixture ± the presence of an endocrine disrupting chemical. This project helped us shed light on the mechanism of action...... of the 14-chemical mixture and the endocrine disrupting chemical. In project III, I modeled a predictive signature for an in vivo endpoint that is sensitive to endocrine disruption. I used publicly available data generated for the purpose of modeling predictive signatures for various in vivo endpoints. From...

  8. Nonextensive statistical dynamics applied to wall turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2014-01-01

    We apply a formalism of nonextensive statistical mechanics to experimental wall turbulence data, for the first time to our knowledge. Wind tunnel data for velocity differences a streamwise distance $r$ apart are compared to the prediction from theory as developed by Beck. The simplest theory, in which all free parameters are removed, is found to reproduce statistics for the wall-normal velocity component remarkably well, even for $r$ well beyond the corresponding integral scale, while the corresponding description of the streamwise velocity fluctuations is reasonable at separations below the integral scale. A least-squares 2-parameter fit is performed, and the dependence of the optimum parameter values on wall separation and $r$ is analysed. Both parameters are found to be approximately independent of wall-separation in the logarithmic sub-layer.

  9. Matrix methods applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Bronson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Matrix Methods: Applied Linear Algebra, 3e, as a textbook, provides a unique and comprehensive balance between the theory and computation of matrices. The application of matrices is not just for mathematicians. The use by other disciplines has grown dramatically over the years in response to the rapid changes in technology. Matrix methods is the essence of linear algebra and is what is used to help physical scientists; chemists, physicists, engineers, statisticians, and economists solve real world problems.* Applications like Markov chains, graph theory and Leontief Models are placed i

  10. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  11. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  12. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  13. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  14. Pure Science and Applied Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Aumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New York. At that time, what was called Pure Mathematics was in vogue, and the more prominent mathematicians were a little contemptuous of any kind of application. A very famous, prominent mathematician in the first half of the previous century by the name of G. H. Hardy, who was in a branch of mathematics called number theory, said that the only thing he regretted was that he unwittingly did some important work in mathematical genetics that eventually turned out to have some application. … Such was the atmosphere in the late ’40s of the previous century and, being a young man and impressionable, I was swept up in this atmosphere.

  15. Workshop applied antineutrino physics 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiri, T.; Andrieu, B.; Anjos, J.; Argyriades, J.; Barouch, G.; Bernstein, A.; Bersillon, O.; Besida, O.; Bowden, N.; Cabrera, A.; Calmet, D.; Collar, J.; Cribier, M.; Kerret, H. de; Meijer, R. de; Dudziak, F.; Enomoto, S.; Fallot, M.; Fioni, G.; Fiorentini, G.; Gale, Ph.; Georgadze, A.; Giot, L.; Gonin, M.; Guillon, B.; Henson, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kanamaru, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lasserre, Th.; Learned, J.G.; Lefebvre, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lhillier, D.; Lindner, M.; Lund, J.; Mantovani, F.; Mcdonough, B.; Mention, G.; Monteith, A.; Motta, D.; Mueller, Th.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Odrzywolek, A.; Petcov, S.; Porta, A.; Queval, R.; Reinhold, B.; Reyna, D.; Ridikas, D.; Sadler, L.; Schoenert, St.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Suekane, F.; Suvorov, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Tang, A.; Tolich, N.; Tolich, K.; Vanka, S.; Vignaud, D.; Volpe, Ch.; Wong, H

    2007-07-01

    The 'Applied Antineutrino Physics 2007' workshop is the fourth international meeting devoted to the opening of the neutrino physics to more applied fields, such as geophysics and geochemistry, nuclear industry, as well as the nonproliferation. This meeting highlights the world efforts already engaged to exploit the single characteristics of the neutrinos for the control of the production of plutonium in the civil nuclear power reactor. The potential industrial application of the measurement of the thermal power of the nuclear plants by the neutrinos is also approached. earth neutrinos were for the first time highlighted in 2002 by the KamLAND experiment. Several international efforts are currently underway to use earth neutrinos to reveal the interior of the Earth. This meeting is an opportunity to adapt the efforts of detection to the real needs of geophysicists and geochemists (sources of radiogenic heat, potassium in the court, feathers.) Finally more futuristic topics such as the detection of nuclear explosions, of low powers, are also discussed. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  16. Essentials of applied dynamic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date knowledge of dynamic analysis in engineering world. To facilitate the understanding of the topics by readers with various backgrounds, general principles are linked to their applications from different angles. Special interesting topics such as statistics of motions and loading, damping modeling and measurement, nonlinear dynamics, fatigue assessment, vibration and buckling under axial loading, structural health monitoring, human body vibrations, and vehicle-structure interactions etc., are also presented. The target readers include industry professionals in civil, marine and mechanical engineering, as well as researchers and students in this area.

  17. Taxonomic Evidence Applying Intelligent Information Taxonomic Evidence Applying Intelligent Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Anibal Vallejos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Numeric Taxonomy aims to group operational taxonomic units in clusters (OTUs or taxons or taxa, using the denominated structure analysis by means of numeric methods. These clusters that constitute families are the purpose of this series of projects and they emerge of the structural analysis, of their phenotypical characteristic, exhibiting the relationships in terms of grades of similarity of the OTUs, employing tools such as i the Euclidean distance and ii nearest neighbor techniques. Thus taxonomic evidence is gathered so as to quantify the similarity for each pair of OTUs (pair-group method obtained from the basic data matrix and in this way the significant concept of spectrum of the OTUs is introduced, being based the same one on the state of their characters. A new taxonomic criterion is thereby formulated and a new approach to Computational Taxonomy is presented, that has been already employed with reference to Data Mining, when apply of Machine Learning techniques, in particular to the C4.5 algorithms, created by Quinlan, the degree of efficiency achieved by the TDIDT family's algorithms when are generating valid models of the data in classification problems with the Gain of Entropy through Maximum Entropy Principle. The Numeric Taxonomy aims to group operational taxonomic units in clusters (OTUs or taxons or taxa, using the denominated structure analysis by means of numeric methods. These clusters that constitute families are the purpose of this series of projects and they emerge of the structural analysis, of their phenotypical characteristic, exhibiting the relationships in terms of grades of similarity of the OTUs, employing tools such as i the Euclidean distance and ii nearest neighbor techniques. Thus taxonomic evidence is gathered so as to quantify the similarity for each pair of OTUs (pair-group method obtained from the basic data matrix and in this way the significant concept of spectrum of the OTUs is introduced, being based

  18. Radioisotope-applied measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji Electric developed a new type detector for gamma thickness gauges, inner-mill housing gamma thickness gauges at hot plate mills and tube-wall thickness gauges at hot seamless tube mills. This detector attained much higher gamma counting and much lower drift than our former detectors. We plan to apply this detector to our new type thickness gauges and also renewal of now working thickness gauges at customer's site. In addition, we developed a soil mass measuring instrument for on-line measurement of cutting soil mass in a waste water tube in shield tunneling. This instrument is free from legal control and can be used in every field of civil engineering. (author)

  19. Special Functions for Applied Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M

    2008-01-01

    Special Functions for Applied Scientists provides the required mathematical tools for researchers active in the physical sciences. The book presents a full suit of elementary functions for scholars at the PhD level and covers a wide-array of topics and begins by introducing elementary classical special functions. From there, differential equations and some applications into statistical distribution theory are examined. The fractional calculus chapter covers fractional integrals and fractional derivatives as well as their applications to reaction-diffusion problems in physics, input-output analysis, Mittag-Leffler stochastic processes and related topics. The authors then cover q-hypergeometric functions, Ramanujan's work and Lie groups. The latter half of this volume presents applications into stochastic processes, random variables, Mittag-Leffler processes, density estimation, order statistics, and problems in astrophysics. Professor Dr. A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill ...

  20. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  1. Computational statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, WG

    1991-01-01

    Computational Statistical Mechanics describes the use of fast computers to simulate the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of gases, liquids, and solids at, and away from equilibrium. The underlying theory is developed from basic principles and illustrated by applying it to the simplest possible examples. Thermodynamics, based on the ideal gas thermometer, is related to Gibb's statistical mechanics through the use of Nosé-Hoover heat reservoirs. These reservoirs use integral feedback to control temperature. The same approach is carried through to the simulation and anal

  2. Probabilistic approach to mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, BZ

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the application of probabilistics to the investigation of mechanical systems. The book shows, for example, how random function theory can be applied directly to the investigation of random processes in the deflection of cam profiles, pitch or gear teeth, pressure in pipes, etc. The author also deals with some other technical applications of probabilistic theory, including, amongst others, those relating to pneumatic and hydraulic mechanisms and roller bearings. Many of the aspects are illustrated by examples of applications of the techniques under discussion.

  3. Mechanisms Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design such mechan...

  4. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2016-01-01

    A Thorough Update of One of the Most Highly Regarded Textbooks on Quantum Mechanics Continuing to offer an exceptionally clear, up-to-date treatment of the subject, Quantum Mechanics, Sixth Edition explains the concepts of quantum mechanics for undergraduate students in physics and related disciplines and provides the foundation necessary for other specialized courses. This sixth edition builds on its highly praised predecessors to make the text even more accessible to a wider audience. It is now divided into five parts that separately cover broad topics suitable for any general course on quantum mechanics. New to the Sixth Edition * Three chapters that review prerequisite physics and mathematics, laying out the notation, formalism, and physical basis necessary for the rest of the book * Short descriptions of numerous applications relevant to the physics discussed, giving students a brief look at what quantum mechanics has made possible industrially and scientifically * Additional end-of-chapter problems with...

  5. College mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Şengül, Caner

    2016-01-01

    College Mechanics QueBank has been designed to be different, enthusiastic, interesting and helpful to you. Therefore, it is not just a test bank about mechanics but also it is like a compass in order to find your way in mechanics Each chapter in this book is put in an order to follow a hierarchy of the mechanics topics; from vectors to simple harmonic motion. Throughout the book there are many multiple choice and long answer questions for you to solve. They have been created for YGS, LYS, SAT, IB or other standardized exams in the world because mechanics has no boundaries and so Physics has no country. Learn the main principle of each chapter and explore the daily life applications. Then you can start to solve the questions by planning a problem solving method carefully. Finally, enjoy solving the questions and discover the meachanics of the universe once more.

  6. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-08-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  7. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  8. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,

  9. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science and technology in-

  10. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  11. Nanotechnologies applied to building sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rossetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state of the art and the most important tendencies of one of the most promising sectors within the scenario of technological innovation in constructions: the application to materials and components of the nanotechnologies, a kind of technologies that modify at infinitesimal scale the physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of materials in a way which is not with the traditional technologies. A sector that has seen in the last years an exponential increase of technical solutions and brevets, most of them being born in other industrial sectors and then transferred and suited for the construction industry, to improve the performances of the materials used in terms of maintenance and conservation, performances, energy saving, aesthetics.

  12. Applied extreme-value statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  13. Applied computation and security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Khalid; Choudhury, Sankhayan; Chaki, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the First International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2014) held during April 18-20, 2014 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland and University of Calcutta, India. The Volume I of this double-volume book contains fourteen high quality book chapters in three different parts. Part 1 is on Pattern Recognition and it presents four chapters. Part 2 is on Imaging and Healthcare Applications contains four more book chapters. The Part 3 of this volume is on Wireless Sensor Networking and it includes as many as six chapters. Volume II of the book has three Parts presenting a total of eleven chapters in it. Part 4 consists of five excellent chapters on Software Engineering ranging from cloud service design to transactional memory. Part 5 in Volume II is on Cryptography with two book...

  14. Applied discrete-time queues

    CERN Document Server

    Alfa, Attahiru S

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...

  15. Computer simulations applied in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y{sub 2}(Ti,Sn,Zr){sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO{sub 2}; composition defect maps for A{sup 3+}B{sup 3+}O{sub 3} perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  16. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates, this thorough text focuses on the role of symmetry operations and the essentially algebraic structure of quantum-mechanical theory. Based on courses in quantum mechanics taught by the authors, the treatment provides numerous problems that require applications of theory and serve to supplement the textual material.Starting with a historical introduction to the origins of quantum theory, the book advances to discussions of the foundations of wave mechanics, wave packets and the uncertainty principle, and an examination of the Schrödinger equation that includ

  17. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  18. Mechanical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  19. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book, based on a thirty lecture course given to students at the beginning of their second year, covers the quantum mechanics required by physics undergraduates. Early chapters deal with wave mechanics, including a discussion of the energy states of the hydrogen atom. These are followed by a more formal development of the theory, leading to a discussion of some advanced applications and an introduction to the conceptual problems associated with quantum measurement theory. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. (U.K.)

  20. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  1. THE OUTLOOK FOR APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1891-01-16

    I have thus touched, gentlemen, upon a few of the many subjects that crowd upon the mind for consideration on an occasion like this, - a few gleanings from a field which is passing rich in promise and possibility. It is a field that some of us have cultivated for many years, and yet have only scratched the surface ; and, if I have ventured to suggest or admonish, it is with the feeling that my own labors in this field are ere long about to end, and that I may not have another occasion. At no time in the history of the world has there, I trow, been gathered together such a body of devoted and capable workers in applied entomology. It marks an era in our calling, and, looking back at the progress of the past fifteen years, we may well ponder the possibilities of the next fifteen. They will be fruitful of grand results in proportion as we persistently and combinedly pursue the yet unsolved problems, and are not tempted to the immediate presentation of separate facts, which are so innumerable and so easily observed that their very wealth becomes an element of weakness. Epoch-making discoveries result only from this power of following up unswervingly any given problem or any fixed ideal. The kerosene emulsion ; the cyclone nozzle ; the history of Phylloxera vastatrix, of Phorodon humuli, of Vedalia cardinalis,- are illustrations in point: and, while we may not expect frequent results as striking or of as wide application as these, there is no end of important problems yet to be solved, and from the solution of which we may look for similar beneficial results. Applied entomology is often considered a sordid pursuit ; but it only becomes so when the object is sordid. When pursued with unselfish enthusiasm born of the love of investigation and the delight in benefiting our fellow-men, it is inspiring ; and there are few pursuits more deservedly so, considering the vast losses to our farmers from insect injury and the pressing need that the distressed husbandman has for

  2. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  3. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  4. Gaitography applied to prosthetic walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Cutti, Andrea G; Summa, Aurora; Monari, Davide; Veronesi, Davide; van Ooijen, Mariëlle W; Beek, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    During walking on an instrumented treadmill with an embedded force platform or grid of pressure sensors, center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories exhibit a characteristic butterfly-like shape, reflecting the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior weight shifts associated with alternating steps. We define "gaitography" as the analysis of such COP trajectories during walking (the "gaitograms"). It is currently unknown, however, if gaitography can be employed to characterize pathological gait, such as lateralized gait impairments. We therefore registered gaitograms for a heterogeneous sample of persons with a trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputation during treadmill walking at a self-selected comfortable speed. We found that gaitograms directly visualize between-person differences in prosthetic gait in terms of step width and the relative duration of prosthetic and non-prosthetic single-support stance phases. We further demonstrated that one should not only focus on the gaitogram's shape but also on the time evolution along that shape, given that the COP evolves much slower in the single-support phase than in the double-support phase. Finally, commonly used temporal and spatial prosthetic gait characteristics were derived, revealing both individual and systematic differences in prosthetic and non-prosthetic step lengths, step times, swing times, and double-support durations. Because gaitograms can be rapidly collected in an unobtrusive and markerless manner over multiple gait cycles without constraining foot placement, clinical application of gaitography seems both expedient and appealing. Studies examining the repeatability of gaitograms and evaluating gaitography-based gait characteristics against a gold standard with known validity and reliability are required before gaitography can be clinically applied.

  5. Precision mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kittell, David

    1989-01-01

    David Kittell, the father of the discipline, Precision Mechanics, shares the foundation of this science with you in his highly practical and fun to read book, Precision Mechanics. Based on his highly acclaimed course by the same name, first taught at the Perkin-Elmer Technical institute in Norwalk, Connecticut, and later as a short course offered in such places as Bell Labs, SPIE, IEEE, NASA, and several national labs, you will find this book relevant and immediately useful.

  6. Morphometrics applied to medical entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software freely available to conduct complex analyses, significant biological and epidemiological features can be quantified more accurately. We discuss the evolutionary significance of the environmental impact on metric variability, mentioning the importance of concepts like genetic assimilation, genetic accommodation, and epigenetics. We provide examples of measuring the effect of selection on metric variation by comparing (unpublished) Qst values with corresponding (published) Fst. The primary needs of medical entomologists are to distinguish species, especially cryptic species, and to detect them where they are not expected. We explain how geometric morphometrics could apply to these questions, and where there are deficiencies preventing the approach from being utilized at its maximum potential. Medical entomologists in connection with control programs aim to identify isolated populations where the risk of reinfestation after treatment would be low ("biogeographical islands"). Identifying them can be obtained from estimating the number of migrants per generation. Direct assessment of movement remains the most valid approach, but it scores active movement only. Genetic methods estimating gene flow levels among interbreeding populations are commonly used, but gene flow does not necessarily mean the current flow of migrants. Methods using the morphometric variation are neither suited to evaluate gene flow, nor are they adapted to estimate the flow of migrants. They may provide, however, the information needed to create a preliminary map pointing to relevant areas where one could

  7. Adhere to the Board of Directors Sponsoring Mechanism to Develop Application-oriented Specialty Talents ——Guangxi University of Technology Relying on Directors to Train Applied Talents Mechanism%坚持董事会办学机制,培养应用型特色人才——广西工学院依托董事会培养应用型人才机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫勤德

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, combined with Guangxi University of Science and Technology applied talents practice, asked the local engineering colleges must strengthen the quality of personnel training, strengthening personnel training features, the only way to gain a foothold in the competition.%本文结合广西工学院应用型人才培养工作实践,提出地方工科院校在加强人才培养质量的同时,一定要强化人才培养的特色,只有这样才能在竞争中立足。

  8. Activities report in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The research conducted at the Lille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFL) concerns four areas: flight mechanics, structural mechanics, aerodynamics and applied fluid mechanics. Within these four areas, these topics are discussed: characterization of the unsteady pressures on an airfoil in turbulence; adaptation of the Kalman-Rauch filtering-smoothing method to instrumented free spin tests; vulnerability of aircraft fuel tanks; water surface impact; influence of an oscillating spoiler on the surrounding aerodynamic field; gunfiring similarity theory and rules; flow around a cylinder at low Reynolds number by holographic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry; compressible turbulent flow computation; and the wake of wind turbine towers are discussed.

  9. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  10. Wave Mechanics or Wave Statistical Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By comparison between equations of motion of geometrical optics and that of classical statistical mechanics, this paper finds that there should be an analogy between geometrical optics and classical statistical mechanics instead of geometrical mechanics and classical mechanics. Furthermore, by comparison between the classical limit of quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics, it finds that classical limit of quantum mechanics is classical statistical mechanics not classical mechanics, hence it demonstrates that quantum mechanics is a natural generalization of classical statistical mechanics instead of classical mechanics. Thence quantum mechanics in its true appearance is a wave statistical mechanics instead of a wave mechanics.

  11. Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  12. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  13. Gauge concepts in theoretical applied physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Gauge concept evolves in the course of nearly one century from Faraday’s rather obscure electrotonic state of matter to the physically significant Yang-Mills that underpin today’s standard model. As gauge theories improve, links are established with modern observations, e.g. in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Pancharatnam-Berry’s phase, superconductivity, and quantum Hall effects. In this century, emergent gauge theory is formulated in numerous fields of applied physics like topological insulators, spintronics, and graphene. We will show in this paper the application of gauge theory in two particularly useful spin-based phenomena, namely the spin orbit spin torque and the spin Hall effect. These are important fields of study in the engineering community due to great commercial interest in the technology of magnetic memory (MRAM), and magnetic field sensors. Both spin orbit torque and spin Hall perform magnetic switching at low power and high speed. Furthermore, spin Hall is also a promising source of pure spin current, as well as a reliable form of detection mechanism for the magnetic state of a material.

  14. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics

  15. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M.; Shingyoji, S.; Nakamura, I.; Tagawa, T.; Saito, Y.; Ishihara, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yoshida, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Myron B

    2015-01-01

    Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer.  This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe

  17. Mechanical seals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, E

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical Seals, Third Edition is a source of practical information on the design and use of mechanical seals. Topics range from design fundamentals and test rigs to leakage, wear, friction and power, reliability, and special designs. This text is comprised of nine chapters; the first of which gives a general overview of seals, including various types of seals and their applications. Attention then turns to the fundamentals of seal design, with emphasis on six requirements that must be considered: sealing effectiveness, length of life, reliability, power consumption, space requirements, and c

  18. Soil mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  19. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhakaran, Shivam

    2009-01-01

    Mechanics is the branch of Physics dealing with the effects of Forces on the motions of bodies. The world is composed of distinct elements, each possessing a definite position and velocity. These elements or particles interact with one another via forces which, in principle at least, can be completely known and whose effects can be allowed for exactly in predicating the motions of the various interacting bodies. To meet the challenge of these classically inexplicable observations, a completely new system of dynamics, quantum mechanics, was developed.The text includes advanced concepts in quant

  20. Soil Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Sara Wisbech Jacobsen; Hededal, Ole; Foged, Niels Nielsen;

    It is widely accepted that there is a connection between the undrained shear strength and the strain rate. Thixotropy and creep behaviour are connected to the mechanical properties of clay. Thixotropy is the ability of clay to recover its shear strength over time when the shear stress is released...

  1. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  2. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  3. 表征高分子材料表面力学性能的新概念——“表面积/面积比”%"Surface Area / Area"——A Concept Applied to Describe the Surface Mechanical Properties of Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东; 冷永祥; 黄楠

    2012-01-01

    A concept, "surface area/area", was proposed to describe the surface mechanical property of polymer materials. According to the definition of "surface area/area", any deformation under external force can be described by this concept, including indentation, shear, abrasion and extrusion bulging deformation, etc. And the different values of " surface area/area" reflect different comprehensive mechanical properties of materials. The application advantage of this concept was confirmed through the analysis of the surface mechanical property of ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene(UHMWPE) modified by plasma. The further study about this concept would help to explore more new approaches or technology to analyze the surface (micro-nano-range) mechanical property of polymer materials.%文中提出表征高分子材料表面力学性能的新概念——"表面积/面积比"(surface area/area),外力作用下材料的任何形变(压痕、挤压凸起、剪切、磨损)都可以通过"表面积/面积比"的变化来描述。相同载荷作用下不同材料"表面积/面积比"的差异,体现出材料表面强度、表面综合力学性能的差异。在分析等离子处理对超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)表面强度改性效果的实例中,证实了"表面积/面积比"概念的应用价值和应用优势。

  4. Applied Parallel Computing Industrial Computation and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Olesen, Dorte

    Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)......Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)...

  5. Applied Materials taas investorite huviorbiidis / Erlend Zirk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirk, Erlend

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. nov. lk. 33. Protsessorite tootmisseadmete tootja Applied Materials on pärast 2000. aasta börsikrahhi taas investorite huviorbiiti jõudmas. Diagramm: Applied Materialsi aktsia

  6. Polymer composite principles applied to hair styling gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade Rafferty, Denise; Zellia, Joseph; Hasman, Daniel; Mullay, John

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach is taken to understand the mechanical performance of fixative-treated hair tresses. Polymer composite principles are applied to explain the performance. Examples are given for polyacrylate-2 crosspolymer that show that the choice of neutralizer affects the film properties of anionic acrylic polymers by plasticization or by hardening through ionic (physical) crosslinking. The effect of these changes in the polymer film on the composite properties was determined by mechanical stiffness and high-humidity curl retention testing. It is shown that both adhesion to the hair and polymer cohesion are important in determining fixative polymer performance. The implications of the results for the formulation of fixative systems are discussed.

  7. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  8. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  9. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  10. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  11. Molecular Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Guvench, Olgun; Alexander D MacKerell

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Mechanics (MM) force fields are the methods of choice for protein simulations, which are essential in the study of conformational flexibility. Given the importance of protein flexibility in drug binding, MM is involved in most if not all Computational Structure-Based Drug Discovery (CSBDD) projects. This section introduces the reader to the fundamentals of MM, with a special emphasis on how the target data used in the parametrization of force fields determine their strengths and wea...

  12. Competing mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The recent literature on competing mechanisms has devoted a lot of effort at understanding a very complex and abstract issue. In particular, an agent's type in a competitive environment is hard to conceptualize because it depends on information the agent has about what is going on in the rest of the market. This paper explains why this is such an important practical problem and illustrates how the literature has solved it.

  13. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  14. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Guiding Mobile Robot by Applying Fuzzy Approach on Sonar Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Rahman Jasim; Nabeel K. Abid Al- Sahib

    2010-01-01

    This study describes how fuzzy logic control FLC can be applied to sonars of mobile robot. The fuzzy logic approach has effects on the navigation of mobile robots in a partially known environment that are used in different industrial and society applications. The fuzzy logic provides a mechanism for combining sensor data from all sonar sensors which present different information. The FLC approach is achieved by means of Fuzzy Decision Making method type of fuzzy logic controller. The proposed...

  18. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  19. Prestressing Shock Resistant Mechanical Components and Mechanisms Made from Hard, Superelastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and an apparatus confer full superelastic properties to the active surface of a mechanical component constructed of a superelastic material prior to service. A compressive load is applied to the active surface of the mechanical component followed by removing the compressive load from the active surface whereby substantially all load strain is recoverable after applying and removing of subsequent compressive loads.

  20. Towards quantitative measures in applied ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2012-01-01

    Applied ontology is a relatively new field which aims to apply theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics and formal logics to perform or improve domain-specific tasks. To support the development of effective research methodologies for applied ontology, we critically discuss the question how its research results should be evaluated. We propose that results in applied ontology must be evaluated within their domain of application, based on some ontology-based task within the domain, and discuss quantitative measures which would facilitate the objective evaluation and comparison of research results in applied ontology.

  1. Applied RCM2 Algorithms Based on Statistical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fausto Pedro García Márquez; Diego J. Pedregal

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to implement a system capable of detecting faults in railway point mechanisms. This is achieved by developing an algorithm that takes advantage of three empirical criteria simultaneously capable of detecting faults from records of measurements of force against time. The system is dynamic in several respects: the base reference data is computed using all the curves free from faults as they are encountered in the experimental data; the algorithm that uses the three criteria simultaneously may be applied in on-line situations as each new data point becomes available; and recursive algorithms are applied to filter noise from the raw data in an automatic way. Encouraging results are found in practice when the system is applied to a number of experiments carried out by an industrial sponsor.

  2. International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26–27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15–16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: 1. Economical sciences; 2. Engineering sciences; 3. Fundamental sciences; 4. Medical sciences; The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timişoara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora Hărău, ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babeş'' Timişoara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this

  3. International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Jiang, Yiwen

    2014-03-01

    The International Conference on Applied Sciences (ICAS2013) took place in Wuhan, P R China from 26-27 October 2013 at the Military Economics Academy. The conference is regularly organized, alternately in Romania and in P R China, by ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, Romania, and Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, P R China, with the aim to serve as a platform for the exchange of information between various areas of applied sciences, and to promote the communication between the scientists of different nations, countries and continents. The conference has been organized for the first time in 15-16 June 2012 at the Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara, Romania. The topics of the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues: Economical sciences Engineering sciences Fundamental sciences Medical sciences The conference gathered qualified researchers whose expertise can be used to develop new engineering knowledge that has applicability potential in economics, defense, medicine, etc. The number of registered participants was nearly 90 from 5 countries. During the two days of the conference 4 invited and 36 oral talks were delivered. A few of the speakers deserve a special mention: Mircea Octavian Popoviciu, Academy of Romanian Scientist — Timişoara Branch, Correlations between mechanical properties and cavitation erosion resistance for stainless steels with 12% chromium and variable contents of nickel; Carmen Eleonora Hărău, ''Politehnica'' University of Timişoara, SWOT analysis of Romania's integration in EU; Ding Hui, Military Economics Academy of Wuhan, Design and engineering analysis of material procurement mobile operation platform; Serban Rosu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babeş'' Timişoara, Cervical and facial infections — a real life threat, among others. Based on the work presented at the conference, 14 selected papers are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. These papers

  4. Statistical mechanics of learning

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The effort to build machines that are able to learn and undertake tasks such as datamining, image processing and pattern recognition has led to the development of artificial neural networks in which learning from examples may be described and understood. The contribution to this subject made over the past decade by researchers applying the techniques of statistical mechanics is the subject of this book. The authors provide a coherent account of various important concepts and techniques that are currently only found scattered in papers, supplement this with background material in mathematics and physics, and include many examples and exercises.

  5. New quantum mechanical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宁; 阮图南

    1996-01-01

    A quantum mechanical model with one bosonic degree of freedom is discussed in detail. Conventionally, when a quantum mechanical model is constructed, one must know the corresponding classical model. And by applying the correspondence between the classical Poisson brackets and the canonical commutator, the canonical quantization condition can be obtained. In the quantum model, study of the corresponding classical model is needed first. In this model, the Lagrangian is an operator gauge invariant. After localization, in order to keep gauge invariance, the operator gauge potential must be introduced. The Eular-Lagrange equation of motion of the dynamical argument gives the usual operator equation of motion. And the operator gauge potential just gjves a constraint. This constraint is just the usual canonical quantization condition.

  6. Mechanisms of intergranular fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-08-01

    The authors present a study of the atomistic mechanisms of crack propagation along grain boundaries in metals and alloys. The failure behavior showing cleavage crack growth and/or crack-tip dislocation emission is demonstrated using atomistic simulations for an embedded-atom model. The simulations follow the quasi-equilibrium growth of a crack as the stress intensity applied increases. Dislocations emitted from crack tips normally blunt the crack and inhibit cleavage, inducing ductile behavior. When the emitted dislocations stay near the crack tip (sessile dislocations), they do blunt the crack but brittle cleavage can occur after the emission of a sufficient number of dislocations. The fracture process occurs as a combination of dislocation emission/micro-cleavage portions that are controlled by the local atomistic structure of the grain boundary. The grain boundary is shown to be a region where dislocation emission is easier, a mechanism that competes with the lower cohesive strength of the boundary region.

  7. 应用型独立学院机械工程专业《机械产品构造》课程的改革探索与实践%Exploration and Practice on the Reform of Machinery Product Structure Curriculum of Mechanical Engineering Major in Applied Independent College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杭

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the teaching effect of the mechanical engineering major in independent institute, this paper proposed the practice teaching and reform method of Mechanical Product Structure curriculum. Through this method, the students can get the most and latest knowledge in the least time, and it can improve students' ability of combining theory with practice, and closely contact with the practical ability in actual production and living, and has got a good teaching effect.%  为了提高独立学院机械工程专业教学的效果,提出了机械工程专业中针对《机械产品构造》的课程实践教学和改革方法。该方法使学生在最少的时间内获得最多、最新的知识,提高学生理论联系实际,并紧密联系实际生产生活的实践能力,在实际教学中获得了良好的教学效果。

  8. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2007-01-01

    PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC

  9. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zagoskin, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Written by Dr Alexandre Zagoskin, who is a Reader at Loughborough University, Quantum Mechanics: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear jargon-free English, and then providing added-value features like summaries of key ideas, and even lists of questions you might be asked in your exam. The book uses a structure that is designed to make quantum physics as accessible as possible - by starting with its similarities to Newtonian physics, ra

  10. Lectures on quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum mechanics represents the central revolution of modern natural science and reaches in its importance farely beyond physics. Neither chemistry nor biology on the molecular scale would be understandable without it. Modern information technology from the laptop over the mobile telephone and the flat screen until the supercomputer would be unthinkable without quantum-mechanical effects. It desribes the world on the atomic and subatomic scale and is by this the starting point of our modern worldview. The Nobel-prize carrier Steven Weinberg has done ever among others by his theory of the unification of the weak and the electromagnetic interaction one of the most important contributions to this revolution. In this book he reproduces his personal view of quantum mechanics, which captivates by its strictly logic construction, precise linguistic representation, and mathematical clearness and completeness. This book appeals to studyings of natural sciences, especially of physics. Accompanied is the test by exercise problems, which allow the studying to apply immediately the knowledge, but also test their understanding. Because of its precision and clearness ''Lectures on Quantum Mechanics'' by Weinberg is also essentially suited for the self-study.

  11. Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.

    1976-10-01

    A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed.

  12. Quantum Mechanics of Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, R R

    2000-01-01

    We propose a quantum mechanics of extended objects that accounts for the finite extent of a particle defined via its Compton wavelength. The Hilbert space representation theory of such a quantum mechanics is presented and this representation is used to demonstrate the quantization of spacetime. The quantum mechanics of extended objects is then applied to two paradigm examples, the fuzzy (extended object) harmonic oscillator and the Yukawa potential. In the second example the phenomenological coupling constant of the $\\omega$ meson which mediates the short range and repulsive nucleon force as well as the repulsive core radius are theoretically predicted.

  13. Aerodynamic and Mechanical System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix

    This thesis deals with mechanical multibody-systems applied to the drivetrain of a 500 kW wind turbine. Particular focus has been on gearbox modelling of wind turbines. The main part of the present project involved programming multibody systems to investigate the connection between forces, moments...

  14. Mahajan named director of Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2006-01-01

    Roop L. Mahajan, an internationally known researcher with expertise ranging from nanotechnology to bio micro-electro-mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS), will become the director of Virginia Tech's Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), effective July 1.

  15. System dynamics for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is ideal for mechanical engineering students preparing to enter the workforce during a time of rapidly accelerating technology, where they will be challenged to join interdisciplinary teams. It explains system dynamics using analogies familiar to the mechanical engineer while introducing new content in an intuitive fashion. The fundamentals provided in this book prepare the mechanical engineer to adapt to continuous technological advances with topics outside traditional mechanical engineering curricula by preparing them to apply basic principles and established approaches to new problems. This book also: ·         Reinforces the connection between the subject matter and engineering reality ·         Includes an instructor pack with the online publication that describes in-class experiments with minimal preparation requirements ·         Provides content dedicated to the modeling of modern interdisciplinary technological subjects, including opto-mechanical systems, high...

  16. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  17. Soliton mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gunasekaran, Sharmila; Kunduri, Hari K

    2016-01-01

    The domain of outer communication of five-dimensional asymptotically flat stationary spacetimes may possess non-trivial 2-cycles (bubbles). Spacetimes containing such 2-cycles can have non-zero energy, angular momenta, and charge even in the absence of horizons. A mass variation formula has been established for spacetimes containing bubbles and possibly a black hole horizon. This `first law of black hole and soliton mechanics' contains new intensive and extensive quantities associated to each 2-cycle. We consider examples of such spacetimes for which we explicitly calculate these quantities and show how regularity is essential for the formulae relating them to hold. We also derive new explicit expressions for the angular momenta and charge for spacetimes containing solitons purely in terms of fluxes supporting the bubbles.

  18. Ribosome Mechanics Informs about Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael T; Jia, Kejue; Jernigan, Robert L

    2016-02-27

    The essential aspects of the ribosome's mechanism can be extracted from coarse-grained simulations, including the ratchet motion, the movement together of critical bases at the decoding center, and movements of the peptide tunnel lining that assist in the expulsion of the synthesized peptide. Because of its large size, coarse graining helps to simplify and to aid in the understanding of its mechanism. Results presented here utilize coarse-grained elastic network modeling to extract the dynamics, and both RNAs and proteins are coarse grained. We review our previous results, showing the well-known ratchet motions and the motions in the peptide tunnel and in the mRNA tunnel. The motions of the lining of the peptide tunnel appear to assist in the expulsion of the growing peptide chain, and clamps at the ends of the mRNA tunnel with three proteins ensure that the mRNA is held tightly during decoding and essential for the helicase activity at the entrance. The entry clamp may also assist in base recognition to ensure proper selection of the incoming tRNA. The overall precision of the ribosome machine-like motions is remarkable. PMID:26687034

  19. 34 CFR 400.4 - What definitions apply to the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preparing to enter, planning, management, finances, technical and production skills, underlying principles... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to the Vocational and Applied... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 400.4 What definitions apply to the...

  20. Recent Developments in Applied Probability and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Devroye, Luc; Kohler, Michael; Korn, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    This book presents surveys on recent developments in applied probability and statistics. The contributions include topics such as nonparametric regression and density estimation, option pricing, probabilistic methods for multivariate interpolation, robust graphical modelling and stochastic differential equations. Due to its broad coverage of different topics the book offers an excellent overview of recent developments in applied probability and statistics.

  1. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  2. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…

  3. Situations of Applied Psycholinguistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies related to applied psycholinguistics in China have been published in the past two decades. So the present study reviewed the situations of applied psycholinguistics and by discussing the results, existing problems are dipped and suggestions for further research are proposed.

  4. 32 CFR 37.1220 - Applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applied research. 37.1220 Section 37.1220... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1220 Applied research... technology such as new materials, devices, methods and processes. It typically is funded in...

  5. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  6. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  7. Effectiveness of Investment in Applied Horticultural Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wustman, R.; Putter, de H.; Achterbosch, T.J.; Adamicki, F.

    2005-01-01

    A study on the cost benefit analysis of applied horticultural research was carried out in two EU Member States: the Netherlands and Poland. Four crops were selected for the study; two fruit crops ¿ apple and pear and two vegetable crops ¿ carrot and onion. A developed spreadsheet model was applied t

  8. Active system monitoring applied on wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Parbo, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied for...... for an online monitoring of central parameters/elements of the system. Statistical tests are applied on the residual signals for obtaining a correct monitoring.......A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied...

  9. Peripherally applied opioids for postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids applied peripherally at the site of surgery may produce postoperative analgesia with few side effects. We performed this systematic review to evaluate the analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids for acute postoperative pain. METHODS: We searched PubMed (1966 to June...... 2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... postoperative analgesia. CONCLUSION: Evidence of a clinically relevant analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids for acute postoperative pain is lacking. The analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids may depend on the presence of preoperative inflammation....

  10. Mechanisms for slow strengthening in granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Losert, W.; Geminard, J. -C.; Nasuno, S.; Gollub, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Several mechanisms cause a granular material to strengthen over time at low applied stress. The strength is determined from the maximum frictional force F_max experienced by a shearing plate in contact with wet or dry granular material after the layer has been at rest for a waiting time \\tau. The layer strength increases roughly logarithmically with \\tau -only- if a shear stress is applied during the waiting time. The mechanisms of strengthening are investigated by sensitive displacement meas...

  11. Audit of company’s security in the sphere of applying information technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Голяш, Ірина Дмитрівна; Саченко, Світлана Іванівна

    2014-01-01

    Issues, which concern company’s security in the sphere of applying information technologies, have been determined. Necessity of applying auditing for enhancing such security has been confirmed. Major stages of audit in the sphere of applying information technologies have been determined. It has been suggested to use audit results for improving the company’s information security system, implement new and increase efficiency of existing security mechanisms of its information systems.

  12. Umbilical mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel R. (Inventor); Jasulaitis, Vytas (Inventor); Morrill, Brion F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus is described for automatically mating a pair of connectors and protecting them prior to mating, which minimizes weight and uses relatively simple and reliable mechanisms. Lower and upper connectors (24, 26) are held in lower and upper parts (14, 16) of a housing, with the upper connector mounted on a carrier (32) that is motor driven to move down and mate the connectors. A pair of movable members (36, 38) serve as shields, as coarse alignment aids, and as force transmitters. The movable members are pivotally mounted at the bottom of the upper housing, and as the carrier moves down it pivots the members out of the way. The movable members have socket elements (116) that closely receive pin elements (120) on the lower housing part, to coarsely align the connectors and to react mating and unmating forces between the housings. The carrier has a pair of plate portions (60, 62) with slots (64), and the movable members have cam followers engaged with the slot walls, to move the members with precision. The carrier plate-like portions engage follower members (82) that pivot open lower shield parts (44, 46) covering the lower connector, which is mounted on four stacks of Belleville washers (142).

  13. Soil mechanics: breaking ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Itai

    2007-12-15

    In soil mechanics, student's models are classified as simple models that teach us unexplained elements of behaviour; an example is the Cam clay constitutive models of critical state soil mechanics (CSSM). 'Engineer's models' are models that elaborate the theory to fit more behavioural trends; this is usually done by adding fitting parameters to the student's models. Can currently unexplained behavioural trends of soil be explained without adding fitting parameters to CSSM models, by developing alternative student's models based on modern theories?Here I apply an alternative theory to CSSM, called 'breakage mechanics', and develop a simple student's model for sand. Its unique and distinctive feature is the use of an energy balance equation that connects grain size reduction to consumption of energy, which enables us to predict how grain size distribution (gsd) evolves-an unprecedented capability in constitutive modelling. With only four parameters, the model is physically clarifying what CSSM cannot for sand: the dependency of yielding and critical state on the initial gsd and void ratio. PMID:17855225

  14. 用于重冰区架空输电线路的钢芯铝合金绞线机械特性分析%Mechanical Characteristic Analysis of Aluminium-alloy Conductor Steel-reinforced Applying in Transmission Line in Heavy Icing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炜斌; 郝艳捧

    2012-01-01

    为提高重冰区架空输电线路的安全可靠性,需合理选择重冰区架空输电线路的导线型号。为此,计算了钢芯铝合金绞线和普通钢芯铝绞线在相同的悬挂条件下,最大覆冰时导线悬挂点的安全系数,计算、比较了2种导线舞动时的动态应力、安全系数及最大覆冰时的最大弧垂。结果表明:钢芯铝合金绞线应用于重冰区输电线路时,能表现出更优秀的机械特性和弧垂特性,且导线的最大设计覆冰厚度越大,其优势越明显。另外,得益于其良好的弧垂特性,钢芯铝合金绞线可降低线路铁塔的高度,节省钢材。%In order to enhance the safe reliability of transmission line in heavy icing area, the type of conductor should be selected reasonably. Thus, in the same hanging condition, the safety coefficients of hanging point of aluminum-alloy conductor steel-reinforced and steel-cored aluminum strand wire were calculated within the largest icing. Dynamic stress, safety coefficients and maximum sag under largest icing condition of two types of wires were also calculated and compared. The results show that aluminum-alloy conductor steel-reinforced wire used for heavy icing transmission line possesses better mechanical properties and sag characteristics. Moreover, the thicker the maximum ice coating of wire is designed, the more obvious its advantage shows. Otherwise, the steel can be retrenched profit from the sag characteristics of aluminum alloy conductor steel reinforced wire.

  15. Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  16. A Medical Student Workshop in Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Kushins, Lawrence G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to teach applied respiratory physiology to medical students, the anesthesiology faculty at the University of Florida College of Medicine has designed and implemented a course that includes a laboratory workshop in mechanical ventilation of an animal model that allows students to apply and expand their knowledge. (JMD)

  17. Mechanism of mechanical activation for sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-ping; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; HE Yue-hui; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Structural changes for mechanically activated pyrite, sphalerite, galena and molybdenite with or without the exposure to ambient air, were systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD), particle size analysis, gravimetrical method, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy(XPS) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. Based on the above structural changes for mechanically activated sulfide ores and related reports by other researchers, several qualitative rules of the mechanisms and the effects of mechanical activation for sulfide ores are obtained. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and incomplete cleavage plane or extremely incomplete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed, and lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with excellent thermal stability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For sulfide ores with high toughness, good thermal stability and very excellent complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation, but the lattice deformation ratio is very small. The effects of mechanical activation are worst.

  18. Applied Sciences—Connecting Theories with Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Kobayashi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Applied sciences cover many interdisciplinary fields that put basic sciences to application and make big changes by taking the one not-so-small step from “knowing how” to “knowing how-to”, the serendipity of which is often intriguing. Applied sciences are so deeply entrenched in almost all aspects of our daily lives. To provide an advanced forum for scholars all over the world to discuss and communicate the cutting-edge development in this field, on behalf of the Editorial Board members, I am honored to introduce Applied Sciences, a scholarly, peer-reviewed open access journal. [...

  19. ON THE EVOLUTION OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家翘

    2003-01-01

    The recent trend in the application of mathematics to biological sciences is discussed in historical perspective. It is suggested that this new development should be regarded as a natural evolution of applied mathematics in the expansion of its scope. The mathematical concepts and methods to be used are not expected to be substantially different from those used in traditional applied mathematics. For illustration, we sketch an application of the kinetic theory of the study of dissipative systems to the study of the structure and function of protein molecules. The traditional concepts and methods of statistical physics can be successfully applied to yield predictions for comparison with empirical data.

  20. Encyclopedia of applied and computational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    EACM is a comprehensive reference work covering the vast field of applied and computational mathematics. Applied mathematics itself accounts for at least 60 per cent of mathematics, and the emphasis on computation reflects the current and constantly growing importance of computational methods in all areas of applications. EACM emphasizes the strong links of applied mathematics with major areas of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science, as well as specific fields like atmospheric ocean science. In addition, the mathematical input to modern engineering and technology form another core component of EACM.

  1. Concept analysis of culture applied to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilli, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Culture is an important concept, especially when applied to nursing. A concept analysis of culture is essential to understanding the meaning of the word. This article applies Rodgers' (2000) concept analysis template and provides a definition of the word culture as it applies to nursing practice. This article supplies examples of the concept of culture to aid the reader in understanding its application to nursing and includes a case study demonstrating components of culture that must be respected and included when providing health care.

  2. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  3. Prospect of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy applied in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape memory effect mechanism, physical property, composition, manufacturing process and application in mechanical structure of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy are introduced. Applications of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy in reactor structure are prospected and some necessary technical conditions of shape memory alloy applied in the reactor structure are put forward initially

  4. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  5. Applied Crystallography - Proceedings of the XVth Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawiec, H.; Ströż, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * The International Centre for Diffraction Data and Its Future Developments * The Rietveld Method - A Historical Perspective * Real Structure in Quantitative Powder Diffraction Phase Analysis * Neutron Focusing Optics in Applied Crystallography * The Crystal Structures of Oxygen Deficient Rare Earth Oxides * Short-Range Order in Layer-Structured Ba1-xSrxBi2Nb2O9 Ferroelectrics * Radial Distribution Function as a Tool of Structural Studies on Noncrystalline Materials * Determination of Radial Distribution Function (RDF) of Electrodeposited Cu-Cd Alloys After Annealing * Spheres Packing as a Factor Describing the Local Environment and Structure Stability * X-Ray Stress Measurement of Samples Combined with Diffraction Line Analysis * Phase Stability and Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zn and Cu-Zn-Al Single Crystals * Order, Defects, Precipitates and the Martensitic Transformation in β Cu-Zn-Al * Effect of γ Precipitates on the Martensitic Transformation in Cu-Zn-Al Alloys * Phase Transitions and Shape Memory Effect in a Thermomechanically Treated NiTi Alloy * Structure of Martensite and Bainite in CuAlMn Alloys * Glass-Ceramics * Mechanism of Texture Formation at the Rolling of Low Stacking Fault Energy Metals and Alloys * Shear Texture of Zinc and the Conditions of Its Occuring * The Development of Texture of ZnAlMg Sheets Depending on Deformation Geometry * Texture Stability of the D.S. NiAlMoCrTi Alloy After Heat Treatment * X-Ray Diffraction Method for Controlling of Texture Evolution in Layers * Texture and Lattice Imperfections Study of Some Low Alloyed Copper Alloys * Selected Examples of the Calculation of the Orientation Distribution Function for Low Crystal and Sample Symmetries * Automatical X-Ray Quantitative Phase Analysis * Application of a PC Computer for Crystallographic Calculations * Electron Diffraction Analysis using a Personal Computer * CA.R.INE Crystallography Version 2

  6. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  7. H-methods in applied sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a framework for mathematical modelling within applied sciences. It is characteristic for data from 'nature and industry' that they have reduced rank for inference. It means that full rank solutions normally do not give satisfactory solutions. The basic idea of H-methods is...... cannot be improved. H-methods have been applied to wide range of fields within applied sciences. In each case, the H-methods provide with superior solutions compared to the traditional ones. A background for the H-methods is presented. The H-principle of mathematical modelling is explained. It is shown...... how the principle leads to well-defined optimisation procedures. This is illustrated in the case of linear regression. The H-methods have been applied in different areas: general linear models, nonlinear models, multi-block methods, path modelling, multi-way data analysis, growth models, dynamic...

  8. Applying Change of Variable to Calculus Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the technique of introducing a new variable in some calculus problems to help students master the skills of integration and evaluation of limits. This technique is algorithmic and easy to apply.

  9. ICT for AQA applied as single award

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This book has been written specifically for teachers and students following AQA's Applied AS ICT specification and covers the key elements of the units of the course, including the coursework requirements.

  10. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  11. A View from Agricultural and Applied Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Is regional science too focused on abstract models, theorizing, and methodology with weak links to policy and practice? Not from the perspective of the land grant university, where many applied economists with a regional science interest reside. The job of these applied economists is, in part, to translate the models and methods into tools for the use in understanding regional development processes and for undertaking policy analysis at the regional level.

  12. Industrial and applied mathematics in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li,Tatsien

    2014-01-01

    This new volume introduces readers to the current topics of industrial and applied mathematics in China, with applications to material science, information science, mathematical finance and engineering. The authors utilize mathematics for the solution of problems. The purposes of the volume are to promote research in applied mathematics and computational science; further the application of mathematics to new methods and techniques useful in industry and science; and provide for the exchange of information between the mathematical, industrial, and scientific communities.

  13. [What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiles, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism. PMID:24091650

  14. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2005-01-01

    Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...... is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results....

  15. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  16. The Bakhtin Circle and Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Duarte Molon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the relations between the theoretical formulations of the Bakhtin Circle and the current discussion on the scope of the so called Applied Linguistics (AL. In order to do that, we will briefly outline the history of AL, present the main conceptions of the Bakhtin Circle‟s thought, and build possible dialogues between the theoretical formulations of the Russian thinkers and the main issues of the current debate in Applied Linguistics.

  17. [What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiles, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism.

  18. Schemes for applying active lubrication to main engine bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    the dynamics of the injection for a piezo-actuated oil injector and a mechanical-actuated oil injector are presented in this study. It is shown how the dynamics of the oil injection system is coupled to the dynamics of the bearing fluid film through equations. The global system is numerically solved using...... as a case of study a single-cylinder combustion engine, where the conventional lubrication of the main bearing is modified by applying radial oil injection using piezo-actuated injection. The performance of such a hybrid bearing is compared to an equivalent conventional lubricated bearing in terms...

  19. Microspectroscopy as applied to the study of wood molecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackler, Karin; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2013-01-01

    -induced dimensional changes, decay resistance or mechanical properties. It is, however, important to choose the right technique for the purpose at hand and to apply it in a suitable way if any new insights are to be gained. This review presents and compares three different microspectroscopic techniques: infrared......Microspectroscopy gives access to spatially resolved information on the molecular structure and chemical composition of a material. For a highly heterogeneous and anisotropic material like wood, such information is essential when assessing structure/property relationships such as moisture...

  20. Predictive control applied to an evaporator mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alonso Giraldo Giraldo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines designing a predictive control model (PCM applied to a mathematical model of a falling film evaporator with mechanical steam compression like those used in the dairy industry. The controller was designed using the Connoisseur software package and data gathered from the simulation of a non-linear mathematical model. A control law was obtained from minimising a cost function sublect to dynamic system constraints, using a quadratic programme (QP algorithm. A linear programming (LP algorithm was used for finding a sub-optimal operation point for the process in stationary state.

  1. Learning slip behavior using automatic mechanical supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of learning terrain traversability properties from visual input, using automatic mechanical supervision collected from sensors onboard an autonomous vehicle. We present a novel probabilistic framework in which the visual information and the mechanical supervision interact to learn particular terrain types and their properties. The proposed method is applied to learning of rover slippage from visual information in a completely auto...

  2. Friction Force: From Mechanics to Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Christian; Gruber, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We study some mechanical problems in which a friction force is acting on a system. Using the fundamental concepts of state, time evolution and energy conservation, we explain how to extend Newtonian mechanics to thermodynamics. We arrive at the two laws of thermodynamics and then apply them to investigate the time evolution and heat transfer of…

  3. MECHANICAL PRODUCT EXTENSIVE INTELLIGENT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoquan; Zhong Yifang; Zhang Weiguo

    2004-01-01

    Based on extenics, an extensive functional information model (function-behavioral action-structure-environmental constraint) of the mechanical product intelligent conceptual design is developed, and the mechanism of theoretic structure solutions is produced, the mapping relations between function-behavior and behavior-structure are analyzed.The model is applied to the filling material system's conceptual design to verify validity.

  4. Applied model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1991-01-01

    A slab model is proposed for developing the height of the mixed layer capped by stable air aloft. The model equations are closed by relating the consumption of energy (potential and kinetic) at the top of the mixed layer to the production of convective and mechanical turbulent kinetic energy within...... the mixed layer. By assuming that the temperature difference at the top of the mixed layer instantaneously adjusts to the actual meteorological conditions without regard to the initial temperature difference that prevailed, the model is reduced to a single differential equation which easily can be solved...... numerically. When the mixed layer is shallow or the atmosphere nearly neutrally stratified, the growth is controlled mainly by mechanical turbulence. When the layer is deep, its growth is controlled mainly by convective turbulence. The model is applied on a data set of the evolution of the height of the mixed...

  5. Electrolyte composition and removal mechanism of Cu electrochemical mechanical polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边燕飞; 翟文杰; 程媛媛; 朱宝全; 王金虎

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of electrolytes and the material removal mechanisms for Cu electrochemical mechanical planarization (ECMP) at different pH values including 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (TTA), hydroxyethylidenediphosphoric acid (HEDP), and tribasic ammonium citrate (TAC) were investigated by electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis, nano-scratch tests, AFM measurements, and polishing of Cu-coated blanket wafers. The experimental results show that the planarization efficiency and the surface quality after ECMP obtained in alkali-based solutions are superior to that in acidic-based solutions, especially at pH=8. The optimal electrolyte compositions (mass fraction) are 6% HEDP, 0.3% TTA and 3% TAC at pH=8. The main factor affecting the thickness of the oxide layer formed during ECMP process is the applied potential. The soft layer formation is a major mechanism for electrochemical enhanced mechanical abrasion. The surface topography evolution before and after electrochemical polishing (ECP) illustrates the mechanism of mechanical abrasion accelerating electrochemical dissolution, that is, the residual stress caused by the mechanical wear enhances the electrochemical dissolution rate. This understanding is beneficial for optimization of ECMP processes.

  6. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  7. PT quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P

    2013-04-28

    PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics. PMID:23509390

  8. PT quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P

    2013-04-28

    PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  9. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  10. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  11. Recycling process of casting molds applying to precision castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drajewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work relates to investigations about the possibility of recycling and producing sinters from ceramic molds. These molds are applied for producing precise single crystal casts of nickel based superalloys to elements witch are applied to the hot section of aircraft jet engines.Design/methodology/approach: The processes of milling were carried out using the vibratory mill Herzog HSM 100H and the planetary grinder Pulverisette 7 - Fritsch Company. The measurements of all kinds of powders were conducted by using of the Kamika IPS U Analyzer and Malvern Nanosizer-ZS. To the purpose of analysis of the chemical composition an X-ray microanalysis technique was applied with the dispersion of the energy (EDS using of Thermo and Noran equipment. Findings: On the basis of examinations carried out on the powders before and after processes of milling and after processes of pressing and sintering of powders, it is possible to state that technological processes of reuse and further applying of used molds are possible. Processes of pressing were conducted applying different amounts of powders. Powders were pressed both without the addition as well as with the addition of modifiers which were added to basic powder in appropriate amounts. It was found that processes of pressing and sintering in both cases showed good results. Surfaces of pressed and sintered tablets were smooth and not-delaminated as well as did not shell.Research limitations/implications: Results will be used for future researches among others concerning the research on mechanical and thermal properties.Practical implications: Waste products and their reuse, recycling and especially consolidation of dangerous and hazardous compounds including of ceramic materials from foundry industry, will have an important place in the future on account of problems with their recycling and the storage.Originality/value: Researches on new possibilities of the application and properties of

  12. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Goyenola, Cecilia; Mombru, Alvaro W [Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Avenida General Flores 2124, PO Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Denis, Pablo A [Computational Nanotechnology, DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Avenida General Flores 2124, CC 1157, 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay)], E-mail: rfaccio@fq.edu.uy

    2009-07-15

    Herein, we investigate the structural, electronic and mechanical properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons in the presence of stress by applying density functional theory within the GGA-PBE (generalized gradient approximation-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) approximation. The uniaxial stress is applied along the periodic direction, allowing a unitary deformation in the range of {+-} 0.02%. The mechanical properties show a linear response within that range while a nonlinear dependence is found for higher strain. The most relevant results indicate that Young's modulus is considerable higher than those determined for graphene and carbon nanotubes. The geometrical reconstruction of the C-C bonds at the edges hardens the nanostructure. The features of the electronic structure are not sensitive to strain in this linear elastic regime, suggesting the potential for using carbon nanostructures in nano-electronic devices in the near future.

  13. SEMANTIC NETWORK PRESENTATION OF MECHANICAL MOTION SCHEME AND ITS MECHANISM TYPES SELECTION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zhigang; Zou Huijun; Zhang Qing; Tian Yongli

    2004-01-01

    The presentation method of the mechanical motion scheme must support the whole process of conceptual design.To meet the requirement,a semantic network method is selected to represent process level,action level,mechanism level and relationships among them.Computer aided motion cycle chart exploration can be realized by the representation and revision of time coordination of mechanism actions and their effect on the design scheme.The uncertain reasoning technology based on semantic network is applied in the mechanism types selection of the needle driving mechanism of industrial sewing mechanism,and the application indicated it is correct,useful and advance.

  14. [A critical review of applied criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbach, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    By reporting on a recent decision of the Regional Court (LG) of Marburg (Germany) calling attention to applied criminology, a concept still insufficiently considered in the administration of criminal justice, the paper argues that professional action in the execution of the sentence represents nothing else but applied criminology. Based on this assumption, the paper discusses practical diagnosis and correctional planning. Beyond that, the paper deals with the future of criminology. In the opinion of the author an important aspect for the future of criminology will be if it will be able to remain in touch with the world in which we live, as an independent empirical science. Applied criminology and its methodology constitute the link between science and practice.

  15. Applied regression analysis a research tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pantula, Sastry; Dickey, David

    1998-01-01

    Least squares estimation, when used appropriately, is a powerful research tool. A deeper understanding of the regression concepts is essential for achieving optimal benefits from a least squares analysis. This book builds on the fundamentals of statistical methods and provides appropriate concepts that will allow a scientist to use least squares as an effective research tool. Applied Regression Analysis is aimed at the scientist who wishes to gain a working knowledge of regression analysis. The basic purpose of this book is to develop an understanding of least squares and related statistical methods without becoming excessively mathematical. It is the outgrowth of more than 30 years of consulting experience with scientists and many years of teaching an applied regression course to graduate students. Applied Regression Analysis serves as an excellent text for a service course on regression for non-statisticians and as a reference for researchers. It also provides a bridge between a two-semester introduction to...

  16. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  17. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

  18. I.2. Mechanics of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant K

    2010-01-01

    Mechanics of materials is the science of forces applied on a body and response of the body in terms of deformation. Different type of loadings on bodies with different geometries or made of different material give rise to different deformations. Last but not the least, this science allows to predict the failure of a body under certain loading condition hence makes it possible to optimize the design for that particular condition.

  19. System Applies Polymer Powder To Filament Tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Snoha, John J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer powder applied uniformly and in continuous manner. Powder-coating system applies dry polymer powder to continuous fiber tow. Unique filament-spreading technique, combined with precise control of tension on fibers in system, ensures uniform application of polymer powder to web of spread filaments. Fiber tows impregnated with dry polymer powders ("towpregs") produced for preform-weaving and composite-material-molding applications. System and process valuable to prepreg industry, for production of flexible filament-windable tows and high-temperature polymer prepregs.

  20. Belbin's Team role theory applied to musicgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Qvick, Erik Robert, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    Can R Meredith Belbin´s team role theory be applied to applied to music groups? Could team role behavior have a impact on team work and group dynamic, and also on the success and productivity of a music group? This research analyzes the application of Belbin team role theory on three music groups consisting of Icelandic professional musicians to shed light on the possibilities of such relationships. The research examine the possibilities of relationships between team role behavior and it´s im...

  1. Applied orienting response research: some examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, P; Barry, R J

    1990-01-01

    The development of orienting response (OR) theory has not been accompanied by many applications of the concept--most research still appears to be lab-based and "pure," rather than "applied." We present some examples from our own work in which the OR perspective has been applied in a wider context. These cover the exploration of processing deficits in autistic children, aspects of the "repression" of anxiety in elite athletes, and the locus of alcohol effects. Such applications of the OR concept in real-life situations seem a logical and, indeed, necessary step in the evolution of this area of psychophysiology.

  2. Fundamentals of applied probability and random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited revision of Fundamentals of Applied Probability and Random Processes expands on the central components that made the first edition a classic. The title is based on the premise that engineers use probability as a modeling tool, and that probability can be applied to the solution of engineering problems. Engineers and students studying probability and random processes also need to analyze data, and thus need some knowledge of statistics. This book is designed to provide students with a thorough grounding in probability and stochastic processes, demonstrate their applicability t

  3. Applied mathematics for engineers and physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Pipes, Louis A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widely used reference books on applied mathematics for a generation, distributed in multiple languages throughout the world, this text is geared toward use with a one-year advanced course in applied mathematics for engineering students. The treatment assumes a solid background in the theory of complex variables and a familiarity with complex numbers, but it includes a brief review. Chapters are as self-contained as possible, offering instructors flexibility in designing their own courses. The first eight chapters explore the analysis of lumped parameter systems. Succeeding topi

  4. SPSS for applied sciences basic statistical testing

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Cole

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a quick and basic guide to using SPSS and provides a general approach to solving problems using statistical tests. It is both comprehensive in terms of the tests covered and the applied settings it refers to, and yet is short and easy to understand. Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate level test user, this book will help you to analyse different types of data in applied settings. It will also give you the confidence to use other statistical software and to extend your expertise to more specific scientific settings as required.The author does not use mathematical form

  5. International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Mohamed; Masmoudi, Afif

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents some recent theoretical advances in mathematics and its applications in various areas of science and technology.   Written by internationally recognized scientists and researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics (ICAAM), which took place December 16-19, 2013, in Hammamet, Tunisia.  Topics discussed at the conference included spectral theory, operator theory, optimization, numerical analysis, ordinary and partial differential equations, dynamical systems, control theory, probability, and statistics.  These proceedings aim to foster and develop further growth in all areas of applied mathematics.

  6. Applying a potential across a biomembrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2007-01-01

    and increase the bending rigidity; explicit expressions for electrostatic contribution to the tension and bending rigidity are derived as a function of the applied potential, the Debye screening lengths, and the dielectric constants of the membrane and the solvents. For sufficiently large voltages the negative...... contribution to the tension is expected to cause a membrane stretching instability. (2) For the dielectric limit, i.e., no salt (and small wave vectors compared to the distance between the electrodes), when the dielectric constant on the two sides are different the applied potential induces an effective...

  7. A First Course in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rebaza, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Explore real-world applications of selected mathematical theory, concepts, and methods Exploring related methods that can be utilized in various fields of practice from science and engineering to business, A First Course in Applied Mathematics details how applied mathematics involves predictions, interpretations, analysis, and mathematical modeling to solve real-world problems. Written at a level that is accessible to readers from a wide range of scientific and engineering fields, the book masterfully blends standard topics with modern areas of application and provides the needed foundation

  8. Molecular modeling: An open invitation for applied mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2013-10-01

    Molecular modeling methods provide a very wide range of challenges for innovative mathematical and computational techniques, where often high dimensionality, large sets of data, and complicated interrelations imply a multitude of iterative approximations. The physical and chemical basis of these methodologies involves quantum mechanics with several non-intuitive aspects, where classical interpretation and classical analogies are often misleading or outright wrong. Hence, instead of the everyday, common sense approaches which work so well in engineering, in molecular modeling one often needs to rely on rather abstract mathematical constraints and conditions, again emphasizing the high level of reliance on applied mathematics. Yet, the interdisciplinary aspects of the field of molecular modeling also generates some inertia and perhaps too conservative reliance on tried and tested methodologies, that is at least partially caused by the less than up-to-date involvement in the newest developments in applied mathematics. It is expected that as more applied mathematicians take up the challenge of employing the latest advances of their field in molecular modeling, important breakthroughs may follow. In this presentation some of the current challenges of molecular modeling are discussed.

  9. Micromachining of Soft Polymer Material applying Cryogenic Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Nobuhito; Aoyama, Tojiro

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the important materials for microfluidic chips. The pattern of micro channels on the PDMS plate is usually fabricated through the photolithography and micro molding process. However, the photolithographic method requires multi chemical and mechanical processes and resultant long process time. The micro milling process is a feasible method for rapid fabrication of various patterns of micro channels. However, micromachining has not yet been applied to soft polymer materials. It is difficult to machine elastic materials such as PDMS because of their low toughness. In order to machine a micro grooves on soft polymer materials, the cutting process applying cryogenic cooling is proposed because the elastic properties of soft polymer materials remarkably change from rubbery state to glassy state below the glass transition temperature. In this study, the freezing milling method using liquid nitrogen is applied to the micro grooving of PDMS. The result of a cutting test shows that micro grooves can be shaped easily and machined accurately in PDMS by the proposed method.

  10. Statistical mechanics of molecular fluids. The RHNC theory applied to hard dipolar spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHNC (reference hipernetted chain) equation, together with an optimization criterion which extremalizes the Helmholtz free energy, is used to obtain structural, thermodynamic, and dielectric properties of a system made up of hard dipolar spheres. The comparison with simulation results is made in the same boundary conditions and then the properties of an infinite system are evaluated for a variaty of states at different densities and dipolar moments. (Author)

  11. Increasing sodium removal on peritoneal dialysis: applying dialysis mechanics to the peritoneal dialysis prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Michel; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Shroff, Rukshana; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Optimal fluid removal on peritoneal dialysis (PD) requires removal of water coupled with sodium, which is predominantly achieved via the small pores in the peritoneal membrane. On the other hand, free-water transport takes place through aquaporin-1 channels, but leads to sodium retention and over hydration. PD prescription can be adapted to promote small pore transport to achieve improved sodium and fluid management. Both adequate dwell volume and dwell time are required for small pore transport. The dwell volume determines the amount of "wetted" peritoneal membrane being increased in the supine position and optimized at dwell volumes of approximately 1400 ml/m(2). Diffusion across the recruited small pores is time-dependent, favored by a long dwell time, and driven by the transmembrane solute gradient. According to the 3-pore model of conventional PD, sodium removal primarily occurs via convection. The clinical application of these principles is essential for optimal performance of PD and has resulted in a new approach to the automated PD prescription: adapted automated PD. In adapted automated PD, sequential short- and longer-dwell exchanges, with small and large dwell volumes, respectively, are used. A crossover trial in adults and a pilot study in children suggests that sodium and fluid removal are increased by adapted automated PD, leading to improved blood pressure control when compared with conventional PD. These findings are not explained by the current 3-pore model of peritoneal permeability and require further prospective crossover studies in adults and children for validation. PMID:26924063

  12. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    2003-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  13. Blended Learning Applied to the Study of Mechanical Couplings in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortizo, J. L.; Rodriguez, E.; Vijande, R.; Sierra, J. M.; Noriega, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief introduction to blended learning (BL), recognising the important contributions to learning that can be obtained from the use of methods which combine the New Information and Communications Technologies (NICT) with more traditional methods. The paper goes onto describe the bases, tasks and methodology for developing…

  14. Solution of the Applied Task to Determine Total Exposure for Mechanical Engineering Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, O. V.; Orlova, K. N.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    In everyday life, people repeatedly exposed to ionizing radiation. Radiation sources is as natural background radiation due to the natural radioactivity of the earth, cosmic and solar radiation and artificial emitters in enterprise engineering. Therefore, the determination of the total human exposure in engineering industry will consist of a variety of factors will be strictly defined for a specific person, and undoubtedly true. Neural network technology can completely resolve this problem, follow neyroalgoritm presented in this paper.

  15. Forensic engineering: applying materials and mechanics principles to the investigation of product failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, S V; Fitzpatrick, M E

    2007-06-01

    Forensic engineering is the application of engineering principles or techniques to the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not perform as intended. In particular, forensic engineering can involve providing solutions to forensic problems by the application of engineering science. A criminal aspect may be involved in the investigation but often the problems are related to negligence, breach of contract, or providing information needed in the redesign of a product to eliminate future failures. Forensic engineering may include the investigation of the physical causes of accidents or other sources of claims and litigation (for example, patent disputes). It involves the preparation of technical engineering reports, and may require giving testimony and providing advice to assist in the resolution of disputes affecting life or property.This paper reviews the principal methods available for the analysis of failed components and then gives examples of different component failure modes through selected case studies.

  16. Ageing process influence on mechanical properties of polyamide - glass composites applied in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pusz; M. Szymiczek; K. Michalik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The application of polymeric materials for medical purposes is growing very fast. Polymers have found applications in such diverse biomedical fields as tissue engineering, implantation of medical devices and artificial organs, prostheses, ophthalmology, dentistry, bone repair and many other medical fields. The requirements for materials used in the construction of removable dentures are becoming more and more demanding. The introduction of improved flexible materials has been a consi...

  17. Dynamic response of a tunable phononic crystal under applied mechanical and magnetic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Alireza; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic response of a tunable phononic crystal consisting of a porous hyperelastic magnetoelastic elastomer subjected to a macroscopic deformation and an external magnetic field is theoretically investigated. Finite deformations and magnetic induction influence phononic characteristics of the periodic structure through geometrical pattern transformation and material properties. A magnetoelastic energy function is proposed to develop constitutive laws considering large deformations and magnetic induction in the periodic structure. Analytical and finite element methods are utilized to compute the dispersion relation and band structure of the phononic crystal for different cases of deformation and magnetic loadings. It is demonstrated that magnetic induction not only controls the band diagram of the structure but also has a strong effect on preferential directions of wave propagation.

  18. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications applied mechanics, vibration control, and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest applications of nonlinear approaches in different disciplines of engineering. For each selected topic, detailed concept development, derivations, and relevant knowledge are provided for the convenience of the readers. The topics range from dynamic systems and control to optimal approaches in nonlinear dynamics. The volume includes invited chapters from world class experts in the field. The selected topics are of great interest in the fields of engineering and physics and this book is ideal for engineers and researchers working in a broad range of practical topics and approaches. This book also: ·         Explores the most up-to-date applications and underlying principles of nonlinear approaches to problems in engineering and physics, including sections on analytic nonlinearity and practical nonlinearity ·         Enlightens readers to the conceptual significance of nonlinear approaches with examples of applications in scientific and engineering problems from v...

  19. Applying Social Psychological Concepts Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Jessica L.; Wichman, Aaron L.

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates a writing assignment in which social psychology students gathered examples from outside the classroom (e.g., cartoons, movies) and analyzed them with course material. Compared to a control group, students who completed the assignment learned that it was easier to apply social psychology to the real world. A follow-up survey…

  20. Applying for Work Visas and Related Documentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    Applying for an employment and residence certificate in China can be roughly broken down into four steps: the Alien Employment License applica- tion; the Employment Visa and Residence Permit Notification application; the Alien Employment Permit application; and the Residence Permit application.

  1. Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    SurendRaj Dharmapal; Dr. K. Thirunadana Sikamani

    2015-01-01

    This journal introduces the reader to Agile and Lean concepts and provides a basic level of understanding of each process. This journal will also provide a brief background about applying Lean concepts on each phase of agile scrum methodology and summarize their primary business advantages for delivering value to customer.

  2. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  3. Applied and fundamental aspects of fusion science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexander V.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion research is driven by the applied goal of energy production from fusion reactions. There is, however, a wealth of fundamental physics to be discovered and studied along the way. This Commentary discusses selected developments in diagnostics and present-day research topics in high-temperature plasma physics.

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  5. Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Security, Privacy and Applied Cryptography Engineering held in Chennai, India, in November 2012. The 11 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. The papers are organized...

  6. Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SurendRaj Dharmapal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This journal introduces the reader to Agile and Lean concepts and provides a basic leve l of understanding of each process. This journal will also provide a brief background about applying Lean concepts on each phase of agile scrum methodology and summarize their primary business advantages for delivering value to customer.

  7. Applied probability models with optimization applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    1992-01-01

    Concise advanced-level introduction to stochastic processes that frequently arise in applied probability. Largely self-contained text covers Poisson process, renewal theory, Markov chains, inventory theory, Brownian motion and continuous time optimization models, much more. Problems and references at chapter ends. ""Excellent introduction."" - Journal of the American Statistical Association. Bibliography. 1970 edition.

  8. State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC) was founded in 1987 with the approval of the State Planning Commission. Professor Liu Zhongli is the director of the Laboratory and Professor Zhang Lihe, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is the chairman of its academic committee. There are 30 faculty members, among them 21 are professors, working in the Laboratory.

  9. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  10. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...

  11. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  12. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  13. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  14. Applied programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This document overviews the areas of current research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Technology transfer and the user facilities are discussed. Current topics are presented in the areas of applied physics, chemical science, material science, energy efficiency and conservation, environmental health and mathematics, biosystems and process science, oceanography, and nuclear energy. (GHH)

  15. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  16. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  17. Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SurendRaj Dharmapal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This journal introduces the reader to Agile and Lean concepts and provides a basic level of understanding of each process. This journal will also provide a brief background about applying Lean concepts on each phase of agile scrum methodology and summarize their primary business advantages for delivering value to customer.

  18. Applied Creativity: The Creative Marketing Breakthrough Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of personal creativity in today's business environment, few conceptual creativity frameworks have been presented in the marketing education literature. The purpose of this article is to advance the integration of creativity instruction into marketing classrooms by presenting an applied creative marketing…

  19. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang changxue; Su na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  20. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; changxue; Su; na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’ communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  1. Applying Servant Leadership in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    This book illustrates how the ideal of servant leadership can be applied in your school today. With real-life scenarios, discussions, and self assessments, this book gives practical suggestions to help you develop into a caring and effective servant leader. There are 52 scenarios in this book, focusing on situations as varied as: (1) Dealing with…

  2. Applied Welding Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in applied welding technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are…

  3. Exploring the Applied Arts. Publication No. 0041.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Kathleen

    The program covered in this curriculum guide deals with applied arts, concentrating on the areas of advertising, fashion illustration, graphic design, cartooning, and textile design and decoration. These areas have been developed to give a hands-on experience to the students by simulating the working world and the student's place in it. Each area…

  4. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  5. Teaching Applied Ethics to the Righteous Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What does current empirically informed moral psychology imply about the goals that can be realistically achieved in college-level applied ethics courses? This paper takes up this question from the vantage point of Jonathan Haidt's Social Intuitionist Model of human moral judgment. I summarize Haidt's model, and then consider a variety of…

  6. Correlation spectroscopy applied to glycerol polyester spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent development of glycerol polyesters for use as controlled release matrix materials in the nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals industries presented a unique opportunity to apply correlation spectroscopy. In a typical formulation the glycerol is reacted with a polyfunctional acid such as citr...

  7. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  8. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  9. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  10. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  11. Developing an Undergraduate Applied Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise C. Nelson-Hurwitz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To foster student development, critical thinking, and application skills among public health students at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, a 3-course capstone series was developed as a key component of the public health Bachelor of Arts degree program. Over the course of 1.5 academic years students are actively involved in developing an interdisciplinary project proposal, then executing and presenting an independent, supervised, applied learning project. In the first course, students are introduced to a diverse range of public health projects and methods while working to develop their own project proposal- the foundation for the Applied Learning Experience. The project execution course is designed to allow students to execute their proposed applied learning projects. This experience focuses on the application and integration of public health knowledge, skills, and practice acquired during the bachelor’s degree course of study. Finally, students will be involved in reflecting on, finalizing, and sharing their completed projects in an undergraduate capstone seminar. Through implementation of this series, the program hopes to provide students with the opportunity to actively apply academic skills to real-world application.

  12. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  13. Applied Categories and Functors for Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Ivancevic, Tijana T.

    2008-01-01

    These are lecture notes for a 1-semester undergraduate course (in computer science, mathematics, physics, engineering, chemistry or biology) in applied categorical meta-language. The only necessary background for comprehensive reading of these notes are first-year calculus and linear algebra.

  14. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  15. Applied research and development private sector accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the fiscal year 1990 procurement of contracts with the private sector and the current status of applied research and development conducted for DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD). This report documents the procurement actions, discusses lessons learned from this activity, and disseminates the results of the procurement to interested parties in DOE and in the private sector

  16. Applied Biomechanics in an Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics is the science of how people move better, meaning more skillfully and more safely. This article places more emphasis on skill rather than safety, though there are many parallels between them. It shares a few features of the author's paradigm of applied biomechanics and discusses an integrated approach toward a middle school football…

  17. Continuum damage and fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers readers an introduction to damage and fracture mechanics, equipping them to grasp the basic ideas of the presented approaches to modeling in applied mechanics. In the first part, the book reviews and expands on the classical theory of elastic and elasto-plastic material behavior. A solid understanding of these two topics is the essential prerequisite to advancing to damage and fracture mechanics. Thus, the second part of this course provides an introduction to the treatment of damage and fractures in the context of applied mechanics. Wherever possible, the one-dimensional case is first introduced and then generalized in a following step. This departs somewhat from the more classical approach, where first the most general case is derived and then simplified to special cases. In general, the required mathematics background is kept to a minimum.   Tutorials are included at the end of each chapter, presenting the major steps for the solution and offering valuable tips and tricks. The supplem...

  18. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  19. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric and ferroelectric solids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Fracture Mechanics of Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Solids presents a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric/ferroelectric materials, which includes the theoretical analysis, numerical computations and experimental observations. The main emphasis is placed on the mechanics description of various crack problems such static, dynamic and interface fractures as well as the physical explanations for the mechanism of electrically induced fracture. The book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of solid mechanics, applied physics, material science and mechanical engineering. Dr. Daining Fang is a professor at the School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, China; Dr. Jinxi Liu is a professor at the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, China.

  20. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194