WorldWideScience

Sample records for applied immunology volume

  1. Systems Theory in Immunology

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under­ standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...

  2. Detecting Danger: Applying a Novel Immunological Concept to Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    In recent years computer systems have become increasingly complex and consequently the challenge of protecting these systems has become increasingly difficult. Various techniques have been implemented to counteract the misuse of computer systems in the form of firewalls, anti-virus software and intrusion detection systems. The complexity of networks and dynamic nature of computer systems leaves current methods with significant room for improvement. Computer scientists have recently drawn inspiration from mechanisms found in biological systems and, in the context of computer security, have focused on the human immune system (HIS). The human immune system provides a high level of protection from constant attacks. By examining the precise mechanisms of the human immune system, it is hoped the paradigm will improve the performance of real intrusion detection systems. This paper presents an introduction to recent developments in the field of immunology. It discusses the incorporation of a novel immunological parad...

  3. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume 54, Immunological recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  4. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume 54, Immunological recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This volume contains the first part of the proceeding of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. Part 1, this volume, contains papers prepared by presenters of the sessions entitled Introduction, Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection, and Recognition by Antibodies, Antigen Recognition by T cells. (DT)

  5. 30 CFR 203.73 - How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do suspension volumes apply to natural gas... suspension volumes apply to natural gas? You must measure natural gas production under the royalty-suspension volume as follows: 5.62 thousand cubic feet of natural gas, measured in accordance with 30 CFR part...

  6. Handbook of Systems Analysis: Volume 1. Overview. Chapter 2. The Genesis of Applied Systems Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis is preparing a Handbook of Systems Analysis, which will appear in three volumes: Volume 1: Overview is aimed at a widely varied audience of producers and users of systems analysis studies. Volume 2: Methods is aimed at systems analysts and other members of systems analysis teams who need basic knowledge of methods in which they are not expert; this volume contains introductory overviews of such methods. Volume 3: Cases co...

  7. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Volume 5, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.

    This volume of the annual review includes introductory remarks by G. Richard Tucker and these papers: "Current Issues in Bilingualism: An Update of Directions in Research" (Braj B. Kachru); "Psycholinguistics: Application. The Writing System as a Native Language for the Deaf" (Danny D. Steinberg); "Sociolinguistics: Theory" (Monica Heller);…

  8. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal / Volume 17, Number 3

    OpenAIRE

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    2002-01-01

    The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal hereinafter known as the ACES Journal is devoted to the exchange of information in computational electromagnetics, to the advancement of the state-of-the-art, and to the promotion of related technical activities.

  9. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal / Volume 18, Number 1

    OpenAIRE

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for Public Release The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal hereinafter known as the ACES Journal is devoted to the exchange of information in computational electromagnetics, to the advancement of the state-of-the-art, and to the promotion of related technical activities.

  10. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Volume 9, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Hill, Tokio , 1983. model. The described approach was applied on a test [9] M.V.K. Chari, ZJ. Csendes, S.H. Minnich, S.C. example and compared with the...use Scotch Removable Magic Tape, which is packaged in a blue Final Reminders box, instead of frosty tape. We find that the Removable Magic Tape... blue ). 2. Originals that are in the "Final Form" (all colors present in the correct mix) must be prepared for the press as "Color Seps", meaning that

  11. Evaluation of hippocampal volume based on MRI applying manual and automatic segmentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Thomas M.; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Kubo, Tadeu T.A.; Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Various segmentation techniques using MR sequences, including manual and automatic protocols, have been developed to optimize the determination of the hippocampal volume. For clinical application, automated methods with high reproducibility and accuracy potentially may be more efficient than manual volumetry. This study aims to compare the hippocampal volumes obtained from manual and automatic segmentation methods (FreeSurfer and FSL). The automatic segmentation method FreeSurfer showed high correlation. Comparing the absolute hippocampal volumes, there is an overestimation by the automated methods. Applying a correction factor to the automatic method, it may be an alternative for the estimation of the absolute hippocampal volume. (author)

  12. Broadening the translational immunology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakman, M

    2012-12-01

    It is just over 5 years since Clinical and Experimental Immunology came under the direction of a new team of Editors and made a concerted effort to refresh its approach to promoting clinical and applied immunology through its pages. There were two major objectives: to foster papers in a field which, at the time, we loosely termed 'translational immunology'; and to create a forum for the presentation and discussion of immunology that is relevant to clinicians operating in this space. So, how are we doing with these endeavours? This brief paper aims to summarize some of the key learning points and successes and highlight areas in which translational gaps remain.

  13. A Hybrid 3D Learning-and-Interaction-based Segmentation Approach Applied on CT Liver Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Danciu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical volume segmentation in various imaging modalities using real 3D approaches (in contrast to slice-by-slice segmentation represents an actual trend. The increase in the acquisition resolution leads to large amount of data, requiring solutions to reduce the dimensionality of the segmentation problem. In this context, the real-time interaction with the large medical data volume represents another milestone. This paper addresses the twofold problem of the 3D segmentation applied to large data sets and also describes an intuitive neuro-fuzzy trained interaction method. We present a new hybrid semi-supervised 3D segmentation, for liver volumes obtained from computer tomography scans. This is a challenging medical volume segmentation task, due to the acquisition and inter-patient variability of the liver parenchyma. The proposed solution combines a learning-based segmentation stage (employing 3D discrete cosine transform and a probabilistic support vector machine classifier with a post-processing stage (automatic and manual segmentation refinement. Optionally, an optimization of the segmentation can be achieved by level sets, using as initialization the segmentation provided by the learning-based solution. The supervised segmentation is applied on elementary cubes in which the CT volume is decomposed by tilling, thus ensuring a significant reduction of the data to be classified by the support vector machine into liver/not liver. On real volumes, the proposed approach provides good segmentation accuracy, with a significant reduction in the computational complexity.

  14. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hansen, Peter Møller; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-08-01

    A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo. This paper investigates errors from estimating volumetric flow using a commercial ultrasound scanner and the common assumptions made in the literature. The theoretical model shows, e.g. that volume flow is underestimated by 15%, when the scan plane is off-axis with the vessel center by 28% of the vessel radius. The error sources were also studied in vivo under realistic clinical conditions, and the theoretical results were applied for correcting the volume flow errors. Twenty dialysis patients with arteriovenous fistulas were scanned to obtain vector flow maps of fistulas. When fitting an ellipsis to cross-sectional scans of the fistulas, the major axis was on average 10.2mm, which is 8.6% larger than the minor axis. The ultrasound beam was on average 1.5mm from the vessel center, corresponding to 28% of the semi-major axis in an average fistula. Estimating volume flow with an elliptical, rather than circular, vessel area and correcting the ultrasound beam for being off-axis, gave a significant (p=0.008) reduction in error from 31.2% to 24.3%. The error is relative to the Ultrasound Dilution Technique, which is considered the gold standard for volume flow estimation for dialysis patients. The study shows the importance of correcting for volume flow errors, which are often made in clinical practice.

  15. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  16. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  17. Computer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephanie; Beauchemin, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    This review describes a body of work on computational immune systems that behave analogously to the natural immune system. These artificial immune systems (AIS) simulate the behavior of the natural immune system and in some cases have been used to solve practical engineering problems such as computer security. AIS have several strengths that can complement wet lab immunology. It is easier to conduct simulation experiments and to vary experimental conditions, for example, to rule out hypotheses; it is easier to isolate a single mechanism to test hypotheses about how it functions; agent-based models of the immune system can integrate data from several different experiments into a single in silico experimental system.

  18. Applying the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) design method to low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available in one hand and assessing the ?cohesion?. At OMC (damp) the material can be squeezed into a ?sausage? that remains intact. In the very dry state (less than about 25% of OMC), the material is dusty and loose and has absolutely no cohesion. In the dry... state (about 50% of OMC), the material will have no cohesion P. Paige-Green / Applying the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Design Method to Low Volume Roads 423 when squeezed into a sausage whereas in the moist state (about 75% of OMC), the material may just...

  19. Structured assessment approach: Version I. Applied demonstration of output results. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A.A.; Sacks, 1.J.

    1979-10-01

    A methodology, the Structured Assessment Approach, has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of material control and accounting (MC and A) safeguards systems at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This methodology has been refined into a computational tool, the SAA Version 1 computational package, that was used first to analyze a hypothetical fuel cycle facility (HFCF) and used more recently to assess operational nuclear plants. The Version 1 analysis package is designed to analyze safeguards systems that prevent the diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) from nuclear fuel cycle facilities and to provide assurance that diversion has not occurred. This report is the third volume, Applied Demonstration of Output Results, of a four-volume document. It presents the outputs for each of the four levels of the SAA Version 1 computational package. Two types of outputs are discussed: detailed output findings and summary output tables. The summary output tables are used to aggregate the detailed output findings in a condensed form for NRC analyst consumption. Specific output results are presented for an HFCF, which is described in Volume II.

  20. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2014-04-01

    In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

  1. Unwanted Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnytskyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the role of antigenic imprin­ting phenomena and antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in epidemic, infectious and postvaccinal processes. Based on published experimental data, it is shown that both phenomena are directly related to the laws of development and course of epide­mics, the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and safe use of vaccines. Their ignoring by researchers has led to failures in the design of vaccines against HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, influenza, malaria, hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. These data show that, without taking into account the two phenomena, the further development of immunology and epidemiology in the direction of breakthrough discoveries in there areas of science are impossible.

  2. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  3. Volume reconstruction optimization for tomo-PIV algorithms applied to experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabio J. W. A.; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Lionel; Azevedo, Luis F. A.; Stanislas, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Tomographic PIV is a three-component volumetric velocity measurement technique based on the tomographic reconstruction of a particle distribution imaged by multiple camera views. In essence, the performance and accuracy of this technique is highly dependent on the parametric adjustment and the reconstruction algorithm used. Although synthetic data have been widely employed to optimize experiments, the resulting reconstructed volumes might not have optimal quality. The purpose of the present study is to offer quality indicators that can be applied to data samples in order to improve the quality of velocity results obtained by the tomo-PIV technique. The methodology proposed can potentially lead to significantly reduction in the time required to optimize a tomo-PIV reconstruction, also leading to better quality velocity results. Tomo-PIV data provided by a six-camera turbulent boundary-layer experiment were used to optimize the reconstruction algorithms according to this methodology. Velocity statistics measurements obtained by optimized BIMART, SMART and MART algorithms were compared with hot-wire anemometer data and velocity measurement uncertainties were computed. Results indicated that BIMART and SMART algorithms produced reconstructed volumes with equivalent quality as the standard MART with the benefit of reduced computational time.

  4. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  5. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  6. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  7. Applying ARIMA model for annual volume time series of the Magdalena River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Amaris

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The simulated results obtained with the ARIMA model compared to the observed data showed a fairly good adjustment of the minimum and maximum magnitudes. This allows concluding that it is a good tool for estimating minimum and maximum volumes, even though this model is not capable of simulating the exact behaviour of an annual volume time series.

  8. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo...... than circular, vessel area and correcting the ultrasound beam for being off-axis, gave a significant (p = 0.008) reduction in error from 31.2% to 24.3%. The error is relative to the Ultrasound Dilution Technique, which is considered the gold standard for volume flow estimation for dialysis patients....... This paper investigates errors from estimating volumetric flow using a commercial ultrasound scanner and the common assumptions made in the literature. The theoretical model shows, e.g. that volume flow is underestimated by 15%, when the scan plane is off-axis with the vessel center by 28% of the vessel...

  9. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  10. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. Aim To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Methods Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for on...

  11. Applying of the NVIDIA CUDA to the video processing in the task of the roundwood volume estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglov Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the parallel computing. The algorithm for roundwood volume estimation had insufficient performance so it was decided to port its bottleneck part on the GPU. The analysis of various GPGPU techniques was observed and the NVIDIA CUDA technology was chosen for implementation. The results of the research have shown the high potential of the GPU implementation in the improvement performance of the computation. The speedup of the algorithm for the roundwood volume estimation is more than 300% after porting on GPU with implementation of the CUDA technology. This helps to apply the machine vision algorithm in real-time system.

  12. Research on surveying technology applied for DTM modelling and volume computation in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Wajs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial information systems of mining company can be used for monitoring of mining activity, excavation planning, calculations of the ore volume and decision making. Nowadays, data base has to be updated by sources such as surveying positioning technologies and remote sensed photogrammetry data. The presented paper contains review of the methodology for the digital terrain model, i.e. DTM, modelling and obtaining data from surveying technologies in an open pit mine or quarry. This paper reviews the application of GPS, total station measurements, and ground photogrammetry for the volume accuracy assessment of a selected object. The testing field was situated in Belchatow lignite open pit mine. A suitable object had been selected. The testing layer of coal seam was located at 8’th pit sidewall excavation area. The data were acquired two times within one month period and it was connected with monthly DTM actualization of excavation. This paper presents the technological process and the results of the research of using digital photogrammetry for opencast mining purposes in the scope of numerical volume computation and monitoring the mines by comparison of different sources. The results shows that the presented workflow allow to build DTM manually and remote sensed and the accuracy assessment was presented by the volume computation pathway. Major advantages of the techniques are presented illustrating how a terrestrial photogrammetry techniques provide rapid spatial measurements of breaklines 3D data utilized to volume calculation.

  13. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Berçot', Filipe Faria; Fidalgo Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thaís; Alves,Luiz Anastacio

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this publication are on ResearchGate and have made the full-text available on their profiles. As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching–learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces “Virtual Immunology,” a software program available free of charge in Portuguese...

  14. Modern Mathematics as Applied to Machine Trades: Volumes 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Guy J.; And Others

    Through a research grant funded by the Vocational Division of the Indiana State Department of Public Instruction, a developmental research project was undertaken to develop machine trades-related mathematics materials using the terminology, concepts, and methods of modern mathematics. The two volume set is designed to be utilized by first and…

  15. The element-based finite volume method applied to petroleum reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordazzo, Jonas; Maliska, Clovis R.; Silva, Antonio F.C. da; Hurtado, Fernando S.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    In this work a numerical model for simulating petroleum reservoirs using the Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is presented. The method employs unstructured grids using triangular and/or quadrilateral elements, such that complex reservoir geometries can be easily represented. Due to the control-volume approach, local mass conservation is enforced, permitting a direct physical interpretation of the resulting discrete equations. It is demonstrated that this method can deal with the permeability maps without averaging procedures, since this scheme assumes uniform properties inside elements, instead inside of control volumes, avoiding the need of weighting the permeability values at the control volumes interfaces. Moreover, it is easy to include the full permeability tensor in this method, which is an important issue in simulating heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs. Finally, a comparison among the results obtained using the scheme proposed in this work in the EbFVM framework with those obtained employing the scheme commonly used in petroleum reservoir simulation is presented. It is also shown that the scheme proposed is less susceptible to the grid orientation effect with the increasing of the mobility ratio. (author)

  16. Modelling Immunological Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

  17. A consistent method for finite volume discretization of body forces on collocated grids applied to flow through an actuator disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a consistent algorithm for eliminating the numerical wiggles appearing when solving the finite volume discretized Navier-Stokes equations with discrete body forces in a collocated grid arrangement. The proposed method is a modification of the Rhie-Chow algorithm where the force...... in a cell is spread on neighboring cells by applying equivalent pressure jumps at the cell faces. The method shows excellent results when applied for simulating the flow through an actuator disk, which is relevant for wind turbine wake simulations. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Generalized nonlinear models applied to the prediction of basal area and volume of Eucalyptus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Pádua Chaves e Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose the use of generalized nonlinear models for prediction of basal area growth and yield of total volume of the hybrid Eucalyptus urocamaldulensis, in a stand situation in a central region in state of Minas Gerais. The used methodology allows to work with data in its original form without the necessity of transformation of variables, and generate highly accurate models. To evaluate the fitting quality, it was proposed the Bayesian information criterion, of the Akaike, and test the maximum likelihood, beyond the standard error of estimate, and residual graphics. The models were used with a good performance, highly accurate and parsimonious estimates of the variables proposed, with errors reduced to 12% for basal area and 4% for prediction of the volume.

  19. Quantification of fMRI BOLD signal and volume applied to the somatosensory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, L.; Wust, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, CVK, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Strahlenheilkunde; Foerschler, A.; Zimmer, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2007-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging based on blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal variations is clinically used to investigate the impact of neurological disorders on brain function. Such disorders effect not only the localization but also the amplitude and extent of the BOLD signal. Statistical methods are useful to localize the BOLD signal but fail to quantify functional activity because they rely on arbitrary thresholds. This article presents a method that uses a priori defined VOI (volume of interest) and independently quantifies the mean BOLD signal and extent of the activated volume. The technique is based on the separation of the VOI signal difference distribution into a noise and an activation contribution. The technique does not require any threshold and is nearly independent of the preselected VOI size. The technique was verified in a test group of 17 subjects performing bilateral finger tapping. The results were compared with those of conventional analysis based on statistical tools. A standard imaging technique using FID-EPI (free induction decay echo-planar imaging, TR = 4000 ms, TE = 66 ms, 60 images activation, 60 images rest) was employed. The activated volume, V, and signal difference, {delta}S, of the motor cortex were determined with an accuracy of {sigma}(V)=17.1% and {sigma}({delta}S)=3.6%, respectively. The activated volume of the left hemispheric motor area was significantly greater (P=0.025) then in the right hemispheric, V{sub L} = 7.35 {+-} 2.29 cm{sup 3} versus V{sub L} = 6.39 {+-} 2.34 cm{sup 3}. The result is consistent with the findings obtained by other techniques. On the other hand, the statistical methods did not yield any significant difference in activation between both hemispheres. The VOI-based method presented here is an additional tool to study the extent and amplitude of the BOLD signal. (orig.)

  20. Epidemiology of tuberculosis immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G J; Menzies, D

    2013-01-01

    Immunological impairment plays a major role in the epidemiology of TB. Globally, the most common causes of immunological impairment are malnutrition, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, aging, and smoking. With the notable exception of HIV, each factor leads to relatively mild immunological impairment in individuals. However, as these conditions affect a significant proportion of the population, they contribute substantially to the incidence of TB at a global scale. Understanding immunological impairment is central to understanding the global TB pandemic, and vital to the development of effective disease control strategies.

  1. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Special Issue on Genetic Algorithms / Volume 15, Number 2

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, Randy; Johnson, J. Michael

    2000-01-01

    The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal hereinafter known as the ACES Journal is devoted to the exchange of information in computational electromagnetics, to the advancement of the state-of-the-art, and to the promotion of related technical activities.

  2. Single CMOS sensor system for high resolution double volume measurement applied to membrane distillation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, M. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Sanchez-Reillo, R.; Fernandez-Pineda, C.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) [1] is a relatively new process that is being investigated world-wide as a low cost, energy saving alternative to conventional separation processes such as distillation and reverse osmosis (RO). This process offers some advantages compared to other more popular separation processes, such as working at room conditions (pressure and temperature); low-grade, waste and/or alternative energy sources such as solar and geothermal energy may be used; a very high level of rejection with inorganic solutions; small equipment can be employed, etc. The driving force in MD processes is the vapor pressure difference across the membrane. A temperature difference is imposed across the membrane, which results in a vapor pressure difference. The principal problem in this kind of system is the accurate measurement of the recipient volume change, especially at very low flows. A cathetometer, with up to 0,05 mm resolution, is the instrument used to take these measurements, but the necessary human intervention makes this instrument not suitable for automated systems. In order to overcome this lack, a high resolution system is proposed, that makes automatic measurements of the volume of both recipients, cold and hot, at a rate of up to 10 times per second.

  3. The immunology of filariasis*

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the available information on the immunology of filariasis, and discusses immunodiagnosis and the immunological factors influencing the host—parasite relationship in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Several areas that require further research are identified, particularly concerning the development of new serological techniques, and the fractionation of specific antigens. The problems associated with vaccine development are considered and the importance of finding...

  4. Fresnel Volume Migration applied to geothermal exploration in mid-southern Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusri, Tomi; Bertani, Ruggero; Dini, Ivano; Buske, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    We implemented a Fresnel Volume Migration imaging technique to successfully image the target horizon within a geothermal field in mid-southern Tuscany, Italy. The challenge in imaging this lithology boundary were the presence of strong wavefield scattering and low signal-to-noise ratio in the input seismic data. The migration velocity was carefully modeled using the first-arrivals trav-eltime tomography technique, taking into account the velocity function from a vertical seismic profiling measurement in the area. Prior to the imaging, the data preconditioning was carried out deliberately in the time domain. The key in the data preconditioning stage was the implementation of static corrections using first-arrival traveltime tomography. Our seismic imaging result shows a clear image of the key reflections which correspond to the boundary of the target geothermal source rock. This finding provides the basis for a successful exploration of the geothermal reservoir in this field.

  5. Applied mechanics and mechatronics special topic volume with invited peer reviewed papers only

    CERN Document Server

    Trebuňa, František

    2014-01-01

    The issue ""Applied Mechanics and Mechatronics"" contains results of research from researchers and designers from several prominent universities and research institutes of Central Europe.The publication is divided into three following chapters: Modeling and Simulation of Mechanic and Mechatronic SystemsAnalysis and Design of Mechanic and Mechatronic SystemsExperimental methods in Mechanics and Mechatronics. The submitted publication provides insight on modern approaches and methods in designing, modeling and experimental analyzing of mechanic and mechatronics systems.

  6. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for one minute. Each subject treated his/her hands with n-propanol (60%, v/v), with as many portions as necessary to keep the hands wet for three minutes (6-12 ml). Bacterial post-values were taken from one hand (immediate effect); the other hand was gloved for three hours (sizes 7-9). The second post-value was taken when the glove was removed (3 h effect). The mean immediate log10 reduction of CFU was 2.56 ± 1.12. The glove size had no significant effect on the efficacy of disinfection (p = 0.182; ANOVA). However, a volume of 6 ml was significantly less effective than 9 ml for glove sizes of 7.5-8 (p < 0.05; Tukey post hoc analysis). The mean log10 reduction after 3 h was 2.12 ± 1.24. A volume of 6 ml was again significantly less effective than 12 ml for glove size 7 and than 9 ml for glove sizes 7.5-8 (p < 0.05). The application of small volumes of surgical hand disinfectant when using the EN 12791 reference procedure is likely to yield poor efficacy results, regardless of hand size.

  7. Influence of applied volume on efficacy of 3-minute surgical reference disinfection method prEN 12791.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2004-12-01

    For assessment of the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection, European reference method prEN 12791 prescribes that the hands must be kept wet with the reference alcohol for 3 min regardless of the applied volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether the applied volume of the reference disinfectant n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) influences the effect on the resident hand flora. Ten experiments with 200 reference disinfections were analyzed. Hands were washed for 1 min with soap. The bacterial prevalue was obtained by rubbing fingertips in tryptic soy broth for 1 min. After this, each subject treated the hands with n-propanol (60%, vol/vol) by using as many portions as necessary to keep hands wet for a total of 3 min. Bacterial postvalues (immediate effect) were obtained for one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After the gloves were taken off, a second postvalue was obtained (sustained effect). Most surgical reference disinfections (73%) were achieved with 9 ml of the reference alcohol, followed by 12 ml (24%) and 6 ml (3%). There was no significant difference between the mean log10 reduction values for the three treatment groups, both in terms of the immediate effect (P = 0.333, as determined by analysis of variance) and in terms of the sustained effect (P = 0.442). A higher number of portions did not correlate with a higher reduction factor (for immediate effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.028 [P = 0.689]; for sustained effect, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.059 [P = 0.404]). If the hands were kept wet with the reference alcohol for the total application time, the applied volume could vary, but this did not alter the efficacy.

  8. The new immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, K A

    1992-03-01

    Among the biomedical sciences, immunology stands out as a discipline in which knowledge emanating from fundamental research has rapidly been transferred to the clinical paradigm, with consequent improvement in human health. Virtually all medical subspecialties have benefitted from diagnostic reagents and technologies provided by basic immunology. In terms of numbers of lives saved, immunologic-based therapeutic strategies, most notably vaccination, rank among the most effective measures ever achieved by medical intervention. Yet, despite immunology's profound impact on medicine and the longstanding recognition of many of the general principles and cellular components involved in immunity, until relatively recently, the operational workings of the immune system eluded precise definition. The abstract nature of the immune system rendered the field intangible or, at the very least, confusing, to the nonimmunologic medical community. However, in recent years, this situation has changed radically, as cell cloning, hybridoma, and recombinant DNA technologies have provided the means to delineate the precise immunologic cellular structures and interactions. The purpose of this review is to highlight a few of the most significant advances in immunology during the past decade, and to show how they have made possible the translation of abstract concepts of classical immunology into tangible, structural information. Striking gains in the understanding of antigen recognition, one of the most fundamental aspects of immunity, are described as an illustrative case.

  9. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  10. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, volume 10, number 1, March 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal hereinafter known as the ACES Journal is devoted to the exchange of information in computational electromagnetics, to the advancement of the state-of-the-art, and to the promotion of related technical activities. A primary objective of the information exchange is the elimination of the need to 're-invent the wheel' to solve a previously-solved computational problem in electrical engineering, physics, or related fields of study. The technical activities promoted by this publication include code validation, performance analysis, and input/output standardization; code or technique optimization and error minimization; innovations in solution technique or in data input/output; identification of new applications for electromagnetics modeling codes and techniques; integration of computational electromagnetics techniques with new computer architectures; and correlation of computational parameters with physical mechanisms.

  11. Environmental Assessment - Proposed Application of Aerially Applied Ultra Low Volume Naled for the Control of Adult Mosquitoes within the Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge in Lacombe, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document assesses the effects that aerially applied ultra low volume Naled would have on adult mosquito populations. It also offers alternatives.

  12. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose...

  13. Review of the volume Applied Social Sciences: Sociology, edited by Patricia-Luciana Runcan, Georgeta Rata and Mihai-Bogdan Iovu, published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CARAS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at presenting the main ideas of the volume Applied Social Sciences: Sociology, appeared as a result of the International Conference of Applied Sciences, which emerged as a multidisciplinary forum. The volume structured in 6 chapters exposes gradually themes such as culture and identity, emigration and immigration, school organisation and educational opportunities, vulnerable people, groups and populations, communication and social relations and perceptions, attitudes, values, all those aspects being treated in a sociological context.

  14. Effects of reusing baseline volumes of interest by applying (non-rigid image registration on positron emission tomography response assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris H P van Velden

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Reusing baseline volumes of interest (VOI by applying non-rigid and to some extent (local rigid image registration showed good test-retest variability similar to delineating VOI on both scans individually. The aim of the present study was to compare response assessments and classifications based on various types of image registration with those based on (semi-automatic tumour delineation. METHODS: Baseline (n = 13, early (n = 12 and late (n = 9 response (after one and three cycles of treatment, respectively whole body [(18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scans were acquired in subjects with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. Lesions were identified for early and late response scans. VOI were drawn independently on all scans using an adaptive 50% threshold method (A50. In addition, various types of (non-rigid image registration were applied to PET and/or CT images, after which baseline VOI were projected onto response scans. Response was classified using PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors for maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max, average SUV (SUV(mean, peak SUV (SUV(peak, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG and the area under a cumulative SUV-volume histogram curve (AUC. RESULTS: Non-rigid PET-based registration and non-rigid CT-based registration followed by non-rigid PET-based registration (CTPET did not show differences in response classifications compared to A50 for SUV(max and SUV(peak, however, differences were observed for MATV, SUV(mean, TLG and AUC. For the latter, these registrations demonstrated a poorer performance for small lung lesions (<2.8 ml, whereas A50 showed a poorer performance when another area with high uptake was close to the target lesion. All methods were affected by lesions with very heterogeneous tracer uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Non-rigid PET- and CTPET-based image registrations may be used to classify response

  15. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  16. Evolution of Immunological Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaín Alonso Remedios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the mechanisms involved in the "decision" of the immune system to promote an essentially effector response or a tolerant response are not fully known. Throughout history, immunological thinking has changed as the available technologies have led to a better understanding of the immune system. For these reasons, the present literature review was conducted to summarize the changes in immunological thinking regarding the fundamental problem of immunology. The concept of horror autotoxicus proposed by Erlich and the meaning of the clonal selection theory for understanding central tolerance were discussed. The two-signal model, Jerne’s contributions and his immune network theory were also addressed. Finally, the danger model and the theory of dominant tolerance were analyzed. The contributions of each theory to understanding how the immune system works were included.

  17. Immunology of methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, A.J.L.; Macario, E.C. de (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research School of Public Health, Albany, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight some findings using immunologic methods and antibody probes developed for analysis of methanogens directly in samples from bioreactors, avoiding culture isolation. A considerable diversity of methanogens was revealed by antigenic fingerprinting in bioreactors, larger than previously suspected. It was also found that the number and immunologic characteristics of the methanogenic subpopulations form a pattern distinctive of bioreactor type, feedstocks and operating conditions. This pattern changed in response to perturbations and to temperature shifts. Time course quantitative measurements of methanogenic subpopulations demonstrated that these subpopulations undergo sequential changes during bioreactor operation. Parallel microbiologic, physiologic, and chemical determinations demonstrated the reliability of the immunologic methods and their potential for bioreactor monitoring and for manipulating microprobes (e.g. to exclude a strain from a bioreactor). (author)

  18. Investigation of epididymal immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Immunology is the study of the structure and function of the immune system. The immune system consists of an earlier-stage innate immunity and a later-stage adaptive immunity. The task of the immune system is to efficiently respond to non-self antigens and the invasion of pathogens, thereby protecting the host's homeostasis. This review article discusses the structure and function of the epididymis, including the composition of the epithelial cells of the epididymis and their relationship to the immune system, through the assessment of alterations in the immune cells of the epididymis. The review also shows the anti-inflammatory properties of rat epididymal defensin and the description of the blood-epididymis barrier, immune barrier, epididymitis and pathological mechanisms of infertility in males. Taken together, we see that the epididymis possesses a close link with immunology. Finally, this review discusses the future of studies involving epididymal immunology.

  19. Immunologic lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-07-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references.

  20. RADIOECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  1. Immunological Treatments for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudhir

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses research findings that indicate immunological abnormalities in children with autism, including the dysregulation of the immune system, and concludes that there are sufficient data to suggest a role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism. Various biological therapies are analyzed, including intravenous…

  2. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  3. Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukari, Ammar; Nagasaka, Misako; Al-Hadidi, Ameer; Lum, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Hanahan and Weinberg described six distinct biological properties of cancer cells that enable tumor growth and metastasis. These properties were referred to as the traditional hallmarks of cancer. Recent discoveries further elucidated hallmarks including evasion of immune destruction by tumor cells that disrupt anticancer response pathways. This review discusses cancer immunology and new treatment strategies aimed at restoration of antitumor immune responses.

  4. Immunology's theories of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary immunology has established its fundamental theory as a biological expression of personal identity, wherein the "immune self" is defended by the immune system. Protection of this agent putatively requires a cognitive capacity by which the self and the foreign are perceived and thereby discriminated; from such information, discernment of the environment is achieved and activation of pathways leading to an immune response may be initiated. This so-called cognitive paradigm embeds such functions as "perception," "recognition," "learning," and "memory" to characterize immune processes, but the conceptual character of such functions has meanings that vary with the particular theory adopted. When different formulations of cognition are considered, immunology's conceptual infrastructure shifts: Extensions of conventional psychological understanding of representational cognition based on a subject-object dichotomy support notions of immune agency; alternatively, formulations of perception that dispense with representations and attendant notions of agency reconfigure the predicate epistemology dominating current immune theory. Reviewing immunological literature of the past five decades, these two understandings of perception--representational and non-representational (considered here from ecological, enactivist, and autopoietic perspectives)--offer competing views of immune cognitive functions. These, in turn, provide competing philosophical understandings of immunology's conceptual foundations, which reflect parallel controversies dominating current debates in philosophy of mind and attendant discussions about personal identity.

  5. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  6. Immunology & Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    This monograph was designed for the high school biology curriculum. The first section reviews the major areas of importance in immunology. Section three contains six instructional activities for the high school classroom and the second section contains teacher's materials for those activities. The activities address for students some of the major…

  7. The immunologic revolution: photoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Stephen E; Byrne, Scott N

    2012-03-01

    UV radiation targets the skin and is a primary cause of skin cancer (both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer). Exposure to UV radiation also suppresses the immune response, and UV-induced immune suppression is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. The efforts of dermatologists and cancer biologists to understand how UV radiation exposure suppresses the immune response and contributes to skin cancer induction led to the development of the subdiscipline we call photoimmunology. Advances in photoimmunology have generally paralleled advances in immunology. However, there are a number of examples in which investigations into the mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression reshaped our understanding of basic immunological concepts. Unconventional immune regulatory roles for Langerhans cells, mast cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells, as well as the immune-suppressive function of lipid mediators of inflammation and alarmins, are just some examples of how advances in immunodermatology have altered our understanding of basic immunology. In this anniversary issue celebrating 75 years of cutaneous science, we provide examples of how concepts that grew out of efforts by immunologists and dermatologists to understand immune regulation by UV radiation affected immunology in general.

  8. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  9. Performance analysis of the FDTD method applied to holographic volume gratings: Multi-core CPU versus GPU computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, J.; Bleda, S.; Neipp, C.; Márquez, A.; Pascual, I.; Beléndez, A.

    2013-03-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) allows electromagnetic field distribution analysis as a function of time and space. The method is applied to analyze holographic volume gratings (HVGs) for the near-field distribution at optical wavelengths. Usually, this application requires the simulation of wide areas, which implies more memory and time processing. In this work, we propose a specific implementation of the FDTD method including several add-ons for a precise simulation of optical diffractive elements. Values in the near-field region are computed considering the illumination of the grating by means of a plane wave for different angles of incidence and including absorbing boundaries as well. We compare the results obtained by FDTD with those obtained using a matrix method (MM) applied to diffraction gratings. In addition, we have developed two optimized versions of the algorithm, for both CPU and GPU, in order to analyze the improvement of using the new NVIDIA Fermi GPU architecture versus highly tuned multi-core CPU as a function of the size simulation. In particular, the optimized CPU implementation takes advantage of the arithmetic and data transfer streaming SIMD (single instruction multiple data) extensions (SSE) included explicitly in the code and also of multi-threading by means of OpenMP directives. A good agreement between the results obtained using both FDTD and MM methods is obtained, thus validating our methodology. Moreover, the performance of the GPU is compared to the SSE+OpenMP CPU implementation, and it is quantitatively determined that a highly optimized CPU program can be competitive for a wider range of simulation sizes, whereas GPU computing becomes more powerful for large-scale simulations.

  10. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  11. The immunology of smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and through natural outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as monkeypox. The eradication effort was largely made possible by the availability of an effective vaccine based on the immunologically cross-protective vaccinia virus. Although the concept of vaccination dates back to the late 1800s with Edward Jenner, it is only in the past decade that modern immunologic tools have been applied toward deciphering poxvirus immunity. Smallpox vaccines containing vaccinia virus elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses that confer cross-protective immunity against variola virus for decades after immunization. Recent studies have focused on: establishing the longevity of poxvirus-specific immunity, defining key immune epitopes targeted by T and B cells, developing subunit-based vaccines, and developing genotypic and phenotypic immune response profiles that predict either vaccine response or adverse events following immunization.

  12. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  13. Integration and control of metabolic systems: Pure and applied aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.T.H.; Kon, O.L.; Chung, M.C.M.; Hwang, P.L.H.; Leong, S.F.; Loke, K.H.; Thiyagarajah, P.

    1987-01-01

    This volume brings together recent findings in many growing areas of biochemical research including molecular mechanisms of disease, drug design, gene structure and function, chemical signaling, metabolic control mechanisms, neurochemistry, immunology, the molecular biology of plants, marine biochemistry, oncogenes, growth factors, membrane functions, novel enzymes, applied biochemistry, and molecular engineering. It also contains contributions on powerful research techniques such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, automated DNA sequencing, photoaffinity labeling, recent advances in plant cell culture, and high performance liquid chromatography.

  14. Some scientific and organizational challenges in cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Ralph M

    2009-09-01

    This volume provides a small sampling of the rapidly growing science of cancer immunology. Growth in the field includes advances on the requirements for immunization or vaccination and the ways in which immunity can be suppressed or blocked, including active tumor-based mechanisms. I would like to introduce the papers in this volume and then deal with a subject that pervaded many discussions among symposium participants. The subject is the need for a much better supported and organized effort to design optimal studies of immunology in cancer patients so that cancer vaccines can become a major means to prevent and treat this disease.

  15. Islet transplantation: immunological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverardi, Luca; Kenyon, Norma S; Ricordi, Camillo

    2003-10-01

    Clinical trials of islet transplantation are showing remarkable success, but they require administration of chronic immunosuppression, and are underscoring the large gap that exists between the number of human donors available and the number of patients that could benefit from the procedure. Recent progress has been made in the definition of key immunological mechanisms that are involved in determining islet transplant outcome. Clinical and preclinical studies, and studies in small animal model systems, will all eventually contribute to the definition of efficient and safe protocols for islet transplantation. If the use of xenografts is successful, it might represent a solution to the shortage of human organs.

  16. The immunological synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Geisler, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    . A distinct 3-dimensional supramolecular structure at the T cell/APC interface has been suggested to be involved in the information transfer. Due to its functional analogy to the neuronal synapse, the structure has been termed the "immunological synapse" (IS). Here, we review molecular aspects concerning...... IS formation, appearance, and cessation. In addition, proposed functions of the IS are discussed. The process of IS formation occurs in a sequential manner, initially causing a remarkable large-scale redistribution of a number of integral membrane and cytosolic proteins. At the T cell/APC interface...

  17. Immunology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  18. Mathematics in modern immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical and statistical methods enable multidisciplinary approaches that catalyse discovery. Together with experimental methods, they identify key hypotheses, define measurable observables and reconcile disparate results. We collect a representative sample of studies in T-cell biology that illustrate the benefits of modelling-experimental collaborations and that have proven valuable or even groundbreaking. We conclude that it is possible to find excellent examples of synergy between mathematical modelling and experiment in immunology, which have brought significant insight that would not be available without these collaborations, but that much remains to be discovered.

  19. Kinetics Modeling of Cancer Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-09

    CANCER IMMUNOLOGY -1 DTICS ELECTED SEP 9 8 UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND V ,1986 %,e docment ha le approved for public A." I and sale...1986 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED KINETICS MODELING OF CANCER IMMUNOLOGY Final: 1985/1986 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...137 (1986) "Kinetics Modeling of Cancer Immunology " A Trident Scholar Project Report by Midn I/C Scott Helmers, Class of 1986 United States Naval

  20. Louis Pasteur, the Father of Immunology?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such ...

  1. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  2. Microscopic and macroscopic volume conduction in skeletal muscle tissue, applied to simulation of single-fibre action potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.A.; Rutten, Wim; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Extracellular action potentials of a single active muscle fibre in a surrounding of passive muscle tissue were calculated, using a microscopic volume conductor model which accounts for the travelling aspect of the source, the structure of skeletal muscle tissue and the electrical properties at the

  3. Immunological effects of vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo, J R

    1982-06-01

    It is only recently that the adverse effects of vasectomy have become the subject of numerous scientific and at times speculative articles in medical and in lay periodicals. In this review of the literature on the immunological effects of vasectomy, attention is directed to the following: immunological response; cellular immunity; effects on testes and epididymis, and systemic effects of sperm autoantibodies. In 1970, 50% of vasectomized men were found to have circulating spermatozoal antibodies. A more recent survey provides confirmation for this finding and presents an incidence of only 2% of agglutinating antibodies and 0% of immobilizing antibodies in a fertile control population. Some recent and convincing studies have shown sperm agglutinating and immobilizing antibodies to remain either at the same titer level or actually to increase 5-12 years postoperatively. Titers range from 2 to 2048 among different patients. The highest incidence of titers is 1 year after vasectomy, but titers can be found as early as 6 months or as late as 20 years postoperatively. The wide range in titers can be explained in terms of technical problems in immune assays, since only immunoglobulins and not those antibodies part of immune complex systems can be measured. Since sperm antigens are in abundant supply in vasectomized men because of the continuous resorption of spermatozoa after vasectomy, possibly undetectable antibody titers actually reflect high levels of antisperm antibodies circulating in the form of immune complexes. Also it may be possible that the variety in measured titers of autoantibodies, as well as the nonuniversal (70%) antibody response in a vasectomized population, is a variable dependent on genetic content and, therefore, an individual characteristic. The fact that hormonal reponse takes place rather readily after vasectomy makes at least some degree of cellular response a necessary occurrence. Studies by Alexander and Anderson, which show delayed

  4. Ideernes epidemiologi og kulturens immunologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    , suggested by Sperber, is extended by an ‘immunology of cultural systems’. In addition to the selective forces described by Sperber and Boyer, the immunological approach argues that the relative success of new representations is largely dependent on how well they fit already existing cultural models...

  5. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  6. Immunological Detection of Arbutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relative molecular mass of Arbutin is small.Both fluorolabeling and radiolabeling may affect its properties and functions.Therefore, the immunoassay of Arbutin was studied.Arbutin was coupled to bovine serum albumin to get the Arbutin-BSA conjugate with high molar ratio of Arbutin to BSA.Two rabbits were injected with the conjugate to develop the anti-Arbutin serum.Ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography were used to purify the antibody.Double agar diffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were adopted to identify the antibody titer.The results demonstrated that the purity and activity of the antibody are high.The method proposed is satisfactory for the immunological detection of Arbutin.

  7. Applying dynamic parameters to predict hemodynamic response to volume expansion in spontaneously breathing patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanspa, Michael J; Grissom, Colin K; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Brown, Samuel M

    2013-02-01

    Volume expansion is a mainstay of therapy in septic shock, although its effect is difficult to predict using conventional measurements. Dynamic parameters, which vary with respiratory changes, appear to predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge in mechanically ventilated, paralyzed patients. Whether they predict response in patients who are free from mechanical ventilation is unknown. We hypothesized that dynamic parameters would be predictive in patients not receiving mechanical ventilation. This is a prospective, observational, pilot study. Patients with early septic shock and who were not receiving mechanical ventilation received 10-mL/kg volume expansion (VE) at their treating physician's discretion after initial resuscitation in the emergency department. We used transthoracic echocardiography to measure vena cava collapsibility index and aortic velocity variation before VE. We used a pulse contour analysis device to measure stroke volume variation (SVV). Cardiac index was measured immediately before and after VE using transthoracic echocardiography. Hemodynamic response was defined as an increase in cardiac index 15% or greater. Fourteen patients received VE, five of whom demonstrated a hemodynamic response. Vena cava collapsibility index and SVV were predictive (area under the curve = 0.83, 0.92, respectively). Optimal thresholds were calculated: vena cava collapsibility index, 15% or greater (positive predictive value, 62%; negative predictive value, 100%; P = 0.03); SVV, 17% or greater (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 82%, P = 0.03). Aortic velocity variation was not predictive. Vena cava collapsibility index and SVV predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge patients with septic shock who are not mechanically ventilated. Optimal thresholds differ from those described in mechanically ventilated patients.

  8. Applying dynamic parameters to predict hemodynamic response to volume expansion in spontaneously breathing patients with septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanspa, Michael J.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Volume expansion is a mainstay of therapy in septic shock, although its effect is difficult to predict using conventional measurements. Dynamic parameters, which vary with respiratory changes, appear to predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge in mechanically ventilated, paralyzed patients. Whether they predict response in patients who are free from mechanical ventilation is unknown. We hypothesized that dynamic parameters would be predictive in patients not receiving mechanical ventilation. Methods This is a prospective, observational, pilot study. Patients with early septic shock and who were not receiving mechanical ventilation received 10 ml/kg volume expansion (VE) at their treating physician's discretion after initial resuscitation in the emergency department. We used transthoracic echocardiography to measure vena cava collapsibility index (VCCI) and aortic velocity variation (AoVV) prior to VE. We used a pulse contour analysis device to measure stroke volume variation (SVV). Cardiac index was measured immediately before and after VE using transthoracic echocardiography. Hemodynamic response was defined as an increase in cardiac index ≥ 15%. Results 14 patients received VE, 5 of which demonstrated a hemodynamic response. VCCI and SVV were predictive (Area under curve = 0.83, 0.92, respectively). Optimal thresholds were calculated: VCCI ≥ 15% (Positive predictive value, PPV 62%, negative predictive value, NPV 100%, p = 0.03); SVV ≥ 17% (PPV 100%, NPV 82%, p = 0.03). AoVV was not predictive. Conclusions VCCI and SVV predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge patients with septic shock who are not mechanically ventilated. Optimal thresholds differ from those described in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:23324885

  9. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunology is the study of interaction between cancer cells and immune system by the application of immunology principle and theory. With the recent approval of several new drugs targeting immune checkpoints in cancer, cancer immunology has become a very attractive field of research and is thought to be the new hope to conquer cancer. This chapter introduces the aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and their significance in tumor immunity. It also illustrates how noncoding RNAs are shuttled between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments via exosomes or other microvesicles to modulate tumor immunity.

  10. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-05-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s(-1) and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures.

  11. Environmental Restoration/Waste Management - applied technology. Semiannual report, July 1992--June 1993, Volume 1, Number 2, and Volume 2, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.; Bruner, J.M.; Price, M.E.; Talaber, C.J. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program is developing restoration and waste treatment technologies needed for the ongoing environmental cleanup of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and treatment technologies for wastes generated in the nuclear weapons production complex. These technologies can find application to similar problems nationally and even worldwide. They can be demonstrated at the Livermore site, which mirrors (on a small scale) many of the environmental and waste management problems of the rest of the DOE complex. Their commercialization should speed cleanup, and the scope of the task should make it attractive to US industry. The articles in this semi-annual report cover the following areas: ceramic final forms for residues of mixed waste treatment; treatment of wastes containing sodium nitrate; actinide volatility in thermal oxidation processes; in situ microbial filters for remediating contaminated soils; collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union on new ER/WM technologies; and fiber-optic sensors for chlorinated organic solvents.

  12. Immunological tests applied to the value of combined detection of systemic lupus erythematosus%免疫学检验联合检测应用于系统性红斑狼疮诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珣

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究与分析免疫学检验联合检测应用于系统性红斑狼疮中的诊断价值。方法选取64例系统性红斑狼疮作为研究组,其中27例活动期患者为活动组,37例非活动期患者为非活动组,另外选取同期64例健康体检者作为对照组。对所有受检对象进行免疫学联合检测,然后将所检测结果进行比较与分析。结果经检测发现,活动组系统性红斑狼疮患者 IgG 和 IgA 及 IgM 指标均明显高于对照组( P ﹤0.05);而 C3和 C4水平均明显低于对照组( P ﹤0.05)。非活动组系统性红斑狼疮患者 IgG 和 IgA 指标均明显高于对照组( P ﹤0.05);然其他各项免疫学检验指标与对照组比较( P ﹥0.05)。经检测发现,抗核抗体谱(ANAS)和抗双链脱氧核糖核酸抗体(ds - DNA)抗体及可提取核抗原(ENA)检测中,研究组各项指标阳性率检出明显高于对照组( P ﹤0.05),且对照组中各项指标检测均为阴性。结论临床上联合检测免疫学各项指标对诊断系统性红斑狼疮具有重要参考价值,同时可有效判断患者病情发展情况,可有效预示患者预后情况,并为临床诊断和治疗提供方向。%Objective To research and analyze immunological test joint detection in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Meth-ods We selected 64 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus patients as study group,who were divided into 27 patients with active group,37 pa-tients with non active to inactive group. At the same time,64 healthy volunteers were selected as control group. All subjects performed combined detection of immunology,then the test results were compared and analyzed. Results After testing found that,the IgG and IgA and IgM index in group activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were significantly higher than those in control group( P ﹤ 0. 05). While the C3 and C4 levels were significantly lower than those

  13. Immunologic endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA-like molecules determining tissue-specific targeting that, with the loss of tolerance, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Addison disease, and many others result from autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in patients with type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Although therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applying a new method for direct collection, volume quantification and determination of N2 emission from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhong; Gao, Yan; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Junyao; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    The emission of N2 is important to remove excess N from lakes, ponds, and wetlands. To investigate the gas emission from water, Gao et al. (2013) developed a new method using a bubble trap device to collect gas samples from waters. However, the determination accuracy of sampling volume and gas component concentration was still debatable. In this study, the method was optimized for in situ sampling, accurate volume measurement and direct injection to a gas chromatograph for the analysis of N2 and other gases. By the optimized new method, the recovery rate for N2 was 100.28% on average; the mean coefficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.9997; the limit of detection was 0.02%. We further assessed the effects of the new method, bottle full of water, vs. vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods, on variations of N2 concentration as influenced by sample storage times of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days at constant temperature of 15°C, using indices of averaged relative peak area (%) in comparison with the averaged relative peak area of each method at 0 day. The indices of the bottle full of water method were the lowest (99.5%-108.5%) compared to the indices of vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods (119%-217%). Meanwhile, the gas chromatograph determination of other gas components (O2, CH4, and N2O) was also accurate. The new method was an alternative way to investigate N2 released from various kinds of aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Applying a new method for direct collection, volume quantification and determination of N2 emission from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhong Liu; Yan Gao; Honglian Wang; Junyao Guo; Shaohua Yan

    2015-01-01

    The emission of N2 is important to remove excess N from lakes,ponds,and wetlands.To investigate the gas emission from water,Gao et al.(2013) developed a new method using a bubble trap device to collect gas samples from waters.However,the determination accuracy of sampling volume and gas component concentration was still debatable.In this study,the method was optimized for in situ sampling,accurate volume measurement and direct injection to a gas chromatograph for the analysis of N2 and other gases.By the optimized new method,the recovery rate for N2 was 100.28% on average; the mean coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.9997; the limit of detection was 0.02%.We further assessed the effects of the new method,bottle full of water,vs.vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods,on variations of N2 concentration as influenced by sample storage times of 1,2,3,5,and 7 days at constant temperature of 15℃,using indices of averaged relative peak area (%) in comparison with the averaged relative peak area of each method at 0 day.The indices of the bottle full of water method were the lowest (99.5%--108.5%) compared to the indices of vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods (119%-217%).Meanwhile,the gas chromatograph determination of other gas components (O2,CH4,and N2O) was also accurate.The new method was an alternative way to investigate N2 released from various kinds of aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Immunological findings in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of autism is presented schematically in Fig. 1. Two main immune dysfunctions in autism are immune regulation involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity. Mercury and an infectious agent like the measles virus are currently two main candidate environmental triggers for immune dysfunction in autism. Genetically immune dysfunction in autism involves the MHC region, as this is an immunologic gene cluster whose gene products are Class I, II, and III molecules. Class I and II molecules are associated with antigen presentation. The antigen in virus infection initiated by the virus particle itself while the cytokine production and inflammatory mediators are due to the response to the putative antigen in question. The cell-mediated immunity is impaired as evidenced by low numbers of CD4 cells and a concomitant T-cell polarity with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 subsets toward Th2. Impaired humoral immunity on the other hand is evidenced by decreased IgA causing poor gut protection. Studies showing elevated brain specific antibodies in autism support an autoimmune mechanism. Viruses may initiate the process but the subsequent activation of cytokines is the damaging factor associated with autism. Virus specific antibodies associated with measles virus have been demonstrated in autistic subjects. Environmental exposure to mercury is believed to harm human health possibly through modulation of immune homeostasis. A mercury link with the immune system has been postulated due to the involvement of postnatal exposure to thimerosal, a preservative added in the MMR vaccines. The occupational hazard exposure to mercury causes edema in astrocytes and, at the molecular level, the CD95/Fas apoptotic signaling pathway is disrupted by Hg2+. Inflammatory mediators in autism usually involve activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Proinflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and TARC), and an anti-inflammatory and modulatory cytokine, TGF-beta1, are consistently

  17. AnSBBR applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment: effects of fill time, volume treated per cycle, and organic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 °C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system, as it resulted in indirect control over the conversion of substrate into intermediates that would negatively interfere with the biochemical reactions regarding the degradation of organic matter. As a result, the average substrate consumption increased, leading to higher organic removal efficiencies in the fed-batch operations.

  18. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5590 - Lipoprotein X immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lipoprotein X immunolog-ical test system. 866.5590... Lipoprotein X immunolog-ical test system. (a) Identification. A lipoprotein X immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques lipoprotein X (a high...

  20. The influence of sample volume applied to the Makler sperm counting chamber upon the measured concentration of latex beads:A multi-centre study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie Walls; Cherise Mooy; Patrick Mohan; Sally Catt; Matthew Wiltshire; Hassan W Bakos; Mary Whyte; Phillip Matson; Emily Zuvela; Cheryl Ayres; Deborah Sherrin; Asma Chhotani; Liz Butler; Kelli Peirce; Jenny Krapez; Renae Parker

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To undertake a multi-centre study to maximize the number ofMakler chambers used.Methods:A total of15 laboratories participated with31Makler chambers.A suspension of latex beads was prepared to a concentration of20 millions per milliliter, and0.5 mL aliquots distributed to each participating laboratory.They measured the concentration on theirMakler chamber(s) used for routine semen analysis by adding3,4,5,7 and10µL volumes of bead suspension to the chamber.Results:There was no difference in within-chamber analysis of the bead concentration according to the volume of bead suspension applied within the range of 3-10µL(F4,14=2.634,P=0.056).However, the between-chamber effects were significantly different (F30,124=4.937,P=0.000), and24/31(77.5%) chambers tested had an average bias>10% compared to the target bead concentration.Conclusions:A volume of3-10µL added toMakler counting chambers does not influence the concentration measured of latex beads, but the between-chamber variability and positive bias seen would suggest that other sources of error are present which are yet to be identified.

  1. Características da pulverização em citros em função do volume de calda aplicado com turbopulverizador Effect of carrier volume applied with a airblast sprayer on spray characteristics in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton h. Ramos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do volume de calda aplicado por um turbopulverizador sobre a deposição e a cobertura em folhas, ramos e frutos de citros. A pulverização foi realizada com um pulverizador tratorizado Arbus 2000/Valência em pomar de laranja 'Natal', com porte médio de 4,0 m, sendo avaliados seis volumes de calda (50; 70; 85; 100; 150 e 200% do volume-padrão utilizado pelo produtor, de 28 L planta-1. Após a pulverização de plantas uniformes com calda contendo cobre e o traçador fluorescente Poliglow 830 YLSS, amostras foram coletadas em nove setores da planta, sendo a avaliação da deposição feita usando-se análise do íon cobre por espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica, e a da cobertura, por meio de imagens digitalizadas analisadas pelo programa para computador IDRISI. A análise estatística mostrou que, na avaliação da cobertura e deposição em citros, a utilização de frutos como estrutura de amostragem tendeu a evidenciar melhor o efeito dos tratamentos. Tanto a deposição quanto a cobertura tenderam a ser maiores nos setores frontal e saia da planta. Tanto a deposição quanto a cobertura não foram prejudicadas pela utilização do volume de 70% (19,6 L planta-1, indicando que tal volume pode substituir o volume de 100% (28 L planta-1 sem prejuízos ao controle de pragas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different carrier volume applied with an airblast sprayer on spray deposition on leaves, branch and fruits in citrus trees. It was used a trailed sprayer Arbus 200/Valência in an orange orchard, variety Natal, with 4,0 m mean height, and six volumes were evaluated (50; 70; 85; 100; 150 and 200% relative to the standard volume in use, 28 L plant-1. After spraying of regular plants with carrier containing copper and Poliglow 830 YLSS as fluorescent tracer, the samples were collected in nine localization of the tree. The evaluation of spray deposition was done with

  2. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  3. Sarcoidosis: Immunopathogenesis and Immunological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sheng Joshua Loke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs. It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an “immune paradox” with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. Despite extensive research, sarcoidosis remains a disease with undetermined aetiology. Current evidence supports the notion that the immune response in sarcoidosis is driven by a putative antigen in a genetically susceptible individual. Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis. As such, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains a vexing clinical challenge. In this review, we outline the immunological features of sarcoidosis, discuss the evidence for and against various candidate etiological agents (infective and noninfective, describe the exhaled breath condensate, a novel method of identifying immunological biomarkers, and suggest other possible immunological biomarkers to better characterise the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

  4. Citizens unite for computational immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Orrin S; Baker, Sarah Catherine; Baker, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    Recruiting volunteers who can provide computational time, programming expertise, or puzzle-solving talent has emerged as a powerful tool for biomedical research. Recent projects demonstrate the potential for such 'crowdsourcing' efforts in immunology. Tools for developing applications, new funding opportunities, and an eager public make crowdsourcing a serious option for creative solutions for computationally-challenging problems. Expanded uses of crowdsourcing in immunology will allow for more efficient large-scale data collection and analysis. It will also involve, inspire, educate, and engage the public in a variety of meaningful ways. The benefits are real - it is time to jump in!

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (37th) Held in Houston, Texas on 1-4 December 1993. Pages 5309-6146. Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 73. Number 10, Part 2 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reprint: Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (37th) Held in Houston, Texas on 1-4 December 1993. Pages 5309-6146. Journal of Applied Physics . Volume 73. Number 10, Part 2 A

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (37th) Held in Houston, Texas on 1-4 December 1993. Pages 5309-6146. Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 73. Number 10, Part 2 B,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reprint: Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (37th) Held in Houston, Texas on 1-4 December 1993. Pages 5309-6146. Journal of Applied Physics . Volume 73. Number 10, Part 2 B,

  7. Peptide modification in T cell immunology - from molecule to animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Ellen Christine de

    2004-01-01

    Chemical knowledge can be applied in the field of immunology. It provides a better understanding of how a peptide interacts with proteins and cells of the immune system. However, it is not possible to predict the outcome of peptide administration in an animal. Peptides are used in experimental trea

  8. Peptide modification in T cell immunology - from molecule to animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Ellen Christine de

    2003-01-01

    Chemical knowledge can be applied in the field of immunology. It provides a better understanding of how a peptide interacts with proteins and cells of the immune system. However, it is not possible to predict the outcome of peptide administration in an animal. Peptides are used in experimental

  9. An updated validation of Promega's PowerPlex 16 System: high throughput databasing under reduced PCR volume conditions on Applied Biosystem's 96 capillary 3730xl DNA Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Rita; Lum, J Koji

    2008-11-01

    The PowerPlex 16 System from Promega Corporation allows single tube multiplex amplification of sixteen short tandem repeat (STR) loci including all 13 core combined DNA index system STRs. This report presents an updated validation of the PowerPlex 16 System on Applied Biosystem's 96 capillary 3730xl DNA Analyzer. The validation protocol developed in our laboratory allows for the analysis of 1536 loci (96 x 16) in c. 50 min. We have further optimized the assay by decreasing the reaction volume to one-quarter that recommended by the manufacturer thereby substantially reducing the total cost per sample without compromising reproducibility or specificity. This reduction in reaction volume has the ancillary benefit of dramatically increasing the sensitivity of the assay allowing for accurate analysis of lower quantities of DNA. Due to its substantially increased throughput capability, this extended validation of the PowerPlex 16 System should be useful in reducing the backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples currently facing public DNA forensic laboratories.

  10. Immunological aspects of Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. van Ouwerkerk (Marcel)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractAssuming an autoimmune interested to know whether apart from restoring the immunologic parameters. Freshly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease were all similarly treated with MMI 10 mg t.i.d. and when euthyroidism was achieved, with substitution of thyroid hormone. At

  11. Half a century of Dutch transplant immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rood, Jon J; Claas, Frans H J; Brand, Anneke; Tilanus, Marcel G J; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-01-01

    The sixties have not only witnessed the start of the Dutch Society for Immunology (NvvI), but were also the flourishing beginning of the discipline of transplant immunology. The interest in immunology in the Netherlands had its start in the context of blood transfusions and not for instance in the f

  12. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  13. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of man. The

  14. Uncertainty of measurement: an immunology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sarah C; Lock, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    'Measurement uncertainty of measured quantity values' (ISO15189) requires that the laboratory shall determine the measurement uncertainty for procedures used to report measured quantity values on patients' samples. Where we have numeric data measurement uncertainty can be expressed as the standard deviation or as the co-efficient of variation. However, in immunology many of the assays are reported either as semi-quantitative (i.e. an antibody titre) or qualitative (positive or negative) results. In the latter context, measuring uncertainty is considerably more difficult. There are, however, strategies which can allow us to minimise uncertainty. A number of parameters can contribute to making measurements uncertain. These include bias, precision, standard uncertainty (expressed as standard deviation or coefficient of variation), sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and verification. Closely linked to these are traceability and standardisation. In this article we explore the challenges presented to immunology with regard to measurement uncertainty. Many of these challenges apply equally to other disciplines working with qualitative or semi-quantitative data.

  15. Hematology and immunology studies - The second manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.

  16. Immunology for the toxicologic pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    The immune system functions primarily as a defense mechanism to provide protective immunity against microbial pathogens and cancer. The resulting protective responses occur through the complex interaction of tissues, cells, proteins, and molecular pathways that act in concert with other systems (e.g., nervous and endocrine) to provide the host with immunologic responses that cause pathologic processes seen primarily as inflammatory reactions. The pathologic responses can be attributed to either normal responses to infectious organisms and cancer cells, misdirected responses as in the case of hypersensitivity or autoimmune diseases, or deficient responses attributable to deficiencies or defects in components of the immune system. Pathologists need to have a basic understanding of the immune system to not only interpret findings as to their likely pathogenesis, but also to predict when the immune system may be a potential target. This review will be limited to a general overview of the basic immunologic responses and primary components involved.

  17. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  18. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  19. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (pTaekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

      Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  1. A prospect on cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H

    1979-11-01

    There are several factors involved in studying cancer immunology. For convenience, those factors can be consolidated into two. Firstly, no definite tumor-specific or -associated antigen has been ascertained as yet, except for certain types of tumor. Secondly, there is no definite pattern of immune response of the host against weak antigenic tumor cells. Nobody knows as to what is the nature of the tumor-specific antigen even if it exists, and nobody knows the escape mechanism of tumor cells from the immune defence of the host. There have been a number of approaches for cancer immunotherapy, but so far there has been no definite answer as to whether immunotherapy is a promising approach for cancer treatment. In this review, cancer immunology is divided into three separate subjects. The first of these is tumor antigen; the second, the immune response against tumor antigen; and the third, methods of attacking tumor cells by immunological means including how to increase the antigenicity of tumor cells (xenogenization), and how to increase the immune response of the host (immunotherapy).

  2. Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    3.1 Autoimmume disease 2006019 The study of inhibitory peptides on T cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis LI Xia(李霞) , Dept Rheumatol & Immunol, People’s Hosp, Peking Univ, Beijing 100044. Natl Med J China 2005;85(24) :1679 -1682. Objective:To study the inhibitory role of altered HA308 -317 peptides in T cell responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods :Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from 27 HLA -

  3. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    5.1 Autoimmune disease2003029 A linkage study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 gene and Graves’ disease in northern Chinese Han ethnic. JIN Ying ( 金迎 ), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2002; 41 (12): 809-812. Objective: To determine if the cytotoxic T lympho-

  4. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Autoimmune disease2004022 BL-2, IL-6 and their receptors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. QIAN Qihong (钱齐宏), et al. Dept Dermatol & Venereol, 1st Affili Hosp, Suzhou Univ, Suzhou 215006. Chin J Dermatol 2003; 36 (12): 696-698.

  5. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    5.1 Autoimmune disease2004189 Serum levels of matrix metallopro-teinases-9 in patients with systemic lupus erythemato-sus. YIN Wenhao (殷文浩), et al. Dept Dermatol 2nd Affili Hosp, Med Sch Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310009. Chin J Dermatol 2004;37(2):77-79.Objective: To determine the serum levels of matrix

  6. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  7. [Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Agnieszka; Madej, Marta; Wiland, Piotr

    2016-03-25

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies). RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33). Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  8. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement.In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%.New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  9. CCL8 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of CCL8.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...... suitable biological samples. The methods of the present invention are useful in therapeutic and diagnostic protocols for human, livestock and veterinary and wild life applications, thus the invention further relates to a method for diagnosing an infection in a mammal....

  10. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.

  11. Purinergic signaling at immunological synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubyak, G R

    2000-07-01

    The early studies and hypotheses of Geoffrey Burnstock catalyzed intensive characterization of roles for nucleotides and P2 nucleotide receptors in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. These latter analyses have focused on the mechanisms of nucleotide release and action in the microenvironments of nerve endings and synapses. However, studies of various white blood cells, such as monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, suggest that locally released nucleotides also modulate intercellular signaling at so-called 'immunological synapses'. This communication describes recent findings and speculations regarding nucleotide release and signaling in several key phases of the immune and inflammatory responses.

  12. Immunology of the gastrointestinal tract and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyworth, M.F.; Jones, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: T cells and Other Non-B Lymphocytes; Mucosal Mast Cells and IgE; Genetic Aspects of Gastrointestinal Immunology; Immunological Functions of the Liver; Lymphocyte Migration and Mucosal Immunity; and Immunoglobulin Circulation and Secretion.

  13. The cognitive paradigm and the immunological homunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I R

    1992-12-01

    In last month's issue of Immunology Today, Irun Cohen discussed the inadequacies of the clonal selection paradigm and proposed a cognitive paradigm in which preformed internal images guide and restrict the process of clonal activation. Here he clarifies the nature of these internal images, during on concrete examples from the image of infection and the image of self, the immunological homunculus.

  14. Evolution and conservation of immunological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Vaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students - and even professional immunologists - acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."

  15. Evolution and conservation of immunological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, N M

    2006-12-01

    Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students--and even professional immunologists--acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."

  16. Overview of Johne's disease immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is one of the most economically important diseases of the livestock. Most of the economiclosses associated with paratuberculosis are related to decreased milk production, reduced fertility and higher rates of culling.Understanding the immunology of the disease is very important for better understanding of the interplay between the host andthe causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. After uptake of MAPby macrophages residing inhost's intestinal tissue, two possible scenarios may emerge; MAP may be destroyed or may establish persistent infectionwithin the macrophages. If MAPpersists in the infected macrophage, it continuously modulates adaptive immune responsesof the animal. In this short review we describe the host-pathogen interactions in Johne's disease and highlights potentialprotective mechanisms in order for future design of more effective diagnostic method and vaccine.

  17. Immunological treatment of liver tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Fabio Grizzi; Cynthia A Jumper; Everardo Cobos; Paul L Hermonat; Eldo E Frezza

    2005-01-01

    Although multiple options for the treatment of liver tumors have often been described in the past, including liver resection, radiofrequency ablation with or without hepatic pump insertion, laparoscopic liver resection and the use of chemotherapy, the potential of immunotherapy and gene manipulation is still largely unexplored.Immunological therapy by gene manipulation is based on the interaction between virus-based gene delivery systems and dendritic cells. Using viruses as vectors, it is possible to transduce dendritic cells with genes encoding tumor-associated antigens, thus inducing strong humoral and cellular immunity against the antigens themselves.Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of destroying healthy cells, thus causing severe side-effects. We need more precisely targeted therapies capable of killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Our goal is to establish a new treatment for solid liver tumors based on the concept of cytoreduction,and propose an innovative algorithm.

  18. Molecular imaging applications for immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Isabel Junie; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2004-05-01

    The use of multimodality molecular imaging has recently facilitated the study of molecular and cellular events in living subjects in a noninvasive and repetitive manner to improve the diagnostic capability of traditional assays. The noninvasive imaging modalities utilized for both small animal and human imaging include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). Techniques specific to small-animal imaging include bioluminescent imaging (BIm) and fluorescent imaging (FIm). Molecular imaging permits the study of events within cells, the examination of cell trafficking patterns that relate to inflammatory diseases and metastases, and the ability to rapidly screen new drug treatments for distribution and effectiveness. In this paper, we will review the current field of molecular imaging assays (especially those utilizing PET and BIm modalities) and examine how they might impact animal models and human disease in the field of clinical immunology.

  19. Immunological treatments for occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G; Marcer, G; Passalacqua, G

    2013-01-01

    Although avoidance of occupational triggers remains the primary step in the management of work-related allergies, immunological treatments (including biological agents and specific immunotherapy) can be regarded as potential therapeutic options for IgE-mediated diseases; for example, many studies with allergen-specific immunotherapy have been carried out on latex allergy, showing overall favorable results, at least with sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, only few case reports have suggested the efficacy of immunotherapy in baker's asthma as well as in laboratory animal-induced asthma. The new technologies, including component-resolved diagnosis and recombinant allergens, are expected to improve the quality and efficacy of specific immunotherapy in the future. Also the use of omalizumab may represent a suitable therapeutic choice in very selected cases of occupational allergy, as well as an approach to reduce side effects of venom immunotherapy in subjects with previous severe reactions to the treatment.

  20. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  1. The unsettled world of leak rate physics: 1 atm large-volume considerations do not apply to MEMS packages: a practitioner's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Richard C.; Jonath, Arthur; Lowry, Robert K.

    2012-03-01

    The world of leak testing, and the applicable physics, is unsettled. While globally lower MIL-STD leak rate criteria are under consideration even for 1 atm-large volume packages, industry is conversely moving rapidly into very small volume MEMS and vacuum packaging for advanced devices. These changes point out serious conceptual disconnects between the reality of properly characterizing a leak and the conceptual tools used to ensure the desired lifetime. The physical understandings and associated tool sets used to test and model the leaks are described. We modeled two actual packages, a large, ~200 cc volume multichip module for aerospace applications and a small ~0.01cc volume MEMS package for sensor applications. Impacts of various physical models of leak flow into a package are compared to include Fickian Diffusion, The Davy Model, Howl-Mann, and an empirically derived model based on Kr-85 leak testing as called out in the most recent edition of MIL-STD-883. As shown in the comparisons, simple He leak testing and physical models based thereon fall apart in the small volume MEMS packaging space.

  2. Efficacy evaluation of retrospectively applying the Varian normal breathing predictive filter for volume definition and artifact reduction in 4D CT lung patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ciaran; Rock, Luke; Skourou, Christina

    2014-05-08

    Phase-based sorting of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) datasets is prone to image artifacts due to patient's breathing irregularities that occur during the image acquisition. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the Varian normal breathing predictive filter (NBPF) as a retrospective phase-sorting parameter in 4D CT. Ten 4D CT lung cancer datasets were obtained. The volumes of all tumors present, as well as the total lung volume, were calculated on the maximum intensity projection (MIP) images as well as each individual phase image. The NBPF was varied retrospectively within the available range, and changes in volume and image quality were recorded. The patients' breathing trace was analysed and the magnitude and location of any breathing irregularities were correlated to the behavior of the NBPF. The NBPF was found to have a considerable effect on the quality of the images in MIP and single-phase datasets. When used appropriately, the NBPF is shown to have the ability to account for and correct image artifacts. However, when turned off (0%) or set above a critical level (approximately 40%), it resulted in erroneous volume reconstructions with variations in tumor volume up to 26.6%. Those phases associated with peak inspiration were found to be more susceptible to changes in the NBPF. The NBPF settings selected prior to exporting the breathing trace for patients evaluated using 4D CT directly affect the accuracy of the targeting and volume estimation of lung tumors. Recommendations are made to address potential errors in patient anatomy introduced by breathing irregularities, specifically deep breath or cough irregularities, by implementing the proper settings and use of this tool.

  3. Birth of the science of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstieg, Frank C; Goldman, Armond S

    2010-05-01

    The science of immunology emerged in the last of the 19th and the first of the 20th century. Substantial progress in physics, chemistry and microbiology was essential for its development. Indeed, microorganisms became one of the principal investigative tools of the major founders of that science - Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff, Paul Ehrlich and Jules Bordet. It is pertinent that these pioneering scientists were born when questioning and exploration were encouraged because of the legacies of the previous century of enlightenment. Mentors greatly aided their development. Their discoveries were shaped by their individual personalities. In turn they developed other contributors to the nascent field. Their discoveries included the types of leukocytes, the roles of neutrophils in inflammation and defence, cellular lysis due to complement, the principles of humoral and cellular immunology, passive and active immunization, tissue antigens, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions and autoimmunity. Their work formed the basis of modern immunology that developed many decades later. Immunology has enormously impacted our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infections, immune-mediated disorders and inflammation. Burgeoning advances forecast further important clinical applications of immunology. Yet, their applications will be problematic because few physicians sufficiently understand the science. We propose that understanding modern immunology requires a grasp of how that science developed - who made the discoveries, how they were made, their successes and failures, their interactions and debates all reveal the foundation of modern immunology.

  4. The 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Joan K; Kai, Chieko; Inumaru, Shigeki; Onodera, Takashi

    2012-07-15

    This special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune systems of numerous food animals and wildlife, probing basic immunity and the influence of stress, genetics, nutrition, endocrinology and reproduction. Major presentations addressed defense against pathogens and alternative control and prevention strategies including vaccines, adjuvants and novel biotherapeutics. A special Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme Sponsored Conference on "Vaccination and Diagnosis for Food Safety in Agriculture" highlighted the particular issue of "Immunology in Bovine Paratuberculosis". In April 2010 there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern part of Japan. This stimulated a special 9th IVIS session on FMD, sponsored by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, to discuss improvements of FMD vaccines, their use in FMD control, and risk assessment for decision management. The 9th IVIS was supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) and included workshops for its MHC and Toolkit Committees. Finally VIC IUIS presented its 2010 Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Kazuya Yamanouchi for "outstanding contributions to the veterinary immunology community" and its 2010 Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award to Dr. Douglas F. Antczak for "outstanding research on equine immunology".

  5. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  6. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  7. Louis pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur's presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur's remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  8. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meenupriya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spongiform encephalopathies, categorized as a subclass of neuro-degenerative diseases and commonly known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of many animals, including humans. Prion diseases are common among cannibalistic communities; further research has revealed that the infected or malformed prion protein (named PrPsc spreads its virulence to the normal, healthy prion protein (named PrPc when people consume infected tissues. Knowing that a small interaction between normal and infected prion protein creates virulence, this relationship can be studied as a simple antigen-antibody interaction to understand the series of events that transform a normal prion protein into a virulent misfolded protein. Thoroughly modeled and validated structures of both PrPsc and PrPc can be effectively used to map the epitopes and thereby screen the antigen-antibody interaction using docking studies for a particular organism of concern. This simple immunological approach is used to understand the vital interaction between the normal and malformed proteins that is involved in the disease-spreading mechanism. Clarification of this mechanism could be used in various immune- and bioinformatics algorithms to map the interaction epitopes, furthering an understanding of these pathologies.

  9. Immunology of the mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammary gland is an organ of specific structure whose elementary task is to supply offspring with nutritive and other biologically active substances during the first weeks, or, depending on the species, the first months of life. This prolongs the period of close contact between the mother and her young, which is necessary for their regular growth. Most mammal offspring are born with physiological agammaglobulinaemia, because of the specific structure of the placenta, so that they receive the first specific protection against pathogenic microorganisms through colostrum. Furthermore, this gland is in direct contact with the outer environment through the secretary ducts, so that there are great possibilities for the occurrence of infections. It is therefore necessary to secure protective mechanisms which would prevent such infections. It is clear that there is a distinct connection between the immunological system and the mammary gland, and that link is the central topic of this paper. It presents the basic mechanisms of mammary gland defense which are divided into two categories: nonspecific (innate and specific immune response. The mammary gland secretion contains several types of leukocytes, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophiles, as well as 2% epithelial cells. On the average, there are 0.2 x 106 somatic cells in one mililiter of milk. Macrophages account for most of these (58%, as well as lymphocytes (28%, while a smaller number of somatic cells (12% are polymorphonuclears (PMN. The paper considers the characteristics and main functions of these cell types.

  10. Instructive selection and immunological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederberg, Joshua

    2002-07-01

    The turning point of modern immunological theory was the advent of the clonal selection theory (Burnet, Talmage - 1957). A useful heuristic in the classification of theoretical models was the contrast of 'instructive' with 'selective' models of the acquisition of information by biological systems. The neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1940s had consolidated biologists' model of evolution based on prior random variation and natural selection, viz. differential fecundity. While evolution in the large was by then pretty well settled, controversy remained about examples of cellular adaptation to chemical challenges, like induced drug-resistance, enzyme formation and the antibody response. While instructive theories have been on the decline, some clear cut examples can be found of molecular imprinting in the abiotic world, leading, e.g. to the production of specific sorbents. Template-driven assembly, as in DNA synthesis, has remained a paradigm of instructive specification. Nevertheless, the classification may break down with more microscopic scrutiny of the processes of molecular fit of substrates with enzymes, of monomers to an elongating polymer chain, as the reactants often traverse a state space from with activated components are appropriately selected. The same process may be 'instructive' from a holistic, 'selective' from an atomic perspective.

  11. Immunology of Yersinia pestis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase. In contrast, the host also utilizes its immune system to eliminate the invading bacteria. Neutrophil and macrophage are the first defense against Yersinia pestis invading through phagocytosis and killing. Other innate immune cells also play different roles, such as dendritic cells which help to generate more T helper cells. After several days post infection, the adaptive immune response begins to provide organism-specific protection and has a long-lasting immunological memory. Thus, with the cooperation and collaboration of innate and acquired immunity, the bacterium may be eliminated from the host. The research of Yersinia pestis and host immune systems provides an important topic to understand pathogen-host interaction and consequently develop effective countermeasures.

  12. The immunological barriers to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, M; Cozzi, E

    2015-10-01

    The availability of cells, tissues and organs from a non-human species such as the pig could, at least in theory, meet the demand of organs necessary for clinical transplantation. At this stage, the important goal of getting over the first year of survival has been reported for both cellular and solid organ xenotransplantation in relevant preclinical primate models. In addition, xenotransplantation is already in the clinic as shown by the broad use of animal-derived medical devices, such as bioprosthetic heart valves and biological materials used for surgical tissue repair. At this stage, however, prior to starting a wide-scale clinical application of xenotransplantation of viable cells and organs, the important obstacle represented by the humoral immune response will need to be overcome. Likewise, the barriers posed by the activation of the innate immune system and coagulative pathway will have to be controlled. As far as xenogeneic nonviable xenografts, increasing evidence suggests that considerable immune reactions, mediated by both innate and adaptive immunity, take place and influence the long-term outcome of xenogeneic materials in patients, possibly precluding the use of bioprosthetic heart valves in young individuals. In this context, the present article provides an overview of current knowledge on the immune processes following xenotransplantation and on the possible therapeutic interventions to overcome the immunological drawbacks involved in xenotransplantation.

  13. Ocular diseases: immunological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors, such as environmental, microbial and endogenous stress, antigen localization, can trigger the immunological events that affect the ending of the diverse spectrum of ocular disorders. Significant advances in understanding of immunological and molecular mechanisms have been researched to improve the diagnosis and therapy for patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Some kinds of ocular diseases are inadequately responsive to current medications; therefore, immunotherapy may be a potential choice as an alternative or adjunctive treatment, even in the prophylactic setting. This article first provides an overview of the immunological and molecular mechanisms concerning several typical and common ocular diseases; second, the functions of immunological roles in some of systemic autoimmunity will be discussed; third, we will provide a summary of the mechanisms that dictate immune cell trafficking to ocular local microenvironment in response to inflammation.

  14. Multiscale modelling in immunology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Antonio; Tieri, Paolo; Castiglione, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to get a unified view of observations made from the molecular up to the organism scale. Towards this goal, multiscale models have been highly instrumental in contexts such as the cardiovascular field, angiogenesis, neurosciences and tumour biology. More recently, such models are becoming an increasingly important resource to address immunological questions as well. Systematic mining of the literature in multiscale modelling led us to identify three main fields of immunological applications: host-virus interactions, inflammatory diseases and their treatment and development of multiscale simulation platforms for immunological research and for educational purposes. Here, we review the current developments in these directions, which illustrate that multiscale models can consistently integrate immunological data generated at several scales, and can be used to describe and optimize therapeutic treatments of complex immune diseases.

  15. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking ca

  16. Half a century of Dutch transplant immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rood, Jon J; Claas, Frans H J; Brand, Anneke; Tilanus, Marcel G J; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-12-01

    The sixties have not only witnessed the start of the Dutch Society for Immunology (NvvI), but were also the flourishing beginning of the discipline of transplant immunology. The interest in immunology in the Netherlands had its start in the context of blood transfusions and not for instance in the field of infectious disease, as in many other countries. It began in the 1950-ties thanks to Joghem van Loghem at that time director of the Central Laboratory of Blood Transfusion in Amsterdam. The discoveries of these times have had major impact for transfusion medicine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and organ transplantation. In this review we will look back at some early highlights of Dutch transplant immunology and put them in the perspective of some recent developments.

  17. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... immunological abnormalities noted were a positive rheumatoid factor (78,9%), positive ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease characterised by the occurrence of articular and ..... treatment. Br Med] 1982; 285: ...

  18. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  19. Biosensors in immunology: the story so far

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathak, S.S.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Optical biosensors are finding a range of applications in immunology. They enable biomolecular interactions to be characterized in real time without the need to label reactants, and, because individual binding steps can be visualized, are particularly suited to complex assays

  20. The pluripotent history of immunology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Sankaran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of immunology since 1999 is reviewed, in part as a response to claims by historians such as Thomas Söderqvist the field was still immature at the time (Söderqvist & Stillwell 1999. First addressed are the difficulties, past and present, surrounding the disciplinary definition of immunology, which is followed by a commentary on the recent scholarship devoted to the concept of the immune self. The new literature on broad immunological topics is examined and assessed, and specific charges leveled against the paucity of certain types of histories, e.g. biographical and institutional histories, are evaluated. In conclusion, there are compelling indications that the history of immunology has moved past the initial tentative stages identified in the earlier reviews to become a bustling, pluripotent discipline, much like the subject of its scrutiny, and that it continues to develop in many new and exciting directions.

  1. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  2. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  3. Journal of Applied Physics, volume 76, number 10, part 2. Proceedings of the 6th Joint Magnetism and Magnetic Materials-INTERMAG Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, W.; Ching, W.-Y.; Idzerda, Y.; Pinkerton, F. E.

    1994-06-01

    In addition to the usual invited papers, there were eight invited symposia: three on topics relating to magnetic and magneto-optic recording, and one each on magnetic microscopy, magnetic aftereffect, giant magnetoresistance, magneto-impedance, and neutron scattering studies of vortex structures in superconductors. There was also an evening panel discussion on units in magnetism. The journal volume includes 280 contributed papers and 47 invited papers and constitutes the Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM) proceedings for 1994.

  4. Immunology of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tončić, Ružica Jurakić; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Martinac, Ivana; Gregurić, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a T-cell mediated skin inflammation caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens. This review summarizes current knowledge on the immunology of ACD. Different phases in ACD are distinguished, i.e. sensitization, elicitation and resolution phases. We discuss contact allergen presentation and the central role of antigen presenting cells during sensitization phase. There is an extremely complex interaction of different kinds of immune cells, such as antigen presenting cells, T, B, NK lymphocytes, keratinocytes (KCs), endothelium, mast cells (MCs) and platelets, and this complex interaction is guided through orchestration of numerous cytokines and chemokines. The role of adaptive immunity has been recognized in contact hypersensitivity but we also discuss the important role of some parts of innate immunity such as natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT) and complement system. Cooperation of innate and adaptive immunity, in this case NK cells and B cells, initiates elicitation phase by complement cascade activation, vasoactive substance release and endothelial activation. KCs are not only innocent bystanders, on the contrary, they are involved in all phases of ACD, from the early phase of initiation through sending "danger" signals and activation of innate immunity, through their role in Langerhans cells (LCs) migration, T-cell trafficking, through the height of the inflammatory phase with direct interactions with epidermotropic T-cells, and finally through the resolution phase with the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tolerogenic presentation to effector T-cells. Th-1 and Th-17 cells are the main effector cells responsible for tissue damage. At the end, we point out several subsets of T regulatory cells, which exert down-regulatory function and regulate the magnitude and duration of inflammatory reaction.

  5. An immunologic portrait of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroncek David F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of high-throughput technology challenges the traditional histopathological classification of cancer, and proposes new taxonomies derived from global transcriptional patterns. Although most of these molecular re-classifications did not endure the test of time, they provided bulk of new information that can reframe our understanding of human cancer biology. Here, we focus on an immunologic interpretation of cancer that segregates oncogenic processes independent from their tissue derivation into at least two categories of which one bears the footprints of immune activation. Several observations describe a cancer phenotype where the expression of interferon stimulated genes and immune effector mechanisms reflect patterns commonly observed during the inflammatory response against pathogens, which leads to elimination of infected cells. As these signatures are observed in growing cancers, they are not sufficient to entirely clear the organism of neoplastic cells but they sustain, as in chronic infections, a self-perpetuating inflammatory process. Yet, several studies determined an association between this inflammatory status and a favorable natural history of the disease or a better responsiveness to cancer immune therapy. Moreover, these signatures overlap with those observed during immune-mediated cancer rejection and, more broadly, immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction in other immune pathologies. Thus, a discussion concerning this cancer phenotype is warranted as it remains unknown why it occurs in immune competent hosts. It also remains uncertain whether a genetically determined response of the host to its own cancer, the genetic makeup of the neoplastic process or a combination of both drives the inflammatory process. Here we reflect on commonalities and discrepancies among studies and on the genetic or somatic conditions that may cause this schism in cancer behavior.

  6. Cancer immunology for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Louis M

    2015-05-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is coming of age. It has become abundantly clear that immunotherapy-which has been described as treating the body's immune system so the immune system can treat the cancer-can be routinely effective, and may indeed cure advanced cancers. Accordingly, it is important to understand the basic, clinically relevant principles of cancer immunology to better prepare for an increasingly exciting future. The host immune system is the only active enemy faced by a malignant cell population as it develops. So it is helpful to think of the battle between the cancer cell population and the developing cancer as a Darwinian crucible in which only the malignant cells most fit to thrive in the face of active immune system attack are able to survive in the reluctant host. All successful cancers thus have overcome the defenses mounted by host immune systems by actively thwarting the evolution of anticancer immunity. A malignant cell population that has "solved" the riddle of the host immune system need not employ all of these mechanisms in order to survive in a particular host. Hence, it may be that the dominant mechanism or mechanisms of immune evasion in fact represent potential Achilles' heels that can be therapeutically attacked to restore immune control of a cancer. To better understand where opportunities exist for immunotherapy, it is important to first consider how developing cancers overcome host immunity: by overwhelming, hiding from, subverting, shielding from, defending against, and outlasting the host immune response. Clearly, more than one of these mechanisms may be present in any particular patient, but it is likely that many cancer types employ dominant immune defense mechanisms. There can be no doubt that mobilizing the immune system to attack a cancer, remember the enemy, and continually target emerging clones represents an extremely promising path to cancer prevention and cure.

  7. Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Volume 4 : Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This the fourth volume of six from the Annual Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010, brings together 58 chapters on Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structure. It presents findings from experimental and computational investigations involving a range of imaging techniques including Recovery of 3D Stress Intensity Factors From Surface Full-field Measurements, Identification of Cohesive-zone Laws From Crack-tip Deformation Fields, Application of High Speed Digital Image Correlation for Vibration Mode Shape Analysis, Characterization of Aluminum Alloys Using a 3D Full Field Measurement, and Low Strain Rate Measurements on Explosives Using DIC.

  8. Solution strategies for finite elements and finite volumes methods applied to flow and heat transfer problem in U-shaped geothermal exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Nadaniela; Giacomini, Josephin; Maponi, Pierluigi

    2016-06-01

    Matter of this paper is the study of the flow and the corresponding heat transfer in a U-shaped heat exchanger. We propose a mathematical model that is formulated as a forced convection problem for incompressible and Newtonian fluids and results in the unsteady Navier-Stokes problem. In order to get a solution, we discretise the equations with both the Finite Elements Method and the Finite Volumes Method. These procedures give rise to a non-symmetric indefinite quadratic system of equations. Thus, three regularisation techniques are proposed to make approximations effective and ideas to compare their results are provided.

  9. Psychological aspects of driver behaviour : papers presented at the international symposium on psychological aspects of driver behaviour, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, August 2-6, 1971. Volume 1: Driver behaviour. Volume 2: Applied research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1971-01-01

    The object of the symposium was to improve the communication between the field af driving task research, bomen performance theory and research applied to the design of vehicle and road and to driver education. For abstracts of the papers presented at the conference see B 864 - B 913 (IRRD 205245 to

  10. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume III. Wind conversion systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The variability of energy output inherent in wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has led to the investigation of energy storage as a means of managing the available energy when immediate, direct use is not possible or desirable. This portion of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a wind energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with wind energy conversion systems.

  11. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  12. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.

  13. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  14. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  15. Immunological alterations in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Vincenza; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-12-21

    A higher prevalence of immunological processes has recently been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, focusing the attention of physicians and researchers on the close association between HCV and immune disorders. HCV lymphotropism represents the most important step in the pathogenesis of virus-related immunological diseases and experimental, virologic, and clinical evidence has demonstrated a trigger role for HCV both in systemic autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia, and in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hepatitis, thyroid disorders and diabetes. This review will outline the principal aspects of such HCV-induced immunological alterations, focusing on the prevalence of these less characterized HCV extrahepatic manifestations.

  16. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  17. Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Humans have manipulated the immune system to dampen or boost the immune response for thousands of years. As our understanding of fundamental immunology and biotechnological methodology accumulates, we can capitalize on this combined knowledge to engineer biological devices with the aim of rationally manipulating the immune response. We address therapeutic approaches based on the principles of synthetic immunology that either ameliorate disorders of the immune system by interfering with the immune response, or improve diverse pathogenic conditions by exploiting immune cell effector functions. We specifically highlight synthetic proteins investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, summarize studies that have used engineered immune cells, and finish with a discussion of possible future therapeutic concepts.

  18. What Can Vampires Teach Us about Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David S

    2016-04-01

    Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits.

  19. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  20. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Luca

    2011-06-01

    The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described.

  1. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  2. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  3. Quantile regression for the statistical analysis of immunological data with many non-detects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, P.H.C.; Roder, E.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wijk, van R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Immunological parameters are hard to measure. A well-known problem is the occurrence of values below the detection limit, the non-detects. Non-detects are a nuisance, because classical statistical analyses, like ANOVA and regression, cannot be applied. The more advanced statistical techni

  4. Quantile regression for the statistical analysis of immunological data with many non-detects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); E. Röder (Esther); H.F.J. Savelkoul (Huub); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Immunological parameters are hard to measure. A well-known problem is the occurrence of values below the detection limit, the non-detects. Non-detects are a nuisance, because classical statistical analyses, like ANOVA and regression, cannot be applied. The more advanced stati

  5. Changes in immunological markers and influx of macrophages following trans-scleral thermotherapy of uveal melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennaoui, J.; Bronkhorst, I.H.; Ly, L.V.; Wolff-Rouendaal, D. de; Keunen, J.E.E.; Schalij-Delfos, N.E.; Jager, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: In trans-scleral thermotherapy (TSTT), heat is applied through the sclera in order to target an intraocular uveal melanoma. Previously, it had been shown that in uveal melanoma, hyperthermia and transpupillary thermotherapy influenced expression of immunologically relevant proteins, such as

  6. A large-scale field trial of ultra-low-volume fenitrothion applied by a portable mist blower for the control of Aedes aegypti*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, C. P.; Mathis, H. L.; Nelson, M. J.; Phanthumachinda, Boonluan

    1974-01-01

    Long-term control of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thailand, was obtained by 2 thorough applications of fenitrothion mist applied at a target dosage rate of 0.1 ml per m3 of room space. Perfect control lasted for 6-7 months after treatment and densities were substantially reduced for up to a year after treatment. Recovery of the population was still slow up to almost 16 months after treatment. This degree of control was achieved by the immediate mortalities produced by 2 treatments spaced about 2 weeks apart, the larvicidal effect of the fenitrothion aerosol, and a limited residual effect that prevented oviposition for a period, so that the recovery potential was greatly diminished. It appears that aerosol and mist treatments designed as epidemic control measures can be adapted to long-term preventive control of A. aegypti. However, the equipment used and the method of application require further improvement. PMID:4549492

  7. A large-scale field trial of ultra-low-volume fenitrothion applied by a portable mist blower for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, C P; Mathis, H L; Nelson, M J; Phanthumachinda, B

    1974-01-01

    Long-term control of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thailand, was obtained by 2 thorough applications of fenitrothion mist applied at a target dosage rate of 0.1 ml per m(3) of room space. Perfect control lasted for 6-7 months after treatment and densities were substantially reduced for up to a year after treatment. Recovery of the population was still slow up to almost 16 months after treatment. This degree of control was achieved by the immediate mortalities produced by 2 treatments spaced about 2 weeks apart, the larvicidal effect of the fenitrothion aerosol, and a limited residual effect that prevented oviposition for a period, so that the recovery potential was greatly diminished. It appears that aerosol and mist treatments designed as epidemic control measures can be adapted to long-term preventive control of A. aegypti. However, the equipment used and the method of application require further improvement.

  8. Immunological aspects of oral vaccination in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, P.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis immunological consequences of oral vaccination in fish have been described. The efficacy of oral vaccination can be increased by protection of the antigen against degradation in the foregut, in order to reach the hindgut in sufficient quantities for uptake and subsequent activation of

  9. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably endot

  10. Pathogen evolution and the immunological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobey, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    Host immunity is a major driver of pathogen evolution and thus a major determinant of pathogen diversity. Explanations for pathogen diversity traditionally assume simple interactions between pathogens and the immune system, a view encapsulated by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. However, there is growing evidence that the complexity of many host-pathogen interactions is dynamically important. This revised perspective requires broadening the definition of a pathogen's immunological phenotype, or what can be thought of as its immunological niche. After reviewing evidence that interactions between pathogens and host immunity drive much of pathogen evolution, I introduce the concept of a pathogen's immunological phenotype. Models that depart from the SIR paradigm demonstrate the utility of this perspective and show that it is particularly useful in understanding vaccine-induced evolution. This paper highlights questions in immunology, evolution, and ecology that must be answered to advance theories of pathogen diversity. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Immunological Effects of Silica and Asbestos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takemi Otsuki; Fuminori Hyodoh; Ayako Ueki; Yasumitsu Nishimura; Megumi Maeda; Shuko Murakami; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yoshie Miura; Masayasu Kusaka; Takashi Nakano; Kazuya Fukuoka; Takumi Kishimoto

    2007-01-01

    Silicosis patients (SILs) and patients who have been exposed to asbestos develop not only respiratory diseases but also certain immunological disorders. In particular, SIL sometimes complicates autoimmune diseases such as systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (known as Caplan syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematoses. In addition, malignant complications such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma often occurr in patients exposed to asbestos, and may be involved in the reduction of tumor immunity. Although silica-induced disorders of autoimmunity have been explained as adjuvant-type effects of silica, more precise analyses are needed and should reflect the recent progress in immunomolecular findings. A brief summary of our investigations related to the immunological effects of silica/asbestos is presented. Recent advances in immunomolecular studies led to detailed analyses of the immunological effects of asbestos and silica. Both affect immuno-competent cells and these effects may be associated with the pathophysiological development of complications in silicosis and asbestos-exposed patients such as the occurrence of autoimmune disorders and malignant tumors, respectively. In addition,immunological analyses may lead to the development of new clinical tools for the modification of the pathophysiological aspects of diseases such as the regulation of autoimmunity or tumor immunity using cellmediated therapies, various cytokines, and molecule-targeting therapies. In particular, as the incidence of asbestosrelated malignancies is increasing and such malignancies have been a medical and social problem since the summer of 2005 in Japan, efforts should be focused on developing a cure for these diseases to eliminate nationwide anxiety.

  12. Origins and evolution of reproductive immunology: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, W David

    2015-04-01

    This is a brief personal assessment of the origins and development of the field of reproductive immunology from the 19th century to the present day, with special reference to the founding of the Journal of Reproductive Immunology in 1979.

  13. Immunogenetics and immunology in transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Andrea A; Kopchaliiska, Dessislava; Jackson, Annette M; Leffell, Mary S

    2010-07-01

    Advances in immunogenetics and histocompatibility have facilitated the clinical transplantation of solid organs and tissues. Improved definition of HLA antigens, alleles, and haplotypes has clarified the diversity of the HLA system among different racial/ethnic populations. Knowledge of allele and haplotypes frequencies derived from these studies can be applied to the estimates of transplant compatibility and the likelihood finding suitable donors. Humoral sensitization that has been a major barrier to transplantation is being successfully treated with desensitization and paired donor exchanges. Sensitive solid phase immunoassays for HLA-specific antibodies permit analyses that guide both desensitization and donor exchanges through antibody monitoring, virtual crossmatches, and detection of cryptic sensitization. Ongoing studies are investigating the mechanisms underlying the down-regulation of donor HLA-specific antibodies.

  14. [Regional anesthesia and cancer immunology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toru; Mori, Katsuya; Inoue, Kei; Suzuki, Takeshi; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Regional anesthesia has been widely applied as an excellent method for perioperative analgesia. Recent studies suggested that regional anesthesia is a promising approach to minimize the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative cancer recurrence, subsequently providing the benefits to the long-term outcome. In particular, it is of great interest that regional anesthesia might be able to reduce cancer recurrence. In cancer patients, innate immunity against cancer could be depressed, resulting in the predisposition to evoke metastasis. Besides, during the perioperative periods, tumor immunity is significantly depressed due to surgical pain, activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammatory responses, and others. In this review article, we discuss the tumor immunity during the perioperative period, with focus on the alterations of tumor immunity and regional anesthesia.

  15. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin immunological test system. 866.5470... Hemoglobin immunological test system. (a) Indentification. A hemoglobin immunological test system is a device... hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells) in blood, urine, plasma, or other body...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230... Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a device... colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5340 - Ferritin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-storing protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurements of ferritin aid in the diagnosis of diseases... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferritin immunological test system. 866.5340... Ferritin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A ferritin immunological test system is a device...

  18. Preface to the Publication of Cellular & Molecular Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Feng Chen; Kuang-Yen Chou

    2004-01-01

    @@ Immunology has made numerous important advances over the past decades and is at the forefront in uncovering the mechanisms of human immunological disorders and in eradicating pandemic infectious diseases. Immunological advances have also revealed the mystery of life and death and provided insights into creating a better environment for contemporary human existence.

  19. Preface to the Publication of Cellular & Molecular Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-FengChen; Kuang-YenChou

    2004-01-01

    Immunology has made numerous important advances over the past decades and is at the forefront in uncovering the mechanisms of human immunological disorders and in eradicating pandemic infectious diseases. Immunological advances have also revealed the mystery of life and death and

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  1. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  2. Advance of study on transgenic plant vaccines applied for immunologic intervention of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus%转基因植物疫苗应用于1型糖尿病免疫干预的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应彩云; 周晓红

    2008-01-01

    1型糖尿病(T1DM)的发生与胰岛β细胞的可溶性抗原如胰岛素、谷氨酸脱羧酶、酪氨酸磷酸酶等密切相关,是一种自身免疫性疾病.诱导免疫耐受可有效维持体内的免疫平衡,以免疫干预TIDM的发生与发展,已成为目前TIDM防治研究的重点方向之一.近年来,以自身抗原经各种途径在实验动物模型中诱导免疫耐受,相继有获得成功的报道.利用植物转基因技术,将谷氨酸脱羧酶等自身免疫抗原基因转入植物细胞内,使其表达相应抗原,通过口服食用此转基因植物组织以诱导机体产生免疫耐受,为T1DM提供了一条新的防治途径.%The Occurrence and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM)are strongly associated with the serf-soluble antigens of β-cell such as insulin(INS),glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD),tyrosine phosphatase,etc.T1DM is an autoimmune disease.One of the important research areas of TIDM prevention and treatment is to induce body's immunological tolerance which could maintain the immune balance.In recent years,there were reports of induce successfully immunological tolerance in animal models.In order to inducing the immune tolerance to intervene TIDM,GAD and other autoimmune antigen genes could be transferred into plant cells and expressed in plant tissues to produce the edible vaccines.

  3. Understanding liver immunology using intravital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro Elias; Oliveira, André Gustavo; Chang, Lynne; Paula-Neto, Heitor Affonso; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-09-01

    The liver has come a long way since it was considered only a metabolic organ attached to the gastrointestinal tract. The simultaneous ascension of immunology and intravital microscopy evidenced the liver as a central axis in the immune system, controlling immune responses to local and systemic agents as well as disease tolerance. The multiple hepatic cell populations are organized in a vascular environment that promotes intimate cellular interactions, including initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses, rapid leukocyte recruitment, pathogen clearance and production of a variety of immune mediators. In this review, we focus on the advances in liver immunology supported by intravital microscopy in diseases such as isquemia/reperfusion, acute liver injury and infections.

  4. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  5. Immunological effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca administered in the laboratory or ritually consumed in religious contexts, little is known about the immunological impact of ayahuasca on humans. Since ayahuasca is used by an increasing number of consumers, and considering its therapeutic potential, more information is needed regarding ayahuasca potential risks. This article presents a brief overview of the available data regarding the immunological impact of ayahuasca in humans.

  6. Findings of interest from immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Les

    2007-05-01

    The biopsychosocial paradigm is now the main model when dealing with most human health disorders. One of the strengths of this model is that it encourages broader thinking when assessing and managing patients. It also encourages broader reading into areas not traditionally associated with manual therapy. Immunology and neuroscience are amongst the fastest growing medical sciences. These fields come together in the relatively new area of psychoneuroimmunolgy. This article examines some findings from these fields that are not widely discussed in the physical therapy professions. These findings are of relevance to many of the disciplines within the physical therapies. It is the authors aim to stimulate further interest in the relevant, yet often under explored areas of immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

  7. Immunological memory within the innate immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, J. C.; Ugolini, S.; Vivier, E

    2014-01-01

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which hav...

  8. Rapid Advancement of Immunology Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The world-renowned Cell Press recently released a new informational supplement--Spotlight on Chi- na-to introduce the rapid developments in the basic and clinical researches in immunology in China. The electronic version of the supplement can be viewed or downloaded for free on the website of the Cell Press (http://www. cell. com/spotlightonchina), and the hard copy will be published along with the new issue of Immunity in November.

  9. Proteomics in immunological reactions to drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza, Adriana; Montañez, M. I.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: To discuss the avenues that proteomic techniques are opening for the study of the chemical basis and cellular mechanisms of immunological reactions to drugs. Recent findings: Technical developments in recent years are allowing a detailed characterization of drug–protein interactions. In addition, novel metabolic pathways for drug biotransformation are being uncovered and potential targets for protein haptenation are being proposed that may help in the understanding of t...

  10. From Immunologically Archaic to Neoteric Glycovaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cavallari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides (PS are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory. Currently, protection evoked by conjugated PS vaccines lasts for a few years. The same approach failed with PS from staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella. All those germs cause severe infections in humans and often develop resistance to antibiotic therapy. Thereby, prevention is of increasing importance to better control outbreaks. As only 23 of more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes and 4 of 13 clinically relevant Neisseria meningitidis serogroups are covered by available vaccines there is still tremendous clinical need for PS vaccines. This review focuses on glycovaccines and the immunological mechanisms for their success or failure. We discuss recent advances that may facilitate generation of high affinity anti-PS antibodies and confer specific immunity and long-lasting protection.

  11. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  12. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models.

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  14. Update on immunologic and molecular diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2014-07-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is an intestinal parasitosis that may affect 100 million individuals. However, the prevalence rates of this infection may represent smaller values than the actual data, mainly due to difficulties in its diagnosis. The aim of this study was to update the immunological and molecular methods applied to the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. There is a great diversity of techniques used in the diagnosis of this parasitosis, such as immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS), dispstick and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all with advantages and disadvantages, and with unique features for specific purposes. Considering the magnitude of strongyloidiasis and the importance of early diagnosis, due to the possibility of chronicity and hyperinfection, this study analyzes the different methods currently employed, and demonstrates the necessity of developing innovative methodologies, which also maintain diagnostic accuracy, particularly for regions with limited technological resources.

  15. The Conservative Physiology of the Immune System. A Non-Metaphoric Approach to Immunological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson M. Vaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, immunology emerged as a biomedical science, concerned with host defense and production of anti-infectious vaccines. In the late 50s, selective theories were proposed and from then on, immunology has been based in a close association with the neo-Darwinian principles, such as random generation of variants (lymphocyte clones, selection by extrinsic factors (antigens—and, more generally, on genetic determinism and functionalism. This association has had major consequences: (1 immunological jargon is full of “cognitive” metaphors, founded in the idea of “foreignness”; (2 the immune system is described with a random clonal origin, coupled to selection by random encounters; and (3 physiological events are virtually absent from immunological descriptions. In the present manuscript, we apply systemic notions to bring forth an explanation including systemic mechanisms able to generate immunological phenomena. We replace “randomness plus selection” and the notion of foreignness by a history of structural changes which are determined by the coherences of the system internal architecture at any given moment. The importance of this systemic way of seeing is that it explicitly attends to the organization that defines the immune system, within which it is possible to describe the conservative physiology of the immune system. Understanding immune physiology in a systemic way of seeing also suggests mechanisms underlying the origin of immunopathogeny and therefore suggests new insights to therapeutic approaches. However, if seriously acknowledged, this systemic/historic approach to immunology goes along with a global conceptual change which modifies virtually everything in the domain of biology, as suggested by Maturana.

  16. Studies on Immunological Effect and Immunological Mechanism Avian Encephalomyelitis Oil Emulsion Inactivated Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zi-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-hua; RI Mudema

    2002-01-01

    Oil emulsion inactivated vaccine was prepared by susceptible embryos, with different strains of AEV. Four groups of normal chickens of 2 - 7 days of age were given injections for immunization, respectively. Another group was used as control. This study was expected to evaluate the immunological effect and discuss the immunological mechanism by means of five different experiments, i.e. the agar-gel precipitin test,the isolation of lymphokine, the isolation, purification and analysis of blood serum IgG, embryo-susceptibility test, and clinical and pathological examination. The results of these experiments indicated that oil emulsion inactivated vaccine is safe and effective. The chickens were normal when inoculated with AE strong virus after immunity at 4 and 37 weeks. Immunological mechanism is that the humoral immunity played an important role and celluar immunity exists, but it is not important in the process of the resistance to AEV.

  17. Cancer immunology: the search for specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old, L J

    1982-01-01

    The major focus of cancer immunology has shifted away from arguments about the validity of the immunosurveillance theory of cancer to the more basic question of tumor-specific antigens. Despite vast effort aimed at demonstrations of such antigens, their existence in the generality of cancer remains unproved. Serological analysis of 3 tumor types, mouse leukemia and sarcoma and human malignant melanoma, has received the most attention, and a rudimentary classification of the surface antigens expressed by these tumors has begun to emerge. The prime candidates for antigens that can be considered tumor specific are the few instances of Class 1 antigens that have now been serologically defined on mouse and human tumors. These antigens show an absolute restriction to individual tumors and are not demonstrable on any other normal or malignant cell type. Biochemical and genetic characterizations of Class 1 antigens represent an essential next step in an evaluation of the significance of these antigens. The surprising features of the thymus leukemia (TL) antigens of the mouse provide insight into the genetic origin of another key class of tumor antigens, i.e., those with characteristic properties of both differentiation and tumor-specific antigens. In normal mice, TL antigens are restricted to cells in the thymus, and strains differ with regard to expression versus nonexpression of TL antigens. Genetic information for TL is universal in mice, however, as leukemias that develop in mice normally lacking TL are found to express TL. What is clear from the past two decades of research in cancer immunology is that a far more detailed knowledge of surface antigens of tumor cells will be necessary before we can begin to assess the possibility of immunological control of cancer.

  18. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...... suitable biological samples. The methods of the present invention are useful in therapeutic and diagnostic protocols for human, livestock and veterinary and wild life applications, thus the invention further relates to a method for diagnosing an infection in a mammal....

  19. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  20. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field.

  1. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  2. Action and traction: cytoskeletal control of receptor triggering at the immunological synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis K. Burkhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that F-actin dynamics drive micron-scale cell shape changes required for migration and immunological synapse formation. In addition, recent evidence points to a more intimate role for the actin cytoskeleton in promoting T cell activation. Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical input into intracellular biochemical changes, is thought to play a critical role in several aspects of immunoreceptor triggering and downstream signal transduction. Multiple molecules associated with signaling events at the immunological synapse have been shown to respond to physical force, including the TCR, costimulatory molecules, adhesion molecules, and several downstream adapters. In at least some cases, it is clear that the relevant forces are exerted by dynamics of the T cell actomyosin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, there is evidence that the cytoskeleton of the antigen presenting cell also plays an active role in T cell activation, by countering the molecular forces exerted by the T cell at the immunological synapse. Since actin polymerization is itself driven by TCR and costimulatory signaling pathways, a complex relationship exists between actin dynamics and receptor activation. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the mechano-sensitive aspects of T cell activation, paying specific attention to how F-actin directed forces applied from both sides of the immunological synapse fit into current models of receptor triggering and activation.

  3. The influence of iodine on the immunological properties of thyroglobulin and its immunological complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, A

    1991-01-01

    Several papers described different immunological properties of thyroglobulin (Tg) after iodination. The influence of iodine-iodide solution on the immunological properties of hTg and its immunological complexes with autoantibodies (aAbs) were studied. Human Tg coated to polystyrene plates, incubated for 30 min with iodine-iodide solution at concentration from 1 to 200 microM at pH 9.0 lost its ability to bind aAbs. Preincubation with iodine (2 microM), decreased aAbs binding by 50%. Tg epitope inactivation induced by iodine depended on the buffer pH and the presence of carbonate ions. The binding of rabbit Tg-antibodies to iodine pretreated Tg was only slightly changed. Thyroglobulin preincubation with iodine solutions decreased aAbs binding from all tested sera (67) of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Excess of iodide (0.2 M KJ) or equimolar concentration of diiodotyrosine protects the Tg molecule from iodine induced inactivation. Immunological complexes of Tg with aAbs dissociate at low iodine concentrations. The results suggest that a product of iodine disproportionation reaction induces changes in the Tg molecule and Tg-aAb's complexes leading to complex dissociation or epitope inactivation.

  4. Some vexations that challenge viral immunology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Barry T.; Mueller, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    The field of viral immunology seeks to understand mechanisms of virus-host interaction with a view of applying this knowledge to the design of effective vaccines and immunomodulators that control viral infections. This brief review discusses several areas of the field that hold substantial promise for translation, but where further work is critically required to find solutions. We emphasize that our fundamental understanding of virus-host relationships is moving in leaps and bounds, but we la...

  5. Quantile regression for the statistical analysis of immunological data with many non-detects

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers Paul HC; Röder Esther; Savelkoul Huub FJ; van Wijk Roy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Immunological parameters are hard to measure. A well-known problem is the occurrence of values below the detection limit, the non-detects. Non-detects are a nuisance, because classical statistical analyses, like ANOVA and regression, cannot be applied. The more advanced statistical techniques currently available for the analysis of datasets with non-detects can only be used if a small percentage of the data are non-detects. Methods and results Quantile regression, a genera...

  6. Immigrants in immunology: the benefits of lax borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagaman, Keaton; Martinez, Emily S; Guillemin, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The field of immunology has a long history of illuminating fundamental biological processes of critical importance to human health. From an outsider's perspective, the questions are profoundly philosophical and the experimental approaches are elegantly precise. Yet immunology can also appear impenetrable. Here we recount the experience of two graduate students from the fields of ecology and computer science, who have immigrated into immunological terrain attracted by systems-level questions. We argue that such migrations enrich the field of immunology, and that cultural and institutional changes are needed to promote more interdisciplinary explorations.

  7. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in polytransfused thalassemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Tabatabaei, Seyed-Vahid

    2010-05-01

    Hepatitis B is an important infection in thalassemia patients and prevention by vaccination is needed. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in polytransfused thalassmia patients needs more attention.

  8. Viral and immunologic follow up of 4 to 9 years of AIDS treatments by quadruple combinations of virostatics including integrase inhibitors applied in short sequences differing by drug rotation%病毒学和免疫学随访经4-9年四种病毒抑制药包括整合酶抑制剂结合短程药物轮转AIDS治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georges MATHE; Christian MORETTE; Michel HALARD; Paulo PONTIGGIA; Denise BLANQUET; Francoise HAGE

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To present the 4 to 9 years (median: 6 years)treatment follow up of 10 HIV1-AIDS patients, 9 at AIDS and 1 at A3 stages. METHODS: We have applied from 1992 to 1994, AZT combined with 2 integrase inhibitors,acriflavine and hydroxy-methyl-ellipticine. We could shift, in 1994, to combinations of 3 drugs including two more retrowanscfiptase inhibitors (RTI), ddI and ddC,and, after 1995, to combinations of 4 drugs including also two other RTI, d4T and 3TC, and 3 protease inhibitors (PI), indinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir. In 1998, as cobalamine was shown by an in vitro test, to act as integrase inhibitor, vitamin B12 was added in cycles of various lengths. Every three weeks, not only the investigations were repeated, but the virostatics were changed. RESULTS: No grade 2 virostatics toxicity has been registered. The viral loads (VL) decreased according to exponential curves. Their initial parts obeyed first order kinetics. The second parts were and still are asymptotic. The first parts could be rectilinear or sinuous. The sinuosities were associated to cofactors present before treatment (chimerism, UV irradiation,hepatitis C or B and C, brain toxoplasmosis). The asymptotic parts, whose VL were below PCR detectable levels, presented discrete, reversible HIV1 rebounds,associated to other cofactors (such as herpes zoster,herpes 6, CMV, flat condyloma, and influenza).Among immunologic parameters, the monocyte and CTLnumbers increased and presented, during the rapidly decreasing part of VL curve, a significant inverse correlation with it. Neither CT4+ nor suppressor T-cell (STC) numbers presented such correlation. Near 100 %of CTL were CD28+ Later, vitamin B12 applications increased monocyte and CD28+ CTL numbers, and appeared to reinforce VL stabilization. CONCLU-SION: The combinations of inhibitors affecting 3retrovirus targets, retrotranscriptase, integrase, and protease have given to 10 out of 10 AIDS patients survivals varying today between 4 to 9 years, in

  9. Immunological aspects on IDDM in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, J

    1989-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in childhood is connected to several immunological phenomena which per se do not prove that immunological mechanisms do cause the beta cell destruction, as such mechanisms could be just secondary. However, there is now evidence which strongly supports the autoimmune hypothesis, like the beta-cell destruction in the transplant given from a healthy twin to the diabetic monozygotic co-twin, the effect in newly-diagnosed diabetes of immunosuppression, the passive transfer in experimental animals of an immune process creating diabetes etc. Several facts such as presence of activated T-cells in the insulitis indicate that the cell-mediated immunity is important, while it is still debatable whether humoral factors, and if so which, alone could be responsible for the beta cell destruction. Recently interleukins and other lymphokines have shown to be of great interest as well as the release of free radicals. This knowledge opens new views on the possibility to put an end to or even prevent the beta cell destruction. Rough immunosuppression with cytostatics or cyclosporin has such severe side-effects that such therapy is contra-indicated at least in children. Until more specific therapies are discovered e.g. vaccination with lymphoblasts or blocking the autoantigens with monoclonal antibodies, supportive measures to protect the beta cells may be one practical way.

  10. Bioinformatics for cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoentong, Pornpimol; Angelova, Mihaela; Efremova, Mirjana; Gallasch, Ralf; Hackl, Hubert; Galon, Jerome; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2012-11-01

    Recent mechanistic insights obtained from preclinical studies and the approval of the first immunotherapies has motivated increasing number of academic investigators and pharmaceutical/biotech companies to further elucidate the role of immunity in tumor pathogenesis and to reconsider the role of immunotherapy. Additionally, technological advances (e.g., next-generation sequencing) are providing unprecedented opportunities to draw a comprehensive picture of the tumor genomics landscape and ultimately enable individualized treatment. However, the increasing complexity of the generated data and the plethora of bioinformatics methods and tools pose considerable challenges to both tumor immunologists and clinical oncologists. In this review, we describe current concepts and future challenges for the management and analysis of data for cancer immunology and immunotherapy. We first highlight publicly available databases with specific focus on cancer immunology including databases for somatic mutations and epitope databases. We then give an overview of the bioinformatics methods for the analysis of next-generation sequencing data (whole-genome and exome sequencing), epitope prediction tools as well as methods for integrative data analysis and network modeling. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can predict and explain important patterns in the genetic and clinical progression of cancer. Therefore, a survey of mathematical models for tumor evolution and tumor-immune cell interaction is included. Finally, we discuss future challenges for individualized immunotherapy and suggest how a combined computational/experimental approaches can lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer, improved diagnosis, and prognosis of the disease and pinpoint novel therapeutic targets.

  11. [Clinical and immunological criteria of burn sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyk, I V; Pivovarova, L P; Krylov, K M; Filippova, O V; Il'ina, V A; Krylov, P K

    2005-01-01

    A hundred and twenty-nine victims aged 16 to 60 years who had skin burns in the area of 15 to 60% of the body surface without severe concomitant somatic disease (SAPS less than 9 scores). The clinical symptoms of a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and the signs of wound infection were recorded in all the examinees. The victims underwent a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination, 55 of them were immunologically studied over time (on admission, on days 3 and 10). To reveal the predictive clinical and immunological criteria for sepsis, the examinees were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised 33 burnt persons who were observed to have the symptoms of SIR and the signs of burn wound infections without impaired function of organs and systems. Group 2 included 46 victims with severe sepsis and a good outcome of burn disease. Group 3 consisted of 50 patients who had died from severe sepsis. Analysis of the results of the study has indicated that the count of formed blood elements by calculating the leukocytic intoxication index, the estimation of the level of lysosomal cation proteins in the neutrophilic granulocytes, the detection of populations of T helper cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes, as well as histomorphological and bacteriological findings are early and valid criteria for the development of infectious complications. Their use for the diagnosis and prediction of sepsis permits initiation of its treatment at early stages, without awaiting the appearance of the signs of a septic process.

  12. Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A; Turner, Helen C; Winkel, Ken

    2011-10-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment.

  13. Sleep after vaccination boosts immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tanja; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Bollinger, Thomas; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Sleep regulates immune functions. We asked whether sleep can influence immunological memory formation. Twenty-seven healthy men were vaccinated against hepatitis A three times, at weeks 0, 8, and 16 with conditions of sleep versus wakefulness in the following night. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and hormone levels were assessed throughout the night. Vaccination-induced Th cell and Ab responses were repeatedly monitored for 1 y. Compared with the wake condition, sleep after vaccination doubled the frequency of Ag-specific Th cells and increased the fraction of Th1 cytokine-producing cells in this population. Moreover, sleep markedly increased Ag-specific IgG1. The effects were followed up for 1 y and were associated with high sleep slow-wave activity during the postvaccination night as well as with accompanying levels of immunoregulatory hormones (i.e., increased growth hormone and prolactin but decreased cortisol release). Our findings provide novel evidence that sleep promotes human Th1 immune responses, implicating a critical role for slow-wave sleep in this process. The proinflammatory milieu induced during this sleep stage apparently acts as adjuvant that facilitates the transfer of antigenic information from APCs to Ag-specific Th cells. Like the nervous system, the immune system takes advantage of the offline conditions during sleep to foster adaptive immune responses resulting in improved immunological memory.

  14. [Immunological Techniques that Support the Diagnosis of the Autoimmune Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ramírez, Diego F; Cabiedes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    During the past few years technological advance have been allowed the developing of techniques that help to the diagnosis of multiple diseases. In the case of the autoimmune diseases, immunological techniques are helpful since they allow the detection of multiple autoantibodies at the same time with small volumes of sample. Together with the development of the new techniques, sensitivity and specificity in the detection of the antibodies specificities' also have been increased, in such a way that the clinicians can count with tests that allow them to make early diagnoses with greater certainty and also to follow the course of the disease based on the variation of the antibodies presents in the patient's samples. It is important to emphasize that the new techniques of laboratory that are used for the support of the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, no longer are exclusive for research laboratories but by their facility of standardization, quality control and reproducibility they can be used in clinical laboratory of medium and small sizes. In the present paper we describe those techniques with greater application in the clinical laboratory of autoimmune diseases.

  15. Chapter 29: Unproved and controversial methods and theories in allergy-immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rachna; Greenberger, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Unproved methods and controversial theories in the diagnosis and management of allergy-immunology are those that lack scientific credibility. Some definitions are provided for perspective because in chronic medical conditions, frequently, nonscientifically based treatments are developed that can have a very positive psychological effect on the patients in the absence of objective physical benefit. Standard practice can be described as "the methods of diagnosis and treatment used by reputable physicians in a particular subspecialty or primary care practice" with the understanding that diagnosis and treatment options are consistent with established mechanisms of conditions or diseases.(3) Conventional medicine (Western or allopathic medicine) is that which is practiced by the majority of MDs, DOs, psychologists, RNs, and physical therapists. Complementary medicine uses the practice of conventional medicine with complementary and alternative medicine such as using acupuncture for pain relief in addition to opioids. Alternative medicine implies use of complementary and alternative practices in place of conventional medicine. Unproved and controversial methods and theories do not have supporting data, validation, and sufficient scientific scrutiny, and they should not be used in the practice of allergy-immunology. Some examples of unproven theories about allergic immunologic conditions include allergic toxemia, idiopathic environmental intolerance, association with childhood vaccinations, and adrenal fatigue. Unconventional (unproved) diagnostic methods for allergic-immunologic conditions include cytotoxic tests, provocation-neutralization, electrodermal diagnosis, applied kinesiology assessments, and serum IgG or IgG(4) testing. Unproven treatments and intervention methods for allergic-immunologic conditions include acupuncture, homeopathy ("likes cure likes"), halotherapy, and autologous urine injections.

  16. Molecular and cellular aspects of immunologic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, G J

    1991-12-18

    This review seeks to explain the most exciting recent data concerning the nature of self/non-self discrimination by the immune system in a manner accessible to a biochemical readership. The nature of recognition in the two great lymphocyte families, B cells and T cells, is described with special emphasis on the nature of the ligands recognized by each. The history of the field of immunologic tolerance is surveyed, as are the key experiments on conventional mice which provided a conceptual framework. This suggested that tolerance was essentially due to 'holes' in the recognition repertoires of both the T and B cell populations so that lymphocytes competent to react to self antigens were not part of the immunologic dictionary. There were essentially two ways to achieve this situation. On the one hand, self antigens might 'catch' developing lymphocytes early in their ontogeny and delete the cell, a process of clonal abortion. On the other hand, self antigens might signal lymphocytes (particularly immature cells) in a negative manner, reducing or abolishing their capacity for later responses, without causing death. This process is referred to as clonal anergy. Evidence for both processes exists. Special emphasis is placed on a wave of experimentation beginning in 1988 which imaginatively uses transgenic mouse technology to study tolerance. Transgenic manipulations can produce mice which synthesize foreign antigens in a constitutive and/or inducible manner, sometimes only in specific locations; mice which possess T or B lymphocytes almost all expressing a given receptor of known specificity; and mice which are an immunologic time bomb in that the antigen is present and so too are lymphocytes all endowed with receptors for that antigen. These experiments have vindicated the possibility of both clonal abortion and clonal anergy in both T and B cell populations, the choice of which phenomenon occurs depending on a number of operational circumstances. For T cell tolerance

  17. Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium extract on selected immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium is a medical plant containing diverse chemically-active substances with biological properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of watercress extract on immunological and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were fed for 21 days with diet supplemented with 0.1% and 1% of watercress extract per 1 kg food and with a normal diet as control. Hematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, RBC index like mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC as well as immunological parameters such as peroxidase, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein, albumin and globulin levels were measured after 21 days of watercress extract treatment. The results indicated that oral administration of 1 % watercress extract in fish may enhance some hematological and immunological parameters including Hb and MCHC, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein and globulin levels, compared to the controls after 21 days of experimental period. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of watercress extract may be useful to improve fish’s immune system.

  18. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  19. 21 CFR 866.5240 - Complement components immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement components immunological test system....5240 Complement components immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement components... complement components C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, in serum, other body fluids,...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5180 - Fecal calprotectin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fecal calprotectin immunological test system. 866....5180 Fecal calprotectin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A fecal calprotectin... measure, by immunochemical techniques, fecal calprotectin in human stool specimens. The device is...

  1. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  2. Desensitization: Overcoming the Immunologic Barriers to Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen sensitization is a significant barrier to successful kidney transplantation. It often translates into difficult crossmatch before transplant and increased risk of acute and chronic antibody mediated rejection after transplant. Over the last decade, several immunomodulatory therapies have emerged allowing for increased access to kidney transplantation for the immunologically disadvantaged group of HLA sensitized end stage kidney disease patients. These include IgG inactivating agents, anti-cytokine antibodies, costimulatory molecule blockers, complement inhibitors, and agents targeting plasma cells. In this review, we discuss currently available agents for desensitization and provide a brief analysis of data on novel biologics, which will likely improve desensitization outcomes, and have potential implications in treatment of antibody mediated rejection.

  3. Immunological memory within the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Joseph C; Ugolini, Sophie; Vivier, Eric

    2014-06-17

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which have resided under the umbrella of innate immunity for decades. The surprising longevity and enhanced responses of previously primed NK cells will be discussed in the context of several immunization settings. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders.

  5. Desensitization: Overcoming the Immunologic Barriers to Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jua; Vo, Ashley; Peng, Alice; Jordan, Stanley C.

    2017-01-01

    HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen) sensitization is a significant barrier to successful kidney transplantation. It often translates into difficult crossmatch before transplant and increased risk of acute and chronic antibody mediated rejection after transplant. Over the last decade, several immunomodulatory therapies have emerged allowing for increased access to kidney transplantation for the immunologically disadvantaged group of HLA sensitized end stage kidney disease patients. These include IgG inactivating agents, anti-cytokine antibodies, costimulatory molecule blockers, complement inhibitors, and agents targeting plasma cells. In this review, we discuss currently available agents for desensitization and provide a brief analysis of data on novel biologics, which will likely improve desensitization outcomes, and have potential implications in treatment of antibody mediated rejection. PMID:28127571

  6. Immunological parameters in girls with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Annika E; Sylvén, Lisskulla; Magnusson, Carl GM; Hultcrantz, Malou

    2004-01-01

    Disturbances in the immune system has been described in Turner syndrome, with an association to low levels of IgG and IgM and decreased levels of T- and B-lymphocytes. Also different autoimmune diseases have been connected to Turner syndrome (45, X), thyroiditis being the most common. Besides the typical features of Turner syndrome (short stature, failure to enter puberty spontaneously and infertility due to ovarian insufficiency) ear problems are common (recurrent otitis media and progressive sensorineural hearing disorder). Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and the four IgG subclasses as well as T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations were investigated in 15 girls with Turners syndrome to examine whether an immunodeficiency may be the cause of their high incidence of otitis media. No major immunological deficiency was found that could explain the increased incidence of otitis media in the young Turner girls. PMID:15563731

  7. Immunological parameters in girls with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Carl GM

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Disturbances in the immune system has been described in Turner syndrome, with an association to low levels of IgG and IgM and decreased levels of T- and B-lymphocytes. Also different autoimmune diseases have been connected to Turner syndrome (45, X, thyroiditis being the most common. Besides the typical features of Turner syndrome (short stature, failure to enter puberty spontaneously and infertility due to ovarian insufficiency ear problems are common (recurrent otitis media and progressive sensorineural hearing disorder. Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and the four IgG subclasses as well as T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations were investigated in 15 girls with Turners syndrome to examine whether an immunodeficiency may be the cause of their high incidence of otitis media. No major immunological deficiency was found that could explain the increased incidence of otitis media in the young Turner girls.

  8. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  9. Myasthenia gravis: a clinical-immunological update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Sophie; Vincent, Angela; Palace, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the archetypic disorder of both the neuromuscular junction and autoantibody-mediated disease. In most patients, IgG1-dominant antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cause fatigable weakness of skeletal muscles. In the rest, a variable proportion possesses antibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase while the remainder of seronegative MG is being explained through cell-based assays using a receptor-clustering technique and, to a lesser extent, proposed new antigenic targets. The incidence and prevalence of MG are increasing, particularly in the elderly. New treatments are being developed, and results from the randomised controlled trial of thymectomy in non-thymomatous MG, due for release in early 2016, will be of particular clinical value. To help navigate an evidence base of varying quality, practising clinicians may consult new MG guidelines in the fields of pregnancy, ocular and generalised MG (GMG). This review focuses on updates in epidemiology, immunology, therapeutic and clinical aspects of GMG in adults.

  10. Thyroid carcinoma: immunology, irradiation, and lymphocytic infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, J.H.; Sharon, N.; Victor, T.A.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1979-06-01

    Patients undergoing thyroidectomies at Evanston (I11) Hospital, during a six-month period had immunological studies performed preoperatively. No differential could be found between those with carcinoma or benign pathologic findings. T- and B-cell distribution and lymphocytic response to mitogens varied widely. Quantitative immunoglobulins showed slightly increased levels of IgG in patients wih carcinoma and thyroiditis in comparison with those patients with adenomas. Antithyroglobulin antibodies were negative in all patients. Pathology slides from 107 patients with thyroid carcinoma between 1972 and 1978 at Evanston Hospital were reviewed for the presence of thyroiditis, either focal or diffuse. It was found that 50% of all carcinomas had either diffuse or focal thyroiditis. Diffuse thyroiditis was more common in patients with no history of irradiation and papillary carcinoma, and in younger age groups.

  11. Targeting Specific Immunologic Pathways in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Guilherme Piovezani; Faubion, William A; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the immunologic pathways in intestinal inflammation is crucial for the development of new therapies that can maximize patient response and minimize toxicity. Targeting integrins and cytokines is intended to control leukocyte migration to effector sites or inhibit the action of proinflammatory cytokines. New approaches to preventing leukocyte migration may target integrin receptors expressed on the intestinal vascular endothelium. The interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 pathway has been a therapeutic target of interest in controlling active Crohn's disease (CD). New therapeutic approaches in CD may involve the enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokine pathways and modulation of cellular responses and intranuclear signals associated with intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterior uveitis and diabetes mellitus: immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, I; Famà, F; Salmeri, G

    1995-01-01

    The association between anterior uveitis (AU) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has always been known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of this association and to consider a possible role of the cell-mediated immune system. During the years 1989-1992, 196 diabetics (66 patients affected by type I DM and 130 by type II DM) were studied. The study of the lymphocytic subsets and the measurement of the circulating immunocomplexes and autoantibodies (ANA, AMA, ADNA, ASMA, APCA) were carried out, and the results were compared with those of a control group. The results underline the correlation between AU and type I DM. Many immunological reactions could play a crucial role: the high levels of CD8 subsets found could be an expression of the unstable lymphocytic equilibrium.

  13. Immunological HCV-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dimitroulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV is affecting about 3% of the world's population, leading to liver damage, end-stage liver disease, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, being thus the first indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Apart from the cirrhotic-liver-derived clinical signs and symptoms several conditions with immunological origin can also arise, such as, glomerulonephritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. HCV-related autoimmune thrombocytopenia shows specific pathogenetic characteristics as well as symptoms and signs that differ in severity and frequency from symptoms in patients that are not HCV infected. Aim of this short paper is to estimate the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation, and to propose treatment strategies according to the pertinent literature.

  14. A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnaWang; MonicaCPanelli; VladiaMonsurró; FrancescoMMarincola

    2004-01-01

    Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid single hypothesis exist, based on experimental results, to further drive experimentation in human subjects. Functional genomic studies entertained during the last few years consolidated the belief that in humans the interactions between tumor and immune cells are too complex to be approached exclusively with a hypothesis driven method. We believe that immune cells suit cancer cells in a Yin and Yang balance by opposing and yet mutually depending on each other. Indeed, immune infiltration in tumors may play a dual role modulating in different circumstances cancer cell growth or destruction through a physiological modulation of inflammation. It is reasonable to question what induces inflammation at the tumor site. We hypothesize that inflammation is primarily driven by the phenotype of tumor cells that can modulate theirmicroenvironment through cell-to-cell interactions or the secretion of soluble factors. Thus, in analogy the observation of immune cells within tumors parallels the presence of paramedics, police and firemen at thescene of an accident, which is reactive to and not causative of the occurrence. In this review we will explore this hypothesis by reporting and summarizing most of our recent work in the frame of available literature on the subject. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  16. The clinical significance of immunological contact urticaria to processed grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact urticaria, is characterized by an urticarial wheal-and-flare reaction at the site of contact by an allergen. Immunological contact urticaria, while less common than non-immunological contact urticaria, has more potentially serious consequences, and therefore, its recognition and treatment is important. Immunological contact urticaria is a type I hypersensitivity reaction. Potential complications include organ system involvement other than skin and even anaphylaxis and death. A vast majority of immunological contact urticaria is work-related. We will discuss the definition of immunological contact urticaria, the mechanism of the contact urticarial reaction, contact urticaria in the occupational setting, and the role of grains in contact urticaria. Testing and treatment are also briefly discussed.

  17. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  18. Virological and Immunological Aspects of AIDS Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Conway

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common and serious problem associated with long term antiretroviral therapy is waning efficacy over time. To date. a number of studies has suggested an association between drug resistance and clinical deterioration. However. a precise causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In a large American clinical trial. resistance to zidovudine (ZDV was predictive of subsequent disease progression if this therapy was continued. Surprisingly. this was also predictive of deterioration if therapy was changed to didanosine (ddl. This suggests that other factors (perhaps virological and immunological which may be present in addition to resistance. were as important (if not more so in predicting clinical outcomes. It is likely that viral load. resistance. viral phenotype and alterations in immune function interact in this regard. Proper· studies may allow us to determine a “threshold” for a composite virological and immunological parameter beyond which disease progression will occur. As more antiretroviral agents become available. we will be in a position to intervene to “improve” laboratory markers and monitor them prospectively. potentially to maintain clinical latency for an indefinite period of time. In the authors' laboratories, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the evaluation of circulating proviral load has been developed. In an initial study of 70 patients. proviral load/ 106 CD4 cells was clearly associated with the severity of immune disease. with up to 9.6% of cells being infected in subjects with CD4 cell counts below 200/µL. However. large variability in proviral load among individuals with comparable or dissimilar CD4 cell counts precludes the use of this measurement as an individual marker of the severity of immune disease. More recent work evaluated the combined use of proviral load (expressed as a dichotomous variable based on values above or below one copy/a03 CD4 cells and resistance in a prospective

  19. Diet selection in immunologically manipulated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Gerlinde; Paschoal, Patrícia Olaya; de Oliveira, Vivian Leite; Pedruzzi, Monique M B; Campos, Sylvia M N; Andrade, Luiz; Nóbrega, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Diet selection is a complex problem that animals in wildlife have to deal with daily. In their natural environment, these animals meet a great variety of foods some of which they are able and prepared to eat, yet, not all of it is eaten. In addition to the biological factors, some of which we shall discuss deeper in this paper, an important factor in food preference is social contact. Alterations in the physiology of mammals can have profound effects on the choice or preference for certain foods. On the other hand the decline of taste and smell perception in the elderly, the degree of food restriction, the sensorial properties of foods (such as presentation, taste, and smell) can be considered factors that influence feeding behavior leading to aversion. Many species, including man, learn to associate nausea with taste, and as a consequence avoid its specific intake, which has been shown to be persistent. Conditioned taste aversion is a form of associative learning in which animals display an aversion to the taste of a food that has previously been paired with illness. Our group has investigated the pattern of ingestion of foods that are frequently eaten by mice in wildlife and are potentially allergenic to humans in order to study the immunological consequences to these foods such as oral tolerance and inflammatory processes of the gut. We have chosen two seeds, peanuts (Arachis hypogea) and cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), as our source of antigens as the first is considered to be one of the most potent food allergens and for the second there seems to be very little allergy in the human setting. We used male and female, normal, adult CBA/J, A/J, C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice 2-3 months old and hybrid (C57Bl/6xBalb/c) F1, (Balb/cxC57Bl/6) F1), (C57Bl/6xDBA2) F1 mice. Food preference appeared to be strain-specific. Animals tolerized to a determined seed, then immunized with its protein extract and re-exposed to the seed in natura alter their feeding pattern. We

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  1. Immunological Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Clinical Implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis of patients with advanced stage of disease remains unfavorable. Several immune therapies have been applied to HCC, and their responses have not been satisfactory. The immune response to cancer is determined by the balance between the antigenicity of the tumor and the microenvironment of cancer tissues. Generally, accumulated genetic mutations are observed in HCC, which may lead to increased neoantigens on cancer cells with high antigenicity. However, cancer cells may evade the immune system because of alterations in molecules and cellular pathways involved in antigen processing and presentation. In addition, hypoxia in tissue induces several cytokines, chemokines, and immunosuppressive molecules from HCC cells and stromal cells. These cells also produce cytokines that attract regulatory T cells infiltrating tumor tissues and contribute to establishing an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Some cancers show a good response to immune checkpoint therapy. However, prolonged stabilization of disease for this treatment is reportedly 12-41% in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, immunosuppressive forces in the microenvironment of HCC may cause resistance to immune therapy, and modification of the tumor microenvironment may restore normal anticancer immunity. In this review, we focus on the immunological microenvironment of HCC tissues and discuss how the immunosuppressive environment of HCC should be modulated to achieve a favorable response to immune therapy, such as immune checkpoint therapy, in HCC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  3. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juncheng; Tian, Shan; Shu, Xiaoying; Du, Hongtao; Li, Na; Wang, Junru

    2016-06-25

    A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP) extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b) were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL) and LPS (2 μg/mL) had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05). All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  4. Recombinant vaccines: experimental and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved in in......, these fields will open up a number of interesting research objectives of mutual benefit. Recent aspects of recombinant protein vaccines, live recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines are discussed.......Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved...... in induction of a protective immune response may become vital. The few recombinant vaccines licensd so far, despite much research during the last decade, illustrate that this is not a straightforward matter. However, as vaccine technology as well as our knowledge of the fish immune system is steadily improved...

  5. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  6. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efifcacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  7. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs and dendritic cells (DCs are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  8. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  9. Polio, terror and the immunological worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-07-22

    This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.

  10. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  11. The microbiota: an exercise immunology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermon, Stéphane; Petriz, Bernardo; Kajėnienė, Alma; Prestes, Jonato; Castell, Lindy; Franco, Octavio L

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota consists of a cluster of microorganisms that produces several signaling molecules of a hormonal nature which are released into the blood stream and act at distal sites. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that microbiota may be modulated by several environmental conditions, including different exercise stimulus, as well some pathologies. Enriched bacterial diversity has also been associated with improved health status and alterations in immune system, making multiple connections between host and microbiota. Experimental evidence has shown that reduced levels and variations in the bacterial community are associated with health impairments, while increased microbiota diversity improves metabolic profile and immunological responses. So far, very few controlled studies have focused on the interactions between acute or chronic exercise and the gut microbiota. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from animal studies or probiotics studies show some interesting results at the immune level, indicating that the microbiota also acts like an endocrine organ and is sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with exercise. Thus, our review intends to shed some light on the interaction between gut microbiota, exercise and immunomodulation.

  12. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  13. Emerging single-cell technologies in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herderschee, Jacobus; Fenwick, Craig; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Roger, Thierry; Calandra, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    During evolution, the immune system has diversified to protect the host from the extremely wide array of possible pathogens. Until recently, immune responses were dissected by use of global approaches and bulk tools, averaging responses across samples and potentially missing particular contributions of individual cells. This is a strongly limiting factor, considering that initial immune responses are likely to be triggered by a restricted number of cells at the vanguard of host defenses. The development of novel, single-cell technologies is a major innovation offering great promise for basic and translational immunology with the potential to overcome some of the limitations of traditional research tools, such as polychromatic flow cytometry or microscopy-based methods. At the transcriptional level, much progress has been made in the fields of microfluidics and single-cell RNA sequencing. At the protein level, mass cytometry already allows the analysis of twice as many parameters as flow cytometry. In this review, we explore the basis and outcome of immune-cell diversity, how genetically identical cells become functionally different, and the consequences for the exploration of host-immune defense responses. We will highlight the advantages, trade-offs, and potential pitfalls of emerging, single-cell-based technologies and how they provide unprecedented detail of immune responses.

  14. An immunological model for detecting bot activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md E.; Phoha, Vir V.; Sultan, Md A.

    2009-05-01

    We develop a hierarchical immunological model to detect bot activities in a computer network. In the proposed model antibody (detector)-antigen (foreign object) reactions are defined using negative selection based approach and negative systems-properties are defined by various temporal as well as non-temporal systems features. Theory of sequential hypothesis testing has been used in the literature for identifying spatial-temporal correlations among malicious remote hosts and among the bots within a botnet. We use it for combining multiple immunocomputing based decisions too. Negative selection based approach defines a self and helps identifying non-selves. We define non-selves with respect to various systems characteristics and then use different combinations of non-selves to design bot detectors. Each detector operates at the client sites of the network under surveillance. A match with any of the detectors suggests presence of a bot. Preliminary results suggest that the proposed model based solutions can improve the identification of bot activities.

  15. Effects of protein aggregates: an immunologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Amy S

    2006-08-04

    The capacity of protein aggregates to enhance immune responses to the monomeric form of the protein has been known for over a half-century. Despite the clear connection between protein aggregates and antibody mediated adverse events in treatment with early therapeutic protein products such as intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and human growth hormone, surprisingly little is known about the nature of the aggregate species responsible for such effects. This review focuses on a framework for understanding how aggregate species potentially interact with the immune system to enhance immune responses, garnered from basic immunologic research. Thus, protein antigens presented in a highly arrayed structure, such as might be found in large nondenatured aggregate species, are highly potent in inducing antibody responses even in the absence of T-cell help. Their potency may relate to the ability of multivalent protein species to extensively cross-link B-cell receptor, which (1) activates B cells via Bt kinases to proliferate, and (2) targets protein to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-loading compartments, efficiently eliciting T-cell help for antibody responses. The review further focuses on protein aggregates as they affect an immunogenicity risk assessment, the use of animal models and studies in uncovering effects of protein aggregates, and changes in product manufacture and packaging that may affect generation of protein aggregates.

  16. A primer on cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Michael T; Papamichail, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The role of immunity in cancer has been abundantly demonstrated in murine tumor models as well as in man. Induction of clinically effective antitumor immune responses, based on this information, in patients with cancer however, remains elusive. This is not because tumors lack recognizable antigens [in fact there is evidence that there are thousands of potential novel targets in each tumor cell] but rather due to the fact that the induction of responses is not adequate nor particularly well understood. Tumors seem to be rather effective at limiting immune responses. Many of the molecularly defined antigens that have been detected on tumor cells are derived from self-proteins and as such are subject to tolerizing mechanisms. Such tumors have also developed escape mechanisms capable of evading or suppressing immune responses. Understanding the role of dendritic cells during the effector phase of the immune response and the complex interactions of stromal, immune, and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment represent the next challenges to be understood for tumor immunology.

  17. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  18. The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ImmPort system serves as a long-term, sustainable archive of immunology research data generated by investigators mainly funded through the NIAID/DAIT. The core...

  19. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RA PATIENTS WITH ANAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sizikov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the investigation was to study the immunological characteristics of RA patients with anaemia. Clinical and laboratory data including the percentage of the main lymphocyte subclasses, phagocyte and DTH-effector activity, serum concentration of immunoglobulins, the percentage of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4 and percent of monocytes producing TNF. We revealed some significant clinical, laboratory and immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia. Our data demonstrate RA anemic patients to have more severe disorders than patients without anaemia. We also revealed some significant immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia, including percent of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4. Our data permit to conclude that RA patients have many different immunological disturbances, more severe in anaemic patients.

  20. Tumor Biology and Immunology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor Biology and Immunology The Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium is collaborating with National Center for Advanced Translational Sciences to complete whole exome sequencing on canine meningioma samples. Results will be published and made publicly available.

  1. Immunologic and clinical outcomes of children on HAART: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunologic and clinical outcomes of children on HAART: A retrospective cohort analysis at ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... Therefor, early diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS and treatment monitoring should be strengthened.

  2. Evaluation of HIV therapeutic agents on immunological, lipid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of HIV therapeutic agents on immunological, lipid and lipoprotein indices in Ghanaian HIV-1 infected patients. ... lipid and lipoprotein changes as well as the atherogenic indices of Ghanaian HIV-1 infected patients. ... Article Metrics.

  3. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  4. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  5. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the ...

  6. Remembrance of immunology past: conversations with Herman Eisen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N; Schlesinger, Sondra

    2015-01-01

    Herman Eisen and Sondra Schlesinger spent several days together in September 2007 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, talking about immunology, focusing on his remembrances of the field over the more than 60 years of his involvement. This article is an abridged version of those discussions (the full version is available on the Annual Reviews website). It is both an oral history and a written memory of some important but selected areas of immunology.

  7. Perspectives on psycho-neuro-immunology in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Psycho-oncology and psycho-neuro-immunology are both powerful new disciplines. Although a lot of literature exists in both of these fields the evidence is often controversial. This paper gives a brief perspective on the origins of psycho-neuro-immunology and discusses how our current understanding of this subject can be translated into clinical practice in an Indian setting.

  8. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  9. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6010 Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5620 - Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system. 866.5620 Section 866.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5620 Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5400 Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5130 Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5425 Section 866.5425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5425 Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5370 - Cohn fraction V immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5370 Cohn fraction V immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction V immunological... (disease of the stomach and small intestine), rheumatoid arthritis, and viral hepatitis. (b)...

  16. A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ena Wang; Monica C Panelli; Vladia Monsurró; Francesco M Marincola

    2004-01-01

    Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid single hypothesis exist, based on experimental results, to further drive experimentation in human subjects. Functional genomic studies entertained during the last few years consolidated the belief that in humans the interactions between tumor and immune cells are too complex to be approached exclusively with a hypothesis driven method. We believe that immune cells suit cancer cells in a Yin and Yang balance by opposing and yet mutually depending on each other. Indeed, immune infiltration in tumors may play a dual role modulating in different circumstances cancer cell growth or destruction through a physiological modulation of inflammation. It is reasonable to question what induces inflammation at the tumor site. We hypothesize that inflammation is primarily driven by the phenotype of tumor cells that can modulate their microenvironment through cell-to-cell interactions or the secretion of soluble factors. Thus, in analogy the observation of immune cells within tumors parallels the presence of paramedics, police and firemen at the scene of an accident, which is reactive to and not causative of the occurrence. In this review we will explore this hypothesis by reporting and summarizing most of our recent work in the frame of available literature on the subject.

  17. A highlight of recent advances in immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG DeXian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 60th anniversary of SCIENCE CHINA,six research groups of overseas and domestic Chinese immunologists published a series of review articles (SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences,2010,53(2):157-158),which highlighted recent advances and their contributions to immunology.Wang YaYa in Prof.Cheng GenHong's group,who discovered the function of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and other signal molecules in Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling pathway and innate immunity [1],reviewed TRAF-mediated regulation of immune and inflammatory responses [2].TRAF family consists of six mammalian members (TRAF1,TRAF2,TRAF3,TRAF4,TRAF5,and TRAF6) and participates in signal transduction of a large number of receptor families such as TNF receptor family (TNFR) and TLR-interleukin-1 receptor (TLR-IL-1R)family.Upon receptor-mediated activation,TRAFs are directly or indirectly recruited to the intracellular domains of these receptors and subsequently combine with other signaling molecules to activate the inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK) complex,TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and the inducible Iκ B kinase (IKK-i),ultimately leading to activation of transcription factors,such as NF-κB,interferon-regulatory factor (IRF),to induce immune or inflammatory responses.In the past few years,immunologists have demonstrated the central role of TRAFs in inflammation,innate immunity.

  18. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunologic features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyonouchi, Soma; Orange, Jordan; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Krantz, Ian; Deardorff, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a genetic syndrome with multisystem abnormalities. Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The goals of our study were to identify the frequency and types of infections in CdLS and to determine if underlying immunodeficiency contributes to the clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We assessed infectious histories in 45 patients with CdLS and evaluated conventional immunologic screening tests in 27 patients. Among these 27 subjects, additional phenotypic enumeration of T-cell subsets, expression of activation markers in T cells, and production of cytokines in response to T-cell stimulants were studied in 12 CdLS subjects compared with 12 normal case control subjects. Recurrent infections were reported at high frequency in CdLS patients and included chronic ear infections (53%), chronic viral respiratory infections (46%), pneumonia (42%), sinus infections (33%), oral candidiasis (13%), sepsis (6%), and bacterial skin infections (4%). Full immune evaluation in 27 subjects led to identification of 9 cases of antibody deficiency syndrome in patients with severe forms of CdLS. Subjects with CdLS had decreased percentages of T regulatory cells and T follicular helper cells compared with normal control subjects (P < .05). This study identified for the first time a high frequency of antibody deficiency in CdLS subjects, indicating a critical need for screening and management of immunodeficiency in CdLS patients with a history of well-documented severe or recurrent infections. Furthermore, our results indicate that impaired T-cell populations may be associated with antibody deficiency in CdLS.

  20. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  1. Stochastic frontier production model with undesirable outputs:An application to an HIV immunology model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Fuping; DAI Min

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends the stochastic frontier production theory to the case of multiple outputs and calculate the measurement of efficiency using the production theory. We further apply this method to construct the stochastic frontier production model with undesirable outputs. Finally, the model is used in an HIV immunology model and the efficient drug treatment strategies are then explored.All the models are estimated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method. Stochastic errors are considered in this model, which is an advantage over other deterministic efficiency models. Some of our conclusions agree with those published in related papers.

  2. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  3. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed that Em18 (18 kDa component of crude antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex) and glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci are highly specific or unique to alveolar echinococcosis and cysticercosis, respectively. The fourth topic is discussion on miscellaneous prospects including laboratory animal models for echinococcosis and cysticercosis.

  4. Immunologic response to tumor ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE is a promising technique for the focal treatment of pathologic tissues, which involves placing minimally invasive electrodes within the targeted region. However, the knowledge about the therapeutic efficacy and immune reactions in response to IRE remains in its infancy. METHODS: In this work, to detect whether tumor ablation with IRE could trigger the immunologic response, we developed an osteosarcoma rat model and applied IRE directly to ablate the tumor. In the experiment, 118 SD rats were randomized into 4 groups: the control, sham operation, surgical resection, and IRE groups. Another 28 rats without tumor cell implantation served as the normal non-tumor-bearing group. We analyzed the changes in T lymphocyte subsets, sIL-2R and IL-10 levels in the peripheral blood one day before operation, as well as at 1, 3, 7,14 and 21 days after the operation. Moreover, splenocytes were assayed for IFN-γ and IL-4 production using intracellular cytokine staining one day before the operation, as well as at 7 and 21 days after operation. RESULTS: We found that direct IRE completely ablated the tumor cells. A significant increase in peripheral lymphocytes, especially CD3(+ and CD4(+ cells, as well as an increased ratio of CD4(+/CD8(+ were detectable 7 days after operation in both the IRE and surgical resection groups. Compared with the surgical resection group, the IRE group exhibited a stronger cellular immune response. The sIL-2R level of the peripheral blood in the IRE group decreased with time and was significantly different from that in the surgical resection group. Moreover, ablation with IRE significantly increased the percentage of IFN-γ-positive splenocytes. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that IRE could not only locally destroy the tumor but also change the status of cellular immunity in osteosarcoma-bearing rats. This provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of IRE in

  5. Cellular immunological effects of laser irradiation and immunoadjuvant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Mohamed, Abdiwahab; Naylor, Mark F.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2007-02-01

    Immune system is critical in the fight against cancer. Particular important is the responses through immune cells that regulate immunological functions. Certain cytokines enhance cancer immunity (such as IL12 and interferon gamma) and others interfere or impede cancer immunity (such as IL10). The clinical outcome can be linked to the balance of these cytokines, such as IL10 to IL12 ratio. Effective treatments often reduce the IL10:IL12 ratio, indicating higher levels of the cancer fighting IL12. To enhance immune responses, a combination of laser irradiation and concurrent use of immunostimulants has been applied for the treatment of tumors. In a recent study, an 805-nm laser in conjunction with indocyanine green (ICG) has been used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in mice. An immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC), was intratumoral injected after the laser irradiation. Our preliminary results showed that tumor-bearing mice treated either with the immunoadjuvant alone or with the combination of laser and immunoadjuvant had lower IL10:IL12 ratios than animals that received no treatment. This may play an important in the treatment to decrease tumor size and to increase survival times of mice. Cellular activities after laser-ICG-GC treatment of DBMA-4 mammary tumors in rats also showed infiltration of immune cells to the treatment sites, indicating a possible induced immunity. The combination of laser treatment and immunotherapy has been used to treat late-stage melanoma patients; the responses, both treated primary tumors and the metastases, to the treatment have been promising. The histology of two patients, before and after treatment, is presented to show the effects of this novel treatment method.

  6. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  7. Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Yury G; Grigoriev, Oleg A; Ivanov, Alexander A; Lyaginskaya, Antonina M; Merkulov, Anton V; Shagina, Natalia B; Maltsev, Vyacheslav N; Lévêque, Philippe; Ulanova, Alla M; Osipov, Vyacheslav A; Shafirkin, Alexander V

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a replication study performed to investigate earlier Soviet studies conducted between 1974 and 1991 that showed immunological and reproductive effects of long-term low-level exposure of rats to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The early studies were used, in part, for developing exposure standards for the USSR population and thus it was necessary to confirm the Russian findings. In the present study, the conditions of RF exposure were made as similar as possible to those in the earlier experiments: Wistar rats were exposed in the far field to 2450 MHz continuous wave RF fields with an incident power density in the cages of 5 W/m² for 7 h/day, 5 days/week for a total of 30 days, resulting in a whole-body SAR of 0.16 W/kg. Effects of the exposure on immunological parameters in the brain and liver of rats were evaluated using the complement fixation test (CFT), as in the original studies, and an additional test, the more modern ELISA test. Our results, using CFT and ELISA, partly confirmed the findings of the early studies and indicated possible effects from non-thermal RF exposure on autoimmune processes. The RF exposure resulted in minor increases in formation of antibodies in brain tissue extract and the exposure did not appear to be pathological. In addition, a study was conducted to replicate a previous Soviet study on effects from the injection of blood serum from RF-exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal and offspring development of rats, using a similar animal model and protocol. Our results showed the same general trends as the earlier study, suggesting possible adverse effects of the blood serum from exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal development of intact rats, however, application of these results in developing exposure standards is limited.

  8. A novel data mining system points out hidden relationships between immunological markers in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gironi Maira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a multi-factorial disease, where a single biomarker unlikely can provide comprehensive information. Moreover, due to the non-linearity of biomarkers, traditional statistic is both unsuitable and underpowered to dissect their relationship. Patients affected with primary (PP=14, secondary (SP=33, benign (BB=26, relapsing-remitting (RR=30 MS, and 42 sex and age matched healthy controls were studied. We performed a depth immune-phenotypic and functional analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs by flow-cytometry. Semantic connectivity maps (AutoCM were applied to find the natural associations among immunological markers. AutoCM is a special kind of Artificial Neural Network able to find consistent trends and associations among variables. The matrix of connections, visualized through minimum spanning tree, keeps non linear associations among variables and captures connection schemes among clusters. Results Complex immunological relationships were shown to be related to different disease courses. Low CD4IL25+ cells level was strongly related (link strength, ls=0.81 to SP MS. This phenotype was also associated to high CD4ROR+ cells levels (ls=0.56. BB MS was related to high CD4+IL13 cell levels (ls=0.90, as well as to high CD14+IL6 cells percentage (ls=0.80. RR MS was strongly (ls=0.87 related to CD4+IL25 high cell levels, as well indirectly to high percentages of CD4+IL13 cells. In this latter strong (ls=0.92 association could be confirmed the induction activity of the former cells (CD4+IL25 on the latter (CD4+IL13. Another interesting topographic data was the isolation of Th9 cells (CD4IL9 from the main part of the immunological network related to MS, suggesting a possible secondary role of this new described cell phenotype in MS disease. Conclusions This novel application of non-linear mathematical techniques suggests peculiar immunological signatures for different MS phenotypes. Notably, the

  9. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  10. Relationship between Immunological Abnormalities in Rat Models of Diabetes Mellitus and the Amplification Circuits for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Asao, Hironobu; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms is required in order to treat diseases. However, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications are extremely complex. Immune reactions are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, while diabetes influences immune reactions. Furthermore, both diabetes and immune reactions are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To address these issues, animal models are useful tools. So far, various animal models of diabetes have been developed in rats, which have advantages over mice models in terms of the larger volume of tissue samples and the variety of type 2 diabetes models. In this review, we introduce rat models of diabetes and summarize the immune reactions in diabetic rat models. Finally, we speculate on the relationship between immune reactions and diabetic episodes. For example, diabetes-prone Biobreeding rats, type 1 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased autoreactive cellular and inflammatory immune reactions, while Goto-Kakizaki rats, type 2 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased Th2 reactions and attenuation of phagocytic activity. Investigation of immunological abnormalities in various diabetic rat models is useful for elucidating complicated mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Studying immunological alterations, such as predominance of Th1/17 or Th2 cells, humoral immunity, and innate immune reactions, may improve understanding the structure of amplification circuits for diabetes in future studies.

  11. Deposição do herbicida 2,4-D Amina com diferentes volumes e pontas de pulverização em plantas infestantes Weed deposition of 2,4-D Amine herbicide applied with different spray volumes and nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lélio Augusto de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de aplicação de fitossanitários visa à colocação uniforme do produto no alvo, com mínimas perdas para o solo e por deriva. Desta forma, os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a deposição do herbicida 2,4-D Amina, aplicado em diferentes condições operacionais, em plantas infestantes e comparar as metodologias de estudo de deposição baseadas na detecção do ingrediente ativo por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC e de um traçador adicionado à calda por espectrofotometria. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, dispostos em esquema fatorial 3 x 2: três pontas de pulverização (ponta de jato plano duplo de pré-orifício, ponta de jato plano defletor e ponta de jato plano defletor com indução de ar e dois volumes de aplicação (80 e 130 L ha-1. Foi realizado o estudo de deposição de calda nas plantas infestantes, perdas para o solo e perdas por exoderiva. Concluiu-se que houve baixa correlação entre os dados de deposição na folhagem das plantas infestantes obtidos com as duas metodologias. Pontas que produzem gotas grossas podem ser utilizadas na dessecação, sem comprometer a cobertura do alvo. Quanto à deposição junto ao solo, a correlação foi significativa. Pontas de jato plano defletor com indução de ar promoveram maior perda de herbicida para o solo. Não foi possível detectar perdas por exoderiva pelas metodologias empregadas.Pesticide spray technology aims the uniform deposition of products in the target, with minimal losses to the soil or drift. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the 2,4-D Amine deposition, applied on weeds in different operational conditions, and compare two different measurement techniques: analysis of 2,4-D by high performance liquid chromatography and tracer analysis using spectrophotometry. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments and four

  12. Immunological Properties of Inulin-Type Fructans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Leonie; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke; Smelt, Maaike; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A.; de Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggeste

  13. Immunological Properties of Inulin-Type Fructans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, L.; Meyer, D.; Pullens, G.; Faas, M.; Smelt, M.; Venema, K.; Ramasamy, U.; Schols, H.A.; Vos, P. de

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is

  14. IMMUNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CANCER: A LINK BETWEEN INFLAMMATION AND IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jacob Victorino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide issue and one of the most relevant death causes in child and adults. There are several causes that can lead to cancer development. It is well known that inflammation is one known hallmark of cancer and it favors tumor cells growth. Several alterations in immunological and inflammatory processes are caused in response to tumor presence and both innate and adaptive immunity have effective mechanism to destroy tumor cells. Nevertheless, distinct tumor types developed mechanisms to evade anti-tumor immunological responses. Here, we revise researches regarding inflammation and immune response during cancer development, as well as cancer signaling pathways and immunotherapy that have been performed in Brazil. The better understanding of the mechanisms regarding cancer and immunological processes is of huge importance and it may support the development of new cancer targets.

  15. Implementation and research of integrated curriculum of immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jie CHEN; Xiao-yin NIU; Li-hua JIANG; Ye-bin XI; Hai-liang GE

    2015-01-01

    In order to get adapted to the teaching reform in Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine,and promote the integration of the teaching of basic and clinical medicine for medical students,the integrated curriculum of host defense and immunity integrates medical immunology with the morphological structure and histogenesisof the immune system. In this paper,we focus on the different integration medical immunology curriculum in the world and our unique integrated immunology curriculum. This paper introduces the condition of host defense and immunity both at home and abroad and its status and role in the integrated curriculum system in School of Medicine,and summarizes the contents,experience and improvement measures for the implementation of host defense and immunity.

  16. The role of cytokines in immunological tolerance: potential for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, M; Sundstedt, A; Wraith, D

    2000-11-27

    Current immunosuppression protocols, although often effective, are nonspecific and therefore hazardous. Consequently, immunological tolerance that is antigen specific and does not globally depress the patient's immune system has become one of the Holy Grails of immunology. Since the discovery that cytokines have immunomodulatory effects, extensive research has investigated the potential of these molecules to induce and maintain specific immunological tolerance in the context of transplantation, allergy and autoimmunity. In this article, we review the possible mechanisms by which cytokines can modulate the immune response and the animal models that frequently confound the theory that a single cytokine, or group of cytokines, can induce tolerance in a predictable manner. Finally, we discuss the role of cytokines at a paracrine level, particularly in the context of inducing and maintaining antigen-specific, regulatory T cells with the clinical potential to suppress specific immune responses.

  17. Breaking Immunological Tolerance through OX40 (CD134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Bansal-Pakala

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological tolerance represents a mechanism by which cells of the host remain protected from the immune system. Breaking of immunological tolerance can result in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. The reasons for tolerance breaking down and autoimmune processes arising are largely unknown but of obvious interest for therapeutic intervention of these diseases. Although reversal of the tolerant state is generally unwanted, there are instances where this may be of benefit to the host. In particular, one way a cancerous cell escapes being targeted by the immune system is through tolerance mechanisms that in effect turn off the reactivity of T lymphocytes that can respond to tumor-associated peptides. Thus tolerance represents a major obstacle in developing effective immunotherapy against tumors. The molecules that are involved in regulating immunological tolerance are then of interest as they may be great targets for positively or negatively manipulating the tolerance process.

  18. Cellular & Molecular Immunology receives its first Impact Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Tian

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2009 edition of the JCR, in which Cellular (c) Molecular Immunology (CMI) is listed for the first time, reveals an Impact Factor of 2.765, placing CMI 63rd out of 128 in the Immunology subject category. According to ISI's ranking this also places the journal 5th out of 114 journals published in China and 23rd out of 587 journals published in the Asia-Pacific region. This is an excellent first Impact Factor for a young journal like CMI and,together with our publishing partner Nature Publishing Group and the continued support of our readers and authors, we hope to further build on this into the future. We are delighted that CMI can be internationally recognized as important in the field of immunology.

  19. IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES IN LIVER CIRRHOSIS INDUCED BY HEPATITIS B VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Urazova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of immunological data was performed in the patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis, and in a group of patients with acute and chronic viral hepatitis B (AVHB, CVHB. Activation of B cell immune compartment (increase in CD22+ lymphocytes and IL4, circulating immune complexes in blood was demonstrated in patients with liver cirrhosis, being also associated with increased numbers of CD16+ lymphocytes and T-cell deficiency. It was revealed that the differences are most expressed upon comparison of immunologic data from the patients with liver cirrhosis, and AVHB followed by clearance of the virus. When comparing these groups, the differences in immunological state between the patients with liver cirrhosis and CVHB did not depend on the phase of viral replication or integration.

  20. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  1. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...... of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  2. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  3. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-07-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  4. The bioinorganic chemistry and associated immunology of chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian L; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Gnanakaran, S

    2008-07-07

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating, incurable, and often fatal disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particulates. The growing use of beryllium in the modern world, in products ranging from computers to dental prosthetics (390 tons of beryllium in the US in the year 2000) necessitates a molecular based understanding of the disease in order to prevent and cure CBD. We have investigated the molecular basis of CBD at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years, employing a multidisciplinary approach of bioinorganic chemistry and immunology. The results of this work, including speciation, inhalation and dissolution, and immunology will be discussed.

  5. The bioinorganic chemistry and associated immunology of chronic beryllium disease†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating, incurable, and often fatal disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particulates. The growing use of beryllium in the modern world, in products ranging from computers to dental prosthetics (390 tons of beryllium in the US in the year 2000) necessitates a molecular based understanding of the disease in order to prevent and cure CBD. We have investigated the molecular basis of CBD at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years, employing a multidisciplinary approach of bioinorganic chemistry and immunology. The results of this work, including speciation, inhalation and dissolution, and immunology will be discussed. PMID:18566702

  6. Adenoids in children: Advances in immunology, diagnosis, and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Ilaria; Pusateri, Alessandro; Pagella, Fabio; Caimmi, Davide; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Barberi, Salvatore; Castellazzi, Annamaria M; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Adenoids are strategically located for mediating local and regional immune functions as they are exposed to antigens from both the outside air and the alimentary tract. Recurrent or chronic respiratory infections can induce histomorphological and functional changes in the adenoidal immunological barrier, sometimes making surgical treatment necessary. Our aim in this review is to summarize the crucial points about not only the immunological histopathology of adenoidal tissue, especially in patients with adenoid hypertrophy, but also the most common and useful diagnostic techniques and surgical options.

  7. Are maternal antibodies really that important? Patterns in the immunologic development of altricial passerine house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies are believed to play an integral role in protecting immunologically immature wild-passerines from environmental antigens. This study comprehensively examines the early development of the adaptive immune system in an altricial-developing wild passerine species, the house sparrow (Passer domestics, by characterizing the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma, the onset of de novo synthesis of endogenous antibodies by nestlings, and the timing of immunological independence, where nestlings rely entirely on their own antibodies for immunologic protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an aviary study we vaccinated females against a novel antigen that these birds would not otherwise encounter in their natural environment, and measured both antigen-specific and total antibody concentration in the plasma of females, yolks, and nestlings. We traced the transfer of maternal antibodies from females to nestlings through the yolk and measured catabolisation of maternal antigen-specific antibodies in nestlings during early development. By utilizing measurements of non-specific and specific antibody levels in nestling plasma we were able to calculate the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma and the time point at which nestling were capable of synthesizing antibodies themselves. Based on the short half-life of maternal antibodies, the rapid production of endogenous antibodies by nestlings and the relatively low transfer of maternal antibodies to nestlings, our findings suggest that altricial-developing sparrows achieve immunologic independence much earlier than precocial birds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first in depth analyses performed on the adaptive immune system of a wild-passerine species. Our results suggest that maternal antibodies may not confer the immunologic protection or immune priming previously proposed in other passerine studies. Further research needs

  8. German Society for Immunology and Australasian Society for Immunology joint Workshop 3(rd) -4(th) December 2015 - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen.

  9. Medawar redux - an overview on the use of farm animal models to elucidate principles of reproductive immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Farm animals have been important models for the development of reproductive immunology. Two of the major concepts underpinning reproductive immunology, the idea of the fetal allograft and progesterone's role in regulation of uterine immunity, were developed using the bovine as a model. This volume of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology is composed of review articles that highlight the continued relevance of farm animals as models for research in mammalian biology. It is important that a diverse array of genotypes are used to elucidate biological principles relevant to mammalian biology and human health because the nature of mammalian evolution has resulted in a situation where the genome of the most commonly used animal model, the laboratory mouse, is less similar to the human than other species like the cow. Moreover, the evolution of placental function has been accompanied by formation of new genes during recent evolution so that orthologs do not exist in any but closely related species. Given the infrastructure needs to study farm animal species, optimal utilization of these animals as models for biomedical research will require significant increases in funding to reverse a historical erosion of resources devoted to animal agricultural research.

  10. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  11. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative…

  12. Peculiarities of clinical and immunological oral status in patients with lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepilin А.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to study clinical and immunological features of oral cavity state and cytokine status of oral fluid in patients with lymphomas before treatment against the background of receiving cytostatic drugs. Material and methods. 50 patients with initial diagnosis of lymphoma were examined. We measured clinical indicators of oral cavity state. The quantitative measures of immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity, cytokine status were investigated in patients with lymphoma. Results. The pathological changes in the mucous membrane, the current active inflammatory process in parodentium, high intensity decay, as well as abnormalities in the local reactivity system and cytokine disbalance were revealed. Conclusion. The performed dental studies proved the fact, that before treatment has been applied the patients have already had complicated dental status and marked imbalance in the local immune system of oral cavity. When polychemotherapy has been applied certain intensification of mucosal immunity abnormalities has appeared. It was determined by intensification of clinical symptoms in oral cavity.

  13. Immunological Characterization of Dutch Sesame Seed-Allergic Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Terlouw, Rozine J.; Jansen, Ad; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sesame seed is an allergen of growing importance worldwide. However, knowledge of the clinically relevant sesame allergen and its cross-reactivity with homologous allergens is limited. The aim of this study was the immunological characterization of Dutch sesame seed-allergic patients

  14. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antiparietal antibody immunological test system. 866.5110 Section 866.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cells are those cells located in the stomach that produce a protein that enables vitamin B12 to be...

  15. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  16. Regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu

    2015-12-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5660 - Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurement of multiple autoantibodies aids in the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders (disease produced when... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system. 866.5660 Section 866.5660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  18. MISSION OF IMMUNOLOGY%免疫学的使命

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞玥; 杜生明

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most important and exciting research areas in life sciences, immunology has been witnessing and driving advances in biological research as well as basic medicine studies. Here we revealed characteristics of immunology, analyzed pivotal roles immunology has been playing in meeting demands of social development, and discussed major breakthroughs Chinese immunologists have achieved in recent years. Further, major efforts and measures are proposed to improve immunology research in China in the future.%免疫学与人类健康密切相关。作为生命科学领域最活跃最前沿的基础学科之一,免疫学见证着生命科学和基础医学的发展和突破。本文分析了现今免疫学的内涵和特点以及在社会发展中的作用,提出了我国免疫学研究人员在今后工作中努力的方向。

  19. A Multi-Agent Immunology Model for Security Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a computer immunology model for computersecurity , whose main components are defined as idea of Multi-Agent. It introduces the n at ural immune system on the principle, discusses the idea and characteristics of Mu lti-Agent. It gives a system model, and describes the structure and function of each agent. Also, the communication method between agents is described.

  20. CHARGE syndrome : a review of the immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Monica Ty; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Lambeck, Annechien Ja; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny Ma

    2015-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is caused by a dominant variant in the CHD7 gene. Multiple organ systems can be affected because of haploinsufficiency of CHD7 during embryonic development. CHARGE syndrome shares many clinical features with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Immunological abnormalities have been describ

  1. 21 CFR 866.5735 - Prothrombin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin immunological test system. 866.5735 Section 866.5735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... vitro coagulation studies classified under § 864.5425 of this chapter or prothrombin time tests...

  2. Cancer vaccines: the perspective of the Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogn, J A; Finerty, J F; Heath, A K; Shen, G L; Austin, F C

    1993-08-12

    The Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI, is supporting a great deal of exciting research relevant to cancer vaccine development. The few areas highlighted here are representative of ongoing research opportunities, but further progress depends largely on a continued infusion of investigator-initiated ideas to realize the potential of current research areas and open new ones.

  3. Immunological Characterization of Dutch Sesame Seed-Allergic Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Terlouw, Rozine J.; Jansen, Ad; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sesame seed is an allergen of growing importance worldwide. However, knowledge of the clinically relevant sesame allergen and its cross-reactivity with homologous allergens is limited. The aim of this study was the immunological characterization of Dutch sesame seed-allergic patients

  4. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  5. PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society's Norman Cousins Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Rainer H. Straub, University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany, is the recipient of the 2015 Norman Cousins Award and will present the memorial lecture at the PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society (PNIRS) meeting, June 3–6, Seattle, WA. The Norman Cousins award is the highest honor bestowed by the PNIRS and recognizes sustained and outstanding research contributions in psychoneuroimmunology.

  6. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  7. 21 CFR 866.5150 - Bence-Jones proteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866... bone marrow cells), leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming organs), and lymphoma (cancer of the...

  8. [Clinical-immunological and microbiological parallels in chronic generalized parodontitis and peptic ulcer of the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, L Iu; Neĭzberg, D M; Stiuf, I Iu

    2006-01-01

    Clinical, immunological and DNA diagnostic examinations of 101 patients with chronic generalized parodontitis and peptic ulcer have revealed similar features of immunological disorders of gastric and oral mucosa and the role of Helicobacter pylori.

  9. Light and immune systems: activation of immunological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2006-02-01

    Light has been used to treat diseases for hundreds of years. Convenient and powerful light sources such as lasers make photomedicine a major branch in diseases treatment and detection. Originally, light was often used for local treatment, using photomechanical, photochemical, photothermal reactions and photomodulation as the major mechanisms. More and more investigators have become interested in the systemic effects of light, particularly in its effects on immune systems. Much work has been done to activate and/or enhance the host immune system to combat cancer, either using light as a direct tool or as an adjuvant method. Light has long been used for assisting disease detection and diagnosis. Advances in light technology have made photo-diagnostics ever more precise spatially and temporally. Many techniques facilitate observation of bio-molecule interactions and other biological processes at the cellular level, hence providing opportunities to detect and monitor immune activities. This manuscript will review recent photo-immunological research in treatment of cancer. The recent development of combination therapies involving lasers will be presented. Specifically, the results of cancer treatment using laser photothermal interaction, either with or without additional immunological stimulation will be discussed. The immunological effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), and of its combination with immunotherapy in cancer treatment will also be discussed. Much interest has been recently concentrated in the immunological responses after laser treatment. Such responses at cellular and molecular levels will be discussed. The effect of these treatment modalities on the distant metastases also showed promise of light induced antitumor immunity. The combination therapy and induced immunological responses appear to be the key for long-term control of tumors.

  10. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  11. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030... Systems § 866.6030 AFP-L3% immunological test system. (a) Identification. An AFP-L3% immunological test... measure, by immunochemical techniques, AFP and AFP-L3 subfraction in human serum. The device is...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5510 - Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological... Test Systems § 866.5510 Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  13. Immunology for rheumatology residents: working toward a Canadian national curriculum consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shirley L; Herman-Kideckel, Sari; Mahendira, Dharini; McDonald-Blumer, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Immunologic mechanisms play an integral role in understanding the pathogenesis and management of rheumatic conditions. Currently, there is limited access to formal instruction in immunology for rheumatology trainees across Canada. The aims of this study were (1) to describe current immunology curricula among adult rheumatology training programs across Canada and (2) to compare the perceived learning needs of rheumatology trainees from the perspective of program directors and trainees to help develop a focused nationwide immunology curriculum. Rheumatology trainees and program directors from adult rheumatology programs across Canada completed an online questionnaire and were asked to rank a comprehensive list of immunology topics. A modified Delphi approach was implemented to obtain consensus on immunology topics. Only 42% of program directors and 31% of trainees felt the current method of teaching immunology was effective. Results illustrate concordance between program directors and trainees for the highest-ranked immunology topics including innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and cells and tissues of the immune system. However, there was discordance among other topics, such as diagnostic laboratory immunology and therapeutics. There is a need to improve immunology teaching in rheumatology training programs. Results show high concordance between the basic immunology topics. This study provides the groundwork for development of future immunology curricula.

  14. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5080 Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5890 - Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor immunological test system. 866.5890 Section 866.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5890 Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor...

  16. The influence of recombinant production on the immunologic behavior of birch pollen isoallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions towards the birch major pollen allergen Bet v 1 are among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the Northern hemisphere. Natural Bet v 1 is composed of a complex mixture of different isoforms. Detailed analysis of recombinant Bet v 1 isoforms revealed striking differences in immunologic as well as allergenic properties of the molecules, leading to a classification of Bet v 1 isoforms into high, medium, and low IgE binding proteins. Especially low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms have been described as ideal candidates for desensitizing allergic patients with allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT. Since diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases are highly dependent on recombinant proteins, continuous improvement of protein production is an absolute necessity. METHODOLOGY: Therefore, two different methods for recombinant production of a low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoform were applied; one based on published protocols, the other by implementing latest innovations in protein production. Both batches of Bet v 1.0401 were extensively characterized by an array of physicochemical as well as immunological methods to compare protein primary structure, purity, quantity, folding, aggregation state, thermal stability, and antibody binding capacity. CONCLUSION: The experiments demonstrated that IgE antibody binding properties of recombinant isoallergens can be significantly influenced by the production method directly affecting possible clinical applications of the molecules.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  18. Immunological properties of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Leonie; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke; Smelt, Maaike; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; De Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggested that immunomodulation is elicited through indirect and direct mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms encompass stimulation of growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria, but can also be caused by fermentation products of these bacteria, i.e., short chain fatty acids. Evidence for direct effects on the immune system generally remains to be confirmed. It is suggested that inulin-type fructans can be detected by gut dendritic cells (DCs), through receptor ligation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins (NODs), C-type lectin receptors, and galectins, eventually inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. DCs may also exert antigen presenting capacity toward effector cells, such as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells locally, or in the spleen. Inulin-type fructans may also ligate PRRs expressed on gut epithelium, which could influence its barrier function. Inulin-type fructans are potent immunomodulating food components that hold many promises for prevention of disease. However, more studies into the mechanisms, dose-effect relations, and structure-function studies are required.

  19. Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 63. Number 8. Part 2B. Proceedings of the Annual conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (32nd) Held in Chicago, Illinois on 9-12 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-15

    reorientation phenomena which oc- H curves in the easy and hard directions. HA was taken as cur in Nd2Fe14B and PrCos the extrapolated intersection of...type 1 FOMP’) has been observed in Nd2Fe14B with B magnetic fields up to 18 T at the Service National des applied parallel to the [100] direction.2...mImmmmmlmam77Emm An NMR study of tetragonal Nd2Fe14B and NdaFe 14 _xCOB Y. D. Zhanga) and J. I. Budnick Department of Physics and Institute of Materials

  20. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  1. Immunological and hematological reference intervals among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genetu M

    2017-03-01

    % intervals of 224.53–253.21, 209.50–237.38, and 213.70–247.86 in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively (P=0.27. There was a statistically significant increase in mean (±standard deviation [SD] HCT with gestational age, being 39.18±6.70, 41.96±3.70, and 40.53±3.77 in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively (P=0.03. The overall 95% interval for hemoglobin (HB concentration was 12.99–13.36 g/dL, HCT 40.19%–41.49%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV 93.33–94.63 fL, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH 28.88–34.81 pg. Compared with the reference ranges derived from other studies, we found considerable variations in CD4+ T-cell count, HB, HCT, and MCV values.Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the differences in immunohematological profile among pregnant women and nonpregnant women from Ethiopia and other countries, in addition to suggesting the need for such establishment of local reference values for different populations. Keywords: immunological parameter, hematological parameter, pregnant women, reference range, immunohematological reference intervals 

  2. Industrial and applied mathematics in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li,Tatsien

    2014-01-01

    This new volume introduces readers to the current topics of industrial and applied mathematics in China, with applications to material science, information science, mathematical finance and engineering. The authors utilize mathematics for the solution of problems. The purposes of the volume are to promote research in applied mathematics and computational science; further the application of mathematics to new methods and techniques useful in industry and science; and provide for the exchange of information between the mathematical, industrial, and scientific communities.

  3. Industrial and Applied Mathematics in China

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ta-Tsien

    2009-01-01

    This new volume introduces readers to the current topics of industrial and applied mathematics in China, with applications to material science, information science, mathematical finance and engineering. The authors utilize mathematics for the solution of problems. The purposes of the volume are to promote research in applied mathematics and computational science; further the application of mathematics to new methods and techniques useful in industry and science; and provide for the exchange of information between the mathematical, industrial, and scientific communities.

  4. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  5. Immunological and genetic aspects of asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Madore

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics

  6. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( Pproducts by gamma irradiation.

  7. Stem Cell Niche, the Microenvironment and Immunological Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Law Sujata; S. Chaudhuri

    2008-01-01

    The concept of stem cells, their physiological existence, the intricate anatomical localization, the known and the unknown functions, and their exclusive utility for the purpose of regenerative medicine, are all now encompassed within an emergent question, 'how compatible these cells are immunologically?'Indeed, the medical aspects of stem cells are dependent on a large number of queries based on the basic properties of the cells. It has greatly been emphasized to probe into the basic research on stem cells before any successful therapeutic attempts are made. One of the intricate aspects of the adult stem cells is its immunological behavior in relation to the microenvironmental associates, the stromal ceils in the presence of a suitable target.

  8. Koch Institute Symposium on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adam; Joshi, Nikhil S; Szeto, Gregory L; Zhu, Eric; Eisen, Herman N; Irvine, Darrell J

    2013-10-01

    The 12(th) annual summer symposium of The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT was held in Cambridge, MA, on June 14(th), 1023. The symposium entitled "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy" focused on recent advances in preclinical research in basic immunology and biomedical engineering, and their clinical application in cancer therapies. The day-long gathering also provided a forum for discussion and potential collaborations between engineers and clinical investigators. The major topics presented include: (i) enhancement of adoptive cell therapy by engineering to improve the ability and functionality of T-cells against tumor cells; (ii) current therapies using protein and antibody therapeutics to modulate endogenous anti-tumor immunity; and (iii) new technologies to identify molecular targets and assess therapeutic efficacy, and devices to control and target drug delivery more effectively and efficiently.

  9. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY AMONG PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Smyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bronchial asthma is a classic psychosomatic disease by immunopathological origin. In present investigation, we studied influence of body-oriented psychotherapeutic methods directed towards clinico-immunological parameters and special psychological features of the patients with bronchial asthma, i.e., decrease in alexithymia, as an important pathogenetic factor of bronchial asthma, and improvement in motor coordination and interhemispheric interactions in motor sphere. We investigated 38 patients (18 men and 20 women, while discriminating those patients who underwent a course of body-oriented psychotherapy, and a group of comparison, who did not undergo similar therapy. When observing conventional standards of randomization according to sex, age, clinical variants, and disease severity, some heterogeneity of these groups was revealed. In general, the people with active life attitude, being ready to work with a psychologist, possessed special features both in psychological and immunological spheres.

  10. Pathophysiology and immunological profile of myasthenia gravis and its subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Fredrik; Hong, Yu; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2017-08-03

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disease characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. It is believed that the initial steps triggering humoral immunity in MG take place inside thymic tissue and thymoma. The immune response against one or several epitopes expressed on thymic tissue cells spills over to neuromuscular junction components sharing the same epitope causing humoral autoimmunity and antibody production. The main cause of MG is acetylcholine receptor antibodies. However, many other neuromuscular junction membrane protein targets, intracellular and extracellular proteins are suggested to participate in MG pathophysiology. MG should be divided into subgroups based on clinical presentation and immunology. This includes onset age, clinical characteristics, thymic pathology and antibody profile. The immunological profile of these subgroups is determined by the antibodies present. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The immunology of tuberculosis: From bench to bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHEDA, Keertan; SCHWANDER, Stephan K.; ZHU, Bingdong; van ZYL-SMIT, Richard N.; ZHANG, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an international public health priority and kills almost two million people annually. TB is out of control in Africa due to increasing poverty and HIV coinfection, and drug-resistant TB threatens to destabilize TB control efforts in several regions of the world. Existing diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions for TB are suboptimal. Thus, new vaccines, immunotherapeutic interventions and diagnostic tools are urgently required to facilitate TB control efforts. An improved understanding of the immunopathogenesis of TB can facilitate the identification of correlates of immune protection, the design of effective vaccines, the rational selection of immunotherapeutic agents, the evaluation of new drug candidates, and drive the development of new immunodiagnostic tools. Here we review the immunology of TB with a focus on aspects that are clinically and therapeutically relevant. An immunologically orientated approach to tackling TB can only succeed with concurrent efforts to alleviate poverty and reduce the global burden of HIV. PMID:20415982

  12. Interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines: immunological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.; Robertson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly set the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress has been made, and 143 countries reported no poliomyelitis cases associated with the wild virus in 1993. This article reviews the immunological considerations relevant to interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines. Although serum immunity prevents poliomyelitis in the individual, it is local immunity that is important in preventing the transmission of...

  13. Immunological evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with itolizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Aira, Lazaro E.; Hernández, Patricia; Prada, Dinorah; Chico, Araceli; Gómez, Jorge A.; González, Zuyén; Fuentes, Karla; Viada, Carmen; Mazorra, Zaima

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation that affects approximately 1% of the general population. Itolizumab, a monoclonal antibody specific for the human CD6 molecule mainly expressed on T lymphocytes, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of T cells and proinflammatory cytokine production in psoriasis patients. We have now assessed the immunological effect of itolizumab in combination with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis by analyzing clinical ...

  14. [Immunological characteristics of the 2-stage method of smallpox vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Sokolova, A F; Shul'ga, L G; Manenkova, G M

    1977-05-01

    As a result of observations carried out on children the authors present immunological characteristics of two-stage smallpox vaccination at different intervals (1 to 60 days) between the injection of inactivated and live vaccine. There proved to be acceleration and intensification of antibody formation after two-stage immunization in comparison with the rutine vaccination. A seven-day interval between the injection of the inactivated and live preparations was recommended on the basis of the data obtained.

  15. Immunological Blood Parameters in Infected and Noninfected Biliary Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bilookiy, O. V.; Rohovyy, Yu. Ye.; Bilookiy, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the study of immunological blood parameters in infected and noninfected biliary peritonitis. Materials and methods. 55 patients with infected and noninfected biliary peritonitis were examined. There were 21 men and 34 women at the age of 28-74 years. 14 patients suffered from noninfected biliary peritonitis, 41 patients suffered from infected biliary peritonitis. The control group included 12 practically healthy persons. Results. The development of noninfected biliary per...

  16. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    34 Odd ii 4n....00p IdaOdifir 0’ block flumber) Periodontal Disease Spirochetes Microbiology Fusobacteria immunology Bacteroides 20. AN3T7RAC~r C4.tft...and serological etudies with ’We 7. nucleatum isolates from patients with ANUG, chronic periodontitis , Juvenile periodontitis , and adults and children...routine periodontal procedures (34-37). Early studies on the histopathology of ANUG lesions reported that the pathological process appears to begin or the

  17. Autoimmune diseases and fungal infections: immunological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.

  18. Immunologic glycosphingolipidomics and NKT cell development in mouse thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Thapa, Prakash; Hawke, David

    2009-01-01

    Invariant NKT cells are a hybrid cell type of Natural Killer cells and T cells, whose development is dependent on thymic positive selection mediated by double positive thymocytes through their recognition of natural ligands presented by CD1d, a nonpolymorphic, non-MHC, MHC-like antigen presenting...... for identifying additional ligands for NKT cells. Our results also provide early insights into cellular lipidomics studies, with a specific focus on the important immunological functions of glycosphingolipids....

  19. Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbao Zhang; Hao Wen; Jun Li; Renyong Lin; McManus, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights on the nature of the immune responses generated during the course of a hydatid infection, although many aspects of ...

  20. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Efthimios Deligeoroglou; Aikaterini Giannouli; Nikolaos Athanasopoulos; Vasileios Karountzos; Anastasia Vatopoulou; Konstantinos Dimopoulos; George Creatsas

    2013-01-01

    High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, ...

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis: immunology and prospects for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T

    2011-10-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease.

  2. Immunoepidemiology--bridging the gap between immunology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, B

    2001-02-01

    'Immunoepidemiology' combines individual- and population-oriented approaches to create new perspectives. It examines how inter-individual differences in immune responses affect the population dynamics of micro- and macro-parasites to produce the epidemiological patterns of infection observed in heterogeneous host populations. Here, I discuss how research has only just begun to tap the potential of this integrative discipline that incorporates immunology, parasitology, genetics, epidemiology, ecology, mathematical modelling and statistics.

  3. CANCEROUS IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND CA215: IMPLICATIONS IN CANCER IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are typically expressed by B cells in our normal immune system. However, certain normal human tissues, such as hyperplastic epithelial cells, cells of the immunologically privileged sites and the majority of cancer cells, have also been found to be sites of immunoglobulin production. Current research is lacking in regards to the differential immunoglobulin expression, the underling mechanisms of action and the biological implications of these cancerous immunoglobulins in cancer immunology. This article reviews the etiology of atypical immunoglobulin expression in normal non-B cells and cancer cells, with emphasis on the exploration of the possible mechanisms of action and biological function of these atypical immunoglobulins, by means of specific biological probes. In contrast to immunoglobulins of B cell origins, atypical immunoglobulins were found to carry additional post-translational modifications, including a unique carbohydrateassociated epitope recognized by RP215 monoclonal antibody. This unique RP215-specific epitope enables us to differentiate between these two types of immunoglobulins. Atypical immunoglobulins expressed by cancer cells have been a common subject of interest in cancer immunology. Furthermore, the recent accumulation of experimental evidence has indicated that these atypical immunoglobulins are essential for the growth and proliferation of cancer cells under our normal immune environment. RP215 monoclonal antibody also reacts with many other cancer cell-expressed glycoproteins, known as CA215, on the cancer cell surface. Apoptosis of cultured cancer cells can be induced and growth inhibition of implanted tumors can be observed in nude mouse animal models. Therefore, humanized RP215 monoclonal antibody, which reacts mainly with surface bound CA215, may have the potential to be developed as an anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human cancers. A better understanding of cancer cell

  4. A Systems Overview of Immunology, Disease and Related Data Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Asachenkov, A.L.; Mohler, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a brief but systematic overview of topics in "mathematical immunology" and may be considered as an introduction to a new IIASA activity on these topics. Theoretical and experimental research in this area is aimed at an understanding of the precise manner by which the immune system controls (or attempts to control) infectious diseases and diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Available mathematical methods, the difficulties arising in the respective problems, and some possibilitie...

  5. IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTER OF TUMOR INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES IN OVARIAN CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study immunologic character of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) on post in vitro expansion in ovarian carcinoma, and evaluate the prospects by adopting TIL treatment of ovarian carcinoma at an advanced stage. Methods: Cellular phenotype changes in TIL were analyzed by flow cytometry. By means of molecular biology and immunologic methods, ability to secrete cytokines and anti-tumor activities of in TIL was studied. Results: Difference of cellular phenotypes in TIL was probably related to the type, feature and resource of the tumor. TIL obtained from phoroplast and parenchyma was dominant in CD3+CD4+. TIL obtained from tumor tissues, around microvessels and ascitic fluid was dominant in CD3+CD8+. Concentration of rIL-2 in vitro played a significant role in immunologic character of TIL. By means of rIL-2 expansion in vitro, TIL has apparently been improved in competence of secreting some cytokines, such as IL-2, TNF-a , IFN-g , and anti-tumor activities.The activated TIL was more stimulated by further adding anti-CD3 or PHA (suitable concentration), which significantly increased its ability to secrete cytokines. Treatment with TIL+CTX or TIL+ rIL-2, could apparently improve phenotypes in peripheral blood of patients, with definitive effects. Conclusion: Immunologic activities of TIL in vitro are apparently improved by rIL2 expansion. Regression of tumor, by means of infusion TIL, is not largely attributed to direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells, but indirectly and partly augmenting cellular activities and abilities of immunomodulation in patients with ovarian carcinoma being dependent on secreting multiple cytokines.

  6. Polish Scientists in Fish Immunology: A Short History

    OpenAIRE

    Willem B. Van Muiswinkel; Andrzej Pilarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later starting in the late 1930s. Detailed papers on fish vaccination were published from 1970 onwards. Another important development was the unraveling of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in the 1970...

  7. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    OpenAIRE

    Muiswinkel, van, W.B.; A. Pilarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later starting in the late 1930s. Detailed papers on fish vaccination were published from 1970 onwards. Another important development was the unraveling of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in the 1970...

  8. In vivo immunological activity of carboxymethylated-sulfated (1→3)-β-D-glucan from sclerotium of Poria cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haili; Mukerabigwi, Jean Felix; Zhang, Yuannian; Han, Lin; Jiayinaguli, Telieke; Wang, Qing; Liu, Lina; Cao, Yu; Sun, Renqiang; Huang, Xueying

    2015-08-01

    β-Glucans are one of the polysaccharides known as biological response modifiers extracted from the sclerotium of Poria cocos which has been used for several decades as Traditional Chinese Medicine. Due to its ability to activate immune system, it can be applied in chemotherapy after being chemically modified. In this study, sulfated (1→3)-β-D-glucan (S-P), carboxymethyl (1→3)-β-D-glucan (CMP), and carboxymethylated-sulfated (1→3)-β-D-glucan (S-CMP), which are (1→3)-β-D-glucan derivatives were synthesized. The current study was aimed to investigate in vivo potential immunological activity of S-CMP in mice. In addition, mice were separately treated with S-P, CMP and S-CMP to evaluate the relationship between single and multiple functional groups. Interestingly, S-CMP exhibited the best in vivo immunological activities and the highest inhibition rate against the implanted HepG2 tumor in BALB/c mice, with significant increase in serum hemolysin antibody titer, spleen antibody production as well as delayed type hypersensitivity compared with S-P and CMP. Furthermore, it was assumed that simultaneous introduction of carboxymethyl and sulfate groups also had great potential effect on antioxidant activity, as substantial decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content was remarked. Therefore, it may suggest that S-CMP has better immunological and anti-tumor effects on mice in vivo.

  9. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P. P.; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R. S.; Pankaj, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. Results: There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds. PMID:27536042

  10. Immunological Effect of Subunit Influenza Vaccine Entrapped by Liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI-HUA ZHANG; JIA-XU LIANG; SHU-YAN DAI; XIAO-LIN QIU; YAN-RONG YI; YUN PAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elevate the immunological effect of subunit influenza vaccine in infants and aged people (over 60) using liposomal adjuvant in the context of its relatively low immunity and to investigate the relation between vaccine antigens and liposomal characteristics. Methods Several formulations of liposomal subunit influenza vaccine were prepared. Their relevant characteristics were investigated to optimize the preparation method. Antisera obtained from immunizinged mice were used to evaluate the antibody titers of various samples by HI and ELISA. Results Liposomal trivalent influenza vaccine prepared by film evaporation in combinedation with freeze-drying significantly increased its immunological effect in SPF Balb/c mice. Liposomal vaccine stimulated the antibody titer of H3N2, H1N1, and B much stronger than conventional influenza vaccine. As a result, liposomal vaccine (mean size: 4.5-5.5 μm, entrapment efficiency: 30%-40%) significantly increased the immunological effect of subunit influenza vaccine. Conclusion The immune effect of liposomal vaccine depends on different antigens, and enhanced immunity is not positively correlated with the mean size of liposome or its entrapped efficiency.

  11. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  12. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058

  13. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  14. Immunological analysis of aerobic bioreactor bovine theileriosis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pilot production of aerobic bioreactor tropical theileriosis vaccine was optimized with the aim of immunological assays for further mass production.We have shown earlier the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH assay could be used for evaluating the immunity and memory cells against specific Theileria antigen in vaccinated animals. In addition, TNF-α is the principle cytokine in modulating the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Immunological analysis of the vaccine was performed by using two cell mediated immunity (CMI in vitro and in vivo DTH test (Theilerin and TNF-α assay.The results of immune responses of susceptible immunized cattle by bioreactor vaccine in comparison with conventional flask vaccine revealed a significant stimulation of immune cells by transcription of high level of TNF-α and positive reaction against Theileria antigen in Theilerin skin test (DTH.The equal immunological results achieved in both above mentioned vaccines verified the satisfactory immunity for aerobic bioreactor theileriosis vaccine for advance mass vaccination in the field on a large-scale.

  15. Long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and mucosal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gee J Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inflammatory insult following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO is associated with a predisposition to develop a deleterious autoimmune response to the brain antigen myelin basic protein (MBP. Induction of immunologic tolerance to brain antigens prior to MCAO prevents this deleterious autoimmune response and is associated with better functional outcome early after stroke. In this study, we sought to determine the long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and induction of mucosal tolerance. Methods Male Lewis rats were tolerized to MBP or ovalbumin (OVA by intranasal administration prior to MCAO and administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Neurological outcome was assessed at set points after MCAO and animals sacrificed at 3 months; the immune response to MBP in brain and spleen was determined using ELISPOT assay and degree of cellular inflammatory brain infiltrate assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results Animals that developed a pro-inflammatory (TH1 response to MBP experienced worse outcome, while those that developed a regulatory response (TREG experienced better outcome. A TREG response in spleen was also associated with decreased inflammation and an increase in the number of FoxP3 positive cells in brain. In this study, tolerization to MBP prior to MCAO was associated with a tendency to develop a TH1 response to MBP by 3 months after MCAO. Conclusion These data show that induction of immunological tolerance to MBP is associated with improved outcome after stroke. This study, however, raises concern about the potential for inadvertent induction of detrimental autoimmunity through mucosal administration of antigen.

  16. Immunologic Changes Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kronbichler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a histological pattern on renal biopsy caused by diverse mechanisms. In its primary form, a circulatory factor is implicated in disease onset and recurrence. The natural history of primary FSGS is unpredictable, since some patients are unresponsive towards immunosuppressive measures. Immunologic changes, leading to a proinflammatory or profibrotic milieu, have been implicated in disease progression, namely, glomerular scarring, eventually leading to end-stage renal disease. Among these, interleukin-1ß, tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1 have emerged as important factors. Translating these findings into clinical practice dampened the enthusiasm, since both TNF-α and TGF-ß1 blockade failed to achieve significant control of the disease. More recently, a role of the complement system has been demonstrated which in fact may be another attractive target in clinical practice. Rituximab, blocking CD20-bearing cells, demonstrated conflicting data regarding efficacy in FSGS. Finally, the T-cell costimulating molecule B7-1 (CD80 is implicated in development of proteinuria in general. Blockade of this target demonstrated significant benefits in a small cohort of resistant patients. Taken together, this review focuses on immunology of FSGS, attributable to either the disease or progression, and discusses novel therapeutic approaches aiming at targeting immunologic factors.

  17. Rapid Detection of Melamine in Milk Using Immunological Separation and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Feng, Shaolong; Hu, Yaxi; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Shifang; Zeng, Haishan; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-06-01

    We integrated immunological separation and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect melamine in milk. Antimelamine was produced by New Zealand white rabbits following the injection with melamine hapten-ovalbumin immunogen. Melamine was separated from milk by binding to the converted protein G-antimelamine complex. After releasing antimelamine and melamine from the complex, the eluents were deposited directly onto the silver dendrite SERS-active substrate for spectral collection. Multivariate statistical analysis including unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy validated the feasibility of applying this method to detect trace levels of melamine in milk. The limit of detection can be as low as 0.79×10(-3) mmol/L. The overall analysis can be completed in 20 min, thus, it is a high-throughput technique to screen for melamine in milk samples.

  18. Clinical immunology review series: an approach to the use of the immunology laboratory in the diagnosis of clinical allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P; Sewell, W A C; Bunn, C; Pumphrey, R; Read, G; Jolles, S

    2008-07-01

    In the last 10 years UK immunology laboratories have seen a dramatic increase in the number and range of allergy tests performed. The reasons for this have been an increase in the incidence of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic disease set against a background of greater public awareness and more referrals for assessment. Laboratory testing forms an integral part of a comprehensive allergy service and physicians treating patients with allergic disease need to have an up-to-date knowledge of the range of tests available, their performance parameters and interpretation as well as the accreditation status of the laboratory to which tests are being sent. The aim of this review is to describe the role of the immunology laboratory in the assessment of patients with IgE-mediated allergic disease and provide an up-to-date summary of the tests currently available, their sensitivity, specificity, interpretation and areas of future development.

  19. Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S; Timmis, Jon; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-10-01

    We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show how the framework can be used to produce models that capture and communicate the biological system, detailing how biological entities, interactions and behaviours lead to higher-level emergent properties observed in the real world. We demonstrate how the UML can be successfully applied within our framework, and provide a critique of UML's ability to capture concepts fundamental to immunology and biology more generally. We show how specialized, well-explained diagrams with less formal semantics can be used where no suitable UML formalism exists. We highlight UML's lack of expressive ability concerning cyclic feedbacks in cellular networks, and the compounding concurrency arising from huge numbers of stochastic, interacting agents. To compensate for this, we propose several additional relationships for expressing these concepts in UML's activity diagram. We also demonstrate the ambiguous nature of class diagrams when applied to complex biology, and question their utility in modelling such dynamic systems. Models created through our framework are non-executable, and expressly free of simulation implementation concerns. They are a valuable complement and precursor to simulation specifications and implementations, focusing purely on thoroughly exploring the biology, recording hypotheses and assumptions, and serve as a communication medium detailing exactly how a simulation relates to the real biology.

  20. Animation framework using volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  1. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  2. Applied computation and security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Khalid; Choudhury, Sankhayan; Chaki, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the First International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2014) held during April 18-20, 2014 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland and University of Calcutta, India. The Volume I of this double-volume book contains fourteen high quality book chapters in three different parts. Part 1 is on Pattern Recognition and it presents four chapters. Part 2 is on Imaging and Healthcare Applications contains four more book chapters. The Part 3 of this volume is on Wireless Sensor Networking and it includes as many as six chapters. Volume II of the book has three Parts presenting a total of eleven chapters in it. Part 4 consists of five excellent chapters on Software Engineering ranging from cloud service design to transactional memory. Part 5 in Volume II is on Cryptography with two book...

  3. CLINICAL-IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Atakhodjayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is acute zoonotic, multi-systemic infection caused by Brucella bacteria kind. Brucellosis is met everywhere on all continents of the world, especially in the countries where livestock sector is developed. Nowadays in spite of significant success in the struggle against brucellosis this infection is a social problem. Brucellosis has specific clinical manifestations during various age periods. Problems interrelated with the study of the pathogenesis of brucellosis infection, particularly immune genesis, defining the progress and the outcome of the disease have great importance. Object of the research: to study peculiarities of the progress of acute brucellosis in children taking into account clinical-immunologic data. Materials and methods of the research: the research was based on the results of examinations of 23 children from 3 to 14 years old with brucellosis mostly living in endemic foci of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The diagnosis was defined based on epidemiologic anamnesis, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. All examined children got the analysis of detailed blood immunogramm. The corresponding data of 20 healthy children served to be controlling ones. Results and discussion: The analysis of epidemiologic anamnesis showed, that 78.3% of the examined patients with brucellosis were villagers keeping sheep, goats and cattle. In 73.9% cases source of infection was sheep and goats, 8.7% - cattle, and in 17.4% cases we could observe mixed type of infection. 78% of patients applied to hospital during prodromal period. Main complaints were weakness, frustration, headache, fatigue, bad appetite. These symptoms lasted not more than 3-5 days, after which there were symptoms of intoxication of organism with the rise of cardinal symptoms such as fever with chill (100%, arthalgia (69%, slight sweating (70%, hepato-lienal syndrome (68%. 32.9% of patients had tachycardia. Objective visual examination showed enlargement of

  4. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  5. Antitumor vaccines, immunotherapy and the immunological constant of rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ena; Monaco, Alessandro; Monsurró, Vladia; Sabatino, Marianna; Pos, Zoltan; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Wang, Jeanne; Worschech, Andrea; Stroncek, David F; Marincola, Francesco M

    2009-05-01

    Anticancer vaccines have not matched the clinical expectations projected from their ability to induce consistently systemic anticancer T-cell responses. Thus, a dichotomy is observed between the immunological and clinical endpoints of anticancer immunization. Anticancer vaccines have clearly demonstrated that highly specific T-cell responses can be induced that can recognize autologous cancer antigens in patients with cancer. This ability is an outstanding achievement of modern biotechnology, yielding one of the most specific types of potential anticancer reagents. However, systemic, vaccine-induced anticancer responses exemplify a broader immunological paradox: cytotoxic T-cells can coexist within the same organism with their target cells not only in the context of cancer, but also in the context of chronic infections, well-controlled allo-transplant reactions and autoimmunity. According to this view, anticancer immune responses are a facet of a tissue-specific autoimmune phenomenon specific for cancer tissue that may or may not result in the successful immune-destruction of target cells, depending on an assortment of genetic factors related to the background of the host or evolving phenotypes of a heterogeneous cancer environment. This feature article summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tumor rejection in humans as well as in experimental models, in the context of the broader immunological phenomenon leading to tissue-specific destruction. Anticancer vaccines that may not induce clinically significant anticancer responses independently could function as a unique tool to enhance the specificity of the response of the host against cancer, provided that strategies are implemented to amplify the immune reaction initiated by vaccine-induced antibodies and/or T-cells.

  6. Immunological responses induced by the combination of phototherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of metastatic tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Naylor, Mark F.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Teague, T. Kent; Liu, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Combination therapy using laser photothermal interaction and immunological stimulation has demonstrated its ability to induce immunological responses. Glycated chitosan (GC), an immunological stimulant, and imiquimod, a new type of immune response modifier (IRM), when used in conjunction with laser phototherapy, have shown to have a great immunological stimulation function. Specifically, imiquimod can help release cytokines from immunocompetent cells, stimulate TH1 lymphocyte responses (CD8+ T-cells), and recruit additional dendritic cells. To study the effects of immunoadjuvnats in combination of laser photo-irradiation, we treated animal tumors with laser-ICG-GC combination and late-stage melanoma patients with laser-ICG-imiquimod combination. At designated times, tumors, blood, and spleens in both treated and untreated animals were colleted for analysis. The major immunological indicators, such as IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, CD4, and CD8 were analyzed. The same immunological analysis was also performed for melanoma patients treated by the laser-imiquimod combination.

  7. A Novel Evolutionary Feedforward Neural Network with Artificial Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫新保; 臧小刚; 周希朗

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm to design the multi-layer feedforward neural network was proposed. Evolutionaryprogramming is used to design the network that makes the training process tending to global optima. Artificial im-munology combined with simulated annealing algorithm is used to specify the initial weight vectors, therefore improves the probabiligy of training algorithm to converge to global optima. The applications of the neural networkin the modulation-style recognition of analog modulated rader signals demonstrate the good performance of the net-work.

  8. Takes your breath away – the immunology of allergic alveolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCSHARRY, C; ANDERSON, K; BOURKE, S J; BOYD, G

    2002-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study. PMID:11982584

  9. Nutritional and Immunological Importance of Colostrum for the new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Kuralkar and S.V. Kuralkar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and immunological importance of colostrum for the survival and development of the neonate is reviewed. A neonate is born with low body energy stores and devoid of serum immunoglobulins. Colostrum provides the neonates with both energy and maternal antibodies. Because of syndeschoroidal nature of the placenta, the neonates must acquire maternal immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum for passive immune protection until the immune system of the neonate is fully developed. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 46-47

  10. Immunological disturbance in West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha C. B. Montelli

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated and humoral immunity were investigated in 18 patients with West syndrome, 12 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and 19 healthy controls. The study included determination of Ô and  peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM, skin sensibilization with DNCB, intracutaneous PHA, leucocyte migration inhibition test and lymphocyte blastic transformation in the presence of PHA. Cell-mediated deficiency was detected in 28 children whereas low levels of immunoglobulins were observed only in 6 children. Immunological disturbances were more prominent in children with West syndrome.

  11. The Innovative Medicines Initiative moves translational immunology forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Michel; Wittelsberger, Angela; De Magistris, Maria-Teresa

    2013-02-01

    The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) was established in 2008 as a public-private partnership between the European Union and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations with the mission to promote the development of novel therapies through collaborative efforts based on the concept of pre-competitive research. Several consortia supported by IMI are dedicated to immuno-inflammatory disorders, immune-based biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. Herein, we present the key principles underlying IMI, briefly review the status of projects related to translational immunology, and present future topics of interest to immunologists.

  12. Takes your breath away--the immunology of allergic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, C; Anderson, K; Bourke, S J; Boyd, G

    2002-04-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study.

  13. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight

  14. Immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T

    2016-09-01

    In this review, the immune-to-brain communication pathways are briefly summarized, with emphasis on the impact of immune cells and their mediators on learning, memory and other cognitive domains. Further, the acute response of the central nervous system to peripherally generated inflammatory stimuli - termed as sickness behaviour - is described, and the central role of microglia in this immune-to-brain crosstalk in physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted. Finally, the role and consequences of immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Immunologic disorders in pathogenesis of chronic generalized parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volozhin, A I; Poriadin, G V; Kazimiski, T I; Barer, G M; Askerova, S Sh; Salmasi, Zh M

    2005-01-01

    Systemic immunity was studied in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis. This group of patients had distinct changes in immunologic system: depression of T- and stimulation of B-cellular immunity without accumulation of plasma cells and initiation of effective humoral response. Increased peripheral blood number of lymphocytes expressing induction of apoptosis CD95 receptors and ligand for this receptor CD95L (Fas-L) can lead to intensification of lymphocyte apoptosis and may be the reason for T-cell deficit development. The results of the study confirm the important role of immune system disturbances in pathogenesis of chronic generalized parodontitis.

  16. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A C; Pimm, M V

    1992-01-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, cell-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigative tool of great potential.

  17. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, A.C. (Nottingham Univ. Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics); Pimm, M.V. (Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Cancer Research Campaign Labs.)

    1992-12-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, call-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigated tool of great potential. (orig.).

  18. [Effect of new antihistaminic preparations on the body's immunologic reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkovskiĭ, M D; Veksler, I G; Kaminka, M E; Iakimenko, V A

    1981-03-01

    The effect of new antihistaminic drugs, phencarol and bicarphen, on immunologic reactivity of experimental animals was studied in comparison with diphenhydramine. Phencarol and bicarphen inhibited the delayed type allergic reactions to a greater degree than diphenydramine. Unlike diphenhydramine, phencarol and bicarphen injected simultaneously with test-antigen markedly decreased the number of rosette-forming lymphocytes in the immunocompetent organs (spleen, thymus, lymph nodes). Phencarol, bicarphen and diphenhydramine produced the same inhibitory effect on the content of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of mice.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. Painful regional anaesthesia induces an immunological stress reaction: the model of retrobulbar anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, G; Gabriel, H; Weindler, J; Ruprecht, K W; Kindermann, W

    2001-08-01

    Laboratory stress studies found that acute psychological stresses may elicit changes in leukocyte numbers similar to those occurring in physical stresses. Both types of stress evoke - mainly by release of catecholamines - leukocytosis resulting from a release of natural killer cells (NK-cells), of CD8+ T-cells, of monocytes and of neutrophils. However, there is little proof that laboratory stress models can be applied to daily clinical routines. As a likely inductor of an immunological stress response the setting of retrobulbar anaesthesia prior to intraocular surgery permits the study of a short-term painful anaesthetic procedure under highly standardized conditions. This was examined in 16 female patients. Counts of leukocyte subsets, serum cortisol and cardiovascular variables were measured 30 min and 1 min prior to retrobulbar anaesthesia as well as 2, 15 and 45 min afterwards. The setting of retrobulbar anaesthesia induced an increase in total leukocytes [+380 cells microL-1; P < 0.01 (means; significance level)] mainly due to rising counts of neutrophils (+241 cells microL-1, P < 0.01). Of all lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer cells increased most markedly (+64 cells microL-1; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the retrobulbar block induced an increase in systolic arterial pressure (+15.2 mmHg; P < 0.01). These changes in immunological and cardiovascular variables are considered to be elements of a sympatho-adrenal stress reaction; catecholamines are considered to induce a demargination of leukocytes by binding to beta2-adrenoceptors and by modifying the avidity state of adhesion molecules.

  1. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  2. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  3. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  4. Imagining 'reactivity': allergy within the history of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    An allergy is commonly understood to be an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances that are misrecognised as foreign. This concept of allergy as an abnormal, misdirected immune response-a biological fault-stems from the idea that the immune system is an inherently defensive operation designed to protect the individual through an innate capacity to discriminate between the benign and toxic, or self and nonself. However, this definition of allergy represents a radical departure from its original formulation. Literally meaning 'altered reactivity', the term was coined in 1906 by Austrian paediatrician Clemens von Pirquet, to describe the fundamentally mutable nature of the immune response. This paper argues that the conventional interpretation of allergy-as-pathology derives from specific concepts of 'organism', 'response', and 'normal' immune function that have-for over a century-governed the perception and study of immune phenomena within immunology. Through an examination of Louis Pasteur's conceptualisation of the host body/microorganism relationship, I argue that immunology is founded on a view of the organism as a discrete, autonomous entity, and on a concomitant notion of the immune response as essentially reactive. Revisiting the concept of 'altered reactivity', this paper points to the fact that allergy was initially posited as a general theory of immune responsiveness and, importantly, one that poses a significant challenge to orthodox notions of immunopathology. It suggests that Pirquet's unique view of immune responsiveness presents an account of organismic or biological identity that encapsulates, rather than reduces, its ecological complexity.

  5. Immunology teaching by incorporating knowledge from theater and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Ferreira Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Immunology knowledge is important to therapeutic prevention of several diseases. The aim of this study was present a teaching methodology of Immunology and verify its efficacy as the knowledge acquisition by the participants of an event. To assess the progress of knowledge by the participants as well the use of the play and sung music, each participant fill a questionnaire, containing ten questions, before and after the presentation. The results were evaluated by paired T test at 5%. In both types there was knowledge incorporation after the play activity because the notes after the event were statistically higher. The participants remained attentive and praised the event. The knowledge showed by most of participants was considered lower and regular before the event and after the ludic activities they showed higher grades which categorized knowledge as regular and high. It was concluded that the methodology used contributed with knowledge acquisition and could contribute with the cultural and social education of the participants.

  6. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-03

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was.

  7. IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN BOVINE LYMPH NODES STIMULATED WITH SUBUNITS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Andres Tafur Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaccination process belongs to the public health intervention methodologies that help prevent infections. Vaccinations performed successfully in the history of medicine reported the significance of this procedure to increase the quality of life, prevent zoonoses and improve animal production. Vaccine emergence remained without exact rules for a long time, maintaining a close relationship with pathogens. However, subunit vaccines, with a difference from the classical idea of protective immunity with microorganisms showed it is possible to trigger T-dependent responses with peptide, revealing new rules for vaccine development. This vaccination process starts by the modulation chance of adaptive immune response through peptide sequences process by APCs for immune synapse formation interceded for pMHC-TCR as a scaffold to T cells priming. In this way the immunological signal triggered by immune synapses is amplified in lymph nodes. As a consequence, T and B cells modulated by peptide activity interact between the B cell follicles region and T cell aggregates, which constitute the paracortical region of secondary lymphoid tissue to form connate unions as a prerequisite for clonal amplification and subsequent immunological memory. Indicating the knowledge of the mechanisms of immune response generated by peptides immunization is essential for understanding modulation, amplification and immune protection as demands for good subunits vaccine.

  8. An immunological insight into premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojević-Dikić, Svetlana; Marisavljević, Dragomir; Mitrović, Ana; Dikić, Srdjan; Jovanović, Tomislav; Janković-Raznatović, Svetlana

    2010-09-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), a serious life-changing condition that affects young women, remains an enigma and the researchers' challenge. The term POF generally describes a syndrome of gonadal failure before the age of 40, characterized by amenorrhea, sex steroid deficiency and elevated levels of gonadotropins. Infertility and psychological stress are common consequences of this entity the prevalence of which is 0.9-3%. The known cause of this condition includes: genetic aberrations, autoimmune ovarian damage, iatrogenic and environmental factors, although in majority of cases the underlying cause is not identified. For many women in whom the cause of ovarian failure is unknown, autoimmunity may be the pathogenic mechanism. There is currently evidence that some cases of POF are due to faulty recognition of self in the ovary by the immune system, possibly provoked by genetic or environmental factors initiating such immune response. Numerous evidence, including association with multiple autoimmune endocrine disorders, clinical reversibility, transitory estrogen deficiency, histological and immunological features and the demonstration of circulating ovarian antibodies in serum samples from women with POF, have suggested its immunological origin. We discuss the possible role of such an autoimmune process as a cause or consequence of POF including treatment strategies in POF patients.

  9. Molecular Programming of Immunological Memory in Natural Killer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Aimee M; Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. Although natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been classified as a component of the innate immune system, they have recently been shown in mice and humans to exhibit certain features of immunological memory, including an ability to undergo a clonal-like expansion during virus infection, generate long-lived progeny (i.e. memory cells), and mediate recall responses against previously encountered pathogens--all characteristics previously ascribed only to adaptive immune responses by B and T cells in mammals. To date, the molecular events that govern the generation of NK cell memory are not completely understood. Using a mouse model of cytomegalovirus infection, we demonstrate that individual pro-inflammatory IL-12, IL-18, and type I-IFN signaling pathways are indispensible and play non-redundant roles in the generation of virus-specific NK cell memory. Furthermore, we discovered that antigen-specific proliferation and protection by NK cells is mediated by the transcription factor Zbtb32, which is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes a cell cycle program in activated NK cells. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling NK cell responses will provide novel strategies for tailoring vaccines to target infectious disease.

  10. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics.

  11. Immunology of cancer stem cells in solid tumours. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccalli, Cristina; Volontè, Andrea; Cimminiello, Carolina; Parmiani, Giorgio

    2014-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a minor subpopulation of tumour cells that share some features with the normal stem cells of the tissue from which tumour derives and have the properties of self-renewal, multiple differentiation and tumour initiation (tumour-initiating cells, TICs). Thus CSCs/TICs need to survive cancer therapies in order to provide new, more differentiated, metastatic-prone tumour cells. This occurs through different signals delivered within the tumour microenvironment. The immune system of cancer patients may recognise CSCs/TICs and kill them though it is unclear whether this may occur in vivo during spontaneous tumour growth. This review summarises findings on the immunological profile of CSCs/TICs as compared with neoplastic non-stem cells and discusses the possible antigens recognised by the patients' immune system, the in vitro and the potential in vivo immunogenicity of such antigens and the ability of human CSCs/TICs to down-regulate the immune response by the release of a variety of suppressive factors. We conclude that available data on immunological characterisation of CSCs/TICs may be useful in the perspective of designing new translational immunotherapy protocols targeting CSCs/TICs.

  12. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity.

  13. Follicular lymphoma (FL): Immunological tolerance theory in FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Panizo, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The ultimate cause of follicular lymphoma (FL) remains unknown. Remarkably, almost nothing is known about immunological tolerance mechanisms that might contribute to FL development. Immunological tolerance mechanisms, like other stimuli, also induce persistent changes of B cell receptors that induce genetic instability and molecular aberrations promoting the development of a neoplasm. Using the same method as Burnet, we provide a new perspective taking advantage of the comparison of a normal linear B cell differentiation process and FL development within the framework of clonal selection theory. We propose that FL is a malignancy of cells that acquire both translocation t(14;18) and self-BCR, inducing them to proliferate and mature, resistant to negative selection. Additional genetic damage induced by non-apoptotic tolerance mechanisms, such as receptor editing, may transform a self-reactive B cell with t(14;18) into an FL. The result of tolerogenic mechanisms and genetic aberrations is the survival of FL B cell clones with similar markers and homogenous gene expression signatures despite the different stages of maturation at which the molecular damage occurs. To antagonize further growth advantage due to self-antigen recognition and chronic activation of tolerance mechanisms in the apoptosis-resistant background of FL B cells, inhibitors of BCR signaling may be promising therapeutic options.

  14. Theoretical modeling techniques and their impact on tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelke, Anna Lena; Murgueitio, Manuela S; Preissner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Currently, cancer is one of the leading causes of death in industrial nations. While conventional cancer treatment usually results in the patient suffering from severe side effects, immunotherapy is a promising alternative. Nevertheless, some questions remain unanswered with regard to using immunotherapy to treat cancer hindering it from being widely established. To help rectify this deficit in knowledge, experimental data, accumulated from a huge number of different studies, can be integrated into theoretical models of the tumor-immune system interaction. Many complex mechanisms in immunology and oncology cannot be measured in experiments, but can be analyzed by mathematical simulations. Using theoretical modeling techniques, general principles of tumor-immune system interactions can be explored and clinical treatment schedules optimized to lower both tumor burden and side effects. In this paper, we aim to explain the main mathematical and computational modeling techniques used in tumor immunology to experimental researchers and clinicians. In addition, we review relevant published work and provide an overview of its impact to the field.

  15. Altered actin centripetal retrograde flow in physically restricted immunological synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-han Yu

    Full Text Available Antigen recognition by T cells involves large scale spatial reorganization of numerous receptor, adhesion, and costimulatory proteins within the T cell-antigen presenting cell (APC junction. The resulting patterns can be distinctive, and are collectively known as the immunological synapse. Dynamical assembly of cytoskeletal network is believed to play an important role in driving these assembly processes. In one experimental strategy, the APC is replaced with a synthetic supported membrane. An advantage of this configuration is that solid structures patterned onto the underlying substrate can guide immunological synapse assembly into altered patterns. Here, we use mobile anti-CD3epsilon on the spatial-partitioned supported bilayer to ligate and trigger T cell receptor (TCR in live Jurkat T cells. Simultaneous tracking of both TCR clusters and GFP-actin speckles reveals their dynamic association and individual flow patterns. Actin retrograde flow directs the inward transport of TCR clusters. Flow-based particle tracking algorithms allow us to investigate the velocity distribution of actin flow field across the whole synapse, and centripetal velocity of actin flow decreases as it moves toward the center of synapse. Localized actin flow analysis reveals that, while there is no influence on actin motion from substrate patterns directly, velocity differences of actin are observed over physically trapped TCR clusters. Actin flow regains its velocity immediately after passing through confined TCR clusters. These observations are consistent with a dynamic and dissipative coupling between TCR clusters and viscoelastic actin network.

  16. Immunologic effects of emdogain in humans: one-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Symeon; Peteinaki, Efthymia; Castanas, Elias

    2002-06-01

    Tissue regeneration after therapeutic manipulations is essential in periodontology, oral surgery, and trauma of the periodontal tissues. Local inflammation because of poor oral hygiene also plays a crucial role in the above situations. Local inflammatory reaction, accompanied by the local production of cytokines, profoundly influences bone turnover and regeneration. Several products of low immunogenicity for augmenting tissue regeneration have been recently proposed as boosters of soft and mineralized tissue regeneration. Among them, Emdogain, an amelogenin derivative of porcine origin, has recently been introduced. Clinical results indicate that this product might be a good additive, producing fast tissue regeneration with no apparent clinical side effects. In contrast, very little is known about its in vivo immunologic effects. A previous study showed that Emdogain does not modify the cellular or humoral immune response in vitro. In the present work, performed in 10 patients, only a slight, nonsignificant activation of the immune system occurred during the first year following Emdogain application. Neither cellular immunity nor humoral immune response was significantly modified. In addition, the in vitro response of the patients' lymphocytes to Emdogain was assayed 2 and 12 months postoperative. We did not find any significant specific lymphocyte transformation in the presence of Emdogain, although lymphocytes could be stimulated by nonselective mitogens. These results indicate the immunologic safety of the agent in vivo, at least after 1 year.

  17. Clinical and immunological features of early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Shostak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study clinical and immunological features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA early stage. Material and Methods. 130 RA pts aged 16 to 80 years (mean age 52,5 years, 105 female and 25 male were examined. 55 pts had disease duration up to 1 year, 34 - between 1 and 3 years and 41 - more than 3 years. Standard clinical, laboratory and radiological examination was performed in all pts. In 43 pts with earlv RA T and В cell receptors were studied with monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD72, CD4, CD8, CDI6. Results. The most frequent initial symptoms preceding characteristic RA picture were arthralgia (39,2%, fever (34,6% and body weight loss (24,6%. Mono- or oligoarticuiar onset with subsequent quick transformation into polyarthritis within one year revealed in 61,5% of pts was the usual feature of early RA. The most frequent false diagnoses in early RA were osteoarthritis (in 25,1%, reactive arthritis (in 24,9% and gout (in 4,6%. Male pts had longer morning stiffness, higher levels of C-reactive protein, more pronounced functional disability, T and В cell immunity activation than female. Conclusion. Understanding of essential clinical and immunologic features of early RA will allow to diagnose the disease in time.

  18. Immunological Aspects of Candida and Aspergillus Systemic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mueller-Loebnitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  19. Inflammablog: peer-to-peer online learning in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Zoë; Cohen, J John

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible for students in different courses, at different academic levels, and at different universities to learn immunology together using the Internet? We teach a colloquium on inflammation for undergraduates at the University of Arizona and a lecture course on human immunology for graduate students and clinical and basic science fellows at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Students in these programs, being scattered about large campuses, have little time for student-directed discussion and peer interactions, and they never have the opportunity to meet students in the course in the other state. Instead of requiring the usual essays and term papers, we set up a blog (an online discussion group) for the two courses, and required all students to post, and comment on other posts, within and between the courses. Student writing is normally directed at a single reader, the instructor, which seems like a waste of talent; we encouraged peer exchanges. Furthermore, we were interested in observing the interactions between the Colorado students, who were older and sometimes experienced professionals, and the younger Arizonans. We used a blog because it is administratively impossible to enroll the students in two universities in a single courseware (learning management system) site. Blogging has offered insights into students' comfort with this form of social medium, and into the potential for this approach in light of the rapid adoption of blended and massively open online courses.

  20. Immunological sex differences in socially promiscuous African ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Manjerovic

    Full Text Available Differences in how males and females respond to foreign antigens are common across taxa. Such sexual differences in the immune system are predicted to be greater in species with high promiscuity and sociality as these factors increase the likelihood of disease transmission. Intense sperm competition is thought to further this sexual dichotomy as increased investment in spermatogenesis likely incurs additional immunological costs. Xerus inauris, a ground squirrel found throughout southern Africa, is extremely social and promiscuous with one of the highest male reproductive investments among rodents. These life-history attributes suggest males and females should demonstrate a large dichotomy in immunity. Contrary to our prediction, we found no difference in spleen mass between the sexes. However, we did find significant biases in leukocyte types and red blood cell counts, possibly reflecting responses to parasite types. Among males, we predicted greater investments in spermatogenesis would result in reduced immunological investments. We found a negative association between testes and spleen size and a positive relationship between testes and number of lice suggesting trade-offs in reproductive investment possibly due to the costs associated with spermatogenesis and immunity. We suggest when measuring sexual differences in immunity it is important to consider the effects of reproductive pressures, parasite types, and life history costs.

  1. Cosmos 2229 immunology study (Experiment K-8-07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to further validate use of the rhesus monkey as a model for humans in future space flight testing. The areas of immunological importance examined in the Cosmos 2229 flight were represented by two sets of studies. The first set of studies determined the effect of space flight on the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF is an important regulator in the differentiation of bone marrow cells of both monocyte/macrophage and granulocyte lineages and any change in the ability of these cells to respond to GM-CSF can result in altered immune function. A second set of studies determined space flight effects on the expression of cell surface markers on both spleen and bone marrow cells. Immune cell markers included in this study were those for T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell, and interleukin-2 populations. Variations from a normal cell population percentage, as represented by these markers, can be correlated with alterations in immunological function. Cells were stained with fluorescein-labelled antibodies directed against the appropriate antigens, and then analyzed using a flow cytometer.

  2. Towards a Mathematical Foundation of Immunology and Amino Acid Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.

  3. Immunological consequences of strain variation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tientcheu, Leopold D; Koch, Anastasia; Ndengane, Mthawelenga; Andoseh, Genevieve; Kampmann, Beate; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) globally, making it one of the leading causes of death due to an infectious disease. TB is caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), with human disease resulting from infection by M. tuberculosis sensu stricto and M. africanum. Recent progress in genotyping techniques, in particular the increasing availability of whole genome sequence data, has revealed previously under appreciated levels of genetic diversity within the MTBC. Several studies have shown that this genetic diversity may translate into differences in TB transmission, clinical manifestations of disease, and host immune responses. This suggests the existence of MTBC genotype-dependent host-pathogen interactions which may influence the outcome of infection and progression of disease. In this review, we highlight the studies demonstrating differences in innate and adaptive immunological outcomes consequent on MTBC genetic diversity, and discuss how these differences in immune response might influence the development of TB vaccines, diagnostics and new therapies. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An Endothelial Planar Cell Model for Imaging Immunological Synapse Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Roberta; Carman, Christopher V

    2015-12-24

    Adaptive immunity is regulated by dynamic interactions between T cells and antigen presenting cells ('APCs') referred to as 'immunological synapses'. Within these intimate cell-cell interfaces discrete sub-cellular clusters of MHC/Ag-TCR, F-actin, adhesion and signaling molecules form and remodel rapidly. These dynamics are thought to be critical determinants of both the efficiency and quality of the immune responses that develop and therefore of protective versus pathologic immunity. Current understanding of immunological synapses with physiologic APCs is limited by the inadequacy of the obtainable imaging resolution. Though artificial substrate models (e.g., planar lipid bilayers) offer excellent resolution and have been extremely valuable tools, they are inherently non-physiologic and oversimplified. Vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells have emerged as an important peripheral tissue (or stromal) compartment of 'semi-professional APCs'. These APCs (which express most of the molecular machinery of professional APCs) have the unique feature of forming virtually planar cell surface and are readily transfectable (e.g., with fluorescent protein reporters). Herein a basic approach to implement endothelial cells as a novel and physiologic 'planar cellular APC model' for improved imaging and interrogation of fundamental antigenic signaling processes will be described.

  5. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal. Volume 13, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Society Interna - tional Symposium Digest, pp. 1394-1397, 1996. [2] G. X. Fan and J. M. Jin, "Scattering from a cylin- drically conformal slotted...Italian National Research Council located at Medicina (Bologna, Italy). In Fig. 7, the equivalent magnetic currents at the Fig. 6. Amplitude of the

  6. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  7. Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Salidroside Liposome and Its Immunological Activity on PCV-2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of salidroside liposome with high encapsulation efficiency (EE and to study the immunological enhancement activity of salidroside liposome as porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV-2 vaccine adjuvant. Response surface methodology (RSM was selected to optimize the conditions for the preparation of salidroside liposome using Design-Expert V8.0.6 software. Three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants were prepared to study their adjuvant activity. BALB/c mice were immunized with PCV-2 encapsulated in different kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. The PCV-2-specific IgG in immunized mice serum was determined with ELISA. The results showed that when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 0.26 mol·L−1, ethanol volume 6.5 mL, temperature 43°C, ethanol injection rate 3 mL·min−1, and salidroside liposome could be prepared with high encapsulation efficiency of 94.527%. Salidroside liposome as adjuvant could rapidly induce the production of PCV-2-specific IgG and salidroside liposome I adjuvant proved to provide the best effect among the three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants.

  8. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

  9. Radiobioassays. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on radioimmunoassay. Topics considered include the clinical application of the radioimmunoassay of insulin, the renin-angiotensin system, growth hormone radioimmunoassay, estrogen and progesterone receptor techniques for breast cancer, radioassay in hematology, serum bile acids, the role of gastrin in normal physiology and disease states, tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer, assays of drugs by immunological methods, radioassay in allergy and immunology, radioimmunoassay in cardiovascular disease, and radioimmunoassay in cardiovascular disease, and radioimmunoassays for the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

  10. System Consolidation During Sleep - A Common Principle Underlying Psychological and Immunological Memory Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conv

  11. System consolidation during sleep - a common principle underlying psychological and immunological memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, J.; Lange, T.; Textor, J.C.; Born, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conv

  12. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system....5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein in...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5520 - Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5520 Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5540 Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5530 Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  17. The immunological and virological consequences of planned treatment interruptions in children with HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, N.; Sefe, D.; Mosconi, I.; Zanchetta, M.; Castro, H.; Jacobsen, M.; Jones, H.; Bernardi, S.; Pillay, D.; Giaquinto, C.; Walker, A.S.; Gibb, D.M.; Rossi, A. de; Burger, D.M.; Groot, R. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immunological and viral consequences of planned treatment interruptions (PTI) in children with HIV. DESIGN: This was an immunological and virological sub-study of the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 11 trial, which compared CD4-guided PTI of

  18. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Immunology and Microbiology Devices... proposed that 21 CFR part 866 be amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The...

  19. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Immunology and Microbiology Devices... Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 866 is amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement C3b inactivator immunological test... Systems § 866.5260 Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group...

  1. Immunological Demyelination Triggers Macrophage/Microglial Cells Activation without Inducing Astrogliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Cloutier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The glial scar formed by reactive astrocytes and axon growth inhibitors associated with myelin play important roles in the failure of axonal regeneration following central nervous system (CNS injury. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that immunological demyelination of the CNS facilitates regeneration of severed axons following spinal cord injury. In the present study, we evaluate whether immunological demyelination is accompanied with astrogliosis. We compared the astrogliosis and macrophage/microglial cell responses 7 days after either immunological demyelination or a stab injury to the dorsal funiculus. Both lesions induced a strong activated macrophage/microglial cells response which was significantly higher within regions of immunological demyelination. However, immunological demyelination regions were not accompanied by astrogliosis compared to stab injury that induced astrogliosis which extended several millimeters above and below the lesions, evidenced by astroglial hypertrophy, formation of a glial scar, and upregulation of intermediate filaments glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Moreover, a stab or a hemisection lesion directly within immunological demyelination regions did not induced astrogliosis within the immunological demyelination region. These results suggest that immunological demyelination creates a unique environment in which astrocytes do not form a glial scar and provides a unique model to understand the putative interaction between astrocytes and activated macrophage/microglial cells.

  2. 21 CFR 866.5270 - C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. 866.5270 Section 866.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5270 C-reactive protein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A C-reactive...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5330 - Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system. 866.5330 Section 866.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5330 Factor XIII, A, S, immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A factor XIII, A,...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5380 - Free secretory component immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. 866.5380 Section 866.5380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5380 Free secretory component immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5350 - Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. 866.5350 Section 866.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5350 Fibrinopeptide A immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A fibrinopeptide A...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5775 - Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. 866.5775 Section 866.5775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5775 Rheumatoid factor immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A rheumatoid...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5360 - Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. 866.5360 Section 866.5360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5360 Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction IV...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866.5860 Section 866.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5860 Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A total spinal...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  10. INFLUENCE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY ON CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    T.L. Nastausheva; L.T. Dmitrieva

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and immunological status has been evaluated in 85 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after physiotherapeutic procedures: electrophoresis with dimexid and magnetotherapy. The control group of 31 children did not follow physiotherapeutic procedures. The following results were fixed: clinical indices and immunological status of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have been changed in a larger degree in case of magnetotherapy.

  11. Effects of Low Molecular Weight Yeast β-Glucan on Antioxidant and Immunological Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antioxidant and immune effects of low molecular yeast β-glucan on mice, three sulfated glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sGSCs with different molecular weight (MW and degrees of sulfation (DS were prepared. The structures of the sGSCs were analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography-gel permeation chromatography (HPLC-GPC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. sGSC1, sGSC2, and sGSC3 had MW of 12.9, 16.5 and 19.2 kDa, respectively, and DS of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.27, respectively. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunological activities of the sGSCs. In vitro experiment, the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging activities were determined. In vivo experiment, 50 male BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The sGSC1, sGSC2 and sGSC3 treatment groups received the corresponding sGSCs at 50 mg/kg/day each. The GSC (glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae treatment group received 50 mg/kg/day GSC. The normal control group received equal volume of physiological saline solution. All treatments were administered intragastrically for 14 day. Results showed that sGSC1, sGSC2 and sGSC3 can scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. The strength of the radical scavenging effects of the sGSCs was in the order of sGSC1 > sGSC2 > sGSC3. Oral administration of sGSC1 significantly improved serum catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA level in mice. sGSC1 significantly improved the spleen and thymus indexes and the lymphocyte proliferation, effectively enhanced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, decreased the percentage of CD8+ T cells, and elevated the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. sGSC1 significantly promoted the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ. These results indicate that sGSC1 with low MW and DS has better antioxidant and immunological activities than the other sGSCs, and sGSC1 could

  12. Immunological Mechanisms in the Pathophysiology of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Francque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation and hepatocyte injury and constitutes hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of NASH is complex and implicates cross-talk between different metabolically active sites, such as liver and adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and the liver has been recognized as being an “immunological organ”. The complex role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of NASH is currently raising great interest, also in view of the possible therapeutic potential of immunotherapy in NASH. This review focuses on the disturbances of the cells constituting the innate and adaptive immune system in the liver and in adipose tissue.

  13. Recognizing and managing the immunologic reactions in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sonia; Vaccaro, Seth A; Rea, Thomas H; Ochoa, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Immunologic reactions are an important aspect of leprosy that significantly impacts the course of the disease and the associated disability. Reversal reaction (type 1), erythema nodosum leprosum (type 2), and Lucio phenomenon are the 3 leprosy reactions, and they are most commonly seen in patients with the lepromatous and borderline categories of the disease. Because these forms of leprosy are the most common types seen in the United States, it is particularly important for physicians to be able to recognize and treat them. The reactions may occur before, during, or after treatment with multidrug therapy. Reversal reactions are the most common cause of nerve damage in leprosy, and erythema nodosum leprosum may also lead to neuritis. Although there have not been enough studies to confirm the most effective management regimens, treatment of reversal reaction and Lucio phenomenon with prednisone and of erythema nodosum leprosum with thalidomide and/or prednisone may help improve symptoms and prevent further disability.

  14. Immunological Evaluation of Recent MUC1 Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Kamal Hossain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aberrantly glycosylated mucin 1 (MUC1 is a recognized tumor-specific antigen on epithelial cell tumors. A wide variety of MUC1 glycopeptide anti-cancer vaccines have been formulated by many research groups. Some researchers have used MUC1 alone as an immunogen whereas other groups used different antigenic carrier proteins such as bovine serum albumin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin for conjugation with MUC1 glycopeptide. A variety of adjuvants have been used with MUC1 glycopeptides to improve their immunogenicity. Fully synthetic multicomponent vaccines have been synthesized by incorporating different T helper cell epitopes and Toll-like receptor agonists. Some vaccine formulations utilized liposomes or nanoparticles as vaccine delivery systems. In this review, we discuss the immunological evaluation of different conjugate or synthetic MUC1 glycopeptide vaccines in different tumor or mouse models that have been published since 2012.

  15. Immunological basis in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Spencer P; Kovilam, Oormila; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy poses a great risk to both maternal and fetal health. Despite extensive research, much of the pathogenesis of this disorder is unknown. The increase in bile acids observed in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been noted to cause a change in the immune system from the normally mediated TH2 response to one that is more oriented towards TH1. In this literature review, we have critically reviewed the current literature regarding the changes in the immune system and the potential effects of immunological changes in the management of the patient. The current treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, is also discussed along with potential combination therapies and future directions for research.

  16. Imunologia da hanseníase Immunology of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amaral Mendonça

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A hanseníase é doença crônica infecciosa que se caracteriza por apresentar formas clínicas contrastantes, que são dependentes da interação do bacilo com a resposta imune do hospedeiro. O estudo dos processos imunológicos torna-se fundamental para o entendimento dos mecanismos envolvidos na apresentação e no desenvolvimento da doença. Neste artigo, é revisada a imunopatogênese da hanseníase.Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease characterized by contrasting clinical forms that are dependent on the interactions between the bacillus and the host immune response. Thus, the study of the immunological process is extremely relevant for the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in leprosy presentation and development. In this paper, the immunopathogenesis of leprosy is reviewed.

  17. Elastohydrodynamics and kinetics of protein patterning in the immunological synapse

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The cellular basis for the adaptive immune response during antigen recognition relies on a specialized protein interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). Understanding the biophysical basis for protein patterning by deciphering the quantitative rules for their formation and motion is an important aspect of characterizing immune cell recognition and thence the rules for immune system activation. We propose a minimal mathematical model for the physical basis of membrane protein patterning in the IS, which encompass membrane mechanics, protein binding kinetics and motion, and fluid flow in the synaptic cleft. Our theory leads to simple predictions for the spatial and temporal scales of protein cluster formation, growth and arrest as a function of membrane stiffness, rigidity and kinetics of the adhesive proteins, and the fluid in the synaptic cleft. Numerical simulations complement these scaling laws by quantifying the nucleation, growth and stabilization of proteins domains on the size of the cell. Dire...

  18. LIME mediates immunological synapse formation through activation of VAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoungsun; Park, Inyoung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Rhee, Inmoo; Park, Changwon; Yun, Yungdae

    2012-04-01

    Lck Interacting Membrane protein (LIME) was previously characterized as a transmembrane adaptor protein mediating TCR-dependent T cell activation. Here, we show that LIME associates with Vav in response to TCR stimulation and is required for Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity for Rac1. Consistent with this finding, actin polymerization at the immunological synapse (IS) was markedly enhanced by overexpression of LIME, but was reduced by expression of a LIME shRNA. Moreover, TCR-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1, laminin, or fibronectin was downregulated by expression of LIME shRNA. In addition, in the IS, LIME but not LAT was found to localize at the peripheral-supramolecular activation cluster (p-SMAC) where the integrins were previously shown to be localized. Together, these results establish LIME as a transmembrane adaptor protein linking TCR stimulation to IS formation and integrin activation through activation of Vav.

  19. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis.

  20. BELFAST nonagenarians: nature or nurture? Immunological, cardiovascular and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea I M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonagenarians are the fastest growing sector of populations across Western European and the developed world. They are some of the oldest members of our societies and survivors of their generation and may help us understand how to age not only longer, but better. The Belfast Longevity Group enlisted the help of 500 community-living, mobile, mentally competent, 'elite' nonagenarians, as part of an ongoing study of ageing. We assessed some immunological, cardiovascular, nutritional and genetic factors and some aspects of their interaction in this group of 'oldest old'. Here we present some of the evidence related to genetic and nutritional factors which seem to be important for good quality ageing in nonagenarians from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST.

  1. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  2. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1 epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2 immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage.

  3. SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study immunological indices and functional activity of neutrophils in women with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, as well as their dependence on severity of cervical morphological alterations, we examined sixty-seven female patients in their reproductive age. It was found that, regardless of severity of pathological changes in uterine cervix, the women with HPV infection show decreased numbers of NK cells and CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood, along with increased contents of gd T cells. In cases of combined sub-clinical infection with leukoplakia and endocervicosis, more severe disorders of cellular immunity were detectable than in CIN I and CIN II. It is assumed, that initial neoplastic processes with HPV background are accompanied by a more pronounced immune response. Meanwhile, functional activity of neutrophilic granulocytes varies in an inverse manner, being, generally, increased in common HPV infection, followed by most significant changes in CIN I and CIN II.

  4. Cholera toxin structure, gene regulation and pathophysiological and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Holmgren, J

    2008-05-01

    Many notions regarding the function, structure and regulation of cholera toxin expression have remained essentially unaltered in the last 15 years. At the same time, recent findings have generated additional perspectives. For example, the cholera toxin genes are now known to be carried by a non-lytic bacteriophage, a previously unsuspected condition. Understanding of how the expression of cholera toxin genes is controlled by the bacterium at the molecular level has advanced significantly and relationships with cell-density-associated (quorum-sensing) responses have recently been discovered. Regarding the cell intoxication process, the mode of entry and intracellular transport of cholera toxin are becoming clearer. In the immunological field, the strong oral immunogenicity of the non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has been exploited in the development of a now widely licensed oral cholera vaccine. Additionally, CTB has been shown to induce tolerance against co-administered (linked) foreign antigens in some autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  5. Current Concepts of Immunology and Diagnosis in Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Benson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Current thinking about pathophysiology has shifted away from embolism toward a maternal immune response to the fetus. Two immunologic mechanisms have been studied to date. Anaphylaxis appears to be doubtful while the available evidence supports a role for complement activation. With the mechanism remaining to be elucidated, AFE remains a clinical diagnosis. It is diagnosed based on one or more of four key signs/symptoms: cardiovascular collapse, respiratory distress, coagulopathy, and/or coma/seizures. The only laboratory test that reliably supports the diagnosis is the finding of fetal material in the maternal pulmonary circulation at autopsy. Perhaps the most compelling mystery surrounding AFE is not why one in 20,000 parturients are afflicted, but rather how the vast majority of women can tolerate the foreign antigenic presence of their fetus both within their uterus and circulation?

  6. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  7. Asthma in pregnancy - from immunology to clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamási Lilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is one of the most common chronic medical conditions that may complicate pregnancy. Asthma influences the outcome of pregnancy and, vice versa, pregnancy affects asthma severity, but the underlying immunological mechanisms of this interaction are not fully understood. As a sign of pregnancy-induced immunotolerance, attenuation of allergic responses can be detected in controlled asthmatic pregnant patients; however non controlled asthmatic pregnant women show significant asthma-associated immune reactions that may, beside other factors, influence fetal growth. Generally, although uncontrolled asthma may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, women with well-controlled and adequately treated disease during pregnancy do not develop maternal or fetal complications.

  8. The cellular prion protein: a player in immunological quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Kolltveit Bakkebø

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive studies since the 1990s, the physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC remains elusive. Here, we present a novel concept suggesting that PrPC contributes to immunological quiescence in addition to cell protection. PrPC is highly expressed in diverse organs that by multiple means are particularly protected from inflammation, such as the brain, eye, placenta, pregnant uterus and testes, while at the same time it is expressed in most cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this paradigm, PrPC serves two principal roles: to modulate the inflammatory potential of immune cells and to protect vulnerable parenchymal cells against noxious insults generated through inflammation. Here we review studies of PrPC physiology in view of this concept.

  9. An Immunology-inspired Fault Detection and Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fault detection and identification (FDI approach inspired by the immune system. The salient features of the immune system, such as adaptability, robustness, flexibility, archival memory and distributed cognition abilities, have been the valuable source of inspiration for fundamentally new methods for fault detection and identification. This research makes use of immunological concepts to develop a robust fault detection and identification mechanism, capable of detecting and classifying diverse system faults dynamically. Such an FDI mechanism also has the ability to learn and classify overlapping faults using distributed sensing. Moreover, its detection accuracy can be continuously improved during system operation. As tested by numerical simulations in which faults are represented by overlapping banana functions, the proposed algorithms are adaptive to new types of faults and overlapping faults.

  10. Aptamers Against Immunologic Targets: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Mariya; Timoshenko, Valentina; Vorobjev, Pavel; Venyaminova, Alya

    2016-02-01

    The concept of in vitro selection of nucleic acid aptamers emerged 25 years ago, and since then tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of different aptamers and their applications for various bioanalytical and therapeutic purposes. Among other protein targets of aptamers, immune system proteins are of particular interest both as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. The present review summarizes up-to-date articles concerning the selection and design of DNA and RNA aptamers against immunologic targets such as antibodies, cytokines, and T-cell and B-cell receptors. We also discuss the prospects of employing aptamers as recognizing modules of diagnostic aptasensors, potential therapeutic candidates for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer, and specific tools for functional studies of immune system proteins.

  11. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  12. Immunological aspects in viral hepatitis B and C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Irena; Manea, Cristian Nicolae; Miron, Nicolae; Cristea, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, viral hepatitis chronic infections are a serious health problem and a very interesting topic for both clinicians and researchers. Viral hepatitis has a variety of clinical forms: mild, inactive or severe and with a slow evolution, whose architectural structure of the hepatic tissue evolves towards cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Sometimes, the virally induced hepatic injury evolves spectacularly and rapidly leads to exitus. The factors that generate this evolution pattern depend on the immune response of the host and equally on the viral survival and immune surveillance avoidance strategies. This paper aims to resume new discoveries in the field of immunology of the B and C viral hepatitis infection, from the perspective of the complex interactions between virus and host.

  13. House Dust Mites Confer a Distinct Immunological Feature among Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Baris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well. The mean age was 8.93±5.17 years. HDM-allergic AD emerged as a distinct immunologic phenotype, with higher production of interleukin (IL-4, -5, -2 both at rest and when stimulated by Der p1 or SEB along with higher Th17. As for TH17 cell percentage, it was increased in all AD groups compared to healthy controls, while HDM-allergic group was distinguished with a significantly lower production of IL-17. Patients with sensitizations other than HDM were mostly similar to non-allergic AD, with increased Th17 and CD4+CD69+interferon-gamma (IFN-γ+ T cells percentage. The biopsy of lesional skin showed that HDM-allergic AD had lower IFN-γ and IFN-γ co-expressing CD8+ T cells compared to patients with other sensitizations (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Among the HDM allergic patients, pairwise comparison of lesional versus non-lesional skin revealed higher CD4+ T cells numbers, expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 and T-cell-specific transcription factor (T-bet (p=0.018, p=0.018, p=0.018, respectively. HDM-allergic AD is a distinct subtype with a predominant skewing in Th2 and higher Th17 cell percentage along with a blunted Th1 response in the skin, all of which may have therapeutic implications.

  14. Immunological compatibility between the chacma baboon and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J H; Smit, J A; Neethling, F A; Nortman, P J; Myburgh, J A

    1991-12-01

    Predictions of an increasing shortage of donor organs for the future has led to a resurgence of interest in xenotransplantation. We have methodically assessed the immunological compatibility of humans against the chacma baboon with a view to narrowing the gap of concordance by careful immunological screening. The necessity of major blood group compatibility in xenotransplantation is now established. While no group O universal donor exists in the baboon, groups A (45%), B (15%), and AB (40%) are well represented. Baboon histocompatibility antigens could not be precisely defined using human antisera. This does not necessarily imply lack of homology between the species, as we have shown specific crossreactivity of numerous antihuman monoclonal antibodies with baboon leukocytes. Normal humans do not exhibit preformed agglutinins to erythrocytes of the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus orientalis)) but cytotoxic antibodies are occasionally found. Sera from allosensitized patients may contain crossreacting hemagglutinins, leukoagglutinins and complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies. Binding of human immunoglobulin-G and -M to baboon targets was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Negative crossmatch combinations for antibodies of the IgG subclass were easily found, but IgM antibodies from allosensitized patients were polyspecific in their action. In vitro assessment of lymphocyte mediated cytotoxicity showed that preformed cellular immunity between the species was rare. The response of human lymphocytes to xenoantigen stimulation in mixed lymphocyte cultures showed a normal distribution, permitting the selection of low-responding combinations. Screening for viruses, especially HTLV-1 and Coxsackie-BL34, is important. These findings demonstrate a closer degree of concordance than has previously been suspected.

  15. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  16. Immunological considerations for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Craig J; Bolton, Eleanor M; Bradley, J Andrew

    2011-08-12

    Recent advances in stem cell technology have generated enthusiasm for their potential to study and treat a diverse range of human disease. Pluripotent human stem cells for therapeutic use may, in principle, be obtained from two sources: embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which are capable of extensive self-renewal and expansion and have the potential to differentiate into any somatic tissue, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are derived from differentiated tissue such as adult skin fibroblasts and appear to have the same properties and potential, but their generation is not dependent upon a source of embryos. The likelihood that clinical transplantation of hESC- or iPSC-derived tissues from an unrelated (allogeneic) donor that express foreign human leucocyte antigens (HLA) may undergo immunological rejection requires the formulation of strategies to attenuate the host immune response to transplanted tissue. In clinical practice, individualized iPSC tissue derived from the intended recipient offers the possibility of personalized stem cell therapy in which graft rejection would not occur, but the logistics of achieving this on a large scale are problematic owing to relatively inefficient reprogramming techniques and high costs. The creation of stem cell banks comprising HLA-typed hESCs and iPSCs is a strategy that is proposed to overcome the immunological barrier by providing HLA-matched (histocompatible) tissue for the target population. Estimates have shown that a stem cell bank containing around 10 highly selected cell lines with conserved homozygous HLA haplotypes would provide matched tissue for the majority of the UK population. These simulations have practical, financial, political and ethical implications for the establishment and design of stem cell banks incorporating cell lines with HLA types that are compatible with different ethnic populations throughout the world.

  17. Position of immunological techniques in screening in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There is a continuing increase in the use of immunological techniques in the field of clinical toxicology. This is primarily due to the rapidity by which analytical results are now required, and can be obtained, following the testing of individuals for drug use. There has recently been an increase in the repertoire of assays now available to testing laboratories (e.g., buprenorphine and heroin metabolite assays), with the techniques themselves becoming increasingly more specific for the drugs and/or metabolites being monitored (e.g., methadone metabolite assays). The near patient testing (NPT), or point-of-care testing (POCT), devices are now several generations forward from their inception, with some tests now approaching the sensitivity and specificity of automated laboratory-based methods. This review has been collated from the literature to illustrate some of the possible reasons for the move towards the increasing use of immunological techniques, and to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with such drug screening methods. In particular, it has been shown that it is important to determine, monitor and review the knowledge and training of the individual using the technique. In addition, quality control and quality assessment are paramount to ensure the validity of any drug testing being performed. It has also been shown that it is vital to maintain and develop the relationships between the staff performing the testing, the laboratory (if the testing is performed using NPT devices), and the clinicians utilising the results obtained from drug testing. Without these links, interpretive errors could arise which could adversely affect the diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. Rat Heterotopic Abdominal Heart/Single-lung Transplantation in a Volume-loaded Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Mark J; Wang, Yingjin; Boyd, John H

    2015-05-29

    Herein, we describe a novel technique for heterotopic abdominal heart-lung transplantation (HAHLT) in rats. The configuration of the transplant graft involves anastomosis of donor inferior vena cava (IVC) to recipient IVC, and donor ascending aorta (Ao) to recipient abdominal Ao. The right upper and middle lung lobes are preserved and function as conduits for blood flow from right heart to left heart. There are several advantages to using this technique, and it lends itself to a broad range of applications. Because the graft is transplanted in a configuration that allows for dyamic volume-loading, cardiac function may be directly assessed in vivo. The use of pressure-volume conductance catheters permits characterization of load-dependent and load-independent hemodynamic parameters. The graft may be converted to a loaded configuration by applying a clamp to the recipient's infra-hepatic IVC. We describe modified surgical techniques for both donor and recipient operations, and an ideal myocardial protection strategy. Depending on the experimental aim, this model may be adapted for use in both acute and chronic studies of graft function, immunologic status, and variable ventricular loading conditions. The conducting airways to the transplanted lung are preserved, and allow for acute lung re-ventilation. This facilitates analysis of the effects of the mixed venous and arterial blood providing coronary perfusion to the graft. A limitation of this model is its technical complexity. There is a significant learning curve for new operators, who should ideally be mentored in the technique. A surgical training background is advantageous for those wishing to apply this model. Despite its complexity, we aim to present the model in a clear and easily applicable format. Because of the physiologic similarity of this model to orthotopic transplantation, and its broad range of study applications, the effort invested in learning the technique is likely to be worthwhile.

  19. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  20. DMPD: DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17114416 DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinfl...ml) (.csml) Show DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory resp...onse. PubmedID 17114416 Title DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phospha...tases in control of theinflammatory response. Authors Lang R, Hammer M, Mages J. Publication J Immunol. 2006