WorldWideScience

Sample records for applications long-term performance

  1. Application of aging methods to estimate long term performance of secondary materials for road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarnejad, S.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term performance of secondary materials is becoming a challenging aspect in road construction since due to their benefits they are being used on a large scale, but on the other hand their future behaviors are difficult to estimate. In this study, aging is proposed as a means of exploring the lo

  2. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  3. Long term performance session summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanauer, S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents brief summaries of reports given on plutonium disposal. Topics include: performance of waste forms; glass leaching; ceramic leaching; safeguards and security issues; safeguards of vitrification; and proliferation risks of geologic disposal.

  4. IPO-related organizational change and long-term performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, J.H. von; Witte, M.C. de; Zwaan, A.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Mainstream literature on long-term performance of initial public offerings focuses on long-term underperformance. Because underperformance is an anomalous phenomenon, many authors search for explanations based on financial market imperfections. More recently, however, the attention shifts from under

  5. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  6. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    CERN Document Server

    Peil, Steven; Swanson, Thomas B; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial cesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below $2\\times 10^{-13}$ and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low $10^{-16}$s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing $6\\times 10^{-17}$ at $10^7$~s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of $7.5 \\times 10^{-19}$/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of $1\\times 10^{-13}$ and long-term frequency stability consistent wit...

  7. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance.

  8. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  9. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  10. Long-term performance of motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that motor-operated valves (MOVs) important to safety be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. Despite these requirements, operating experience and research revealed problems with the performance of MOVs in operating nuclear power plants. In response to the concerns about MOV performance, the NRC issued Generic Letter (GL) 89-10, {open_quotes}Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,{close_quotes} and its supplements. Most licensees have completed the aspects of their GL 89-10 programs associated with the review of MOV design bases, verification of MOV switch settings initially, testing of MOVs under design-basis conditions where practicable, and improvement of evaluations of MOV failures and necessary corrective action. Licensees are establishing processes to ensure that the long-term aspects of their MOV programs, such as periodic verification of MOV capability and the trending of MOV problems, are maintained. The NRC staff is developing a generic letter to address periodic verification of MOV design-basis capability.

  11. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  12. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  13. Enhanced Polyhydroxybutyrate Production for Long-Term Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Ryan J.; Rahman, Asif; Miller, Charles D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to polypropylene and a Youngs modulus close to polystyrene. Due to limited resources and cost of transportation, large-scale extraction of biologically produced products in situ is extremely cumbersome during space flight. To that end, we are developing a secretion systems for exporting PHA from the cell in order to reduce unit operations. PHAs granules deposited inside bacteria are typically associated with proteins bound to the granule surface. Phasin, a granule bound protein, was targeted for type I secretion by fusion with HlyA signal peptide for indirect secretion of PHAs. In order to validate our secretion strategy, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tagged to the PHA polymerase enzyme (phaC), this three part gene cassette consists of phaA and phaB and are required for PHA production. Producing PHAs in situ during space flight or planet colonization will enable mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications thereby reducing resupply requirements. Biologically produced PHAs can be used in additive manufacturing such as three dimensional (3D) printing to create products that can be made on demand during space flight. After exceeding their lifetime, the PHAs could be melted and recycled back to 3D print other products. We will discuss some of our long term goals of this approach.

  14. ADCP application for long-term monitoring of coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIOKA Hiroshi; TAKAYAMA Tomotsuka; SERIZAWA Shigeatsu

    2005-01-01

    Three kind of application of ADCP is reported for long-term monitoring in coastal sea.(1)The rourine monitoring of water qualities.The water quality and ADCP echo data (600 kHz) observed in the long-term are analgzed at MT (Marine Tower) Station of Kansai International Airport in the Osaka Bay, Japan. The correlation between the turbidity and echo intensity in the surface layer is not good because air bubbles generated by breaking wave are not detected by the turbidity meter, but detected well by ADCP. When estimating the turbidity consists of plankton population from echo intensity, the effect ofbubbles have to be eliminated. (2) Monitoring stirring up of bottom sediment. The special observation was carded out by using following two ADCP in the Osaka Bay, One ADCP was installed upward on the sea. The other ADCP was hanged downward at the gate type stand about 3 m above from the bottom. At the spring tide, high echo intensities indicating the stirring up of bottom sediment were observed. (3) The monitoring for the boundary condition of water mixing at an estuary. In summer season, the ADCP was set at the mouth of Tanabe Bay in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.During the observation, water temperature near the bottom showed remarkable falls with interval of about 5~7 d. When the bottom temperature fell, the inflow current with low echo intensity water appears at the bottom layer in the ADCP record. It is concluded that when occasional weak northeast wind makes weak coastal upwelling at the mouth of the bay, the combination of upwelling with internal tidal flow causes remarkable water exchange and dispels the red tide.

  15. Long-term effect of tillage and manure application on soil organic fractions and crop performance under Sudano-Sahelian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Ouattara, B.; Sédogo, M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouattara, K.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced degradation of natural resources in general and of soil in particular, is a major problem in many regions, including the Sudano-Sahelian zone. The combined effects of tillage and manure application on Lixisol properties and on crop performance were investigated at Saria, Burkina Faso,

  16. Seismic Performance of Dry Casks Storage for Long- Term Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Luis [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sanders, David [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Pantelides, Chris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long-term seismic performance of freestanding and anchored Dry Storage Casks (DSCs) using experimental tests on a shaking table, as well as comprehensive numerical evaluations that include the cask-pad-soil system. The study focuses on the dynamic performance of vertical DSCs, which can be designed as free-standing structures resting on a reinforced concrete foundation pad, or casks anchored to a foundation pad. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) is initially stored in fuel-storage pools to control the fuel temperature. After several years, the fuel assemblies are transferred to DSCs at sites contiguous to the plant, known as Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs). The regulations for these storage systems (10 CFR 72) ensure adequate passive heat removal and radiation shielding during normal operations, off-normal events, and accident scenarios. The integrity of the DSCs is important, even if the overpack does not breach, because eventually the spent fuel-rods need to be shipped either to a reprocessing plant or a repository. DSCs have been considered as a temporary storage solution, and usually are licensed for 20 years, although they can be relicensed for operating periods of up to 60 years. In recent years, DSCs have been reevaluated as a potential mid-term solution, in which the operating period may be extended for up to 300 years. At the same time, recent seismic events have underlined the significant risks DSCs are exposed. The consideration of DCSs for storing spent fuel for hundreds of years has created new challenges. In the case of seismic hazard, longer-term operating periods not only lead to larger horizontal accelerations, but also increase the relative effect of vertical accelerations that usually are disregarded for smaller seismic events. These larger seismic demands could lead to casks sliding and tipping over, impacting the concrete pad or adjacent casks. The casks

  17. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  18. Hippocampal CA1 Kindling but Not Long-Term Potentiation Disrupts Spatial Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L. Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2006-01-01

    Long-term synaptic enhancement in the hippocampus has been suggested to cause deficits in spatial performance. Synaptic enhancement has been reported after hippocampal kindling that induced repeated electrographic seizures or afterdischarges (ADs) and after long-term potentiation (LTP) defined as synaptic enhancement without ADs. We studied…

  19. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved...clock, rubidium fountain, operational atomic fountain (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction: beyond caesiums ...and masers The performance of atomic clocks has improved more than seven orders of magnitude since the first caesium clock was demonstrated by Essen

  20. Long-term performance of hemofilters in continuous hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, J; Olbricht, C J; Koch, K M

    1996-01-01

    We measured the filter performance of six polyamide hemofilters with a running time exceeding 72 h applied for continuous hemofiltration in intensive care patients. The sieving coefficients for urea and creatinine were close to unity and remained constant. The sieving coefficient of polyfructosan (mean molecular weight 3 kD) was around 0.75 and did not change with running time. The hydraulic permeability remained also unchanged. The relationships between blood pressure and blood flow and between blood flow and filtration rate remained linear, and the gradient did not change with time. We conclude that a daily routine change of polyamide hemofilters applied in continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and presumably in continuous venovenous hemofiltration is not necessary within the first 72 h of treatment, unless a major decrease in the filtration rate occurs.

  1. 78 FR 44937 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 104,250,000 million... Granting Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel Pursuant to the Long-Term Contract...

  2. 75 FR 62512 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... September 7, 2010, by Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass), requesting long-term, multi-contract... from the date of issuance of the requested authorization. Sabine Pass seeks authorization to export...

  3. First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, H; Danzmann, K; Dooley, K L; Schnabel, R; Slutsky, J; Vahlbruch, H

    2013-05-03

    We report on the first long-term application of squeezed vacuum states of light to improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a gravitational-wave observatory. In particular, squeezed vacuum was applied to the German-British detector GEO 600 during a period of three months from June to August 2011, when GEO 600 was performing an observational run together with the French-Italian Virgo detector. In a second period, the squeezing application continued for about 11 months from November 2011 to October 2012. During this time, squeezed vacuum was applied for 90.2% (205.2 days total) of the time that science-quality data were acquired with GEO 600. A sensitivity increase from squeezed vacuum application was observed broadband above 400 Hz. The time average of gain in sensitivity was 26% (2.0 dB), determined in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.0 kHz. This corresponds to a factor of 2 increase in the observed volume of the Universe for sources in the kHz region (e.g., supernovae, magnetars). We introduce three new techniques to enable the long-term application of squeezed light, and show that the glitch rate of the detector did not increase from squeezing application. Squeezed vacuum states of light have arrived as a permanent application, capable of increasing the astrophysical reach of gravitational-wave detectors.

  4. First Long-Term Application of Squeezed States of Light in a Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, H; Dooley, K L; Schnabel, R; Slutsky, J; Vahlbruch, H

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on the first long-term application of squeezed vacuum states of light to improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a gravitational-wave observatory. In particular, squeezed vacuum was applied to the German/British detector GEO600 during a period of three months from June to August 2011, where GEO600 was performing an observational run together with the French/Italian Virgo detector. Then, after a short interruption, squeezing application continued for about 11 months from November 2011 to October 2012. During this time, squeezed vacuum could be applied for 90.2% (205.2 days total) of the time when science-quality data was acquired with GEO\\,600. The average gain in sensitivity from squeezed vacuum application in this period was 26% (2.0dB), as measured in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.0kHz, corresponding to a factor of two increase in observed volume of the universe. We show that the glitch-rate of the detector did not increase from squeezing application, confirming the long-term...

  5. Application of Telemedicine Technologies to Long Term Spaceflight Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. I.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    projects on space biology and medicine at the modern high level. In spite of the ISS international cooperation transparency space research programs require to follow the biomedicine ethics and provide confidentiality of the special medical information exchange. That can be achieved in the telemedicine support system built on the network principle. Presently we have all technical facilities needed to create such a system. In Russia activities on space telemedicicine support improvement are carried out by the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mission Control Center of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Space Biomedical Center for Training and Research and Yu. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Communications development and next generation Internet systems creation almost eliminate differences in the types of information technologies implementation both in the earth-based and near-earth space conditions. In prospect of the information community creation the telecommunication system of the near-earth space objects and its telemedicine element will become a natural part of the Earth unified information field that will open unlimited perspectives for flight support system improvement and space biomedical research conducting. Russia has unique data of numerous investigations on simulation of long, up to a year, effects of space flight factors on the human body. The sphere of situations studied by space medicine specialists embraced orbit manned space flights of the escalating duration (438 days in 1995). However a number of biomedical problems related to space flights didn't face optimal solutions. It's evident that during a space flight to Mars biomedical problems will be much more difficult in comparison with those of the orbit flights of the same duration. The summed up factors of such flights specify a level of the total medical risk that require assessment and application of

  6. Rodent model for assessing the long term safety and performance of peripheral nerve recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Patel, Kunal; Welle, Cristin

    2017-02-01

    near the implanted electrode shanks, along with dense cellular accumulations near the implant site. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed alterations of the electrode insulation and deformation of electrode shanks. Significance. We describe a comprehensive testing platform with applicability to electrodes that record from the peripheral nerves. This study assesses the long term safety and performance of electrodes in the peripheral nerves using a rodent model. Under this animal test platform, FMA electrodes record single unit action potentials but have limited chronic reliability due to structural weaknesses. Future work will apply these methods to other commercially-available and novel peripheral electrode technologies. This research was carried out in the Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratory, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.

  7. Effects of long-term blindness on preparatory emg modulation in humans performing landing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effect of blindness on the task of leaping down to a lower landing surface, five blind individuals were compared with 10 sighted individuals who performed landing movements with and without sight. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights, during which the prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude in four lower-limb muscles were recorded. Analysis showed that blind individuals showed specific prelanding EMG modulation, suggesting that long-term dependence on somesthetic and vestibular cues leads to different preparatory measures for vertical falls.

  8. Intervention Program for Long-Term English Learners: A Study of Long-Term English Learners' Literacy Performance in a Reading Intervention Program at Falcon School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory embedded mixed methods study was to: (a) investigate and describe the academic performance of eighth grade students in the Falcon School District (FSD) who were designated as Long Term English Learners (LTELs) and participants in FSD's reading intervention program during their fourth through eighth grade…

  9. Long term performance of particulate air-filter in an office environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Iqbal, Ahsan; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present article is based on initial findings of an ongoing study. The objective of present study is to analyse the long term performance of an air particulate filter with and without ionizer. To study the performance of the air filters, a test rig was built in the Danish Building Research Ins...

  10. Robotic Observatory System Design-Specification Considerations for Achieving Long-Term Sustainable Precision Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. D.

    2003-05-01

    The robotic observatory telescope must point precisely on the target object, and then track autonomously to a fraction of the FWHM of the system PSF for durations of ten to twenty minutes or more. It must retain this precision while continuing to function at rates approaching thousands of observations per night for all its years of useful life. These stringent requirements raise new challenges unique to robotic telescope systems design. Critical design considerations are driven by the applicability of the above requirements to all systems of the robotic observatory, including telescope and instrument systems, telescope-dome enclosure systems, combined electrical and electronics systems, environmental (e.g. seeing) control systems and integrated computer control software systems. Traditional telescope design considerations include the effects of differential thermal strain, elastic flexure, plastic flexure and slack or backlash with respect to focal stability, optical alignment and angular pointing and tracking precision. Robotic observatory design must holistically encapsulate these traditional considerations within the overall objective of maximized long-term sustainable precision performance. This overall objective is accomplished through combining appropriate mechanical and dynamical system characteristics with a full-time real-time telescope mount model feedback computer control system. Important design considerations include: identifying and reducing quasi-zero-backlash; increasing size to increase precision; directly encoding axis shaft rotation; pointing and tracking operation via real-time feedback between precision mount model and axis mounted encoders; use of monolithic construction whenever appropriate for sustainable mechanical integrity; accelerating dome motion to eliminate repetitive shock; ducting internal telescope air to outside dome; and the principal design criteria: maximizing elastic repeatability while minimizing slack, plastic deformation

  11. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesli Avgan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265 and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003 in a small cohort (n = 181 comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II. VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006 that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance.

  12. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Spriggens, Lauren K.; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M.; Shum, David H. K.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance. PMID:28304362

  13. Long-term Performance of MSWI Bottom Ash in a Test Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Christian Frogner-Kockum; Jan Erik Lindqvist

    2016-01-01

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, whic...

  14. 77 FR 10732 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced Liquefied Natural... notice of receipt of an application (Application), filed on December 21, 2011, by Cameron LNG, LLC... annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) (equivalent to approximately...

  15. Cognitive performance and poor long-term functional outcome after young stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synhaeve, N.E.; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Arntz, R.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.; Kort, P.L. de; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cognitive performance on long-term functional outcome after ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults aged 18 through 50 years (young IS). METHODS: This study is part of a prospective cohort study among 277 stroke survivors with a young IS admitted to our depart

  16. Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

  17. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hevinga, M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. METHODS: Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants befor

  18. Sustainability of teacher expectation bias effects on long-term student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, R.J.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. The

  19. Influence of misaligned parents’ aspirations on long-term student academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; van der Werf, Margaretha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of misaligned parents’ aspirations, its relationship with student background characteristics, and its effects on long-term student performance. It is defined as the difference between parents’ educational ambitions for their child and the child's actual capacities

  20. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive perform

  1. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Study Design Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. Results There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. Conclusion The results of the present study did not

  2. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Chau, T. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  3. The Long-term Performance Analysis for On-board Atomic Clocks of BDS

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Yupu; LÜ Zhiping; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has begun to provide regional services since the end of 2012. It plays an important role in analyzing the long-term performance of BDS satellite clocks in evaluating the performance of the whole system, determining and predicting satellite clock bias (SCB) etc. Precise satellite clock data products derived from multi-satellite orbit determination are used to conduct the performance analysis of BDS satellite clocks. Specifically, the characteristics of ...

  4. Long-Term Evaluation of SSL Field Performance in Select Interior Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This GATEWAY project evaluated four field installations to better understand the long-term performance of a number of LED products, which can hopefully stimulate improvements in designing, manufacturing, specifying, procuring, and installing LED products. Field studies provide the opportunity to discover and investigate issues that cannot be simulated or uncovered in a laboratory, but the installed performance over time of commercially available LED products has not been well documented. Improving long-term performance can provide both direct energy savings by reducing the need to over-light to account for light loss and indirect energy savings through better market penetration due to SSL’s competitive advantages over less-efficient light source technologies. The projects evaluated for this report illustrate that SSL use is often motivated by advantages other than energy savings, including maintenance savings, easier integration with control systems, and improved lighting quality.

  5. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 91,250,000 million.... 3307, Order Granting Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel Pursuant to the...

  6. Long term bending behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Alexandru BARBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike normal concrete (NC the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC is different under long-term efforts, if we refer to creep, shrinkage or long-term deflections. It is well known that UHPC has special properties, like compressive strength higher than 150 MPa and tensile strength higher than 20 MPa - in case of UHPC reinforced with steel-fibers. Nevertheless, UHPC behavior is not completely elucidated in what concerns creep straining or serviceability behavior in case of structural elements. Some studies made on UHPC samples shown that creep is significantly reduced if the concrete is subjected to heat treatment and if it contains steel-fiber reinforcement. Relating thereto, it is important to know how does structural elements made of this type of concrete works in service life under long-term loadings. The results obtained on UHPC samples, regarding creep straining from tension or compression efforts may not be generalized in case of structural elements (e.g. beams, slabs, columns subjected to bending. By performing this study, it was aimed to understand the influence of heat treatment and steel-fiber addition on the rheological phenomena of UHPC bended beams.

  7. Long term modelling in a second rank world: application to climate policies; Modeliser le long terme dans un monde de second rang: application aux politiques climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crassous, R

    2008-11-15

    This research aims at the identification of the dissatisfaction reasons with respect to the existing climate models, at the design of an innovating modelling architecture which would respond to these dissatisfactions, and at proposing climate policy assessment pathways. The authors gives a critique assessment of the modelling activity within the field of climate policies, outlines the fact that the large number and the scattering of existing long term scenarios hides a weak control of uncertainties and of the inner consistency of the produced paths, as well as the very low number of modelling paradigms. After a deepened analysis of modelling practices, the author presents the IMACLIM-R modelling architecture which is presented on a world scale and includes 12 areas and 12 sectors, and allows the simulation of evolutions by 2050, and even 2100, with a one-year time step. The author describes a scenario without any climate policy, highlights reassessment possibilities for economical trajectories which would allow greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation on a long term basis through the application of IMACLIM-R innovations. He outlines adjustment and refinement possibilities for climate policies which would robustly limit the transition cost risks.

  8. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eKuhbandner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one third of the words were tested and one third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After one week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  9. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  10. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  11. The Long-term Performance Analysis for On-board Atomic Clocks of BDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yupu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS has begun to provide regional services since the end of 2012. It plays an important role in analyzing the long-term performance of BDS satellite clocks in evaluating the performance of the whole system, determining and predicting satellite clock bias (SCB etc. Precise satellite clock data products derived from multi-satellite orbit determination are used to conduct the performance analysis of BDS satellite clocks. Specifically, the characteristics of SCB data are discussed by using a proposed modified median absolute deviation (MAD to preprocess original SCB data. Long-term variations of satellite clocks' phase, frequency, frequency drift and model noise level are analyzed based on the quadratic polynomial SCB model. Frequency stability of BDS satellite clocks is calculated and discussed based on Overlapping Hadamard Variance. Periodicity of BDS SCB is analyzed by using spectral analysis method. Integrating the above mentioned discussions and corresponding experiment results, the long-term performance of BDS satellite clocks is relatively comprehensively evaluated and analyzed. In addition, some valuable conclusions are obtained. For example, in the aspects of noise characteristics and clock drift, the performance of MEO satellite clocks is the best, followed by the IGSO satellite clocks, and the GEO satellite clocks' performance is the worst. The average values of noise level and frequency drift of BDS satellite clocks are respectively 0.677 ns and 1.922×10-18. There are also obvious periodic terms in BDS SCB data derived from multi-satellite orbit determination and their primary periods are approximate equal or one-half to the corresponding satellite orbit periods. The average value of frequency stability of BDS satellite clocks is 1.484×10-13.

  12. Evaluation of the long-term sound reduction performance of resilient materials in floating floor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Jeongho

    2016-03-01

    Building multi-dwelling units is one of the practical engineering solutions to housing shortage in urban areas with high population density. However, noise from upstairs is a major issue. The use of resilient materials in floating floor structures is recognized as an effective method to reduce such noise. In general, soft materials are considered as better resilient materials due to their superior performance in impact sound reduction. However, it is often overlooked that the sound reduction performance of soft resilient materials is susceptible to being degraded over time when subjected to a long-term load. In this study, the long-term performance of eight resilient materials is evaluated by monitoring their dynamic stiffness for 270 days under the two sustained load conditions: 250 N and 500 N. According to the experimental study, the dynamic stiffness increases consistently with loading time for all resilient materials. This leads to a decrease in the sound reduction performance. More rapid reduction in the dynamic stiffness and hence in the sound reduction performance is observed when a larger sustained load is applied. A greater decrease in the sound reduction performance is found in soft resilient materials.

  13. An Account of Performance in Accessing Information Stored in Long-Term Memory. A Fixed-Links Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…

  14. Sustainable long-term intensive application of manure to sandy soils without phosphorus leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asomaning, Samuel K.; Abekoe, Mark K.; Dowuona, G.N.N.;

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of manure to sandy soils to ensure high crop productivity may lead to phosphorus (P) leaching, which, in turn, may deteriorate the quality of recipient waters because of eutrophication. The risk of P leaching depends on contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides that are......Long-term application of manure to sandy soils to ensure high crop productivity may lead to phosphorus (P) leaching, which, in turn, may deteriorate the quality of recipient waters because of eutrophication. The risk of P leaching depends on contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides...... be environmentally sustainable. This hypothesis has been tested on soils formed on beach sand at Keta, Ghana, which have been used since the 1930s for intensive cultivation based on manure application. Soil samples were collected from different depths down to 80 cm in profile pits on cultivated soils that received...... soils, whereas in the deepest soil layers the P contents in the cultivated and uncultivated soils were almost the same indicating very limited downward P transport despite long-term manure application. This was supported by comparable P concentrations in groundwater taken under cultivated...

  15. Evaluation of Long Term Behaviour of Polymers for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gac P.-Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers and composites are very attractive for underwater applications, but it is essential to evaluate their long term behaviour in sea water if structural integrity of offshore structures is to be guaranteed. Accelerated test procedures are frequently required, and this paper will present three examples showing how the durability of polymers, in the form of fibres, matrix resins in fibre reinforced composites for structural elements, and thermal insulation coatings of flow-lines, have been evaluated for offshore use. The influence of the ageing medium, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure will be discussed first, then an example of the application of ageing test results to predict long term behavior of the thermal insulation coating of a flowline will be presented.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Soto, Rafael; Martian, Pete; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2003-02-01

    , the INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, S. J.; Jacobson, J. J.; Martian, P.; Martineau, R.; Soto, R.

    2003-02-25

    . Thus, the INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

  18. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solaron (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron Corporation air-type solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Solaron Model 2001, air-type solar collector has a gross area of 19 square feet and the weight is 160 pounds. The absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of 1/8-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 5/8-inch fiberglass batting.

  19. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced Liquefied... application (Application), filed on January 10, 2012, by Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC (Gulf Coast), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  20. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [Rust Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Sciences Lab.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunter, C.R. [Cascade Earth Sciences, La Grande, OR (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  1. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N.; Szuchmacher Blum, Amy; Soto, Carissa M.; Whitley, Jessica L.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Chatterji, Anju; Lin, Tianwei; Johnson, John E.; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Ratna, Banahalli R.

    2008-03-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  2. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  3. 78 FR 13330 - Pangea LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC; Application for Long- Term Authorization To Export Liquefied... (Application) filed on December 19, 2012, by Pangea LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC (Pangea), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in...

  4. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance.

  5. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...... of a fat-rich diet decreases the storage of glycogen in both muscle and liver. Therefore, training intensity may be compromised in individuals while consuming a fat-rich diet. During submaximal exercise, fat for oxidation in muscle is recruited from plasma fatty acids, plasma triacylglycerol, and muscle...

  6. Long Term Performance Studies of Large Oil-Free Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Rajesh; Shiroya, Mehul Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Ahammed, Zubayer; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) in the INO experiment, India and the near detector in DUNE at Fermilab are two such examples. A (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) bakelite RPC has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for $>$ 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It showed an efficiency $>$ 95$\\%$ with an average time resolution of $\\sim$0.83 ns at the point of measurement at 9000 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have be...

  7. Effect of modafinil on learning performance and neocortical long-term potentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Flores, Osvaldo; Puentes, Gustavo; Morgan, Carlos; Gatica, Arnaldo; Cofré, Christian; Hernández, Alejandro; Laurido, Claudio; Constandil, Luis

    2010-10-30

    Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent whose effects on cognitive performance have begun to be addressed at both preclinical and clinical level. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the effects of chronic modafinil administration on cognitive performance by evaluating: (i) working and reference memories in an Olton 4×4 maze, and (ii) learning of a complex operant conditioning task in a Skinner box. In addition, the effect of modafinil on the ability of the rat frontal cortex to develop long-term potentiation (LTP) was also studied. Chronic modafinil did not significantly modify working memory errors but decreased long-term memory errors on the Olton 4×4 maze, meaning that the drug may have a favourable profile on performance of visuo-spatial tasks (typically, a hippocampus-dependent task) when chronically administered. On the other hand, chronic modafinil resulted in a marked decrease of successful responses in a complex operant conditioning learning, which means that repeated administration of the drug influences negatively problem-solving abilities when confronting the rat to a sequencing task (typically, a prefrontal cortex-dependent task). In addition, in vivo electrophysiology showed that modafinil resulted in impaired capacity of the rat prefrontal cortex to develop LTP following tetanization. It is concluded that modafinil can improve the performance of spatial tasks that depend almost exclusively on hippocampal functioning, but not the performance in tasks including a temporal factor where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The fact that modafinil together with preventing operant conditioning learning was also able to block LTP induction in the prefrontal cortex, suggests that the drug could interfere some critical component required for LTP can be developed, thereby altering neuroplastic capabilities of the prefrontal cortex.

  8. Evaluation of long-term visual performance following AcrySof ReSTOR lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-e; LI Jun-hua; ZHU Jun; WANG Dan-dan; WANG Qin-mei

    2009-01-01

    Background Multifocal lens has become popular in cataract surgery. Short-term outcome after AcrySof ReSTOR Lens implantation had been reported by many studies, but long-term visual performance and the effect of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) on visual performance need further investigation.Methods This retrospective study involved 54 eyes from 41 cataract patients implanted with ReSTOR lens, with a follow-up period of 12 to 31 months. Manifest refraction spherical equivalence (MRSE), monocular uncorrected and best-corrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected and distance-corrected near and intermediate visual acuity, contrast sensitivity were assessed. The effect of PCO on visual performance was evaluated by comparing visual parameters between pre and post-capsulotomy.Results Uncorrected distance visual acuity of eyes with MRSE within ±0.5 diopter (D) was better than those with MRSE greater than ±0.5 D (P <0.05). Uncorrected distance and near visual acuity (LogMAR) was 0.10 and 0.17 respectively.Best corrected distance visual acuity and best distance-corrected near visual acuity (LogMAR) was 0.00 and 0.16, a significant improvement was noted after correction (P=0.000, P=0.001, respectively). Contrast sensitivity logarithm was comparable with the normal value at difference spatial frequencies except at 12 cpd. In 5 eyes with mild PCO,post-capsulotomy visual parameters were better than pre-capsulotomy (P<0.05).Conclusion ReSTOR lens provides a good long-term distance and near vision, functional intermediate vision and contrast sensitivity. Mild PCO significantly affects visual performance and needs early intervention.

  9. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  10. Geochemical modelling for predicting the long-term performance of zeolite-PRB to treat lead contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri-Nyarko, Franklin; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta; Malina, Grzegorz; Kasela, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb(2+)) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV=ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb(2+), considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca(2+) for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV=250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers.

  11. Geochemical modelling for predicting the long-term performance of zeolite-PRB to treat lead contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri-Nyarko, Franklin; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta; Malina, Grzegorz; Kasela, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb2 +) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV = ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb2+, considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, and K+) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca2 + for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV = 250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers.

  12. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzubov, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Denisov, D. [Fermilab; Evdokimov, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Lipaev, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Shchukin, A. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Vasilyev, I. [Serpukhov, IHEP

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  13. Long-term effects of the transient COD concentration on the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, S; Gonzalez Del Campo, A; Lobato, J; Rodrigo, M; Cañizares, P; Fernandez-Morales, F J

    2016-07-08

    In this work, the long-term effects of transient chemical oxygen demands (COD) concentrations over the performance of a microbial fuel cell were studied. From the obtained results, it was observed that the repetitive change in the COD loading rate during 12 h conditioned the behavior of the system during periods of up to 7 days. The main modifications were the enhancement of the COD consumption rate and the exerted current. These enhancements yielded increasing Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) when working with COD concentrations of 300 mg/L, but constant CEs when working with COD concentrations from 900 to 1800 mg/L. This effect could be explained by the higher affinity for the substrate of Geobacter than that of the nonelectrogenic organisms such as Clostridia. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:883-890, 2016.

  14. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Sunworks single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The sunworks collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder, and is coated with Enthon selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 similar to .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 similar to .20. It has a single glass cover of 3/16 inches tempered glass and weighs about 115 pounds. The overall dimensions of the collector are 36 x 84 x 4 inches.

  15. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  16. 77 FR 70161 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with....S. manufactured aircraft under operating lease from the United States to South Korea and...

  17. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From..., by Barca LNG LLC (Barca), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  18. 77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC (GLLC), requesting long-term, multi... liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of approximately 547.5 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural...

  19. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... January 10, 2013, by Trunkline LNG Export, LLC (TLNG Export), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15...

  20. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  1. Long-term performance of landfill covers - results of lysimeter test fields in Bavaria (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken-Mellies, Wolf-Ulrich; Schweizer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season. The three-layer systems of the two other test fields performed much better. Most of the water which percolated through the top soil profile drained sideways in the drainage layer. Only 1-3% of precipitation percolated through the sealing layer. The long-term effectiveness of the mineral sealing layer depended on the ability of the top soil layer to protect it from critical loss of soil water/critical increase of suction. In dry summers there was even a loss in soil water content at the base of the 2.0 m thick soil cover. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the long-term aspect when assessing the effectiveness of landfill covers: The hydraulic conductivity at the time of construction gives only an initial (minimum) value. The hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay layer or of the geosynthetic clay liner may increase substantially, if there is no long-lasting protection against desiccation (by a thick soil cover or by a geomembrane). This has to be taken into account in landfill cover design.

  2. Long-term Performance of MSWI Bottom Ash in a Test Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christian Frogner-Kockum

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a

  3. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  4. Long-term performance data and analysis of CIS/CIGS modules deployed outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S.; Kroposki, B.; Anderberg, A.

    2008-08-01

    The long-term performance data of copper indium diselenide (CIS) and gallium-alloyed CIS (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules are investigated to assess the reliability of this technology. We study and report on numerous PV modules acquired from two manufacturers (A and B), deployed at NREL's outdoor test facility (OTF) in various configurations in the field: some are free standing, loaded with a fixed resistance and periodically tested indoors at STC; other modules are connected to data acquisition systems with their performance continuously monitored. Performance is characterized using current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained either at standard test conditions or under real-time monitoring conditions: the power parameters plus other factors relating to quality like diode quality factors or series resistance are analyzed for changes against time. Using standard diode analysis to determine the sources of degradation indicates that CIS modules can exhibit between moderate and negligible degradation, with the dominant loss mode being fill factor declines along with decreases in open-circuit voltage, for illumination intensities near 1-sun. At lower intensities, current losses can appear appreciable. The real-time performance data also indicate that fill factor loss is the primary degradation mode, generally as a result of increases in series resistance.

  5. Long-Term Stable Organic Photodetectors with Ultra Low Dark Currents for High Detectivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Marcin; Dhez, Olivier; Pecastaings, Gilles; Curutchet, Arnaud; Hirsch, Lionel

    2016-12-01

    Printed organic photodetectors can transform plastic, paper or glass into smart surfaces. This innovative technology is now growing exponentially due to the strong demand in human-machine interfaces. To date, only niche markets are targeted since organic sensors still present reduced performances in comparison with their inorganic counterparts. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer a state-of-the-art organic photodetector approaching the performances of Si-based photodiodes in terms of dark current, responsivity and detectivity. Only three solution-processed layers and two low-temperature annealing steps are needed to achieve the performance that is significantly better than most of the organic photodetectors reported so far. We also perform a long-term ageing study. Lifetimes of over 14,000 hours under continuous operation are more than promising and demonstrate that organic photodetectors can reach a competitive level of stability for successful commercialization of this new and promising technology.

  6. Effect of porous YSZ scaffold microstructure on the long-term performance of infiltrated Ni-YSZ anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Kammampata, Sanoop P.; Birss, Viola I.

    2015-08-01

    Ni infiltration into porous YSZ scaffolds is a promising route for the construction of high performing and redox-stable Ni-YSZ anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the long-term instability of this type of anode is a critical problem. Here, it is shown that an interconnected Ni film, rather than discrete Ni particles, can be formed inside a porous, pre-sintered YSZ scaffold by using a polymeric Ni-based precursor as the infiltration medium. To understand the effect of the YSZ microstructure on the long-term stability and the electrochemical performance of the resulting composites, two types of Ni-YSZ anodes were investigated. Anodes prepared by polymeric Ni infiltration into a YSZ scaffold with large grains (0.5 μm) and pores (0.5 μm and 5 μm) showed extensive agglomeration in the Ni phase, resulting in poor stability and poor activity. In contrast, Ni infiltration into YSZ scaffolds with finer particle and pore sizes (∼200 nm each) produced anodes with a very small polarization resistance of ca. 0.1 Ω cm2 per electrode at 800 °C. An increase of only ∼5% was seen in the resistance after ca. 110 h at this temperature, achieved by preventing Ni agglomeration.

  7. Mental and physical performance of dementia patients in long-term residential care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dementia syndromes are an increasing medical and social problem in today’s world. Preservation of the best possible quality of life in dementia patients relies on prolonging their independence in daily life for as long as possible. Dementia patients require increasing support as the disease progresses and will ultimately become dependent on the help of others. Aim of the research: To assess the level of mental and physical performance and nutritional status in patients with dementia syndromes in long-term residential care. Material and methods : The study group comprised 62 patients with dementia syndromes resident in a Medical and Nursing Care Facility in Pustków. Selected aspects of quality of life were investigated with the Barthel scale, GDS scale according to Reissberg, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS and Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA scale. Results: In our study men performed better than women on the Barthel scale, 58% of all patients were rated moderately severe on that scale, 36% were severe and 7% were mild. Assessment of the current severity of dementia on the GDS scale showed that 28% of the patients had very severe dementia, 27% had mild deficits, 27% had moderate deficits, 11% had moderately severe dementia and 6% had borderline dementia. In a mental state assessment according to the AMTS scale, men scored higher than women. This difference indicates less memory deficit and better psychological and physical status among men. With regard to nutritional status, our study revealed a risk of malnutrition in 65% of the patient and actual malnutrition in 7%. Conclusions : The Barthel scale, rating the performance of dementia patients with regard to activities of daily life, classified more than half of the patients as „moderately severe”. Women had lower mean scores than men in the Barthel scale, AMTS scale and GDS scale, indicating that dementia is more prevalent among women than among men. The findings of the

  8. The application of event-tree based approach in long-term crude oil scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of optimal operation in long-term crude oil scheduling,which involves unloading crude oil from vessels,transferring it to charging tanks and feeding it to the distillation units.The application of a new approach for modeling and optimization of long-term crude oil scheduling is presented and the event-tree based modeling method that is very different from mathematical programming is employed.This approach is developed on the basis of natural language modeling and continuous time representation.Event triggered rules,decomposition strategy,depth-first search algorithm and pruning strategy are adopted to improve the efficiency of searching the optimum solution.This approach is successfully applied to an industrial-size problem over a horizon of 4 weeks,involving 7 vessels,6 storage tanks,6 charging tanks,2 crude oil distillation units,and 6 crude oil types.The CPU (AMD 3000+,2.0GHz) solving time is less than 70 seconds.

  9. Long-Term Emission Factors for Land Application of Treated Organic Municipal Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    The agro-ecosystem model Daisy was used to explore the long-term fate of nitrogen (N) after land application of compost and digestate (based on source separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW)). The cumulative crop N yield response and emissions for mineral fertilizer (MF), anaerobically...... digested organic waste (MSW-D), and composted organic waste (MSW-C) were derived by fitting a linear mixed model to the outcomes of the simulations. The non-linearity of crop N yield responses and emission responses to increasing N fertilizer application was addressed by dividing these responses into high...... and low crop response conditions. The crop N yield response and five emission pathways (NO3− leaching to groundwater, NO3− and NH4+ loss to surface water, and NH3 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere) were quantified as environmental inventory factors, which were calculated for both high and low response...

  10. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater-surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote-control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid-independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  11. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  12. Major nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs in soils after long-term sewage sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Ren, Jing; Shen, Libo; Wang, Songfeng; Luo, Yongming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Cheng, Miaomiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Two contrasting soils receiving long-term application of commercial sewage sludge fertilizers in China were investigated to determine the concentrations of selected nutrients, heavy metals (HMs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) present to evaluate the impact of sewage sludge fertilizer on soil fertility and environmental risk. Materials and methods: Soil samples were collected from Tangshan City, Hebei province and Ningbo City, Zhejiang province and divided into two portions, one of which was air-dried and sieved through 2-, 0.25- and 0.149-mm nylon mesh for determination of nutrients and heavy metals. The other portion was frozen at -20 C, freeze-dried and sieved through 2-mm nylon mesh for PBDE analysis. The concentrations of nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs were determined in all samples. Results and discussion: Concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in soils amended with low rates of sewage sludge fertilizer (SSF) and conventional fertilizer were compared. After long-term excessive amendment with SSF from Ningbo City (SSF-N), the concentrations of soil total N, P, aqua regia-extractable HMs and DTPA extractable HMs were higher than the control, especially in the arable layer. Moreover, the concentration of aqua regia-extractable Zn (457 mg kg{sup -1}) exceeded the recommended China Environmental Quality Standard for soils (GB15618-1995). All 8 target PBDE congeners were found in fertilizer SSF-N and soil with excessive amendment with SSF-N for 12 years, but the concentrations of 8 different PBDEs in SSF-N-amended soil were not significantly different from control soil. Conclusions: Both economic and environmental benefits can be obtained by careful application of sewage sludge fertilizer to recycle plant nutrients. Repeated and excessive application rates of sewage sludge fertilizer may pose environmental risk, especially in respect of soil heavy metal and PBDE contamination, and high concentrations of phosphorus may also be

  13. Long-term Performance of Moderate Heat Portland Cement with Double-expansive Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; CHEN Huxing; KONG Deyu; WANG Shangxian; LOU Zonghan

    2007-01-01

    The long-term performance of moderate heat Portland cement with double-expansive sources (DE cement) in the system of high MgO clinker and gypsum was studied by XRD, SEM/EDAX and test methods for strength and expansion of cement. Results indicate that the periclase particle, whose size was 5-7.5 μm in DE cement clinker containing 4.8 % MgO, existed individually. The periclase hydration in hardened DE cement paste started at about 60 days and completed up to 2 000 days, and ettringite in the paste was stable from 3 days to 2 000 days. Under the conditions of 4.5%-5.0 % MgO in clinker and 2.8%-3.4 %SO3 in cement,ettringite expansion and brucite expansion in DE cement paste had a continuity, entirety and stability. At the ages of 90, 365, 730 and 2 000 days the expansion of the paste reached 0.07%-0.11%, 0.16%-0.21%, 0.21%-0.27% and 0.29%-0.38 %, respectively. The results suggest that by using this cement in mass concrete it may compensate its temperature shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage to some extent.

  14. [Pay for performance (P4P). Long-term effects and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, M; Gültekin, N

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of experience and research, a wide array of results on evaluation and long-term effects of pay for performance (P4P) programs have been published. These data do not only give insight into most of the problems of implementation, but also into aspects which, in part, may attenuate the high expectations at the beginning of the discussion. P4P programs exhibit a ceiling effect, some improvements are reversed after incentives are cancelled, and improvements show opportunity costs as absent improvements for indicators, which are not object to financial incentives (in some cases for the same disease). These observations can be explained by the hypothesis that P4P programs have characteristics of fee-for-service reimbursement, if symmetric information is available for insurance and provider. P4P programs are local instruments. While integration of healthcare is considered as an important issue, they should be combined with programs and incentives which foster further vertical and horizontal integration. For Germany, further research in the implementation and effects of P4P programs is necessary.

  15. Long-term neurophysiologic impact of childhood sleep disordered breathing on neurocognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To determine the impact of sleep disordered breathing (SDB in children on neurocognitive function 5 years later.Design, Setting, and Participants. A subgroup of 43 children from the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea Study (TuCASA who had SDB (RDI > 6 events/hour at their initial exam (ages 6-11 years were matched on the basis of age (within 1 year, gender and ethnicity (Anglo/Hispanic to 43 children without SDB (Control, RDI < 4 events/hour. The Sustained Working Memory Task (SWMT which combines tests of working memory (1-Back Task, reaction time (Simple Reaction Time and attention (Multiplexing Task with concurrent electroencephalographic monitoring was administered approximately 5 years later.Results. There were no differences in performance on the working memory, reaction time and attention tests between the SDB and Control groups. However, the SDB group exhibited lower P300 evoked potential amplitudes during the Simple Reaction Time and Multiplexing Tasks. Additionally, peak alpha power during the Multiplexing Task was lower in the SDB Group with a similar trend in the Simple Reaction Time Task (p=0.08.Conclusions. SDB in children may cause subtle long-term changes in executive function that are not detectable with conventional neurocognitive testing and are only evident during neuroelectrophysiologic monitoring.

  16. Transition of municipal sludge anaerobic digestion from mesophilic to thermophilic and long-term performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Ulas; Tandukar, Madan; Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for the transition of municipal sludge anaerobic digestion from mesophilic to thermophilic were assessed and the long-term stability and performance of thermophilic digesters operated at a solids retention time of 30days were evaluated. Transition from 36°C to 53.3°C at a rate of 3°C/day resulted in fluctuation of the daily gas and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. Steady-state was reached within 35days from the onset of temperature increase. Transitions from either 36 or 53.3°C to 60°C resulted in relatively stable daily gas production, but VFAs remained at very high levels (in excess of 5000mg COD/L) and methane production was lower than that of the mesophilic reactor. It was concluded that in order to achieve high VS and COD destruction and methane production, the temperature of continuous-flow, suspended growth digesters fed with mixed municipal sludge should be kept below 60°C.

  17. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  18. Application of rheology for assessment and prediction of the long-term physical stability of emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2004-05-20

    This review deals with the use of rheology for assessment and prediction of the long-term physical stability of emulsions. It starts with an introduction, highlighting the importance of having accelerated test to predict emulsion stability. This is followed by a section on the stability/instability of emulsion systems, giving a brief summary of the driving force of each instability process and its prevention. The classical techniques that can be applied for assessment of creaming or sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and phase inversion are briefly described. This is followed by several sections on the application of rheological techniques to assess and predict each of these instabilities. This involves the use of steady state shear stress-shear rate measurements, constant stress (creep) measurements and dynamic (oscillatory) techniques. The last section gives an example of model emulsions to illustrate the correlation between the various break-down processes with the rheological characteristics of the system.

  19. Field Deployable Fiber Bragg Grating Strain Patch for Long-Term Stable Health Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Kalinka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fiber Bragg grating (FBG strain patch specially adapted for long-term and high-strain applications has been developed and characterized. The design concept for the patch is based on a glass-fiber reinforced plastic (gfrp carrier material. The developed concept for the FBG integration into the carrier material was derived from reliable integration procedure of FBG sensors into composite structures. The patches’ temperature sensitivity, strain gauge factor, fiber–matrix interface adhesion and fatigue behavior were characterized. As a result, FBG strain patches with linear temperature and strain behavior, as well as excellent fatigue resistance, were developed and can be used as part of a monitoring system for advanced composite materials in aerospace structures or wind turbine power plants.

  20. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  1. THE EFFECTS OF CREATINE LONG-TERM SUPPLEMENTATION ON MUSCLE MORPHOLOGY AND SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Erdal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Creatine (Cr has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cr supplementation on muscle morphology and swimming performance, using an animal model. Each rat was subjected to exercise 15-minute period daily for the 12 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: no Cr supplementation (CON, no Cr supplementation and incomplete food intake (lacking lysine and methionine in diet for rats (INCO, Cr supplementation 1 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-I and Cr supplementation 2 g·kg-1·day-1 (CREAT-II. Three months later, all groups adult rats exercised in swimming pool chambers. Swimming time was recorded as minute for each rat. Following swimming performance period, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles were dissected. Serial slices of 5-7 μm were allocated paraffin wax and histochemical staining procedure of cross-sections was carried out with heamatoxylin-eosin technics. All groups gained body weight at the end of 12 weeks but there was no statistical difference among them. Swimming time values were statistical difference between CREAT-II and CON group as well as between CREAT-I and CON group (p < 0.05. In the INCO group was determined increased connective tissue cell of the muscle sample. In contrast, in the CREAT-I and CREAT-II group, the basic histological changes were large-scale muscle fibers and hypertrophic muscle cells. These results suggest that long-term creatine supplementation increased the number of muscle fibers and enhanced endurance swimming performance in rats

  2. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  3. Response of Bacteria Community to Long-Term Inorganic Nitrogen Application in Mulberry Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingming; Deng, Wen; Li, Yong; Han, Guangming; Xiong, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community and diversity in mulberry field soils with different application ages of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (4Y, 4-year-old; 17Y, 17-year-old; 32Y, 32-year- old) were investigated using next-generation sequencing. The results demonstrated that the application ages of nitrogen fertilizer significantly altered soil bacterial community and diversity. Soil bacterial Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 index decreased with the consecutive application of nitrogen fertilizer, and the 4Y soil exhibited the highest bacterial relative abundance and diversity. Of 45 bacterial genera (relative abundance ratio of genera greater than 0.3%), 18 were significantly affected by the plant age, and seven belong to Acidobacteria. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria Gp 1, Gp4 and Gp6 in the 4Y soil were significantly lower than that of in the 17Y and 32Y soils. However, the relative abundance of Pseudononas sp. in the 4Y soil was significantly higher than that of in the 17Y and 32Y soils. Most microbial parameters were significantly affected by soil pH and organic matter content which were significantly changed by long-term application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. PMID:27977728

  4. Performance of long-term CT monitoring in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstad, Audun E. [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: a.e.berstad@medisin.uio.no; Aalokken, Trond Mogens [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway); Kolbenstvedt, Alf [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway); Bjortuft, Oystein [Department of Thoracic Medicine, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0027 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of CT, including expiratory scans with minimum intensity projection in predicting the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Materials and methods: Forty consecutive patients, 29 bilateral and 11 single lung transplanted, were followed-up with regular scans for a median of 36 months. Air trapping was evaluated on expiratory scans constructed from two short spiral scans with minimum intensity projection-technique, one at the level of the carina and the other midway between the right diaphragm and the carina. Air trapping was scored on a 16-point scale. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome was diagnosed according to established clinical criteria and quantified spirometrically. Results: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in 17 patients (43%) after a median of 12 months. Air trapping and bronchiectasis was seen before the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in only two and one patient, respectively. Interobserver agreement for air trapping score was good (kappa = 0.65). Air trapping scores performed significantly better than that achieved by chance alone in determining the presence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (P = 0.0025). An air trapping score of 4 or more provided the best results with regard to sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of an air trapping of 4 or more in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome were 77, 74, 68 and 81%, respectively. Conclusion: Expiratory CT scans with minimum intensity projection-reconstruction did not predict the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in most patients. The findings seriously limit the clinical usefulness of long-term CT monitoring for diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation.

  5. PROJECTED IMPACT OF SULFATE ATTACK ON THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF A CONCRETE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.

    2009-12-11

    Saltstone is a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the DOE Savannah River Site with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime. The wet mix is poured into a concrete repository for on-site disposal. Solidified Saltstone is a dense, alkaline, reducing, micro-porous, monolithic, cementitious matrix, containing a solution of salts within its pore structure. Sodium sulfate concentrations in the pore fluid are around 0.15 mol/L, and external sulfate attack on concrete barriers is expected to occur over time. To predict the long-term performance of concrete repositories, the STADIUM{reg_sign} code was used to simulate the reactive transport processes leading to formation of ettringite, an expansive mineral phase often associated with spalling or cracking. STADIUM{reg_sign} is a multi-ionic transport model based on a split operator approach that separates ionic movement and chemical reactions. Ionic transport is described by the extended Nernst-Planck equation for unsaturated media, and accounts for electrical coupling between ionic species, chemical activity, transport due to water content gradient, and temperature effects. STADIUM{reg_sign} does not predict whether physical damage will occur, or the impact on transport properties should fracturing occur. Thus the presence of ettringite was assumed to coincide with physical damage for the purpose of estimating effective transport properties. Effective properties for concrete barriers were estimated assuming complete hydraulic failure behind the ettringite front and unaltered properties ahead of the front. The ettringite front advances at a rate dependent on the diffusion coefficient assumed for the failed zone. A sensitivity study indicates a service life ranging from thousands to tens of thousands of years, depending on the barrier thickness and sulfate exposure conditions among other factors.

  6. Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

  7. Historical arsenic contamination of soil due to long-term phosphate fertiliser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tom N; Macdonald, Andy J; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Archived samples from the Park Grass Experiment, established in 1856, were analysed to determine the impacts of long-term phosphate fertiliser applications on arsenic concentrations in soil and herbage. In plots receiving 35 kg P ha(-1) annually (+P), topsoil As concentrations almost doubled from an initial value of ∼10 mg kg(-1) during 1888-1947 and remained stable thereafter. The phosphate fertilisers used before 1948 contained 401-1575 mg As kg(-1), compared to 1.6-20.3 mg As kg(-1) in the later samples. Herbage samples from the +P plots collected during 1888-1947 contained significantly more As than those from the -P plots, but later samples did not differ significantly. Mass-balance calculations show that the increase in soil As can be explained by the As input from P fertiliser applications before 1948. The results demonstrate that the P fertilisers used on the Park Grass Experiment before 1948 caused substantial As contamination of the soil.

  8. Long-Term Safety of Topical Bacteriophage Application to the Frontal Sinus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drilling, Amanda J.; Ooi, Mian L.; Miljkovic, Dijana; James, Craig; Speck, Peter; Vreugde, Sarah; Clark, Jason; Wormald, Peter-John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus biofilms contribute negatively to a number of chronic conditions, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). With the inherent tolerance of biofilm-bound bacteria to antibiotics and the global problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, the need to develop novel therapeutics is paramount. Phage therapy has previously shown promise in treating sinonasal S. aureus biofilms. Methods: This study investigates the long term (20 days) safety of topical sinonasal flushes with bacteriophage suspensions. The bacteriophage cocktail NOV012 against S. aureus selected for this work contains two highly characterized and different phages, P68 and K710. Host range was assessed against S. aureus strains isolated from CRS patients using agar spot tests. NOV012 was applied topically to the frontal sinus region of sheep, twice daily for 20 days. General sheep wellbeing, mucosal structural changes and inflammatory load were assessed to determine safety of NOV012 application. Results: NOV012 could lyse 52/61 (85%) of a panel of locally derived CRS clinical isolates. Application of NOV012 to the frontal sinuses of sheep for 20 days was found to be safe, with no observed inflammatory infiltration or tissue damage within the sinus mucosa. Conclusion: NOV012 cocktail appears safe to apply for extended periods to sheep sinuses and it could infect and lyse a wide range of S. aureus CRS clinical isolates. This indicates that phage therapy has strong potential as a treatment for chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis. PMID:28286740

  9. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  10. Application of principal components analysis to long-term reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, M.

    1988-07-01

    Determining the optimal long-term operating policy of a multi-reservoir power system requires solution of a stochastic nonlinear programming problem. For small systems, the solution can be found by dynamic programming, but for large systems no direct solution method exists at present, so recource to mathematical manipulations is required. A very efficient procedure for the case where high correlation exists between the state variables is presented. The procedure consists of performing principle components analysis on the trajectories to find a reduced model of the system. The reduced model is then substituted into the operating problem and the resulting problem is solved by stochastic dynamic programming. The reservoir trajectories on which principle components analysis are performed can be obtained by solving the operating problem deterministically for a large number of equally likely flow sequences. The results of applying the manipulation to Quebec's La Grande river, which has four reservoirs, are reported. A comparison with classical dynamic programming without any reduction is presented which demonstrates the efficiency of the principle components approach. 73 refs., 71 figs., 36 tabs.

  11. Congestion management in power systems. Long-term modeling framework and large-scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim; Hagspiel, Simeon; Just, Lisa

    2015-06-15

    In liberalized power systems, generation and transmission services are unbundled, but remain tightly interlinked. Congestion management in the transmission network is of crucial importance for the efficiency of these inter-linkages. Different regulatory designs have been suggested, analyzed and followed, such as uniform zonal pricing with redispatch or nodal pricing. However, the literature has either focused on the short-term efficiency of congestion management or specific issues of timing investments. In contrast, this paper presents a generalized and flexible economic modeling framework based on a decomposed inter-temporal equilibrium model including generation, transmission, as well as their inter-linkages. Short and long-term effects of different congestion management designs can hence be analyzed. Specifically, we are able to identify and isolate implicit frictions and sources of inefficiencies in the different regulatory designs, and to provide a comparative analysis including a benchmark against a first-best welfare-optimal result. To demonstrate the applicability of our framework, we calibrate and numerically solve our model for a detailed representation of the Central Western European (CWE) region, consisting of 70 nodes and 174 power lines. Analyzing six different congestion management designs until 2030, we show that compared to the first-best benchmark, i.e., nodal pricing, inefficiencies of up to 4.6% arise. Inefficiencies are mainly driven by the approach of determining cross-border capacities as well as the coordination of transmission system operators' activities.

  12. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, F.; Rietman, B.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Brink, van den P.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Jarzembowska, M.; Laurinonyte, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretr

  13. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  14. AILEM Programme: A Long-Term Intervention to Promote Literacy Learning in Low-Performing Primary Schools in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Malva Villalon; Silva, Margarita; Razmilic, Tonia; Swartz, Stanley L.

    2005-01-01

    After one year of implementation, this paper describes a programme designed to support literacy learning in low performing schools from poor sectors in Santiago, Chile. School-based intensive training on theory and practice of a literacy learning framework for classroom instruction and long-term support were used to impact the achievement of…

  15. 76 FR 4885 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export... (Application), filed on December 17, 2010, by Freeport LNG Expansion L.P. (FLNG Expansion) and FLNG... gas (LNG) for a 25-year period commencing on the date of the first export or five years from the...

  16. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  17. Long-term broiler performance with bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, N L; Quarles, C L; Fagerberg, D J

    1983-07-01

    Bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone were fed to broilers in ten consecutive experiments to determine if response (measured by body weight and feed efficiency) was continuous over a long term. Bambermycins was added at 1.1 ppm (1 to 44 days) and 2.2 ppm (45 to 51 days) to both test rations. In addition, one test ration contained roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) at 50 ppm (1 to 44 days). Each experiment was conducted with 1,080 commercial broiler cross-run chickens. Broilers fed bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone were heavier (P less than .05) than controls in every experiment. Bambermycins plus roxarsone treated broilers were heavier (P less than .05) than bambermycins treated broilers in 2 out of 10 experiments. Broilers fed bambermycins converted feed more efficiently (P less than .05) than controls in 6 of 10 experiments and were more efficient (P less than .05) than bambermycins plus roxarsone fed broilers in 1 of 10 experiments. Bambermycins plus roxarsone treated broilers were more efficient (P less than .05) than controls in 5 of 10 experiments. These findings indicate that over a long term bambermycins and bambermycins plus roxarsone consistently and significantly (P less than .05) increased broiler body weights over controls, although the addition of roxarsone was not always effective in increasing body weights or improving feed efficiency over bambermycins fed alone.

  18. Simultaneous Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture following Long-Term Low-Dose Nasal Corticosteroid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Omar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare injury, which was previously only described in slightly more than 100 cases in the English literature. Occurrence after minor trauma is predominantly associated with certain medical conditions including chronic diseases and long-term use of certain drugs. We report the case of a 61-year-old healthy patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following minor trauma. Medical history was completely clear except of a long-term nasal corticosteroid medication due to allergic rhinitis.

  19. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  20. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattebo, Benjamin O; Booth, Derek B

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the long-term effectiveness of permeable pavement as an alternative to traditional impervious asphalt pavement in a parking area. Four commercially available permeable pavement systems were evaluated after 6 years of daily parking usage for structural durability, ability to infiltrate precipitation, and impacts on infiltrate water quality. All four permeable pavement systems showed no major signs of wear. Virtually all rainwater infiltrated through the permeable pavements, with almost no surface runoff. The infiltrated water had significantly lower levels of copper and zinc than the direct surface runoff from the asphalt area. Motor oil was detected in 89% of samples from the asphalt runoff but not in any water sample infiltrated through the permeable pavement. Neither lead nor diesel fuel were detected in any sample. Infiltrate measured 5 years earlier displayed significantly higher concentrations of zinc and significantly lower concentrations of copper and lead.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  2. 78 FR 2672 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP078595XX, AP078595XA, AP078595XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  3. 78 FR 2673 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087730XX, AP087730XA AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION:...

  4. 78 FR 59688 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP088292XX & AP088292XA AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION:...

  5. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087980XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to...

  6. 78 FR 75344 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP088400XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to...

  7. On-site assessment of extractable soil nutrients after long-term biosolids applications to perennial forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate soil nutrient loading and depth distributions of extractable nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) after long-term, continuous annual surface-applications of anaerobically-digested Class B biosolids at a municipal recycling facility in central Te...

  8. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export... December 19, 2011, by Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC (collectively, FLEX... (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 511 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas per year,...

  9. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 740... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Golden Pass LNG Terminal to Free Trade Agreement Nations,...

  10. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic and Canadian Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas...

  11. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Proposed Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project to Free Trade... Project site, natural gas will be liquefied into LNG and stored in three 160,000 cubic meters...

  12. 77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic... million tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of... facilities to receive and liquefy domestic natural gas at the proposed Project. CE FLNG states that...

  13. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY...-contract authorization to export up to 15 million metric tons per annum (mmtpa) of domestic natural gas as liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a 25-year period, commencing the earlier of the date of first export or...

  14. Surface shear rheology of hydrophobin adsorption layers: laws of viscoelastic behaviour with applications to long-term foam stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, K.D.; Radulova, G.M.; Kralchevsky, P.A.; Golemanov, K.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term stabilization of foams by proteins for food applications is related to the ability of proteins to form dense and mechanically strong adsorption layers that cover the bubbles in the foams. The hydrophobins represent a class of proteins that form adsorption layers of extraordinary high s

  15. Long-term performance and microbial ecology of a two-stage PN-ANAMMOX process treating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huosheng; Zhou, Shaoqi; Ma, Weihao; Huang, Pengfei; Huang, Guotao; Qin, Yujie; Xu, Bin; Ouyang, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Long-term performance of a two-stage partial nitritation (PN)-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process treating mature landfill leachate was investigated. Stable partial nitritation performance was achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using endpoint pH control, providing an effluent with a ratio of NO2(-)-N/NH4(+)-N at 1.23 ± 0.23. High rate nitrogen removal over 4 kg N/m(3)/d was observed in the ANAMMOX reactor in the first three months. However, during long-term operation, the ANAMMOX reactor can only stably operate under nitrogen load of 1 kg N/m(3)/d, with 85 ± 1% of nitrogen removal. The ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the PN-SBR were mainly affiliated to Nitrosomonas sp. IWT514, Nitrosomonas eutropha and Nitrosomonas eutropha, the anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the ANAMMOX reactor were mainly affiliated to Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  16. Performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG strain sensors under short-term and long-term loadings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Kesavan; B Arun Sundaram; A K Farvaze Ahmed; S Parivallal; P Biswas; S Bandyopadhyay; K Ravisankar; Umesh Tiwari

    2015-04-01

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are the most recent type of fibre optic sensors, which are gaining importance in the field of structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure. These are proven to be more versatile due to their distinct advantages such as high sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic interference, ease of multiplexing and remote sensing. These are suitable for the short-term and longterm monitoring of the structures. Multiple Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors can be surface mounted and/or embedded in structures to measure strain, temperature, cracks and vibrations. Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health monitoring of civil engineering structures by conducting short-term and long-term studies is presented. Brief details of the laboratory studies carried out on indigenously developed FBG sensors are covered in this paper. From the laboratory studies it is found that, these FBG sensors are suitable in health monitoring of civil engineering structures.

  17. INFLUENCE OF LONG TERM APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Naga Madhuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil samples were collected from the soils of Long Term Fertilizer Experiments that have been fertilized for the last 25 years from a control plot (receiving no fertilizer/FYM; b plot receiving 100% NPK fertilizer application and c Plot receiving 100% N in the form of FYM, to study the changes in nature and amount of organic matter and these were compared with a similar adjacent soil under natural vegetation. The soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm (surface and 15-30 cm (sub surface layers. The humic substances were fractionated by Tyurins method. The total N and available N content was determined and C/N ratio was calculated. The humic acid was isolated, purified and analyzed for oxygen containing functional groups and spectral properties. It was observed that the soil under natural vegetation had a higher total N while the soil under continuous cultivation had higher available N. The C/N ratio of soil under natural vegetation was high compared to the soil under continuous cultivation. These values were high in surface layers compare to sub surface layers. The oxygen containing functional groups in Humic acid (HA were high in soil under natural vegetation compared to the soil under continuous cultivation. The total acidity and COOH content of surface layers was high compared to sub surface layers in soils under both situations. Phenolic OH groups of subsurface layer was high in soil under natural vegetation and continuous cultivation indicating that this group in sub surface layers and high potential for interaction with clays and metal ions. The higher contents of total acidity and –COOH groups in soil under natural vegetation could be attributed to the difference in chemical composition and molecular weight of humic substances. The E4/E6 ratios of HA’S were less than 5.0 indicating high degree of condensation of aromatic humic acid. The potentiometric titrations of humic acids with standard 0.1 N NaOH indicated a gradual increase

  18. Effects of Long-Term Application of Inorganic Fertilizers on Biochemical Properties of a Rice-Planting Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wen-Hui; CAI Zu-Cong; ZHANG He

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment was set up in Yingtan of Jiangxi Province to investigate the effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on the biochemical properties of a rice-planting soil derived from Quaternary red earth. Noncultivated soils are extremely eroded and characterized by a low pH and deficiencies in available nutrients, in particular P and N. After 13 years of inorganic fertilization in cultivation for double-cropped rice, the biochemical properties of the soil were changed. The nitrification potential and urease activity were higher in the treatments with N application than those without N application. Acid phosphatase activity and dehydrogenase activity were also higher in the treatments with P application than in those without P application. The dehydrogenase activity correlated well with the concentrations of both total P and hydrolysable N and with rice crop yield, suggesting that dehydrogenase activity might be a suitable indicator for improvement in soil fertility.

  19. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  20. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Economy, K. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rudeen, D.K. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  1. Use of non evaporable getter pumps to ensure long term performances of high quantum efficiency photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sertore, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.sertore@mi.infn.it; Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Milano – LASA, Via Fratelli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20 l s{sup −1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8⋅10{sup −8} Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6 day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2⋅10{sup −9} Pa was achieved after a 2 day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.

  2. Including long-term biological index performance in a multi-criteria Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, T.; Bowen, Z.; Bovee, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) was developed for the reservoirs operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation that incorporates biological resources in a palette of decision variables. A scoring technique was developed for the DSS to help to evaluate the long-term effects of proposed reservoir system operations on those variables. The biological component of the DSS was developed to help Bureau of Reclamation reservoir operators evaluate the effects of different scenarios of reservoir operations on a variety of water-related biological resources. In this DSS, Reclamation's Reservoir Operations Modeling System (ROMS) is linked to modules evaluating power production, flood control benefits, irrigation water deliveries, municipal and industrial water supplies, habitat for endemic fish communities, tailwater fisheries, nesting habitat for shorebirds, reservoir recreation, reservoir fisheries, and regeneration of riparian cottonwood forests. Operation scenarios generated in ROMS are scored for each decision variable by comparison to a target range of a decision variable for a reference location and time period. The score for a variable is calculated based on the ratio between the percent of time that target conditions are met under alternative operating conditions and under the reference condition, respectively. A scoring technique was developed that recognizes that under either natural or highly managed conditions the reference target is not met at all times. Higher scores are achieved for environmental decision variables by operations scenarios that approach natural seasonal and annual variability in habitat availability.

  3. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    these sites. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are presented for the general river application of the method.Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this acoustical method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, for example, to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets. Several types of error analyses are presented to evaluate (1) the stability of acoustical calibrations over time, (2) the effect of neglecting backscatter from silt and clay, (3) the bias arising from changes in sand grain size, (4) the time-varying error in the method, and (5) the influence of nonrandom processes on error. Results indicate that (1) acoustical calibrations can be stable for long durations (multiple years), (2) neglecting backscatter from silt and clay can result in unacceptably high bias, (3) two frequencies are likely required to obtain sand-concentration measurements that are unbiased by changes in grain size, depending on site-specific conditions and acoustic frequency, (4) relative errors in silt-and-clay- and sand-concentration measurements decrease substantially as concentration increases, and (5) nonrandom errors may arise from slow changes in the spatial structure of suspended sediment that affect the relations between concentration in the acoustically ensonified part of the cross section and concentration in the entire river cross section. Taken together, the error analyses indicate that the two-frequency method produces unbiased measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and sand concentration, with errors that are similar to, or larger than, those associated with conventional sampling methods.

  4. Performance of multilayer optical coatings under long-term 532nm laser exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulios, D.; Konoplev, O.; Chiragh, F.; Vasilyev, A.; Stephen, M.; Strickler, K.

    2013-11-01

    The effects of long-term exposure to high intensity 532 nm radiation on various dielectric-coated optics are studied. To investigate potential photodarkening effects on optical surfaces, an accelerated life test platform was constructed where optics were exposed to 532 nm radiation from a short-pulse, high repetition rate fiber amplifier at total doses up to 1 trillion shots. The first run of trillion-shot tests were conducted on e-beam deposited and ion beam sputtering (IBS) coated high reflecting mirrors with onsurface intensities ranging from 1.0-1.4 GW/cm2. It was found that the e-beam coated mirrors failed catastrophically at less than 150 billion shots, while the IBS coated mirror was able to complete the trillionshot test with no measurable loss of reflectivity. Profiling the IBS mirror surface with a high-resolution white light interferometer post-irradiation revealed a ~10 nm high photocontamination deposit at the irradiation site that closely matched the intensity profile of the laser spot. Trillion-shot surface exposure tests were also conducted at multiple surface sites of an LBO frequency doubling crystal at ~1.5 GW/cm2 at multiple surface sites. The transmitted power and on-surface beam size were monitored throughout the tests, and periodic measurements of the beam quality and waist location of the transmitted light were also made using an M2 meter. No changes in transmitted power or M2 were observed in any of the tests, but 3D surface profiling revealed laser-induced contamination deposits at each site tested.

  5. Approach for long term environmental parameters monitoring process using data acquisition devices and high level applications for data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Bogdan; Boca, Loredana; Abrudean, Mihail; Joldes, Remus

    2010-11-01

    Present paper describes a long term monitoring process of few environmental parameters for evaluating green energy potential (wind energy and solar energy) of a small geographical area (~ 32 km2). The monitoring approach presented in this paper consists in: real-time data acquisition process using two real-time data acquisition devices (DAQ); a wireless network used for long distance data transmission in order to send all acquired data to a remote location for processing; Virtual Instrument (VI's) applications used for controlling data acquisition devices and the acquisition process; a network protocol analyzer used for a detailed analysis of the communication protocols and data packets; the management of the huge volume of sensor data by using a high level software application; long term sensor monitoring using a complex graphic software application. The measured environment parameters are the following: wind speed, wind direction, temperature, sun intensity and illumination, steel pylon vibrations on three axes.

  6. Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Anne; Joseph, Virginia; Fenger, Robert; Kneipp, Janina; Rademann, Klaus

    2011-06-20

    We report on the formation of silver subsurface ion-exchanged metal oxide (silver SIMO) glasses and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. The samples were prepared by a combined thermal and chemical three-step methodology and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), environmental electron scanning microscopy (ESEM), and UV/Vis spectroscopy. This unique method provides SERS substrates with protection against contamination and strong, reliable and reproducible SERS enhancement. The Raman enhancement factors of the long-term stable SIMO glasses were estimated to approximately 10(7).

  7. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Lennox/Honeywell (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Lennox/Honeywell double covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Lennox/Honeywell collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is steel with copper tubes bonded on the upper surface, and is coated with black chrome. Visual inspection of the collector indicated slight discoloration of the absorber plate. Results indicate that performance degradation had occurred. Absorptivity and/or transmissivity decreased as a result of the weathering.

  8. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Libbey-Owens-Ford (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Thermal performance tests were conducted on the Libbey-Owens-Ford liquid collector, following long term exposure to natural weathering conditions. Visual inspection of the collector, prior to the retest, indicated noticeable clouding of the inner cover glass, probably resulting from outgassing of the insulation. The absorber plate also showed some discoloration. The test results indicated that performance degradation had occurred at inlet temperatures significantly above ambient. The change in the slope of the efficiency curve, from the original data, is a direct indicator of an increase in the collector heat loss coefficient.

  9. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  10. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  11. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-04

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  12. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AT A LONG-TERM FOOD PROCESSING LAND TREATMENT SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to determine the performance of a full scale, operating overland flow land (GEL) treatment system treating nonhazardous waste. Performance was evaluated in terms of treatment of the applied waste and the environmental impact of the system, partic...

  13. Physical performance as long-term predictor of onset of activities of daily living (ADL) disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idland, Gro; Pettersen, Renate; Avlund, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    . The participants were followed for 9 years. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the physical performance measurements together with the covariates in relation to ADL disability. At follow-up 25.7% were disabled in ADL. All three performance measurements were significantly associated with the onset......Disability in ADL of aging women is an important public health concern. It is thus of interest to identify modifiable factors underlying onset of ADL disability. We assessed whether three physical performance-based measurements could predict ADL disability 9 years later. The participants were 113...... non-disabled community-dwelling women with a mean age of 79.5 years at baseline. The baseline examinations of physical performance were: functional reach, climbing steps and comfortable walking speed. ADL disability was defined as need of personal assistance in at least one of five basic ADL items...

  14. The effects of cockpit environment on long-term pilot performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    A fixed-base helicopter simulator was used to examine pilot performance as influenced by noise, vibration, and fatigue. Subjects flew the simulator for periods ranging between three and eight hours while exposed to vibrations (at 17 Hz) ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 g, and noise stimuli varying between 74 (ambient) and 100 dB. Despite reports of extreme fatigue on these long flights, subject performance did not degrade. Within the limits of this study, performance tended to improve as environmental stress increased. However, subjects did suffer from lapses resulting in abnormally poor performance. These lapses are probably of short duration (seconds) and occur at unpredictable times. If such lapses occur in actual flight, they could provide an explanation for many so-called 'pilot error' accidents.

  15. Long-term cathode performance and the microbial communities that develop in microbial fuel cells fed different fermentation endproducts

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand how cathode performance and substrates affected communities that evolved in these reactors over long periods of time, microbial fuel cells were operated for more than 1year with individual endproducts of lignocellulose fermentation (acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, or ethanol). Large variations in reactor performance were primarily due to the specific substrates, with power densities ranging from 835±21 to 62±1mW/m3. Cathodes performance degraded over time, as shown by an increase in power of up to 26% when the cathode biofilm was removed, and 118% using new cathodes. Communities that developed on the anodes included exoelectrogenic families, such as Rhodobacteraceae, Geobacteraceae, and Peptococcaceae, with the Deltaproteobacteria dominating most reactors. Pelobacter propionicus was the predominant member in reactors fed acetic acid, and it was abundant in several other MFCs. These results provide valuable insights into the effects of long-term MFC operation on reactor performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Long-term performance analysis of CIGS thin-film PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kaul, Ashwani; Pethe, Shirish A.

    2011-09-01

    Current accelerated qualification tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly assist in avoiding infant mortality but can neither duplicate changes occurring in the field nor can predict useful lifetime. Therefore, outdoor monitoring of fielddeployed thin-film PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with goals of assessing their performance in hot and humid climate under high system voltage operation and to correlate the PV performance with the meteorological parameters. Significant and comparable degradation rate of -5.13% and -4.5% per year was found by PV USA type regression analysis for the positive and negative strings respectively of 40W glass-to-glass CIGS thin-film PV modules in the hot and humid climate of Florida. With the current-voltage measurements it was found that the performance degradation within the PV array was mainly due to a few (8-12%) modules having a substantially high degradation. The remaining modules within the array continued to show reasonable performance (>96% of the rated power after ~ 4years).

  17. Long-term effects of attentional performance on functional brain network topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P K Breckel

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their cognitive resilience. Less resilient people demonstrate a greater tendency to vigilance decrements within sustained attention tasks. We hypothesized that a period of sustained attention is followed by prolonged changes in the organization of "resting state" brain networks and that individual differences in cognitive resilience are related to differences in post-task network reorganization. We compared the topological and spatial properties of brain networks as derived from functional MRI data (N = 20 recorded for 6 mins before and 12 mins after the performance of an attentional task. Furthermore we analysed changes in brain topology during task performance and during the switches between rest and task conditions. The cognitive resilience of each individual was quantified as the rate of increase in response latencies over the 32-minute time course of the attentional paradigm. On average, functional networks measured immediately post-task demonstrated significant and prolonged changes in network organization compared to pre-task networks with higher connectivity strength, more clustering, less efficiency, and shorter distance connections. Individual differences in cognitive resilience were significantly correlated with differences in the degree of recovery of some network parameters. Changes in network measures were still present in less resilient individuals in the second half of the post-task period (i.e. 6-12 mins after task completion, while resilient individuals already demonstrated significant reductions of functional connectivity and clustering towards pre-task levels. During task performance brain topology became more integrated with less clustering and higher global efficiency, but linearly decreased with ongoing time-on-task. We conclude that sustained attentional task performance has prolonged, "hang-over" effects on the organization of post-task resting-state brain networks; and that more cognitively

  18. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Application to Older Adults in Long Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ann Mercer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past thirty years animal-assisted therapy (AAT has moved beyond anecdotal status to a scientific evidence-based intervention. AAT comes in many shapes and sizes. There are a variety of animals which can be used such as dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, guinea pigs, goats, dolphins, and even fish aquariums. Loneliness is a common theme among older adults in long term care (LTC. Many older adults living in LTC facilities feel isolated. Some have little contact with family members or friends. Many describe feelings of loneliness and withdraw from social activities and interaction with others. Some feel as if they have nothing to look forward to and find no useful purpose in life.  The absence of having another to care for or nurture can also be distressing. The purpose of this project was to explore the use of AAT as an intervention to decrease loneliness in residents living in a LTC setting by introducing visits from a Sphynx cat registered by the Delta Society as a therapy animal. The project sample consisted of seven participants all over the age of 60 years who resided in a LTC facility in Texas. Pre-intervention and post-intervention checklists and open-ended questions were employed to collect data from participants. Analysis of the project findings revealed a notable decrease in loneliness.

  19. Long-term performance analysis of copper indium gallium selenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Ashwani; Pethe, Shirish A.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2012-01-01

    Current accelerated qualification tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly assist in avoiding premature failures but can neither duplicate changes occurring in the field nor predict useful product lifetime. Therefore, outdoor monitoring of field-deployed thin-film PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with the goal of assessing their performance in hot and humid climate under high system-voltage operation. Significant and comparable degradation rate of -5.13±1.53% and -4.5±1.46% per year was found using PVUSA type regression analysis for the positive and negative strings, respectively of 40W glass-to-glass Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGS) thin-film PV modules in the hot and humid climate of Florida. Using the current-voltage measurements, it was found that the performance degradation within the PV array was mainly due to a few (8% to 12%) modules that had substantially higher degradation. The remaining modules within the array continued to show reasonable performance (>96% of the rated power after ˜ four years).

  20. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management.

  1. Tenth interim status report: Model 9975 O-ring fixture long-term leak performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 °F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 °F.

  2. Eleventh interim status report: Model 9975 O-Ring fixture long-term leak performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-01

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperature. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF.

  3. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-dept. of Environmental Technology

    2010-04-15

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active bacteria. In this research, salt marsh species Spartina anglica generated current for up to 119 days in a plant microbial fuel cell. Maximum power production was 100 mW m{sup -2} geometric anode area, highest reported power output for a plant microbial fuel cell. Cathode overpotential was the main potential loss in the period of oxygen reduction due to slow oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode. Ferricyanide reduction improved the kinetics at the cathode and increased current generation with a maximum of 254%. In the period of ferricyanide reduction, the main potential loss was transport loss. This research shows potential application of microbial fuel cell technology in salt marshes for bio-energy production with the plant microbial fuel cell. (orig.)

  4. EFFECT OF METALLIC INTERCONNECT THICKNESS ON ITS LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE IN SOFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-11-01

    At the operating environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxide scale will grow on the ferritic interconnect (IC) surface unavoidably and furfures induce growth stress in oxide scale and along the interface of the oxide scale and IC substrate. A combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. In this paper, the effect of the ferritic IC thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated numerically. The predicted results show that the interfacial shear stresses increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation.

  5. Mechanical performance of integrally bonded copper coatings for the long term disposal of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Christopher H., E-mail: cboyle@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Ave East, Toronto (Canada); Meguid, Shaker A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel Used Fuel Container with an integrally bonded copper coating is proposed. • Two developed coating processes successfully produced prototype container components. • We created a validated finite element model to predict coating structural performance. • Mechanical testing confirms coating suitably for repository use. - Abstract: The preferred method for disposal of used nuclear fuel is underground emplacement in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR). Many countries have light water reactor fuels which require large Used Fuel Container or Canister (UFC) designs weighing up to 25 ton for containment. In contrast, Canada exclusively uses heavy water reactor fuel, which is substantially smaller. This has led the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) to create a novel UFC, which uses standard pressure vessel grade steel for structural containment and a thick, integrally bonded copper coating applied to the exterior surface for corrosion protection. Currently, the coating is applied using two different methods: electrodeposition and gas dynamic cold spray. This novel copper coating needs to be fully validated to ensure adequate mechanical strength and chemical resistance for use under repository conditions. Detailed mechanical and corrosion testing programs were undertaken. Mechanical tests indicated that adhesion strengths exceeded 45 MPa and tensile properties were comparable to wrought copper. A Finite Element Model (FEM) of the copper–steel composite was created and validated using three point bend tests. This model accurately predicts the response of the composite, including large deformation and debonding failure mechanisms. Now validated, this model will be used to assess the performance of the coating on the full-scale UFC under simulated DGR loading conditions.

  6. Long-Term Anti-Corrosion Performance of a Conducting Polymer-Based Coating System for Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tongyan; Yu, Qifeng

    2016-06-01

    The long-term durability of a two-layer coating system was evaluated by two accelerated corrosion tests, i.e., the ASTM B117 Salt spray test and the ASTM D5894 Cyclic salt fog/UV exposure test, and a series of surface analyses. The coating system was developed for protecting structural steels from corrosion, including a functional primer made of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) and a protective topcoat. The standard pull-off test per ASTM D4541 was employed for characterizing the adhesion of the coating systems to substrate, aided by visual examination of the surface deterioration of the samples. The ICP-based systems demonstrated superior long-term anti-corrosion capacity when a polyurethane topcoat is used. The ICP-based primer made of a waterborne epoxy gave poorer anti-corrosion performance than the ICP-based primer made of regular non-waterborne epoxy, which can be attributed to the lower adhesion the waterborne epoxy demonstrated to the substrate surface. The zinc-rich control systems showed good anti-corrosion durability; however, they may produce excessive oxidative products of zinc to cause coating delamination. Based on the test results, the two-layer coating system consisting of an ICP-based primer and a polyurethane topcoat outperforms the conventional zinc-rich coating systems for corrosion protection of steels.

  7. Is Long Term Creatine and Glutamine Supplementation Effective in Enhancing Physical Performance of Military Police Officers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro da Silveira Celismar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10, glutamine (n=10 and a placebo group (n=12 and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3. The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions x 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group x time for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p0,05. In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.

  8. Long-term nitritation performance of ammonium-rich landfill leachate☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Sun; Xintao L; Yongzhen Peng; Shuying Wang; Juan Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a biological system combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) with sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to treat ammonium-rich landfill leachate. The start-up and operation of the nitritation at low temperatures were investigated. The synergetic interaction of free ammonia (FA) inhibition on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and process control was used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. It is demonstrated that nitritation was successful y started up in the SBR at low temperatures (14.0 °C–18.2 °C) by using FA inhibition coupled with process control, and then was maintained for 482 days at normal/low temperature. Although ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB co-existed within bacterial clusters in the SBR sludge, AOB were confirmed to be dominant nitrifying population species by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. This confirmation not only emphasized that cultivating the appropriate bacteria is essential for achieving stable nitritation performance, but it also revealed that NOB activity was strongly inhibited by FA rather than being eliminated altogether from the system.

  9. Is long term creatine and glutamine supplementation effective in enhancing physical performance of military police officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-09-29

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.

  10. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users.

  11. Application of quantum master equation for long-term prognosis of asset-prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2016-05-01

    This study combines the disciplines of behavioral finance and an extension of econophysics, namely the concepts and mathematical structure of quantum physics. We apply the formalism of quantum theory to model the dynamics of some correlated financial assets, where the proposed model can be potentially applied for developing a long-term prognosis of asset price formation. At the informational level, the asset price states interact with each other by the means of a "financial bath". The latter is composed of agents' expectations about the future developments of asset prices on the finance market, as well as financially important information from mass-media, society, and politicians. One of the essential behavioral factors leading to the quantum-like dynamics of asset prices is the irrationality of agents' expectations operating on the finance market. These expectations lead to a deeper type of uncertainty concerning the future price dynamics of the assets, than given by a classical probability theory, e.g., in the framework of the classical financial mathematics, which is based on the theory of stochastic processes. The quantum dimension of the uncertainty in price dynamics is expressed in the form of the price-states superposition and entanglement between the prices of the different financial assets. In our model, the resolution of this deep quantum uncertainty is mathematically captured with the aid of the quantum master equation (its quantum Markov approximation). We illustrate our model of preparation of a future asset price prognosis by a numerical simulation, involving two correlated assets. Their returns interact more intensively, than understood by a classical statistical correlation. The model predictions can be extended to more complex models to obtain price configuration for multiple assets and portfolios.

  12. Application of stable carbon isotopes in long term mesocosm studies for carbon cycle investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an effective greenhouse gas. The Oceans absorb ca. 30% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions and thereby partly attenuate deleterious climate effects. A consequence of the oceanic CO2 uptake is a decreased seawater pH and planktonic community shifts. The quantification of the anthropogenic perturbation was investigated through stable carbon isotope analysis in three "long term" mesocosm experiments (Sweden 2013, Gran Canaria 2014, Norway 2015) which reproduced near natural ecosystem conditions under both controlled and modified future CO2 level (up to 2000 ppm) scenarios. Parallel measurements of the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) dissolved organic carbon (δ13CDOC) and particulate carbon (δ13CTPC) both from the mesocosms water column and sediment traps showed similar trends in all the three experiments. A CO2 response was noticeable in the isotopic dataset, but increased CO2 levels had only a subtle effect on the concentrations of the dissolved and particulate organic carbon pool. Distinctive δ13C signatures of the particulate carbon pool both in the water column and the sediments were detectable for the different CO2 treatments and they were strongly correlated with the δ13CDIC signatures but not with the δ13CDOC pool. The validity of the isotopic data was verified by cross-analyses of multiple substances of known isotopic signatures on a GasBench, Elemental Analyser (EA) and on an in-house TOC-IRMS setup for the analysis of δ13CDIC, δ13CTPC and δ13CDOC, respectively. Results from these mesocosm experiments proved the stable carbon isotope approach to be an effective tool for quantifying the uptake and carbon transfer among the various compartments of the marine carbon system.

  13. SEVENTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-08-30

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 54-72 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 30 - 36 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51 – 96%. This is greater than seen to date for any packages inspected during KAC field

  14. SIXTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-08-31

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for seven years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 33 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 F and higher temperatures, and in 7 fixtures aging at 300 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 41-60 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 F will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging within the past year at an intermediate temperature of 270 F, with hopes that they may leak before the 200 F fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200-300 F for up to 26 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-96%. This is greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAC field surveillance (24% average). For GLT O-rings, separate service life estimates have been made based on the O-ring fixture leak test data and based on compression stress relaxation

  15. NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-08-06

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The earliest 300 °F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 ºF fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the

  16. Long-term performance of different aluminum alloy designs as sacrificial anodes for rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rincón, O.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of various cathodic-protection designs using Aluminum alloys to protect prestressed piles. The results obtained with different system designs (bracelete type-Al/Zn/In alloy, thermosprayed aluminum (3-year evaluation and conventional Al/Zn/In anocies in an epoxy-painted steel bracelet (12-year evaluation, indicated that all of these systems may be used as sacrificial anodes for pile protection. However, the thermosprayed aluminum type can not be used in prestressed concrete piles because the very negative potentials ( < -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4 they supply to the reinforcement could lead to hydrogen embrittlement.

    Este trabajo presenta la realización de varios diseños de protección catódica utilizando aleaciones de aluminio para la protección de pilotes pretensados. Los resultados obtenidos con diferentes diseños (aleación de Al/Zn/In, tipo brazalete y aluminio termorociado (3 años de evaluación y ánodos convencionales de Al/Zn/In colocados en un brazalete de acero pintado con epoxy (12 años de evaluación, indicaron que todos estos sistemas pueden ser utilizados como ánodos de sacrificio para la protección de los pilotes. Sin embargo, el sistema con aluminio termorociado no puede ser utilizado en pilotes de acero pretensado debido al potencial muy negativo alcanzado por la armadura (<-1100 mV vs Cu/CuSO4, lo cual podría inducir a daños por hidrógeno.

  17. Calibration, alignment and long-term performance of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, E.

    2009-03-15

    defects are identified and monitored. The total amount of localized and non-localized defects is found to be about 0.7% for the two end cap sectors. Lastly, the alignment of the detector is a subject of interest, as the exact alignment of all components of the tracker with respect to each other will be of prime importance for any analysis using the tracker. The separation of primary and secondary vertices as well as the momentum resolution depend largely on a very good alignment of the detector. In this thesis, the validation of an alignment result is investigated. Several quantities which could be used to judge the quality of an alignment are discussed. A first application of the validation is shown on cosmic muon data, taken with the whole silicon tracker after the integration into the experiment. (orig.)

  18. EIGHTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2013-09-03

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 61 - 85 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KArea Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leaktight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 41 - 45 months. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures.

  19. A simple rainfall-runoff model for the single and long term hydrological performance of green roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    Green roofs are being widely implemented for storm water control and runoff reduction. There is need for incorporating green roofs into urban drainage models in order to evaluate their impact. These models must have low computational costs and fine time resolution. This paper aims to develop...... a model of green roof hydrological performance. A simple conceptual model for the long term and single event hydrological performance of green roofs, shows to be capable of reproducing observed runoff measurements. The model has surface and subsurface storage components representing the overall retention...... capacity of the green roof. The runoff from the system is described by the non-linear reservoir method and the storage capacity of the green roof is continuously re-established by evapotranspiration. Runoff data from a green roof in Denmark are collected and used for parameter calibration....

  20. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems ("Arbequina," Arbequina IRTA-i·18, "Arbosana," "Fs-17," and "Koroneiki") and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha(-1) for the cultivar "Arbequina." Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha(-1). Only "Fs-17" did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha(-1)) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for "Arbequina," both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha(-1) for the lowest density (780 trees ha(-1)) to 29.9 t ha(-1) for the highest (2254 trees ha(-1)). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  1. Response of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in the black soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoke ZHANG; Yong JIANG; Lei LIANG; Xiaofan ZHAO; Qi LI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities were studied in a long-term fertilization experimental field in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China,where no fertilizer (CK),N fertilizer (N),combined application of N and P (NP),combined application of N and K (NK),and combined application of N,P and K (NPK) were compared.The results showed that the total nematode abundance was not affected significantly by inorganic fertilizers in the long-term field experiment.The numbers of bacterivores increased significantly in the NP treatment compared to the CK treatment,and those of fungivores and plant-parasites were inhibited in the NPK treatment.The similarity between CK and NPK treatment and the nematode diversity were higher than in other treatments.The stability of the soil ecosystem was disturbed by the inorganic fertilizers,as indicated by the change in MI values under different treatments.The response of soil nematodes mainly depended on the types of inorganic fertilizers applied.

  2. Effects of long-term compost application on carbon content and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Houot, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Biological treatment through composting of organic wastes fulfils multiple purposes: it not only reduces the amount of waste stored in landfills but can also provide agricultural soils with organic amendments, which affect physicochemical soil properties and reduce the use of mineral fertilizers. However, the impacts of different types of amendments are not yet fully understood, as quantity and quality of the exogenous organic matter (EOM) applied vary greatly and numerous other parameters are affected as well, such as pH, heavy metal content, or nutrient availability. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of different organic amendments - via simulations - on water holding capacity (WHC) and particularly plant available water (PAW), in regard to irrigation needs. The long-term field experiment "Qualiagro" (INRA - Veolia Environment collaboration) was established in Feucherolles, France in 1998, where five treatments were designed, each with two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal and optimal. Farmyard manure (FYM) and three types of compost - all applied every other year at a rate of 4 t carbon ha-1 - gave rise to varying organic carbon (OC) contents and were compared to a control treatment. The treatments changed the soil's OC content from initially ~10.5 g kg-1 to a range of 9.35 to 15.58 g kg-1. An increased OC content can enhance WHC by increasing total porosity/ reducing bulk density. The PAW - the difference between field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (WP); predicted with pedotransfer functions related to OC - increases, if the increase at FC is larger than that at WP. With a higher amount of PAW, the need to irrigate fields - to ensure sufficient water availability for plant growth - decreases. At the same time, soil bulk density (ρd) affects root growth; denser soils can lead to reduced rooting depth. Both of these effects were considered when employing a simple soil water balance model (BUDGET; http

  3. 78 FR 66344 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... 99. (b) The Education Department suspension and debarment regulations in 2 CFR part 3485. (c) The... Materials (NCRTM) at www.ncrtm.org . Deadline for Transmittal of Applications: February 3, 2014... restrictions in the Applicable Regulations section of this notice. 6. Data Universal Numbering System...

  4. Estimation of long-term environmental inventory factors associated with land application of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.;

    2016-01-01

    Land application of sewage sludge has a number of advantages over other alternatives, but is also associated with environmental impacts. To make proper assessments of different sludge treatments, it is crucial to have reliable estimates of emissions after the application of different sludge types...

  5. Effect of Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers on microbial biomass and Functional Diversity of a Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-Dong; ZHU Yong-Guan; FU Bo-Jie; HAN Xiao-Zeng; ZHANG Lei; HE Ji-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with seven N, P, K-fertilizer treatments, i.e., control (no fertilizer), NP, NK, PK, NPK, NP2K, and NPK2 where P2 and K2 indicate double amounts of P and K fertilizers respectively, was conducted to examine the effect of long-term continuous application of chemical fertilizers on microbial biomass and functional diversity of a black soil (Udoll in the USDA Soil Taxonomy) in Northeast China. The soil microbial biomass C ranged between 94 and 145 mg kg-1, with the NK treatment showing a lower biomass; the functional diversity of soil microbial community ranged from 4.13 to 4.25, with an increasing tendency from control to double-fertilizer treatments, and to triple-fertilizer treatments. The soil microbial biomass, and the microbial functional diversity and evenness did not show any significant differences among the different fertilizer treatments including control, suggesting that the long-term application of chemical fertilization would not result in significant changes in the microbial characteristics of the black soil.

  6. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  7. New scheme of anticipating synchronization for arbitrary anticipation time and its application to long-term prediction of chaotic states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhong-Kui; Xu Wei; Yang Xiao-Li

    2007-01-01

    How to predict the dynamics of nonlinear chaotic systems is still a challenging subject with important real-life applications. The present paper deals with this important yet difficult problem via a new scheme of anticipating synchronization. A global, robust, analytical and delay-independent sufficient condition is obtained to guarantee the existence of anticipating synchronization manifold theoretically in the framework of the Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory.that the receiver system can synchronize with the future state of a transmitter system for an arbitrarily long anticipation time, which allows one to predict the dynamics of chaotic transmitter at any point of time if necessary. Also it is simple to implement in practice. A classical chaotic system is employed to demonstrate the application of the proposed scheme to the long-term prediction of chaotic states.

  8. Oblique-incidence ionospheric soundings over Central Europe and their application for testing now casting and long term prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrella, M.; Perrone, L.; Fontana, G.; Romano, V.; Malagnini, A.; Tutone, G.; Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.; Belehaki, A.; Tsagouri, I.; Kouris, S. S.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.; Angling, M.

    2009-06-01

    After a first oblique-incidence ionospheric sounding campaign over Central Europe performed during the period 2003-2004 over the radio links between Inskip (UK, 53.5°N, 2.5°W) and Rome (Italy, 41.8°N, 12.5°E) and between Inskip and Chania (Crete, 35.7°N, 24.0°E), new and more extensive analysis of systematic MUF measurements from January 2005 to December 2006 have been performed. MUF measurements collected during moderately disturbed days (17 ⩽ Ap ⩽ 32), disturbed days (32 50), have been used to test the long term prediction models (ASAPS, ICEPAC and SIRM&LKW), and the now casting models (SIRMUP&LKW and ISWIRM&LKW). The performances of the different prediction methods in terms of r.m.s are shown for selected range of geomagnetic activity and for each season.

  9. Long-Term Performance of Chemically and Physically Modified Activated Carbons in Air Cathodes of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-31

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Activated carbon (AC) is a low-cost and effective catalyst for oxygen reduction in air cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but its performance must be maintained over time. AC was modified by three methods: 1)pyrolysis with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (AC-Fe), 2)heat treatment (AC-heat), and 3)mixing with carbon black (AC-CB). The maximum power densities after one month with these AC cathodes were 35% higher with AC-Fe (1410±50mW m-2) and AC-heat (1400±20mW m-2), and 16% higher with AC-CB (1210±30mW m-2) than for plain AC (1040±20mW m-2), versus 1270±50mW m-2 for a Pt control. After 16months, the Pt cathodes produced only 250±10mW m-2. However, the AC-heat and AC-CB cathodes still produced 960-970mW m-2, whereas plain AC produced 860±60mW m-2. The performance of the AC cathodes was restored to >85% of the initial maximum power densities by cleaning with a weak acid solution. Based on cost considerations among the AC materials, AC-CB appears to be the best choice for long-term performance.

  10. Analysis of long-term performance and microbial community structure in bio-cathode microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huichao; Wen, Qinxue; An, Zhongyi; Chen, Zhiqiang; Nan, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) could desalinate salt water without energy consumption and simultaneously generate bioenergy. Compared with an abiotic cathode MDC, an aerobic bio-cathode MDC is more sustainable and is less expensive to operate. In this study, the long-term operation (5500 h) performance of a bio-cathode MDC was investigated in which the power density, Coulombic efficiency, and salt removal rate were decreased by 71, 44, and 27 %, respectively. The primary reason for the system performance decrease was biofouling on the membranes, which increased internal resistance and reduced the ionic transfer and energy conversion efficiency. Changing membranes was an effective method to recover the MDC performance. The microbial community diversity in the MDC anode was low compared with that of the reported microbial fuel cell (MFC), while the abundance of Proteobacteria was 30 % higher. The content of Planctomycetes in the cathode biofilm sample was much higher than that in biofouling on the cation exchange membrane (CEM), indicating that Planctomycetes were relevant to cathode oxygen reduction.

  11. The effect of weaner diet protein content and diet quality on the long-term performance of pigs to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellock, I J; Houdijk, J G M; Miller, A C; Gill, B P; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Short and long-term effects of manipulating dietary CP content and diet quality in weaner diets on health and performance of pigs were investigated in a 2 x 2 factorial combination of CP inclusion (high-CP, 230 g of CP/kg vs. low-CP, 170 g of CP/kg) and diet quality (high-quality, cooked cereals, and animal protein vs. low-quality, raw cereals, and plant protein). Diets were fed ad libitum for 14 d postweaning to pigs weaned at 29.4+/-3.1 d of age and 9.9+/-1.0 kg of BW. From d 14 to slaughter at 104+/-3 kg, all pigs were fed the same series of standard commercial diets. There were 15 replicates per treatment in the weaner phase (30 kg). High-quality diets promoted gut health as indicated by improved fecal lactobacilli to coliform ratio (P=0.002) and decreased fecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli counts on d 11 postweaning (P=0.028), reducing the risk of postweaning diarrhea and improving pig health from weaning to the end of the weaner phase. Reducing CP content had no effect on gut health. High-CP (P=0.053) and high-quality (P=0.025) diets independently increased ADG during the first 14 d postweaning compared with low-CP and low-quality diets, respectively. There were no interactions between dietary CP content and quality on any of the response criteria investigated. Despite differences in the immediate postweaning period, there was no effect of manipulating diet quality or CP content for 2 wk postweaning on lifetime performance with pigs reaching slaughter weight in 128+/-7 d. These results indicate that high-quality diets may protect pig gut health during the immediate postweaning period. However, it may be possible to use less expensive, decreased quality weaner diets without any adverse effects on long-term performance when weaning older, heavier pigs and where health status, environmental control, and stock management are all maintained to a high standard.

  12. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M.; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems (“Arbequina,” Arbequina IRTA-i·18, “Arbosana,” “Fs-17,” and “Koroneiki”) and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha−1 for the cultivar “Arbequina.” Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha−1. Only “Fs-17” did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha−1) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for “Arbequina,” both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha−1 for the lowest density (780 trees ha−1) to 29.9 t ha−1 for the highest (2254 trees ha−1). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation. PMID:27602035

  13. Boron-bearing species in ceramic matrix composites for long-term aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslain, R.; Guette, A.; Rebillat, F.; Pailler, R.; Langlais, F.; Bourrat, X.

    2004-02-01

    Boron-bearing refractory species are introduced in non-oxide ceramic matrix fibrous composites (such as SiC/SiC composites) to improve their oxidation resistance under load at high temperatures with a view to applications in the aerospace field. B-doped pyrocarbon and hex-BN have been successfully used as interphase (instead of pure pyrocarbon) either as homogeneous or multilayered fiber coatings, to arrest and deflect matrix cracks formed under load (mechanical fuse function) and to give toughness to the materials. A self-healing multilayered matrix is designed and used in a model composite, which combines B-doped pyrocarbon mechanical fuse layers and B- and Si-bearing compound (namely B 4C and SiC) layers forming B 2O 3-based fluid healing phases when exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere. All the materials are deposited by chemical vapor infiltration. Lifetimes under tensile loading of several hundreds hours at high temperatures are reported.

  14. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system

  15. Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jean-Bernard; Tikhomirov, Alex; Ushakova, Sofya; Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model, including higher plants for food production and biodegradation of human waste, in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states was performed. The model system was conceived for supplying vegetarian food and oxygen to 0.07 human. The following data were obtained in steady-state operating conditions. Average rate of wheat, chufa, radish, lettuce and Salicornia edible biomass accumulation were 8.7, 5.5, 0.6, 0.6 and metricconverterProductID2.5 g2.5 g per day respectively. Thus, to mimic the vegetarian edible biomass consumption by a human it was necessary to withdraw 17.9 g/d from total mass ex-change. Simultaneously, human mineralized exometabolites (artificial mineralized urine, AMU) in the amount of approximately 7% of a daily norm were introduced into the nutrient solu-tion for irrigation of the plants cultivated on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate). The estimated value of 5.8 g/d of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass was introduced in the soil-like substrate (SLS) to fully meet the plants need in nitrogen. The rest of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass, 5.7 g/d, was stored. Thus in all, 23.6g of vegetarian dry matter had been stored. Assuming edible biomass is eaten up by the human, the closure coefficient of the vegetarian biomass inclusion into matter recycling amounted to 88%. The analysis of the long-term model operation showed that the main factors limiting increase of recycling processes were the following: a) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of daily human waste with daily needs of plants culti-` vated in the system. Thus, when fully satisfied with respect to nitrogen, the plants experienced a lack of macro elements such as P, Mg and Ca by more than 50%; b) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of edible biomass of the plants cultivated in the SLS with that of inedible biomass of the plants cultivated by hydroponic method on neutral substrate introduced in the SLS; c) Accumulation of

  16. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-14

    The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

  17. Long-term performance of activated carbon air cathodes with different diffusion layer porosities in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes are inexpensive and useful alternatives to Pt-catalyzed electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but information is needed on their long-term stability for oxygen reduction. AC cathodes were constructed with diffusion layers (DLs) with two different porosities (30% and 70%) to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen transfer on power. The 70% DL cathode initially produced a maximum power density of 1214±123mW/m 2 (cathode projected surface area; 35±4W/m 3 based on liquid volume), but it decreased by 40% after 1 year to 734±18mW/m 2. The 30% DL cathode initially produced less power than the 70% DL cathode, but it only decreased by 22% after 1 year (from 1014±2mW/m 2 to 789±68mW/m 2). Electrochemical tests were used to examine the reasons for the degraded performance. Diffusion resistance in the cathode was found to be the primary component of the internal resistance, and it increased over time. Replacing the cathode after 1 year completely restored the original power densities. These results suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ~750mW/m 2 after 1 year. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Long term performance evaluation of the TACTIC imaging telescope using ∼400 h Crab Nebula observation during 2003–2010

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Tickoo; R Koul; R C Rannot; K K Yadav; P Chandra; V K Dhar; M K Koul; M Kothari; N K Agarwal; A Goyal; H C Goyal; S Kotwal; N Kumar; P Marandi; K Venugopal; K Chanchalani; N Bhatt; S Bhattacharyya; C Borwankar; N Chouhan; S R Kaul; A K Mitra; S Sahaynathan; M Sharma; K K Singh; C K Bhat

    2014-03-01

    The TeV atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with imaging camera (TACTIC) -ray telescope has been in operation at Mt. Abu, India since 2001 to study TeV -ray emission from celestial sources. During the last 10 years, apart from consistently detecting a steady signal from the Crab Nebula above ∼1.2 TeV energy, at a sensitivity level of ∼5.0 in ∼25 h, the telescope has also detected flaring activity from Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 on several occasions. Although we used Crab Nebula data partially, in some of the reported results, primarily for testing the validity of the full data analysis chain, the main aim of this work is to study the long term performance of the TACTIC telescope by using consolidated data collected between 2003 and 2010. The total on-source data, comprising ∼402 h, yields an excess of ∼(3742±192) -ray events with a statistical significance of ∼19.9 . The off-source data, comprising ∼107 h of observation, is found to be consistent with a no-emission hypothesis, as expected. The resulting -ray rate for the onsource data is determined to be ∼(9.31±0.48) h-1. A power law fit (d/d = $f_0E^{−}$) with $f_0 \\tilde (2.66 ± 0.29) × 10^{−11}$ cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 and $ \\tilde$ 2.56 ± 0.10 is found to provide reasonable fit to the inferred differential spectrum within statistical uncertainties. The spectrum matches reasonably well with that obtained by other groups. A brief summary of the improvements in the various subsystems of the telescope carried out recently, which has resulted in a substantial improvement in its detection sensitivity (viz., ∼5 in an observation period of ∼13 h as compared to ∼25 h earlier) are also presented in this paper. Encouraged by the detection of strong -ray signals from Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 on several occasions, there is considerable scope for the TACTIC telescope to monitor similar TeV -ray emission activity from other active galactic nuclei on a long-term basis.

  19. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Florian

    2014-10-01

    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretreatment was limited to 10μm pore size cartridge filtration and antiscalant dosage (2-2.5mgL-1) only. Membrane performance parameters normalized pressure drop (NPD), normalized specific water permeability (Kw) and salt retention generally were found stable over extended periods of operation (>6 months). Standard acid-base cleanings (once per year or less) were found to be sufficient to maintain satisfying operation during direct NF of the described iron rich (≤8.4mgL-1) anoxic groundwaters. Extensive autopsies of eight NF membrane elements, which had been in service since the plant startup (6-10 years), were performed to characterize and quantify the material accumulated in the membrane elements. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements revealed a complex mixture of organic, biological and inorganic materials. The fouling layers that developed during half to one year of operation without chemical cleaning were very thin (<2. μm). Most bio(organic) accumulates were found in the lead elements of the installations while inorganic precipitates/deposits (aluminosilicates and iron(II)sulfides) were found in all autopsied membrane elements. The high solubility of reduced metal ions and the very slow biofilm development under anoxic conditions prevented rapid fouling during direct NF of the studied groundwaters. When compared to oxic NF and RO systems in general (e.g. aerated ground waters or surface waters), the operation and performance of the described anoxic installations (with minimal pretreatment) can be described as very stable. © 2014

  20. Selection of Hidden Layer Neurons and Best Training Method for FFNN in Application of Long Term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet K.; Singh, Asheesh K.; Tripathy, Manoj

    2012-05-01

    For power industries electricity load forecast plays an important role for real-time control, security, optimal unit commitment, economic scheduling, maintenance, energy management, and plant structure planning etc. A new technique for long term load forecasting (LTLF) using optimized feed forward artificial neural network (FFNN) architecture is presented in this paper, which selects optimal number of neurons in the hidden layer as well as the best training method for the case study. The prediction performance of proposed technique is evaluated using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of Thailand private electricity consumption and forecasted data. The results obtained are compared with the results of classical auto-regressive (AR) and moving average (MA) methods. It is, in general, observed that the proposed method is prediction wise more accurate.

  1. Modeling performance of a two-dimensional capsule in a microchannel flow: long-term lateral migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Ma, Gang

    2010-08-01

    The long-term lateral migration of a two-dimensional elastic capsule in a microchannel is studied numerically in this paper. The numerical method combines a finite volume technique for solving the fluid problem with a front tracking technique for capturing and tracking the capsule membrane. The capsule is modeled as a liquid medium enclosed by a thin membrane which has linear elastic properties. The capsule, whose initial shape is circle and which starts from a near-center position or a near-wall position, experiences tilting and membrane tank-treading, and migrates laterally when moving along the surrounding flow. The lateral migration demonstrates the existence of lift effect of surrounding flow on moving capsule. Before capsule approaches to the microchannel centerline closely, lower membrane dilation modulus and lower viscosity ratio tend to result in faster lateral migration. The initial position also influences the performance behavior of capsule, despite the lateral migration of capsule is a quasisteady process. Small difference in capsule behavior when capsule is not near to the microchannel centerline might lead to significant difference in capsule behavior when capsule approaches closely to the centerline. When capsules are near to microchannel wall, the effect of the wall on capsule behavior might dominate, leading to relatively faster lateral migration. When capsules are not far from microchannel centerline, the effect of the nonlinearity of Poiseuille flow might dominate, resulting in relatively slower lateral movement. When capsules are located closely to the centerline, they behave differently, where the reason still remains poorly understood and it will be one of our future studies. The comparison between the capsule behavior from the present simulation and that by the migration law proposed by Coupier [Phys. Fluids 20, 111702 (2008)] shows that the behavioral agreement for near-wall capsule is better than that for near-center capsule, and the best

  2. Long-term application of bioorganic fertilizers improved soil biochemical properties and microbial communities of an apple orchard soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1 control without fertilization (CK; (2 chemical fertilizer application (CF; and (3 bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF. The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009-2015. The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0-20cm, 20-40cm, and 40-60cm, e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas and Bacillus, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity.

  3. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009–2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity. PMID:27965631

  4. Long-term progressive motor skill training enhances corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hemisphere and motor performance of the untrained hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Grey, Michael James

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established that unilateral motor practice can lead to increased performance in the opposite non-trained hand. Here, we test the hypothesis that progressively increasing task difficulty during long-term skill training with the dominant right hand increase performance and corticomotor e...

  5. Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, H; van Halem, D; Smeets, P W M H; Soppe, A I A; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G; Nederstigt, J; Gensburger, I; Heijman, S G J

    2014-03-15

    In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the filtration and subsequent storage. Twenty-two CPFs with three different silver applications (non, only outside and both sides) were compared in a long-term loading experiment with Escherichia coli (K12 and WR1) and MS2 bacteriophages in natural challenge water under highly controlled laboratory circumstances. No significant difference in Log Removal Values were found between the filters with different silver applications. The results show that the storage time in the receptacle is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation by silver, and not the contact time during the filtration phase. The hypothesis that the absence of silver would enhance the virus removal, due to biofilm formation on the ceramic filter element, could not be confirmed. The removal effectiveness for viruses is still of major concern for the CPF. This study suggests that the ceramic pot filter characteristics, such as burnt material content, do not determine E. coli removal efficacies, but rather the contact time with silver during storage is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation.

  6. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose

  7. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Kronberg, Magnus (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for approx6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO{sub 2} 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that

  8. Long-term ferrocyanide application via deicing salts promotes the establishment of Actinomycetales assimilating ferrocyanide-derived carbon in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Mansfeldt, Tim; Kublik, Susanne; Touliari, Evangelia; Buegger, Franz; Schloter, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Cyanides are highly toxic and produced by various microorganisms as defence strategy or to increase their competitiveness. As degradation is the most efficient way of detoxification, some microbes developed the capability to use cyanides as carbon and nitrogen source. However, it is not clear if this potential also helps to lower cyanide concentrations in roadside soils where deicing salt application leads to significant inputs of ferrocyanide. The question remains if biodegradation in soils can occur without previous photolysis. By conducting a microcosm experiment using soils with/without pre-exposition to road salts spiked with (13) C-labelled ferrocyanide, we were able to confirm biodegradation and in parallel to identify bacteria using ferrocyanide as C source via DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP), TRFLP fingerprinting and pyrosequencing. Bacteria assimilating (13) C were highly similar in the pre-exposed soils, belonging mostly to Actinomycetales (Kineosporia, Mycobacterium, Micromonosporaceae). In the soil without pre-exposition, bacteria belonging to Acidobacteria (Gp3, Gp4, Gp6), Gemmatimonadetes (Gemmatimonas) and Gammaproteobacteria (Thermomonas, Xanthomonadaceae) used ferrocyanide as C source but not the present Actinomycetales. This indicated that (i) various bacteria are able to assimilate ferrocyanide-derived C and (ii) long-term exposition to ferrocyanide applied with deicing salts leads to Actinomycetales outcompeting other microorganisms for the use of ferrocyanide as C source.

  9. Market Timing on Oslo Stock Exchange: A Two-dimensional Analysis of Long-term Abnormal Stock Price Performance Following Equity Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Holom, Erik Hiller

    2013-01-01

    I analyze the time-variation of long-term risk-adjusted abnormal stock price underperformances following equity issues on Oslo Stock Exchange between 1997 and 2011. Market timing effects are analyzed within a two dimensional framework reflecting both the pre-issue stock market performance and the short-term activity level in the equity capital market. An adjusted version of the Fama-French three-factor model is used for the risk-adjustment of stock returns. The long-term underperformance is h...

  10. Atomic-Scale Origin of Long-Term Stability and High Performance of p-GaN Nanowire Arrays for Photocatalytic Overall Pure Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Md Golam; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Wanli; Boukahil, Idris; Kong, Xianghua; Chowdhury, Faqrul Alam; Trudeau, Michel L; Ji, Wei; Guo, Hong; Himpsel, F J; Vayssieres, Lionel; Mi, Zetian

    2016-10-01

    The atomic-scale origin of the unusually high performance and long-term stability of wurtzite p-GaN oriented nanowire arrays is revealed. Nitrogen termination of both the polar (0001¯) top face and the nonpolar (101¯0) side faces of the nanowires is essential for long-term stability and high efficiency. Such a distinct atomic configuration ensures not only stability against (photo) oxidation in air and in water/electrolyte but, as importantly, also provides the necessary overall reverse crystal polarization needed for efficient hole extraction in p-GaN.

  11. Performance of Diversity System Output Signal in Mobile Cellular System in the Presence of α-μ Short Term Fading and Gamma Long Term Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Krstic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, wireless mobile communication system with macrodiversity reception is considered. Macrodiversity system is consisting of macrodiversity selection combining (SC receiver and three microdiversity SC receivers. Propagation channel suffers α-μ short term fading and Gamma long term fading resulting in system performance degradation. Analytical closed form expression for average level crossing rate (LCR of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelope is obtained. Mathematical results are analyzed, presenting the influence of long term fading parameters and short term fading parameters on average level crossing rate. Obtained results can be used in the process of simulation and design of real-world environments mobile cellular telecommunication systems.

  12. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Sociu F.; Georgescu R.; Toma R.; Barariu Gh.; Fako R.

    2013-01-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to rema...

  13. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  14. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Group, Allrisc; Veeger, DirkJan H; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inactive manual wheelchair use

  15. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bleijenberg, Nienke; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limi

  16. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.

  17. Diaphyseal femoral fractures below the age of six years: Results of plaster application and long term followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Catena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:In children less than 6 years, the treatment of femoral shaft fracture is often non surgical, using closed reduction and casting. The literature reports many experience about this type of trauma but none of these has a long term followup. We present a retrospective study on a group of femoral diaphyseal fractures treated nonsurgically in children up to 6 years of age, with a minimum of 10 year followup. Materials and Methods:48 cases (36 males/12 females with femoral diaphyseal fractures treated between January 1988 and December 1998 were reviewed. Patients with fractures due to obstetrical trauma and pathologic fractures were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 3.3 ± 1.1 years (range 5 months-6 years. Right side was involved in 21 cases (44%, and left side in 27 cases (56%. In 34 cases (71%, closed reduction was performed and hip spica was applied with the hip and knee flexed to 45΀. In 8 cases (17%, skeletal traction was applied to perform fracture reduction and the traction pin was embedded in plaster while in the remaining 6 cases (12%, the Delitala pressure apparatus was applied after casting. Results:All fractures healed in our study. There were no complications (infection or vascular nervous issues, axial deviations, consolidation delays, or pseudoarthrosis. In 13 cases (27%, followup examinations showed mean lengthening of 1.3 ± 0.75 (range 0.5-2.5 cm of the fractured lower limb. All these patients were treated with skin traction before treatment and presented with 2.08 ± 0.28 cm mean initial femoral shortening. In 1 case (2% with 2.5 cm lengthening, epiphysiodesis of the ipsilateral knee was performed. No patients showed prolonged difficulty with gait disorders. Conclusion:On the basis of our results conservative treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children can be considered less invasive and safe procedure.

  18. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages; Synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des betons. Application aux colis cimentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L' Hostis, V.; Levera, P

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational

  19. Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Erica R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that acute GPLC supplementation produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate production in resistance trained males. However, it is not known what effects chronic GPLC supplementation has on anaerobic performances or lactate clearance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of different dosages of GPLC supplementation on repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprint performance. Methods Forty-five resistance trained men participated in a double-blind, controlled research study. All subjects completed two testing sessions, seven days apart, 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Following completion of the second test session, the 45 subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1.5 g, 3.0 g, or 4.5 g GPLC per day for a 28 day period. Subjects completed a third test session following the four weeks of GPLC supplementation using the same testing protocol. Values of peak power (PP, mean power (MP and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body mass. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results There were no significant effects of condition or significant interaction effects detected for PP and MP. However, results indicated that sprint bouts three, four and five produced 2 - 5% lower values of PP and 3 - 7% lower values of MP with GPLC at 3.0 or 4.5 g per day as compared to baseline values. Conversely, 1.5 g GPLC produced 3 - 6% higher values of PP and 2 -5% higher values of MP compared with PL baseline values. Values of DEC were significantly greater (15-20% greater across the five sprint bouts with 3.0 g or 4.5 g GPLC, but the 1.5 g GPLC

  20. The long-term forecast of Taiwan's energy supply and demand: LEAP model application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yophy, E-mail: yohuanghaka@gmail.com [Deptartment of Public Finance and Tax Administration, National Taipei College of Business, Taipei Taiwan, 10051 (China); Bor, Yunchang Jeffrey [Deptartment of Economics, Chinese Culture University, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei, 11114, Taiwan (China); Peng, Chieh-Yu [Statistics Department, Taoyuan District Court, No. 1 Fazhi Road, Taoyuan City 33053, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is an extremely important topic of fundamental research in Taiwan due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on energy imports, and the nation's pursuit of sustainable development. In this article, we provide an overview of energy supply and demand in Taiwan, and a summary of the historical evolution and current status of its energy policies, as background to a description of the preparation and application of a Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model of Taiwan's energy sector. The Taiwan LEAP model is used to compare future energy demand and supply patterns, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for several alternative scenarios of energy policy and energy sector evolution. Results of scenarios featuring 'business-as-usual' policies, aggressive energy-efficiency improvement policies, and on-schedule retirement of Taiwan's three existing nuclear plants are provided and compared, along with sensitivity cases exploring the impacts of lower economic growth assumptions. A concluding section provides an interpretation of the implications of model results for future energy and climate policies in Taiwan. - Research Highlights: > The LEAP model is useful for international energy policy comparison. > Nuclear power plants have significant, positive impacts on CO{sub 2} emission. > The most effective energy policy is to adopt demand-side management. > Reasonable energy pricing provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation. > Financial crisis has less impact on energy demand than aggressive energy policy.

  1. Cross-sectional relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older persons living in long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age-related deterioration of physiological capacities such as muscle strength and balance is associated with increased dependence. Understanding the contribution of physical fitness components to functional performance facilitates the development of adequate exercise interventions aiming at preservation of function and independence of older people. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older people living in long-term care facilities. Methods Design cross-sectional study Subjects 226 persons living in long-term care facilities (mean age: 81.6 ± 5.6. Outcome measures Physical fitness and functional performance were measured by performance-based tests. Results Knee and elbow extension strength were significantly higher in men (difference = 44.5 and 50.0 N, respectively, whereas women were more flexible (difference sit & reach test = 7.2 cm. Functional performance was not significantly different between the genders. In men, motor coordination (eye-hand coordination and measures of strength were the main contributors to functional performance, whereas in women flexibility (sit and reach test and motor coordination (tandem stance and eye-hand coordination played a major role. Conclusion The results of this study show that besides muscle strength, fitness components such as coordination and flexibility are associated with functional performance of older people living in long-term care facilities. This suggests that men and women living in long-term care facilities, differ considerably concerning the fitness factors contributing to functional performance. Women and men may, therefore, need exercise programs emphasizing different fitness aspects in order to improve functional performance.

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  3. Multidimensional smoothing by adaptive local kernel-weighted log-likelihood: application to long-term care insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, J.; Planchet, F.

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in modeling the mortality of long-term care (LTC) claimants having the same level of severeness (heavy claimant). Practitioners often use empirical methods that rely heavily on expert opinions. We propose approaches not depending on an expert’s advice. We analyze the mortality as a

  4. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Eos LNG... Eos LNG LLC (Eos), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced from... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  5. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG...) filed on July 16, 2012, by LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 9.6 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas...

  6. Wear, creep, and frictional heat of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part I, A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A; Schwartz, G

    1987-12-01

    Creep and wear of articulating reconstructed joints is a complex process, resulting in adverse tissue response, decreased range of motion, and eventual revision. As improvements are made in the design and surgical techniques of reconstructed joints, the long-term performance of the articulating system and materials becomes more important, particularly for younger, heavier, and more active patients. One aspect previously ignored in the long-term performance of articulating systems is the tendency for these systems to generate heat during articulation, particularly for extended periods of relatively strenuous activity. The present study reviews the various aspects of joint lubrication, friction, wear, and overall system performance. Local heating can increase the creep, wear, and oxidation degradation of UHMWPE, thus, specific attention is given to the effect that heat generation can have on long-term performance of these systems. Because of the complexity of this issue, the treatment of these various performance aspects is divided into two parts. The present part, Part I, reviews the various aspects of articulation performance. Part II presents results of friction, heating, and torque testing of various metal and ceramic hip systems. Criteria for frictional heating is also presented, along with discussion related to the various heat transfer mechanisms involved with heat dissipation.

  7. The long term results of pediatric esotropia surgery performed according to new scheme of muscle recession / resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotarev А.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate the long term results of surgical treatment in children with esotropia, operated according to new scheme of muscle procedures. Materials. The retrospective analysis of surgical treatment in 50 children with esotropia was made. The new scheme of muscle recession / resection was used. Results. The duration of monitoring was 1-5 years. More then half of all patients has ortotropia, even in cases with 25° primary deviation angle. Almost 40% of patients has increasing of visual acuity of amblyopic eye and binocular functions. Conclusion. The new scheme of muscle recession / resection allows to receive ortotropia after surgical treatment in large esotropia and avoid the reoperations. Using of the new scheme of strabismus surgery don't increase the quantity of secondary exodeviation

  8. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing’, typical in intermediate’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450°F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  9. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-08-07

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6-17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36-48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child's cognitive development requires further investigation.

  10. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Warthon-Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe or multiple micronutrients (MMN including zinc (451 in each group. The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation.

  11. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  12. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  13. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Li, Q.; Lu, G.; Wang, H.; Li, P.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI) which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI), the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Z Index (ZIND), the Soil Moisture Index (SMI) with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI), the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI), the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  14. [Effect of long-term application of nitrogen fertilizer on the diversity of nitrifying genes (amoA and hao) in paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-lan; Wu, Min-na; Wei, Wen-xue

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (16 years) application of nitrogen fertilizer on the diversity of nitrifying genes (amoA and hao) in paddy soil on the basis of long-term paddy field experimental station (started in 1990) located in Taoyuan, with the molecular approaches of PCR, constructing libraries and sequencing. The fertilizer was urea and no fertilizer was as control. The Shannon index showed that long-term application of nitrogen fertilizer made the diversity of amoA gene descend while no effect on the diversity of hao gene. The LIBSHUFF statistical analyses demonstrated that both amoA and hao libraries of CK and N treatments were significantly different from each other and the rarefaction curves of libraries failed to meet the plateaus indicating that there were lots kinds of genes haven't been detected. The results of blasting with GenBank and the phylogenetic tree showed that the amoA genes detected in our study had a similarity with the uncultured gene of amoA, which showed some similar to Nitrosospira. Otherwise, the hao genes cloned showed a relationship to the genes of cultured bacteria such as Silicibacteria, Nitrosospira and Methylococcus, and the hao genes found in the N treatment dominated in alpha-Proteobacteria. These results suggest that long-term fertilization of nitrogen had significant impacts on the diversity or community of amoA and hao genes.

  15. Results of long-term performance and subsequent laboratory tests of RPCs of the L3 forward-backward muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Alviggi, M G; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Paolucci, P; Patricelli, S; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Sehkniadze, G

    2003-01-01

    The RPC chambers in the L3 forward-backward muon spectrometer have been operational from 1994 to the end of LEP running. After dismantling of the L3 detector some of the RPCs modules have been transported to Napoli where their performance has been re-measured with cosmic rays. Results of long-term performance in the LEP environment and of laboratory tests with cosmic rays will be presented. One of the 20 tested chambers, the one with the worst performances, was opened. The chamber was inspected with microscope and also a chemical analysis of the oil coating was performed. We will report in detail about this analysis.

  16. Effect of biogas sparging on the performance of bio-hydrogen reactor over a long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualsri, Chatchawin; Kongjan, Prawit; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance hydrogen production from sugarcane syrup by biogas sparging. Two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were used to produce hydrogen and methane, respectively. Biogas produced from the UASB was used to sparge into the CSTR. Results indicated that sparging with biogas increased the hydrogen production rate (HPR) by 35% (from 17.1 to 23.1 L/L.d) resulted from a reduction in the hydrogen partial pressure. A fluctuation of HPR was observed during a long term monitoring because CO2 in the sparging gas and carbon source in the feedstock were consumed by Enterobacter sp. to produce succinic acid without hydrogen production. Mixed gas released from the CSTR after the sparging can be considered as bio-hythane (H2+CH4). In addition, a continuous sparging biogas into CSTR release a partial pressure in the headspace of the methane reactor. In consequent, the methane production rate is increased. PMID:28207755

  17. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sociu F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa, to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  18. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  19. Effect of biogas sparging on the performance of bio-hydrogen reactor over a long-term operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualsri, Chatchawin; Kongjan, Prawit; Reungsang, Alissara; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance hydrogen production from sugarcane syrup by biogas sparging. Two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were used to produce hydrogen and methane, respectively. Biogas produced from the UASB was used to sparge into the CSTR. Results indicated that sparging with biogas increased the hydrogen production rate (HPR) by 35% (from 17.1 to 23.1 L/L.d) resulted from a reduction in the hydrogen partial pressure. A fluctuation of HPR was observed during a long term monitoring because CO2 in the sparging gas and carbon source in the feedstock were consumed by Enterobacter sp. to produce succinic acid without hydrogen production. Mixed gas released from the CSTR after the sparging can be considered as bio-hythane (H2+CH4). In addition, a continuous sparging biogas into CSTR release a partial pressure in the headspace of the methane reactor. In consequent, the methane production rate is increased.

  20. Performance of brain MRI of a two generation father-and-son family with long-term smoking caffeinum natrio benzoicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wan-li; ZHANG Li-fang; LIU Hong; ZHAO Li-yun; XING Yu-ping; YUAN Ning

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the 1970s, some people in north, northeast,northwest areas began to smoke caffeinum natrio benzoicum (CNB) and started to abuse CNB. As a common ingredient that can be found in drugs or drinks,many studies on the safety of CNB have been investigated, but no one has shown significant abnormality in the brain of a CNB abuser by using neuroimaging. In our study, three subjects from of a two generation father-and-son family with long-term smoking CNB were enrolled. Combining with the clinical data and taking the cocaine animal trial model and toxicology as the reference, we wanted to observe the performance of brain MRI and MRS of patients with long-term smoking CNB.

  1. Spatial and temporal synthesized probability gain for middle and long-term earthquake forecast and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The principle of middle and long-term earthquake forecast model of spatial and temporal synthesized probability gain and the evaluation of forecast efficiency (R-values) of various forecast methods are introduced in this paper. The R-value method, developed by Xu (1989), is further developed here, and can be applied to more complicated cases. Probability gains in spatial and/or temporal domains and the R-values for different forecast methods are estimated in North China. The synthesized probability gain is then estimated as an example.

  2. Response of aerobic granular sludge to the long-term presence to nanosilver in sequencing batch reactors: reactor performance, sludge property, microbial activity and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiangchun; Cen, Yan; Lu, Fang; Gu, Lingyun; Ma, Jingyun

    2015-02-15

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) raises concerns about their potential toxic effects on the environment. Granular shape sludge is a special type of microbial aggregate. The response of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) to the long-term presence of Ag NPs has not been well studied. In this study, AGS was exposed to 5 and 50mg/L Ag NPs in sequence batch reactors (SBRs) for 69 days, and its response was evaluated based on the sludge properties, microbial activity and community, and reactor performance. The results showed that Ag NPs caused inhibition to microbial activities of AGS from Day 35. At the end of 69 days of Ag NPs exposure, the microbial activity of AGS was significantly inhibited in terms of inhibitions of the ammonia oxidizing rate (33.0%), respiration rate (17.7% and 45.6%) and denitrification rate (6.8%), as well as decreases in the ammonia mono-oxygenase and nitrate reductase activities. During the long-term exposure, the AGS maintained its granular shape and large granule size (approximately 900 μm); the microbial community of AGS slightly changed, but the dominant microbial population remained. Overall, the AGS tolerated the toxicity of Ag NPs well, but a long-term exposure may produce chronic toxicity to the AGS, which is concerning.

  3. The long term storage performance of MH/Ni battery%MH/Ni电池的长期储存性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱钟明; 谈健; 吴爱深

    2012-01-01

    将MH/Ni电池在室温下以不同的荷电态(SOC)进行长期储存,对储存前后的电池性能进行测试.长期储存后,电池的内阻变化较大,储存24个月后的平均内阻增加43.46%,平均容量恢复率为90.33%.长期储存对MH/Ni电池的容量、放电平台及循环寿命都会产生不利的影响.%MH/Ni battery was stored for long term under normal temperature with different state of charge(SOC) ,the battery performance before and after storage was tested. When stored for long term, the internal resistance change of the battery was larger, the average increasing ratio of the internal resistance within 24 months storage was above 43.46%, the average capacity recovery ratio was 90.33% . The long term storage was unfavorable for the capacity,discharge voltage plateaus and cycle life of the battery.

  4. Study and application on the evaluation method of porous formation for long-term waterflooding sand reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changjiang; Jiang Hanqiao; Chen Minfeng; Geng Zhanli; Liu Pengfei

    2009-01-01

    Nine targets which stand both for the static characteristic of produced formations and the dynamic parameter of wells including the average permeability, variation coefficient of permeability, moving capability, remaining recoverable reserves, coefficient of flooding, daily oil production, increasing rate of water cut, cumulative liquid production per unit meter and efficiency index of oil production are selected as the evaluation indexes, a novel model to evaluate the porous formations in long-term waterflooding sand reservoir was established by using the support vector machine and clustering analysis. Data of 57 wefts from Shentuo 21 block Shengli oilfield was analyzed by using the model. Four kinds of forma-tion groups were gained. According to the analysis result, different adjustment solutions were put forward to develop the relevant formations. The Monthly oil production increased 7.6 % and the water cut decreased 8.9 % after the adjusted solutions. Good results indicate that the learning from this method gained will be valuable adding to other long-term wa-terflooding sand reservoirs in Shengli oilfield and other similar reservoirs worldwide.

  5. Linking long-term planetary $N$-body simulations with periodic orbits: application to white dwarf pollution

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I

    2016-01-01

    Mounting discoveries of debris discs orbiting newly-formed stars and white dwarfs (WDs) showcase the importance of modeling the long-term evolution of small bodies in exosystems. WD debris discs are in particular thought to form from very long-term (0.1-5.0 Gyr) instability between planets and asteroids. However, the time-consuming nature of $N$-body integrators which accurately simulate motion over Gyrs necessitates a judicious choice of initial conditions. The analytical tools known as \\textit{periodic orbits} can circumvent the guesswork. Here, we begin a comprehensive analysis directly linking periodic orbits with $N$-body integration outcomes with an extensive exploration of the planar circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) with an outer planet and inner asteroid near or inside of the $2$:$1$ mean motion resonance. We run nearly 1000 focused simulations for the entire age of the Universe (14 Gyr) with initial conditions mapped to the phase space locations surrounding the unstable and stable perio...

  6. Funding long-term care: applications of the trade-off principle in both public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The uncertain need for long-term care services is a risk best protected by insurance. However, the current funding relies heavily on personal payment and public welfare, and only lightly on social and private insurances. This method, akin to sitting on a two-legged stool, is unlikely to be sustainable. To incorporate insurance as a key component of funding and to mobilize public and private resources more effectively, we propose a three-legged-stool funding model under which social insurance would provide a basic protection, to be supplemented by private insurance and personal payment. When these sources do not provide sufficient protection for some individuals, Medicaid as public welfare would serve as a safety net. This article (a) discusses how to implement this funding model by using the trade-off principle in both the public and private sectors when resources for long-term care are scarce, and (b) analyzes several objections to this model from cognitive psychology/behavioral economics

  7. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  8. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  9. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  10. Application of Large-Scale Database-Based Online Modeling to Plant State Long-Term Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masatoshi; Ogai, Harutoshi

    Recently, attention has been drawn to the local modeling techniques of a new idea called “Just-In-Time (JIT) modeling”. To apply “JIT modeling” to a large amount of database online, “Large-scale database-based Online Modeling (LOM)” has been proposed. LOM is a technique that makes the retrieval of neighboring data more efficient by using both “stepwise selection” and quantization. In order to predict the long-term state of the plant without using future data of manipulated variables, an Extended Sequential Prediction method of LOM (ESP-LOM) has been proposed. In this paper, the LOM and the ESP-LOM are introduced.

  11. Linking long-term planetary N-body simulations with periodic orbits: application to white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I.; Veras, Dimitri

    2016-12-01

    Mounting discoveries of debris discs orbiting newly formed stars and white dwarfs (WDs) showcase the importance of modelling the long-term evolution of small bodies in exosystems. WD debris discs are, in particular, thought to form from very long-term (0.1-5.0 Gyr) instability between planets and asteroids. However, the time-consuming nature of N-body integrators which accurately simulate motion over Gyrs necessitates a judicious choice of initial conditions. The analytical tools known as periodic orbits can circumvent the guesswork. Here, we begin a comprehensive analysis directly linking periodic orbits with N-body integration outcomes with an extensive exploration of the planar circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) with an outer planet and inner asteroid near or inside of the 2:1 mean motion resonance. We run nearly 1000 focused simulations for the entire age of the Universe (14 Gyr) with initial conditions mapped to the phase space locations surrounding the unstable and stable periodic orbits for that commensurability. In none of our simulations did the planar CRTBP architecture yield a long-time-scale (≳0.25 per cent of the age of the Universe) asteroid-star collision. The pericentre distance of asteroids which survived beyond this time-scale (≈35 Myr) varied by at most about 60 per cent. These results help affirm that collisions occur too quickly to explain WD pollution in the planar CRTBP 2:1 regime, and highlight the need for further periodic orbit studies with the eccentric and inclined TBP architectures and other significant orbital period commensurabilities.

  12. Linking long-term planetary N-body simulations with periodic orbits: application to white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I.; Veras, Dimitri

    2016-09-01

    Mounting discoveries of debris discs orbiting newly-formed stars and white dwarfs (WDs) showcase the importance of modeling the long-term evolution of small bodies in exosystems. WD debris discs are in particular thought to form from very long-term (0.1-5.0 Gyr) instability between planets and asteroids. However, the time-consuming nature of N-body integrators which accurately simulate motion over Gyrs necessitates a judicious choice of initial conditions. The analytical tools known as periodic orbits can circumvent the guesswork. Here, we begin a comprehensive analysis directly linking periodic orbits with N-body integration outcomes with an extensive exploration of the planar circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) with an outer planet and inner asteroid near or inside of the 2:1 mean motion resonance. We run nearly 1000 focused simulations for the entire age of the Universe (14 Gyr) with initial conditions mapped to the phase space locations surrounding the unstable and stable periodic orbits for that commensurability. In none of our simulations did the planar CRTBP architecture yield a long-timescale (≳ 0.25% of the age of the Universe) asteroid-star collision. The pericentre distance of asteroids which survived beyond this timescale (≈35 Myr) varied by at most about 60%. These results help affirm that collisions occur too quickly to explain WD pollution in the planar CRTBP 2:1 regime, and highlight the need for further periodic orbit studies with the eccentric and inclined TBP architectures and other significant orbital period commensurabilities.

  13. Role of morphology and crystallinity of nanorod and planar electron transport layers on the performance and long term durability of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Ahmed, Irfan; Wali, Qamar; Brown, Thomas M.; Jose, Rajan

    2015-06-01

    High efficiency is routinely reported in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx sensitized mesoscopic solar cells (PSCs) employing planar and scaffold architectures; however, a systematic comparison of their photovoltaic performance under similar experimental conditions and their long term stability have so far not been discussed. In this paper, we compare the performance and durability of PSCs employing these two device configurations and conclude that although a planar architecture routinely provides high initial photoconversion efficiency (PCE), particularly high open-circuit voltage (VOC), a scaffold is crucial to achieve long term durable performance of such devices. In a comparative study of scaffold (rutile nanorods, NRs) vs. planar devices, the efficiency in latter dropped off by one order of magnitude in ∼300 h despite their similar initial PCE of ∼12%. We compared the performance and the durability of two types of scaffolds, i.e., pristine and TiCl4 treated NRs, and observed that the pristine NRs showed >10% improvement in the PCE after ∼1300 h whereas the cells employing post-treated NR scaffold retained ∼60% of initial value. We address the origin of the different photovoltaic performance of planar and scaffold devices in the context of photoanode morphology and its possible effect on the cell durability.

  14. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eGranacher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD, resistance training (RT is an important means for (i stimulating athletic development, (ii tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age.Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research.In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females, (ii to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters, and (iii to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  15. Enzyme Activity in Water-Stable Soil Aggregates as Affected by Long-Term Application of Organic Manure and Chemical Fertiliser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-Ren; LI Xiang; SHEN Qi-Rong; XU Yang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The activities of invertase,protease,urease,acid phosphomonoesterase,dehydrogenase,and catalase in different fractions of waterstable aggregates (WSA) were examined in long-term (26 years) fertilised soils.The long-term application of organic manure (OM) with chemical fertiliser (CF) significantly increased macroaggregate and decreased microaggregate percentages,enhanced the mean weight diameter,and significantly increased soil total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents of WSA in different size fractions.Combined fertilisation with OM and CF also increased invertase,protease,urease,acid phosphomonoesterase,dehydrogenase,and catalase activities of WSA in different size fractions.Enzyme activities were higher in macroaggregates than in microaggregates.The distribution of enzyme activities generally followed the distribution of TC and TN in WSA.The geometric mean of the enzyme activities in different WSA of OM-treated soils was significantly higher than that in soils treated with 100% CF or no fertiliser.The results indicated that the long-term combined application of OM with CF increased the aggregate stability and enzyme activity of different WSA sizes,and consequently,improved soil physical structure and increased soil microbial activity.

  16. Fabrication of Long-Term Underwater Superoleophobic Al Surfaces and Application on Underwater Lossless Manipulation of Non-Polar Organic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinlong; Huang, Liu; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xin; Deng, Xu; Yang, Xiaolong; Huang, Shuai; Sun, Jing; Jin, Zhuji; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2016-08-01

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces have different applications in fields from oil/water separation to underwater lossless manipulation. This kind of surfaces can be easily transformed from superhydrophilic surfaces in air, which means the stability of superhydrophilicity in air determines the stability of underwater superoleophobicity. However, superhydrophilic surfaces fabricated by some existing methods easily become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic in air with time. Here, a facile method combined with electrochemical etching and boiling water immersion is developed to fabricate long-term underwater superoleophobic surfaces. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions are investigated. The results show that the electrochemically etched and boiling-water immersed Al surfaces have excellent long-term superhydrophilicity in air for over 1 year and boehmite plays an important role in maintaining long-term stability of wettability. Based on the fabricated underwater superoleophobic surfaces, a special method and device were developed to realize the underwater lossless manipulation of immiscible organic liquid droplets with a large volume. The capture and release of liquid droplets were realized by controlling the resultant force of the applied driving pressure, gravity and buoyancy. The research has potential application in research-fields such as the transfer of valuable reagents, accurate control of miniature chemical reactions, droplet-based reactors, and eliminates contamination of manipulator components.

  17. Long-term ELF background noise measurements, the existence of window regions, and applications to earthquake precursor emission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, Jack Y.; Hansen, Peder M.; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.

    1993-04-01

    A Low Frequency Monitoring Network has been under development at Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC), Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division (RDT & E), San Diego, CA, for the last 2 years. Originally developed to monitor space vehicle induced signatures in the 5-12 Hz region, the network now includes monitoring of anomolous broadband signals in the 0.1-20 Hz region that often precede the occurrence of nearby earthquakes. Observations of such events have led to a hypothesis that geological signals are normally present in the ULF (ultra-low frequency, less than 3 Hz) and ELF (extremely low frequency, 3-3000 Hz) bands in addition to the generally accepted signals from micropulsations and lightning discharges. In Southern California, the geological signals are best observed in the 'polarimetric window' regions of (i) 2-5 Hz using horizontally oriented magnetic sensors and, (ii) 2-20 Hz using vertically oriented magnetic sensors. To determine the significance of anomalous events, we conducted a statistical study of the background noise levels. Observations of daily records over a span of several months indicated that the background level in the 1-20 Hz region is stationary. Stationarity is not true below 1 Hz. The APD (amplitude probability density) of 2-12 Hz signals was found to be surprisingly close to a Gaussian distribution. These two results indicated that a determination of long-term averages and variances would be meaningful. Long-term averages and variances were obtained and were used to develop alert-level criteria. Typical deviations over the course of several hours are 1 to 2 dB. The alert-level criteria are used as input parameters in our Automated Monitoring System (AMS), a computerized monitoring and real-time analysis system. The alert levels warn the operator when unusual events are occurring. High alert-levels in conjunction with the fulfilment of several other conditions often presage the occurrence of an

  18. Successful peroral endoscopic myotomy performed in Endoscopy Department as a radical, long-term treatment for esophageal achalasia – the Greek experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Eleftheriadou, Eleni Damianos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been considered as a minimal-invasive, innovative technique for long-term treatment of all types of esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders. Patients and methods We report on 20 consecutive Greek patients with manometrically proved esophageal achalasia (14 patients with type I, 4 with type II, 2 with type III, and 4 with sigmoid esophagus), with an age range of 32–92 years, mean age 59 years, 12 males, successfully treated by POEM from 2013 to 2015. The Eckardt score was 7–12 (type III). Seventeen (85%) POEM procedures were performed in the Endoscopy Department, according to a previous study. During POEM, CO2 insufflation was mandatory, while the Triangle Tip knife was the only knife used in all procedures. Eckardt score, esophagogram and manometry before and after performing POEM were used for evaluation of our results. The follow-up period was 6 months to 3 years. Results Selective circular myotomy, 10–13 cm in length, was successfully completed in all patients without severe acute or late complications. Three patients (15%) showed moderate pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum, which was successfully managed by abdominal needle drainage during the procedure. One patient showed mild pleural collection, and in one patient the clip–endoloop technique was used to successfully close the mucosal entry after the completion of POEM. The outcome was uneventful without any further clinical consequences. No other short- or long-term serious complications were reported. Patients were discharged after 1–3 days of hospitalization. Six months to 3 years after the POEM procedure, all patients were alive; the majority (90%) had complete clinical improvement, while two patients with sigmoid-type achalasia showed moderate-to-significant clinical improvement. Erosive esophagitis was reported in 15%. Conclusion Our results are in accordance with international data, and proved the safety and efficacy

  19. Successful peroral endoscopic myotomy performed in Endoscopy Department as a radical, long-term treatment for esophageal achalasia – the Greek experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriadis N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Eleftheriadis,1,2 Eleni Damianos Eleftheriadou2 1Endoscopy Department, Gastroenterology Unit, Metropolitan Hospital Athens, 2Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Introduction: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been considered as a minimal-invasive, innovative technique for long-term treatment of all types of esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders.Patients and methods: We report on 20 consecutive Greek patients with manometrically proved esophageal achalasia (14 patients with type I, 4 with type II, 2 with type III, and 4 with sigmoid esophagus, with an age range of 32–92 years, mean age 59 years, 12 males, successfully treated by POEM from 2013 to 2015. The Eckardt score was 7–12 (type III. Seventeen (85% POEM procedures were performed in the Endoscopy Department, according to a previous study. During POEM, CO2 insufflation was mandatory, while the Triangle Tip knife was the only knife used in all procedures. Eckardt score, esophagogram and manometry before and after performing POEM were used for evaluation of our results. The follow-up period was 6 months to 3 years.Results: Selective circular myotomy, 10–13 cm in length, was successfully completed in all patients without severe acute or late complications. Three patients (15% showed moderate pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum, which was successfully managed by abdominal needle drainage during the procedure. One patient showed mild pleural collection, and in one patient the clip–endoloop technique was used to successfully close the mucosal entry after the completion of POEM. The outcome was uneventful without any further clinical consequences. No other short- or long-term serious complications were reported. Patients were discharged after 1–3 days of hospitalization. Six months to 3 years after the POEM procedure, all patients were alive; the majority (90% had complete clinical improvement, while two patients

  20. Application of Hydrometeorological Information for Short-term and Long-term Water Resources Management over Ungauged Basin in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-in; Ryu, Kyongsik; Suh, Ae-sook

    2016-04-01

    In 2014, three major governmental organizations that are Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), K-water, and Korea Rural Community Corporation have been established the Hydrometeorological Cooperation Center (HCC) to accomplish more effective water management for scarcely gauged river basins, where data are uncertain or non-consistent. To manage the optimal drought and flood control over the ungauged river, HCC aims to interconnect between weather observations and forecasting information, and hydrological model over sparse regions with limited observations sites in Korean peninsula. In this study, long-term forecasting ensemble models so called Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5): a high-resolution seasonal forecast system, provided by KMA was used in order to produce drought outlook. Glosea5 ensemble model prediction provides predicted drought information for 1 and 3 months ahead with drought index including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Also, Global Precipitation Measurement and Global Climate Observation Measurement - Water1 satellites data products are used to estimate rainfall and soil moisture contents over the ungauged region.

  1. Long-term energy security in a national scale using LEAP. Application to de-carbonization scenarios in Andorra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses the long-term energy security in a national scale using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modelling tool. It builds the LEAP Andorra model, which forecasts energy demand and supply for the Principality of Andorra by 2050. It has a general bottom-up structure, where energy demand is driven by the technological composition of the sectors of the economy. The technological model is combined with a top-down econometric model to take into account macroeconomic trends. The model presented in this paper provides an initial estimate of energy demand in Andorra segregated into all sectors (residential, transport, secondary, tertiary and public administration) and charts a baseline scenario based on historical trends. Additional scenarios representing different policy strategies are built to explore the country's potential energy savings and the feasibility to achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in April 2015 to UN. In this climatic agreement Andorra intends to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 37% as compared to a business-as-usual scenario by 2030. In addition, current and future energy security is analysed in this paper under baseline and de-carbonization scenarios. Energy security issues are assessed in LEAP with an integrated vision, going beyond the classic perspective of security of supply, and being closer to the sustainability's integrative vision. Results of scenarios show the benefits of climate policies in terms of national energy security and the difficulties for Andorra to achieving the de-carbonization target by 2030.

  2. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  3. Ionizer assisted air filtration for collection of submicron and ultrafine particles-evaluation of long-term performance and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingbing; Ekberg, Lars

    2015-06-02

    Previous research has demonstrated that unipolar ionization can enhance the filter performance to collect airborne particles, aeroallergens, and airborne microorganisms, without affecting the filter pressure drop. However, there is a lack of research on the long-term system performance as well as the influence of environmental and operational parameters. In this paper, both field and laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the long-term particle collection efficiency of a synthetic filter of class M6 with and without ionization. The effect of air velocity, temperature, relative humidity, and particle concentration were further investigated in laboratory tests. Results showed that ionization enhanced the filtration efficiency by 40%-units during most of the operation time. When the ionization system was managed by periodically switching the ionizer polarity, the filtration efficiency against PM0.3-0.5 was maintained above 50% during half a year. Furthermore, the pressure drop of the ionizer-assisted M6 filter was 25-30% lower than that of a filter of class F7. The evaluation of various influencing factors demonstrated that (1) air moisture reduced the increase of filtration efficiency; (2) higher upstream particle concentration and air velocity decreased the filtration efficiency; and (3) the air temperature had very limited effect on the filtration efficiency.

  4. Analysing the accuracy of pavement performance models in the short and long terms: GMDH and ANFIS methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziari, H.; Sobhani, J.; Ayoubinejad, J.; Hartmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of pavement performance prediction is a critical part of pavement management and directly influences maintenance and rehabilitation strategies. Many models with various specifications have been proposed by researchers and used by agencies. This study presents nine variables affecting pa

  5. Vascular flow reserve as a link between long-term blood pressure level and physical performance capacity in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian B; Damkjær, Mads; Hald, Bjørn O;

    2016-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is surprisingly similar across different species of mammals, and it is, in general, not known which factors determine the arterial pressure level. Mammals often have a pronounced capacity for sustained physical performance. This capacity depends on the vasculature...

  6. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  7. Use of Journal Citation Reports and Journal Performance Indicators in measuring short and long term journal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, E

    2000-12-01

    The impact factor has become the subject of widespread controversy. It has gradually developed to mean both journal and author impact. The emphasis on impact factors obscures the main purpose of bibliographic databases created at the Institute for Scientific Information. I will here show how two of these databases, Journal Citation Reports and the Journal Performance Indicators, can be used to study scientific journals and the articles they publish, as well as the evolution of scientific fields.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  9. Performance characteristics and long-term calibration stability of a beam monitor for a proton scanning gantry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporov, D.F., E-mail: nichipor@indiana.ed [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Klyachko, A.V.; Solberg, K.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Zhao, Q. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, 2425 Milo B. Sampson Ln., Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A monitor for a uniformly scanned beam was designed and constructed by the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for use in a clinical proton gantry at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. The beam monitor is a thin-walled, wide-aperture ionization chamber, which provides information about dose, beam size, symmetry, flatness, and position. Several characteristics of the monitor's performance were studied, including linearity in dose rate, reproducibility, recombination correction, and dependence on both radiation field size and gantry angle. Additionally, stability of the detector output was analyzed using daily monitor calibrations performed over a period of 21 months. The beam monitor was found to meet design requirements for linearity ({+-}1%), calibration stability ({+-}2%), and stability of response as a function of gantry angle ({+-}1%). Beam monitor calibration statistics also revealed a sine-like yearly trend with a {+-}2% maximum deviation from the average. These and other beam monitor test results are presented and discussed in the context of the detector design. Design changes aimed at further improving the detector's performance characteristics are proposed.

  10. Long-term performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joo Ho; Kim, Seong Soo; Lee, Jae Min; Kang, Dong Koo; Yu, Jeong Beom; Lim, Goon Taek [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components of disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of presently available cements were studied. Types and characteristics of high performance concrete and construction methods similar to disposal facility are also included in the study. Definitions of the term durability and the limit of the term were surveyed. Literature survey for the important factors affecting the durability and modeling methods to assess durability was performed. Deterioration and crack forming mechanisms were studied. Characteristics of domestic ground water were collected from KAERI data. Experiments were carried out with synthetic ground water to study the reactions between cement and constituents in the ground water. Experiments lasted up to 130 days and penetration of cations and anions was investigated. Ions of importance were Ca{sup 2-}. Mg{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -} . Changes of ionic concentrations and compressive strength after 110 to 130 days of soaking in synthetic ground water with accelerated conditions were measured. Based upon ASTM's standard for accelerated testing, procedures to assess the durability of cement concrete were suggested.

  11. Performance improvement in managed long-term care: physician communication in managing community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Polina; Underwood, Susan; Desmond, Donna; Hayes, Marjorie; Lucien, Gina

    2010-02-01

    This performance improvement initiative focused on the nurse consultant's communication with the physician about care management of community-dwelling older adults. Three defined areas were measured: (1) changes in clinical setting, (2) reporting adverse effects from medications that can contribute to falls, and (3) HbA1c results >9. Physicians were informed of our quality initiative; nurse practitioners led workshops addressing barriers to effective communication; and portable reference cards were created to assist staff in organizing information prior to contacting a physician. The Project Goal of 10% improvement for all three indicators was achieved. Staff identified best practices for communicating with physicians.

  12. Changes in fertility parameters and contents of heavy metals of soddy-podzolic soils upon the long-term application of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasbieva, M. T.; Kosolapova, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the long-term sewage sludge (SS) application on the chemical, agrophysical, and biological properties of a soddy-podzolic soil ( Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic) was studied. Regular SS application in the course of five crop rotations (1976-2013) ensured the improvement of the soil fertility parameters, i.e., a rise in the contents of humus, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium; a better state of the soil adsorption complex, bulk density, and aggregation; and higher cellulolytic, nitrification, and urease activities. The efficiencies of SS and the traditional organic fertilizer (cattle manure) were compared. The effect of the long-term application of SS on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils was also studied. It was found that the application of SS caused a rise in the bulk content of heavy metals and in the contents of their acid-extractable and mobile forms by 1.1-6.0 times. However, the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were not exceeded. In the soil subjected to the application of SS for more than 25 years, the cadmium concentration somewhat exceeded the maximum permissible concentration.

  13. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Gustavo G; Papoti, Marcelo; Dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  14. SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS OF HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON HORMONES, METABOLITES, ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM, GLYCOGEN CONCENTRATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE ADAPTATIONS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gomes De Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus and gastrocnemius. The Wistar were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT. The lactate minimum (LM was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP (baseline, 6 and 12 wk. The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw: 1 30 s of effort; 2 30 s of passive recovery; 3 exercise until exhaustion (AP. Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 wk (5.2±0.2 % bw in relation to baseline (4.4±0.2 % bw, but not after 6 wk (4.5±0.3 % bw. The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT= 58±5 s; CT=40±7 s and 12 wk (HIIT=62±7 s; CT=49±3 s. Glycogen (mg/100mg increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 wk (0.757±0.076 and 12 wk (1.014±0.157 in comparison to baseline (0.358±0.024. In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 wk (0.738±0.057 and 12 wk (0.709±0.085 in comparison to baseline (0.417±0.035. The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 wk (4.079±0.319 in relation to baseline (2.400±0.416. The corticosterone (ng/mL in HIIT increased after 6 wk (529.0±30.5 and reduced after 12 wk (153.6±14.5 in comparison to baseline (370.0±18.3. In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term (6wk was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the glycogen super-compensantion increased after short and long term HIIT in comparison to

  15. Improving performance of long-term care networks at their initial stage: an empirical study of factors affecting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiola, Nunzio; Bianchi, Piervito

    2016-06-10

    Until now very little research has been carried out on the performance of health and human services networks in evolution. In particular, previous studies mainly referred to "centrally governed services networks" in the US context. According to Provan and Kenis (2008), these networks are "lead organization-governed", and are different from the "participant-governed" model or the "network administrative organization (NAO)" solution. We focused our attention on the Apulia region care services networks (Italy). In the last few years, the governance of these networks has passed from the "participant-governed" model to the NAO approach. We examined how the integration mechanisms work in this type of networks, and if there were challenges to tackle in order to improve their overall performance. These networks were examined at their initial stage, exactly when their governance model moved to a more integrated solution. We collected survey data from 17 health and human services networks out of 45 (38%). The research is carried out by means of statistical methods (OLS). The analysis is cross sectional. The implementation of "rational/technocratic" factors is important but not sufficient to enhance collaboration. The integration at the "professional level" should be kept in mind. In particular, the role of network (case) managers is paramount. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  17. Functional Sensory-Motor Performance Following Long Term Space Flight: The First Results of "Field Test" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kofman, I. S.; Kitov, V. V.; Grishin, A. P.; Yu, N.; Lysova.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Reschke, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect that extended-duration space flights may have on human space travelers, including exploration missions, is widely discussed at the present time. Specifically, there is an increasing amount of evidence showing that the physical capacity of cosmonauts is significantly reduced after long-duration space flights. It is evident that the most impaired functions are those that rely on gravity, particularly up right posture and gait. Because of the sensorimotor disturbances manifested in the neurology of the posture and gait space flight and postflight changes may also be observed in debilitating motion sickness. While the severity of particular symptoms varies, disturbances in spatial orientation and alterations in the accuracy of voluntary movements are persistently observed after long-duration space flights. At this time most of the currently available data are primarily descriptive and not yet suitable for predicting operational impacts of most sensorimotor decrements observed upon landing on planetary surfaces or asteroids. In particular there are no existing data on the recovery dynamics or functionality of neurological, cardiovascular or muscle performance making it difficult to model or simulate the cosmonauts' activity after landing and develop the appropriate countermeasure that will ensure the rapid and safe recovery of crewmembers immediately after landing in what could be hostile environments. However and as a starting position, the videos we have acquired during recent data collection following the long duration flights of cosmonauts and astronauts walking and performing other tasks shortly after return from space flight speak volumes about their level of deconditioning. A joint Russian-American team has developed a new study specifically to address the changes in crewmembers performance and the recovery of performance with the intent of filling the missing data gaps. The first (pilot) phase of this study includes recording body kinematics and

  18. Long-term field performance of a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Francis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to evaluate whether criteria for LLIN field performance (phase III set by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme are met, first and second generations of one of these products, PermaNet®, a polyester net using the coating technology were tested. Methods A randomized, double blinded study design was used comparing LLIN to conventionally treated nets and following LLIN for three years under regular household use in rural conditions. Primary outcome measures were deltamethrin residue and bioassay performance (60 minute knock-down and 24 hour mortality after a three minute exposure using a strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s. sensitive to pyrethroid insecticides. Results Baseline concentration of deltamethrin was within targets for all net types but was rapidly lost in conventionally treated nets and first generation PermaNet® with median of 0.7 and 2.5 mg/m2 after six months respectively. In contrast, second generation PermaNet® retained insecticide well and had 41.5% of baseline dose after 36 months (28.7 mg/m2. Similarly, vector mortality and knockdown dropped to 18% and 70% respectively for first generation LLIN after six months but remained high (88.5% and 97.8% respectively for second generation PermaNet® after 36 months of follow up at which time 90.0% of nets had either a knockdown rate ≥ 95% or mortality rate ≥ 80%. Conclusion Second generation PermaNet® showed excellent results after three years of field use and fulfilled the WHOPES criteria for LLIN. Loss of insecticide on LLIN using coating technology under field conditions was far more influenced by factors associated with handling rather than washing.

  19. Spatial performance in a complex maze is associated with persistent long-term potentiation enhancement in mouse hippocampal slices at early training stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Lohmann, P; Riepe, M W

    2007-06-29

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are principal reflections of synaptic plasticity that have been implicated in learning and memory. We have previously shown that spatial learning in a newly validated complex maze is accompanied by depression of hippocampal CA1 synaptic activity in hippocampal slices of trained mice ("behavioral LTD"). In the present study, we investigated whether behavioral LTD is accompanied by alterations of subsequent LTP induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Moreover, we were interested in the time course of such alterations in relation to training stage. Animals underwent 1, 2, and 8 days of spatial training in the complex maze, respectively. Hippocampal slices were taken 24 h after the last training session. We found a simultaneous decrease of basal synaptic response and increase of HFS induced LTP magnitude compared with slices of untrained animals. Synaptic plasticity was not influenced by repeated running wheel exercise in an additional control group without spatial learning. The mentioned alterations occurred already after day 2 of maze exploration parallel to the most pronounced improvement of behavioral performance but did not change thereafter until day 8 despite further learning progress. They were also found when animals were trained for 2 days and kept at rest for a subsequent 6 days. In conclusion, spatial learning may be reflected by distinct and persistent measurable alterations of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 neurons at early training stages.

  20. Simulation of influence of multi-defects on long-term working performance of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As an integrated structure,an arch dam is assumed to bear loads in its design consideration.However,multi-defects,such as cracks and the opening of transverse joints,are unavoidable during construction and operation.Multi-defects will reduce the structural integrity and stiffness of the dam and affect its working performance and degree of safety.In the current paper,a numerical model of defects and a simulation method of a high arch dam are introduced.The Chencun arch dam is analyzed as a case study.An entire course simulation analysis of the Chencun arch dam from construction to operation is carried out,through which the opening of the transverse and longitudinal joints,formation of cracks,and their influence on deformation and stress of the dam are studied.According to the results of the analysis,appropriate measures should be adopted to prevent the development of cracks,and observation should be strengthened for a more timely discovery of risks.

  1. Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part II, Friction, heating, and torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A; Schwartz, G; Lynch, G; Gir, S

    1988-04-01

    In Part I, (J.A. Davidson and G. Schwartz, "Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part I, A review," J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 000-000 (1987) it was shown that lubrication of the artificial hip joint was complex and that long-term performance is governed by the combined wear, creep, and to a lesser extent, oxidation degradation of the articulating materials. Importantly, it was shown that a tendency for heating exists during articulation in the hip joint and that elevated temperatures can increase the wear, creep, and oxidation degradation rate of UHMWPE. The present study was performed to examine closely the propensity to generate heat during articulation in a hip joint simulator. The systems investigated were polished Co-Cr-Mo alloy articulating against UHMWPE, polished alumina ceramic against UHMWPE, and polished alumina against itself. Frictional torque was also evaluated for each system at various levels of applied loads. A walking load history was used in both the frictional heating and torque tests. The majority of tests were performed with 5 mL of water lubricant. However, the effect of various concentrations of hyaluronic acid was also evaluated. Results showed frictional heating to occur in all three systems, reaching an equilibrium after roughly 30 min articulation time. Ceramic systems showed reduced levels of heating compared to the cobalt alloy-UHMWPE system. The level of frictional torque for each system ranked similar to their respective tendencies to generate heat. Hyaluronic acid had little effect, while dry conditions and the presence of small quantities of bone cement powder in water lubricant significantly increased frictional torque.

  2. Long-term outcome of meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Ostenberg, A; Roos, H;

    2001-01-01

    To describe the long-term influence of meniscectomy on pain, functional limitations, and muscular performance. To assess the effects of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), gender and age on these outcomes in patients with meniscectomy....

  3. Long-Term Safety of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Opening via Focused Ultrasound with Microbubbles in Non-Human Primates Performing a Cognitive Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Downs

    Full Text Available Focused Ultrasound (FUS coupled with intravenous administration of microbubbles (MB is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reliably open (increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB in multiple in vivo models including non-human primates (NHP. This procedure has shown promise for clinical and basic science applications, yet the safety and potential neurological effects of long term application in NHP requires further investigation under parameters shown to be efficacious in that species (500 kHz, 200-400 kPa, 4-5 μm MB, 2 minute sonication. In this study, we repeatedly opened the BBB in the caudate and putamen regions of the basal ganglia of 4 NHP using FUS with systemically-administered MB over 4-20 months. We assessed the safety of the FUS with MB procedure using MRI to detect edema or hemorrhaging in the brain. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI sequences showed a 98% success rate for openings in the targeted regions. T2-weighted and SWI sequences indicated a lack edema in the majority of the cases. We investigated potential neurological effects of the FUS with MB procedure through quantitative cognitive testing of' visual, cognitive, motivational, and motor function using a random dot motion task with reward magnitude bias presented on a touchpanel display. Reaction times during the task significantly increased on the day of the FUS with MB procedure. This increase returned to baseline within 4-5 days after the procedure. Visual motion discrimination thresholds were unaffected. Our results indicate FUS with MB can be a safe method for repeated opening of the BBB at the basal ganglia in NHP for up to 20 months without any long-term negative physiological or neurological effects with the parameters used.

  4. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bleijenberg, Nienke; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years. Methods A prospective study from two previously conducted cross-sectional studies with 10-year follow-up was conducted among 285 males and 249 females aged 40–79 years at baseline. Fatigue was measured by asking “Did you feel tired within the past 4 weeks?” (males) and “Do you feel tired?” (females). Self-reported IADLs were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Mobility was assessed by the 6-minute walk test. Gender-specific associations between fatigue and IADL-limitations and mobility were estimated by multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results A total of 18.6% of males and 28.1% of females were fatigued. After adjustment, the odds ratio for fatigued versus non-fatigued males affected by IADL-limitations was 3.3 (P=0.023). In females, the association was weaker and not statistically significant, with odds ratio being 1.7 (P=0.154). Fatigued males walked 39.1 m shorter distance than those non-fatigued (P=0.048). For fatigued females, the distance was 17.5 m shorter compared to those non-fatigued (P=0.479). Conclusion Our data suggest that self-reported fatigue may be a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and mobility performance in middle-aged and elderly males but possibly not in females. PMID:27877027

  5. The long term charged storage performance of Li-ion battery%锂离子电池的长期荷电贮存性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 杨驰; 王大兴; 郭春泰

    2011-01-01

    Li-ion battery was long term (5 ~ 10 a) stored under normal temperature with different state of charge (SOC), the performance of battery before and after storage was teated. When the battery was stored for a long time, the internal resistance improved, the average internal resistance increasing ratio was above 79.95 %, polymer Li-ion battery had a lower internal resistance increasing ratio. The capacity recovery performance of Li-ion battery stored for a long time was fine, the average capacity recovery ratio with 10 a storage could reach to 88% .Long term storage had unfavorable effect to the capacity,platform and cycle life of the battery.%将锂离子电池在常温下以不同的荷电态(SOC)长期(5-10 a)贮存,对贮存前后的电池性能进行测试.长期贮存后,电池的内阻增加,10 a贮存后的内阻平均增加率高达79.95%,聚合物锂离子电池的内阻增加稍低.锂离子电池长期贮存后,容量恢复性能较好,10 a贮存容量平均恢复率可迭88%.长期贮存对电池的容量、平台和循环寿命都会产生不利的影响.

  6. Novel point estimation from a semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE): long-term health outcomes from short-term linear data, with application to weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah

    2013-11-02

    Point estimation is particularly important in predicting weight loss in individuals or small groups. In this analysis, a new health response function is based on a model of human response over time to estimate long-term health outcomes from a change point in short-term linear regression. This important estimation capability is addressed for small groups and single-subject designs in pilot studies for clinical trials, medical and therapeutic clinical practice. These estimations are based on a change point given by parameters derived from short-term participant data in ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The development of the change point in initial OLS data and the point estimations are given in a new semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE) model. The new response function is taken as a ratio of two-parameter Weibull distributions times a prior outcome value that steps estimated outcomes forward in time, where the shape and scale parameters are estimated at the change point. The Weibull distributions used in this ratio are derived from a Kelvin model in mechanics taken here to represent human beings. A distinct feature of the SPRE model in this article is that initial treatment response for a small group or a single subject is reflected in long-term response to treatment. This model is applied to weight loss in obesity in a secondary analysis of data from a classic weight loss study, which has been selected due to the dramatic increase in obesity in the United States over the past 20 years. A very small relative error of estimated to test data is shown for obesity treatment with the weight loss medication phentermine or placebo for the test dataset. An application of SPRE in clinical medicine or occupational therapy is to estimate long-term weight loss for a single subject or a small group near the beginning of treatment.

  7. Long-term fate of glyphosate associated with repeated rodeo applications to control smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in Willapa Bay, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbride, K M; Paveglio, F L

    2001-02-01

    Cordgrasses (Spartina sp.) are exotic, invasive species that threaten to degrade the intertidal zones of estuaries along the West Coast of North America. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies primarily focus on the use of aerial and ground applications of Rodeo in conjunction with mowing, but IPM treatments over multiple years usually are necessary to control Spartina. Although information exists regarding the short-term fate and effects to marine biota of a single Rodeo application to control Spartina, little information is available regarding the fate and biotic effects associated with repeated Rodeo applications necessary for control. Consequently, we conducted a 3-year study to assess the short- and long-term fate and potential effects to marine biota associated with repeated applications of Rodeo to control smooth cordgrass in a southwestern Washington estuary. At each of three intertidal locations in Willapa Bay, we established plots on exposed mudflats and along the edge of a Spartina meadow that were hand sprayed with Rodeo (5% solution) and LI-700 (2% solution) during July 1997 and 1998. Glyphosate concentrations in sediment from mudflat plots declined 88% to 96% from 1 day posttreatment in 1997 to 1 year after the second Rodeo applications in 1999. In contrast, glyphosate concentrations in Spartina plots increased 231% to 591% from 1997 to 1999 because Spartina rhizomes likely did not readily metabolize or exude it. Comparison of concentrations from mudflat and Spartina plots with toxicity test values for marine biota indicates that under worst-case conditions short- and long-term detrimental effects to aquatic biota from repeated application of Rodeo for Spartina control would be highly unlikely.

  8. Compatibility of different measurement techniques of global solar radiation and application for long-term observations at Izaña Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia García, Rosa; Cuevas, Emilio; García, Omaira Elena; Ramos, Ramón; Romero-Campos, Pedro Miguel; de Ory, Fernado; Cachorro, Victoria Eugenia; de Frutos, Angel

    2017-03-01

    A 1-year inter-comparison of classical and modern radiation and sunshine duration (SD) instruments has been performed at Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) located in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) starting on 17 July 2014. We compare daily global solar radiation (GSRH) records measured with a Kipp & Zonen CM-21 pyranometer, taken in the framework of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network, with those measured with a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), a bimetallic pyranometer (PYR) and GSRH estimated from sunshine duration performed by a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CS) and a Kipp & Zonen sunshine duration sensor (CSD). Given that the BSRN GSRH records passed strict quality controls (based on principles of physical limits and comparison with the LibRadtran model), they have been used as reference in the inter-comparison study. We obtain an overall root mean square error (RMSE) of ˜ 0.9 MJm-2 (4 %) for PYR and MFRSR GSRH, 1.9 (7 %) and 1.2 MJm-2 (5 %) for CS and CSD GSRH, respectively. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity (RH) and the solar zenith angle (SZA) have been shown to moderately affect the GSRH observations. As an application of the methodology developed in this work, we have re-evaluated the GSRH data time series obtained at IZO with two PYRs between 1977 and 1991. Their high consistency and temporal stability have been proved by comparing with GSRH estimates obtained from SD observations. These results demonstrate that (1) the continuous-basis inter-comparison of different GSRH techniques offers important diagnostics for identifying inconsistencies between GSRH data records, and (2) the GSRH measurements performed with classical and more simple instruments are consistent with more modern techniques and, thus, valid to recover GSRH data time series and complete worldwide distributed GSRH data. The inter-comparison and quality assessment of these different techniques have allowed us to obtain a complete and consistent

  9. Metabonomics analysis of urine and plasma from rats given long-term and low-dose dimethoate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhijing; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Jindan; Hao, Dongfang; Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2012-09-30

    This study assessed the effects of long-term, low-dose dimethoate administration to rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Dimethoate (0.04, 0.12, and 0.36 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered daily to male Wistar rats through their drinking water for 24 weeks. Significant changes in serum clinical chemistry were observed in the middle- and high-dose groups. UPLC-MS revealed evident separate clustering among the different dose groups using global metabolic profiling by supervised partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Metabonomic analysis showed alterations in a number of metabolites (12 from urine and 13 from plasma), such as L-tyrosine, dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), citric acid, uric acid, suberic acid, glycylproline, allantoin, isovalerylglutamic acid and kinds of lipids. The results suggest that long-term, low-dose exposure to dimethoate can cause disturbances in liver function, antioxidant and nervous systems, as well as the metabolisms of lipids, glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and collagen in rats. DMTP and DMDTP, which had the most significant changes among all other studied biomarkers, were considered as early, sensitive biomarkers of exposure to dimethoate. The other aforementioned proposed toxicity biomarkers in metabonomic analysis may be useful in the risk assessment of the toxic effects of dimethoate. Metabonomics as a systems toxicology approach was able to provide comprehensive information on the dynamic process of dimethoate induced toxicity. In addition, the results indicate that metabonomic approach could detect systemic toxic effects at an earlier stage compared to clinical chemistry. The combination of metabonomics and clinical chemistry made the toxicity of dimethoate on rats more comprehensive.

  10. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  11. The modified ampullar approach for vestibular implant surgery: Feasibility and its first application in a human with a long-term vestibular loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eVan De Berg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess, for the first time in a human with a long-term vestibular loss, a modified approach to the ampullae and the feasibility of evoking a VOR by ampullar stimulation.Material and methods: Peroperative stimulation of the ampullae, using the ampullar approach, was performed under full anaesthesia during cochlear implantation in a 21-year old female patient, who had experienced bilateral vestibular areflexia and sensorineural hearing loss for almost twenty years. Results: The modified ampullar approach was performed successfully with as minimally invasive surgery as possible. Ampullar stimulation evoked eye movements containing vectors congruent with the stimulated canal. As expected, the preliminary electrophysiological data were influenced by the general anaesthesia, which resulted in current spread and reduced maximum amplitudes of eye movement. Nevertheless, they confirm the feasibility of ampullar stimulation.Conclusion: The modified ampullar approach provides safe access to the ampullae using as minimally invasive surgery as possible. For the first time in a human with long-term bilateral vestibular areflexia, it is shown that the VOR can be evoked by ampullar stimulation, even when there has been no vestibular function for almost twenty years. This approach should be considered in vestibular surgery, as it provides safe access to one of the most favourable stimulus locations for development of a vestibular implant.

  12. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on inorganic and enzyme hydrolyzable P of Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of livestock manure on soil phosphorus (P) distribution has been studied for several decades; however, the majority of this work has focused on changes in inorganic P forms (Pi) following manure application. Up to 80% of the P in poultry manure is present as phytate or other organic forms...

  13. Long-Term Dynamics of Standing Crop and Species Composition after the Cessation of Fertilizer Application to Mown Grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Bakker, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    (1) Current agricultural overproduction in Western Europe has led to an increase in the area of unfertilized grassland. This paper reports an experiment where fertilizer application was stopped to try to restore former species-rich vegetation. (2) Standing crop and species composition of three diffe

  14. Assessing the performances of low impact development alternatives by long-term simulation for a semi-arid area in Tianjin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Li, Yu; Niu, Shuai; Zhou, Shu H

    2014-01-01

    For areas that are urbanized rapidly, the practice of low impact development (LID) has gained an important place in stormwater management and urban planning due to its capability and beneficial effects in restoring the original hydrological cycle. The performances of LID alternatives can vary substantially due to different climate conditions. This study investigated the performances of five LID alternatives under a semi-arid climate in northern China on water balance and flood control. A numerical model, Storm Water Management Model version 5 (US Environmental Protection Agency), was employed to run 10 years' rainfall events for these objectives. Two evaluation methods were proposed in this study: the efficiency index for water balance and a performance radar chart. The investigation of the five LID alternatives revealed that these LID alternatives functioned differently in flood control and water balance, and porous pavement performed best in all indices except the lag time. The two evaluation methods, in conjunction with the long-term numerical simulation, can facilitate design and decision making by providing a clear picture of the performance and functions for these LID alternatives.

  15. Visualization of CDA laboratory reports and long term trends as a possible EHR application for patients and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenaus, Manuel; Burgsteiner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    To increase the patient's acceptance of electronic health records and understanding for their laboratory findings a web application was developed which presents all parameters and possible deviations of standard values in a clear way and visualizes the time based trend of all recorded parameters graphically. Documents corresponding to the Clinical document architecture (CDA) R2 laboratory reports standard and a rapid prototyping framework called Groovy on Grails were used. This work shows, that it is possible to create a useful, standards based tool for patients and physicians with comparatively few resources - an application that could be in similar form a part of an electronic Health Record (EHR) system like the Austrian electronic Health Record (ELGA).

  16. Development of a novel scheme for long-term body temperature monitoring: a review of benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela-Entrecanales, Manuel; Valor-Perez, Raul; Vargas, Borja

    2015-04-01

    Body temperature is a health or disease marker that has been in clinical use for centuries. The threshold currently applied to define fever, with small variations, is 38 °C. However, current approaches do not provide a full picture of the thermoregulation process and its correlation with disease. This paper describes a new non-invasive body temperature device that improves the understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases by integrating a variety of temperature data from different body locations. This device enables to gain a deeper insight into fever, endogenous rhythms, subject activity and ambient temperature to provide anticipatory and more efficient treatments. Its clinical use would be a big step in the overcoming of the anachronistic febrile/afebrile dichotomy and walking towards a system medicine approach to certain diseases. This device has already been used in some clinical applications successfully. Other possible applications based on the device features and clinical requirements are also described in this paper.

  17. Expressing the Needs of Digital Audio-Visual Applications in Different Communities of Practice for Long Term Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Digital audio-visual preservation is nerve of the research nowadays in this digital world, where use of audio-visuals in creation and storage of research data has increased rapidly. Thereby it has created many opportunities for new problems regarding their maintenance, preservation and future accessibility. Lack of awareness about the preservation tools and applications is a big issue today. To solve such issues a European Commission research project, Presto4U that aimed to enable semi-automa...

  18. Dynamical Decomposition of Multifractal Time Series as Fractal Evolution and Long-Term Cycles: Applications to Foreign Currency Exchange Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, A.; Perez-Vicente, C.

    The application of the multifractal formalism to the study of some time series with scale invariant evolution has given rise to a rich framework of models and processing tools for the analysis of these signals. The formalism has been successfully exploited in different ways and with different goals: to obtain the effective variables governing the evolution of the series, to predict its future evolution, to estimate in which regime the series are, etc. In this paper, we discuss on the capabilities of a new, powerful processing tool, namely the computation of dynamical sources. With the aid of the source field, we will separate the fast, chaotic dynamics defined by the multifractal structure from a new, so-far unknown slow dynamics which concerns long cycles in the series. We discuss the results on the perspective of detection of sharp dynamic changes and forecasting.

  19. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  20. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Schotte S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sigrid Mueller-Schotte,1–3 Nienke Bleijenberg,1,2,4 Yvonne T van der Schouw,1 Marieke J Schuurmans2,4 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Department for the Chronically Ill, University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Department of Optometry and Orthoptics, University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Nursing Science and Sports, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands Objectives: Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years. Methods: A prospective study from two previously conducted cross-sectional studies with 10-year follow-up was conducted among 285 males and 249 females aged 40–79 years at baseline. Fatigue was measured by asking “Did you feel tired within the past 4 weeks?” (males and “Do you feel tired?” (females. Self-reported IADLs were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Mobility was assessed by the 6-minute walk test. Gender-specific associations between fatigue and IADL-limitations and mobility were estimated by multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results: A total of 18.6% of males and 28.1% of females were fatigued. After adjustment, the odds ratio for fatigued versus non-fatigued males affected by IADL-limitations was 3.3 (P=0.023. In females, the association was weaker and not statistically significant, with odds ratio being 1.7 (P=0.154. Fatigued males walked 39.1 m shorter distance than those non-fatigued (P=0.048. For fatigued females, the distance was 17.5 m shorter compared to those non-fatigued (P=0.479. Conclusion: Our data suggest that self-reported fatigue

  1. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  2. Introducing an operational method to forecast long-term regional drought based on the application of artificial intelligence capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousari, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Mitra Esmaeilzadeh; Ahani, Hossein; Hakimelahi, Hemila

    2017-01-01

    An effective forecast of the drought definitely gives lots of advantages in regard to the management of water resources being used in agriculture, industry, and households consumption. To introduce such a model applying simple data inputs, in this study a regional drought forecast method on the basis of artificial intelligence capabilities (artificial neural networks) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 monthly series) has been presented in Fars Province of Iran. The precipitation data of 41 rain gauge stations were applied for computing SPI values. Besides, weather signals including Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), NINO1+2, anomaly NINO1+2, NINO3, anomaly NINO3, NINO4, anomaly NINO4, NINO3.4, and anomaly NINO3.4 were also used as the predictor variables for SPI time series forecast the next 12 months. Frequent testing and validating steps were considered to obtain the best artificial neural networks (ANNs) models. The forecasted values were mapped in verification sector then they were compared with the observed maps at the same dates. Results showed considerable spatial and temporal relationships even among the maps of different SPI time series. Also, the first 6 months forecasted maps showed an average of 73 % agreements with the observed ones. The most important finding and the strong point of this study was the fact that although drought forecast in each station and time series was completely independent, the relationships between spatial and temporal predictions remained. This strong point mainly referred to frequent testing and validating steps in order to explore the best drought forecast models from plenty of produced ANNs models. Finally, wherever the precipitation data are available, the practical application of the presented method is possible.

  3. Development and application of GC-MS method for monitoring of long-term exposure to the pesticide cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Vynias, Dionysios; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2014-06-01

    Cypermethrin (CPMN) is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as for domestic purposes. In the present study a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method was developed and validated for the quantitation of CPMN metabolites, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis- and trans- 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1-cyclopropane (cis- and trans- Cl2 CA). The developed method was applied for the monitoring of CPMN metabolites in hair of laboratory animals (rabbits) intentionally exposed per os to CPMN at 40 (low dose) and 80 (high dose) mg/kg weight/day for 16 weeks. The analytical method comprises three main steps: isolation of analytes from hair, analytes derivatization, and subsequent instrumental analysis by GC-MS. The limits of detection ensured by the method are 4.0, 3.9 and 1.0 pg/mg hair for cis-Cl2 CA, trans-Cl2 CA and 3-PBA, respectively. The instrument responce is linear (r(2)  > 0.99) in the investigated concentrations range from 25 to 1000 pg/mg. With and between-run precision as well as accuracy were estimated and found satisfactory. Analytes were efficiently isolated by solid-liquid extraction from hair with recoveries greater than 84.8% for cis-Cl2 CA, 87.2% for trans-Cl2 CA and 96.4% for 3-PBA. Rabbit's hair showed increasing levels for all metabolites (metabolites accumulation in a time and dose dependent manner) over time and in a dose-dependent manner. The developed experimental procedure could be used for biomonitoring of population exposure to CPMN.

  4. Introducing an operational method to forecast long-term regional drought based on the application of artificial intelligence capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousari, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Mitra Esmaeilzadeh; Ahani, Hossein; Hakimelahi, Hemila

    2015-09-01

    An effective forecast of the drought definitely gives lots of advantages in regard to the management of water resources being used in agriculture, industry, and households consumption. To introduce such a model applying simple data inputs, in this study a regional drought forecast method on the basis of artificial intelligence capabilities (artificial neural networks) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 monthly series) has been presented in Fars Province of Iran. The precipitation data of 41 rain gauge stations were applied for computing SPI values. Besides, weather signals including Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), NINO1+2, anomaly NINO1+2, NINO3, anomaly NINO3, NINO4, anomaly NINO4, NINO3.4, and anomaly NINO3.4 were also used as the predictor variables for SPI time series forecast the next 12 months. Frequent testing and validating steps were considered to obtain the best artificial neural networks (ANNs) models. The forecasted values were mapped in verification sector then they were compared with the observed maps at the same dates. Results showed considerable spatial and temporal relationships even among the maps of different SPI time series. Also, the first 6 months forecasted maps showed an average of 73 % agreements with the observed ones. The most important finding and the strong point of this study was the fact that although drought forecast in each station and time series was completely independent, the relationships between spatial and temporal predictions remained. This strong point mainly referred to frequent testing and validating steps in order to explore the best drought forecast models from plenty of produced ANNs models. Finally, wherever the precipitation data are available, the practical application of the presented method is possible.

  5. Application of Ca stable isotopes to long-term changes in the Ca cycle of a Northern Hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.; Bailey, S. W.; Bullen, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (New Hampshire, USA) presents an unusual opportunity for the application of innovative isotope methods in forest biogeochemistry. Changes in biogeochemical cycling resulting from decades of acid deposition, subsequent reductions in acid deposition, and a series of experimental treatments (harvesting, Ca amendment) have been studied continuously for 60 years at this site. Importantly, researchers have archived soil, water, and vegetation samples for much of the site's history. Our work seeks to complement earlier mass balance studies of Ca cycling by measuring Ca isotope ratios on archived samples. In the first component of our study, we examined the Ca isotopic response to an experimental clearcut in the early 1980's. Earlier work showed that the clearcut promoted dramatic loss of Ca from the watershed, indicated by a 5-fold increase in streamwater Ca concentrations. The mechanism for this loss was unclear as no resolvable changes in soil Ca pools were observed. Our work shows that streamwater dissolved Ca becomes isotopically lighter as Ca concentrations increase. These data are best accounted for by an increase in Ca loss from the soil cation exchange complex. Soil exchangeable δ44Ca itself evolves towards lighter values in the years following the experimental harvest. We interpret this as replenishment of the soil exchange complex by release of isotopically light Ca from root biomass. In the second component of our study, we examine decadal-scale changes in streamwater and soil Ca in an un-manipulated biogeochemical reference watershed. Historical data from Hubbard Brook show that streamwater Ca concentrations began decreasing sharply in the early 1970's, attributed to decreased deposition of both acidity and Ca with the passage of the Clean Air Act. Preliminary data indicate no resolvable change in the average δ44Ca of streamwater, with variability mostly attributable to discharge (flowpath control). Preliminary data

  6. Long-term ocean simulations in FESOM: evaluation and application in studying the impact of Greenland Ice Sheet melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhu; Wang, Qiang; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Danilov, Sergey; Schröter, Jens; Jung, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) is formulated on unstructured meshes and offers geometrical flexibility which is difficult to achieve on traditional structured grids. In this work, the performance of FESOM in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean on large time scales is evaluated in a hindcast experiment. A water-hosing experiment is also conducted to study the model sensitivity to increased freshwater input from Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) melting in a 0.1-Sv discharge rate scenario. The variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the hindcast experiment can be explained by the variability of the thermohaline forcing over deep convection sites. The model also reproduces realistic freshwater content variability and sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean. The anomalous freshwater in the water-hosing experiment leads to significant changes in the ocean circulation and local dynamical sea level (DSL). The most pronounced DSL rise is in the northwest North Atlantic as shown in previous studies, and also in the Arctic Ocean. The released GrIS freshwater mainly remains in the North Atlantic, Arctic Ocean and the west South Atlantic after 120 model years. The pattern of ocean freshening is similar to that of the GrIS water distribution, but changes in ocean circulation also contribute to the ocean salinity change. The changes in Arctic and sub-Arctic sea level modify exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and subpolar seas, and hence the role of the Arctic Ocean in the global climate. Not only the strength of the AMOC, but also the strength of its decadal variability is notably reduced by the anomalous freshwater input. A comparison of FESOM with results from previous studies shows that FESOM can simulate past ocean state and the impact of increased GrIS melting well.

  7. A 72% error reduction scheme based on temperature acceleration for long-term data storage applications: Cold flash and millennium memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Senju; Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Hachiya, Shogo; Takahashi, Tomonori; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-07-01

    A solid-state drive (SSD) with 1Xnm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash is proposed for low cost data storage applications with long-term data-retention requirements. Specifically, cold data storage requires 20 years data-retention with 100 write/erase (W/E) cycles, whereas digital archive storage requires 1000 years retention time with 1 W/E cycle. To achieve these requirements, a flexible-nLC scheme is proposed to improve the reliability of 1Xnm TLC NAND flash (Yamazaki et al., 2015). The proposed scheme combines two schemes, n-out-of-8 level cell (nLC) (Tanakamaru et al., 2014) and asymmetric coding (AC) (Tanakamaru et al., 2012) with the addition of a vertical flag. By measuring 1Xnm TLC NAND flash memory, the proposed scheme reduces errors by 72% and 69% for digital archive and cold flash respectively, compared to the conventional nLC scheme.

  8. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (Pcompost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (Pcompost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain.

  9. Predicting survival after acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ACOPD: is long-term application of noninvasive ventilation the last life guard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquinas AM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antonio M Esquinas,1 Yoshinori Matsuoka,2 Sven Stieglitz3 1Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain; 2Saga Medical School Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Saga, Japan; 3Clinic for Pneumology and Allergology, Centre for Sleep and Ventilation Medicine, Solingen, Germany Patients with acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ACOPD admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU still show substantial high hospital mortality (24%.1 After ICU discharge, long-term application noninvasive ventilation (NIV may be a reasonable and effective indication.2 However, hospital mortality shows higher mortality rates for patients with COPD surviving their first episode after 2 and 5 years.2,3 View original paper by Titlestad and colleagues.

  10. Ditch network maintenance in peatland forest as a private investment: short- and long-term effects on financial performance at stand level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Penttilä

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Finland, most of the suitable peatland has now been ditched for forestry purposes, and ditch network maintenance (DNM is carried out on 70,000–80,000 hectares of land each year. We examined the financial performance of DNM operations on 44 sample plots representing two medium-quality site types located within two different climatic regions in northern Finland. We applied a simulation approach in which actual measurements of trees growing on sample plots were fed into a stand simulator (MOTTI which predicted stand development with and without DNM. The financial assessments involved calculating short-term and long-term effects of DNM by applying, respectively, ROI (return on investment and NPV (net present value analyses. The results indicated that the financial performance of DNM, particularly in the short term, was highly dependent on the availability of government subsidies. Without the DNM subsidy, the return on investment was between 1.6% and 3.7%; whereas with government subsidy it ranged from 3.8% to 8.4%. In the long run, the net present value was ca. 4–14% higher for stands with DNM than for those without.

  11. Long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial community and enzymatic activity of activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Ma, Bingrui; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Dong; Zhao, Yangguo; Jin, Chunji; Wang, Xuejiao; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    The long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of activated sludge were investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance had no evident change at 0-10 mg/L CuO NPs, whereas the CuO NPs concentration at 30-60 mg/L affected the COD, NH4(+)-N and soluble orthophosphate (SOP) removal, nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate and microbial enzymatic activity of activated sludge. Some CuO NPs might be absorbed on the surface of activated sludge or penetrate the microbial cytomembrane into the microbial cell interior of activated sludge. Compared to 0 mg/L CuO NPs, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased by 43.6% and 56.4% at 60 mg/L CuO NPs, respectively. The variations of ROS production and LDH release demonstrated that CuO NPs could induce the toxicity towards the microorganisms and destroy the integrity of microbial cytomembrane in the activated sludge. High throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA indicated that CuO NPs could evidently impact on the microbial richness, diversity and composition of activated sludge in the SBR.

  12. The Application of Qualification Testing, Field Testing, and Accelerated Testing for Estimating Long-Term Durability of Composite Materials for Caltrans Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-25

    case, the results were clouded by the fact that the glass-transition temperature of the adhesive in the bonded assembly (-10°C (-501F)) was much lower...1211 (1995). 10. K. L. Litherland, D. R. Oakley, and B. A. Proctor, "The Use of Accelerated Aging Procedures to Predict the Long Term Strength of GRC

  13. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  14. Application of long-term care model to elderly patients%长期护理模式在老年患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 李玫; 李静

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨长期护理模式在老年患者中的应用及临床效果.方法:将200例老年患者随机分为观察组和对照组各100例,对照组给予常规治疗护理,观察组在此基础上应用长期护理模式.观察比较两组并发症发生情况、精神状态及生活质量.结果:两组并发症发生情况、精神状态及生活质量比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:长期护理模式可预防老年患者并发症发生,缓解其负性心理,提高生活质量,促进康复.%Objective:To explore the application and clinical effect of long-term care model in elderly patients.Methods:200 elderly patients were randomly divided into theobservation group and the control group (100 cases in each group).The conventional treatment and nursing care was taken in the control group;the long-term care model was adopted in the observation group based on the conventional one.The incidence of complications,mental state and quality of life of the elderly patients were observed and compared between the two groups.Results:There were statistically significant differences in the comparison of the incidence of complications,mental state and quality of life of the elderly patients between the two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion:The long-term care model can prevent the incidence of complications,alleviate the negative emotions,improve the quality of life and promote the rehabilitation of the elderly patients.

  15. Biocatalysis conversion of methanol to methane in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor: Long-term performance and inherent deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Chen, Mo; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-12-01

    Long-term performance of methanol biocatalysis conversion in a lab-scale UASB reactor was evaluated. Properties of granules were traced to examine the impact of methanol on granulation. Methanolic wastewater could be stably treated during initial 240d with the highest biogas production rate of 18.6 ± 5.7 L/Ld at OLR 48 g-COD/Ld. However, the reactor subsequently showed severe granule disintegration, inducing granule washout and process upsets. Some steps (e.g. increasing influent Ca(2+) concentration, etc.) were taken to prevent rising dispersion, but no clear improvement was observed. Further characterizations in granules revealed that several biotic/abiotic factors all caused the dispersion: (1) depletion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and imbalance of protein/polysaccharide ratio in EPS; (2) restricted formation of hard core and weak Ca-EPS bridge effect due to insufficient calcium supply; and (3) simplification of species with the methanol acclimation. More efforts are required to solve the technical deficiencies observed in methanolic wastewater treatment.

  16. Preclinical study of a novel hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal pump for long-term cardiopulmonary support : In vivo performance during percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    An extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump with a hydrodynamically levitated impeller was developed for use in a durable extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system. The present study examined the biocompatibility of the blood pump during long-term use by conducting a series of 30-day chronic animal experiments. The ECMO system was used to produce a percutaneous venoarterial bypass between the venae cavae and carotid artery in adult goats. No anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy was administered during the experiments. Three out of four animals survived for the scheduled 30-day period, and the blood pumps and membrane oxygenators both exhibited sufficient hydrodynamic performance and good antithrombogenicity, while one animal died of massive bleeding from the outflow cannulation site. The animals' plasma free hemoglobin had returned to within the normal range by 1 week after the surgical intervention, and their hemodynamic and biochemistry parameters remained within their normal ranges throughout the experiment. The explanted centrifugal blood pumps did not display any trace of thrombus formation. Based on the biocompatibility demonstrated in this study, the examined centrifugal blood pump, which includes a hydrodynamically levitated impeller, is suitable for use in durable ECMO systems.

  17. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced effects on performance and microbial community of activated sludge from a sequencing batch reactor under long-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingrui; Wang, Sen; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Mengchun; Li, Shanshan; Guo, Liang; She, Zonglian; Zhao, Yangguo; Zheng, Dong; Jin, Chunji; Wang, Xuejiao; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    The performance and microbial community of activated sludge from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were investigated under long-term exposure of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs). The COD removal showed a slight decrease at 5-60mg/L Fe3O4 NPs compared to 0mg/L Fe3O4 NPs, whereas the NH4(+)-N removal had no obvious variation at 0-60mg/L Fe3O4 NPs. It was found that 10-60mg/L Fe3O4 NPs improved the denitrification process and phosphorus removal of activated sludge. The microbial enzymatic activities of activated sludge could be affected by Fe3O4 NPs, which had similar variation trends to the nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates of activated sludge. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release demonstrated that Fe3O4 NPs led to the toxicity to activated sludge and destroyed the integrity of microbial cytomembrane. High throughput sequencing indicated that Fe3O4 NPs could obviously affect the microbial richness and diversity of activated sludge.

  18. Community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria under long-term application of mineral fertilizer and organic manure in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a greater impact than organic manure, while N deficiency treatment (PK) had no significant effect. AOB community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the amoA gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DGGE profiles showed that the AOB community was more diverse in N-fertilized treatments than in the PK-fertilized treatment or the control, while one dominant band observed in the control could not be detected in any of the fertilized treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DGGE bands derived from N-fertilized treatments belonged to Nitrosospira cluster 3, indicating that N fertilization resulted in the dominance of Nitrosospira cluster 3 in soil. These results demonstrate that long-term application of N fertilizers could result in increased soil nitrification potential and the AOB community shifts in soil. Our results also showed the different effects of mineral fertilizer N versus organic manure N; the effects of P and K on the soil AOB community; and the importance of balanced fertilization with N, P, and K in promoting nitrification functions in arable soils.

  19. Ion-Exchange Interdiffusion Model with Potential Application to Long-Term Nuclear Waste Glass Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2016-05-13

    Abstract: Ion exchange is an integral mechanism influencing the corrosion of glasses. Due to the formation of alteration layers in aqueous conditions, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the process of ion exchange from other processes, principally dissolution of the glass matrix. Therefore, we have developed a method to isolate alkali diffusion that involves contacting glass coupons with a solution of 6LiCl dissolved in functionally inert dimethyl sulfoxide. We employ the method at temperatures ranging from 25 to 150 °C with various glass formulations. Glass compositions include simulant nuclear waste glasses, such as SON68 and the international simple glass (ISG), glasses in which the nature of the alkali element was varied, and glasses that contained more than one alkali element. An interdiffusion model based on Fick’s second law was developed and applied to all experiments to extract diffusion coefficients. The model expands established models of interdiffusion to the case where multiple types of alkali sites are present in the glass. Activation energies for alkali ion exchange were calculated and the results are in agreement with those obtained in glass strengthening experiments but are nearly five times higher than values reported for diffusion-controlled processes in nuclear waste glass corrosion experiments. A discussion of the root causes for this apparent discrepancy is provided. The interdiffusion model derived from laboratory experiments is expected to be useful for modeling glass corrosion in a geological repository when the silicon concentration is high.

  20. Paleoclimatic data applications: Long-term performance of uranium mill tailings repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [Environmental Sciences Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Petersen, K.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners region are a lasting legacy of the Cold War. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is designing landfill repositories that will isolate hazardous constituents of tailings from biological intrusion, erosion, and the underlying aquifer for up to 1,000 years. With evidence of relatively rapid past climate change, and model predictions of global climatic variation exceeding the historical record, DOE recognizes a need to incorporate possible ranges of future climatic and ecological change in the repository design process. In the Four Corners region, the center of uranium mining and milling activities in the United States, proxy paleoclimatic records may be useful not only as a window on the past, but also as analogs of possible local responses to future global change. We reconstructed past climate change using available proxy data from tree rings, packrat middens, lake sediment pollen, and archaeological records. Interpretation of proxy paleoclimatic records was based on present-day relationships between plant distribution, precipitation, and temperature along a generalized elevational gradient for the region. For the Monticello, Utah, uranium mill tailings site, this first approximation yielded mean annual temperature and precipitation ranges of 2 to 10{degrees} C, and 38 to 80 cm, respectively, corresponding to late glacial and Altithermal periods. These data are considered to be reasonable ranges of future climatic conditions that can be input to evaluations of groundwater recharge, radon-gas escape, erosion, frost penetration, and biointrusion in engineered earthen barriers designed to isolate tailings.

  1. Long-term field performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for analysis of carbon isotopes of CO2 in forest air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS is gaining in popularity for measuring the mole fraction [CO2] and stable isotopic composition (δ13C of carbon dioxide (CO2 in air in studies of biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange. Here we present a detailed examination of the performance of a commercially-available TDLAS located in a high-altitude subalpine coniferous forest (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, providing the first multi-year analysis of TDLAS instrument performance for measuring CO2 isotopes in the field. Air was sampled from five to nine vertical locations in and above the forest canopy every ten minutes for 2.4 years. A variety of methods were used to assess instrument performance. Measurement of two compressed air cylinders that were in place over the entire study establish the long-term field precision of 0.2 μmol mol−1 for [CO2] and 0.35‰ for δ13C, but after fixing several problems the isotope precision improved to 0.2permil (over the last several months. The TDLAS provided detail on variability of δ13C of atmospheric CO2 that was not represented in weekly flask samples, as well as information regarding the influence of large-scale (regional seasonal cycle and local forest processes on [CO2] and δ13C of CO2. There were also clear growing season and winter differences in the relative contributions of photosynthesis and respiration on the [CO2] and δ13C of forest air.

  2. Long-term field performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for analysis of carbon isotopes of CO2 in forest air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. C. White

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS is gaining in popularity for measuring the mole fraction [CO2] and stable isotopic composition (δ13C of carbon dioxide (CO2 in air in studies of biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange. Here we present a detailed examination of the performance of a commercially-available TDLAS located in a high-altitude subalpine coniferous forest (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, providing the first multi-year analysis of TDLAS instrument performance for measuring CO2 isotopes in the field. Air was sampled from five to nine vertical locations in and above the forest canopy every ten minutes for 2.4 years. A variety of methods were used to assess instrument performance. Measurement of two compressed air cylinders that were in place over the entire study establish the long-term field precision of 0.2 μmol mol−1 for [CO2] and 0.35‰ for δ13C, but after fixing several problems the isotope precision improved to 0.2‰ (over the last several months. The TDLAS provided detail on variability of δ13C of atmospheric CO2 that was not represented in weekly flask samples, as well as information regarding the influence of large-scale (regional seasonal cycle and local forest processes on [CO2] and δ13C of CO2. There were also clear growing season and winter differences in the relative contributions of photosynthesis and respiration on the [CO2] and δ13C of forest air.

  3. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BP McGrail, WL Ebert, DH Bacon, DM Strachan

    1998-02-18

    Privatized services are being procured to vitrify low-activity tank wastes for eventual disposal in a shallow subsurface facility at the Hanford Site. Over 500,000 metric tons of low-activity waste glass will be generated, which is among the largest volumes of waste within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and is one of the largest inventories of long-lived radionuclides planned for disposal in a low-level waste facility. Before immobilized waste can be disposed, DOE must approve a "performance assessment," which is a document that describes the impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Because the release rate of radionuclides from the glass waste form is a key factor determining these impacts, a sound scientific basis for determining their long-term release rates must be developed if this disposal action is to be accepted by regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and the public. In part, the scientific basis is determined from a sound testing strategy. The foundation of the proposed testing strategy is a well accepted mechanistic model that is being used to calculate the glass corrosion behavior over the geologic time scales required for performance assessment. This model requires that six parameters be determined, and the testing program is defined by an appropriate set of laboratory experiments to determine these parameters, and is combined with a set of field experiments to validate the model as a whole. Three general classes of laboratory tests are proposed in this strategy: 1) characterization, 2) accelerated, and 3) service condition. Characterization tests isolate and provide specific information about processes or parameters in theoretical models. Accelerated tests investigate corrosion behavior that will be important over the regulated service life of a disposal system within a laboratory time frame of a few years or less. Service condition tests verify that the techniques used in accelerated tests do not change

  4. Long-term effects of application of sewage sludge to soil on composition of herbage with respect to potentially toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1986-03-01

    Repeated applications of metal-contaminated sewage sludge can have a drastic effect on soil levels of trace elements and lead to serious toxicity effects in plants. In some cases, land can be rendered sterile. It has been demonstrated that contamination of soils with respect to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc is largely irreversible, although there does appear to be a long-term tendency for these metals to become progressively less available to plants over a long period of time. Most national guidelines designed to regulate the disposal of sewage sludge on agricultural land are based on the assumption that relatively rapid fixation of contaminant metals does take place in the soil after sludge application. There is a dearth of information relating to the rates at which potentially toxic-elements commonly present in sewage sludge become immobilized in soils, although it is clear that contaminant boron can be leached down the profile in the short term. Evidence is presented that contamination of top soil can persist for a period of six years after a single application of sludge (150 tons dry matter/ha). Over this period, there was little change in a available levels of boron, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the top soil and the degree of enhancement of these elements in perennial ryegrass grown in the sludge-treated area remained more or less unchanged. 15 references, 4 tables.

  5. Emission and Fixation of CO2 from Soil System as Influenced by Long-Term Application of Organic Manure in Paddy Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi; WU Chun-yan; SHUI Jian-guo; WANG Jia-yu

    2006-01-01

    The observations of 25-yr long-term experiment in Zhejiang paddy soils showed that the soil organic matter could increase continuously with applying organic manure, and the increase in rate enhanced along with the application rates of organic manure. By mathematical modeling, the soil organic matter increased by 22 kg when 1 t of fresh FYM was applied. The CO2emission resulting from the mineralization of soil organic matter increased with the increase in the application rate of the organic manure as well as the increase in the root residues. It is expected that the CO2 emission will be at 10.04-21.61 t ha-1 yr-1 when 16.5-49.5 t ha-1 yr-1 of fresh FYM is applied. The soil organic carbon from mineralization and release of applied organic carbon (fresh FYM and root residues) will affect the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. So, the higher the application rate of organic manure, the more is the fixed organic carbon. The CO2 fixation will be at 1.885-3.463 t ha-1 yr-1 when 16.5-49.5 t ha-1 yr-1 of fresh FYM is applied. Thus, the CO2 fixation will increase by 46.7 kg by applying 1 t fresh FYM. To apply organic manure continuously in rice fields may reduce the contribution to the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  6. Long-term influence of feeding barley treated with lactic acid and heat on performance and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Leonhard; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Humer, Elke; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief M; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the long-term influence of feeding ground barley treated with lactic acid (LA) alone or with LA and heat on performance, energy and protein balance in dairy cows. Thirty cows were fed three diets differing in the treatment of barley grain, either unprocessed ground barley (Control), ground barley steeped in 1% LA at room temperature (LA-treated barley) or ground barley steeped in 1% LA with an additional heating at 55°C (LAH-treated barley). Cows were studied from week 3 to 17 post-partum. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Estimated energy and protein balances were calculated and blood samples were collected three times during the experiment and analysed for common metabolites of energy and lipid metabolism. Digestibility of different treated barley and other dietary ingredients was investigated in vivo using four wethers. The treatment of barley with LA and LAH increased the digestibility of organic matter (OM) by approximately 5% and the content of metabolisable energy by 0.5-0.6 MJ/kg DM. Data showed no effect of feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley at 39% of DM on overall DMI, BW, BW change, milk production and composition and on the blood variables studied. Diet influenced the estimated balances of net energy of lactation (p balances. In conclusion, feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley had no influence on performance, milk composition and blood metabolites, but LA treatment without heat seems to improve the energy balance of cows.

  7. Investigating the potential for long-term permeable reactive barrier (PRB) monitoring from the electrical signatures associated with the reduction in reactive iron performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee D.; Korte, N.; Baker, J.

    2005-12-14

    The objective of this work was to conduct laboratory and field experiments to determine the sensitivity of low frequency electrical measurements (resistivity and induced polarization) to the processes of corrosion and precipitation that are believed to limit permeable reactive barrier (PRB) performance. The research was divided into four sets of experiments that were each written up and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal: [1] A laboratory experiment to define the controls of aqueous chemistry (electrolyte activity; pH; valence) and total zero valent iron (Fe0) available surface area on the electrical properties of Fe0 columns. [2] A laboratory experiment to determine the impact of corrosion and precipitation on the electrical response of synthetic Fe0 columns as a result of geochemical reactions with NaSO4 and NaCO3 electrolytes. [3] Laboratory experiments on a sequence of cores retrieved from the Kansas City PRB to determine the magnitude of electrical and geochemical changes within a field active PRB after eight years of operation [4] Field-scale cross borehole resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of the Kansas City PRB to evaluate the potential of electrical imaging as a technology for non-invasive, long-term monitoring of indicators of reduced PRB performance This report first summarizes the findings of the four major experiments conducted under this research. The reader is referred to the four papers in Appendices 1-4 for a full description of each experiment, including motivation and significance, technical details, findings and implications. The deliverables of the project, including the publications, conference papers and new collaborative arrangements that have resulted are then described. Appendices 5-6 contain two technical reports written by co-PI Korte describing (1) supporting geochemical measurements, and (2) the coring procedure, conducted at the Kansas City PRB as part of this project.

  8. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  9. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of O-alkyl-C was increased by 2.9%-6.3% and 13.4%-22.1%, respectively. These results indicated that NPKOM and NPKRS treatments reduced the decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower than

  10. Comparison between lab- and full-scale applications of in situ aeration of an old landfill and assessment of long-term emission development after completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrad, Marlies; Gamperling, Oliver; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable landfilling has become a fundamental objective in many modern waste management concepts. In this context, the in situ aeration of landfills has been recognised for its potential to convert conventional anaerobic landfills into biological stabilised state, whereby both current and potential (long-term) emissions of the landfilled waste are mitigated. In recent years, different in situ aeration concepts have been successfully applied in Europe, North America and Asia, all pursuing different objectives and strategies. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection and simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old, small municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill (2.6ha) in autumn 2007. Complementary laboratory investigations were conducted with waste samples taken from the landfill site in order to provide more information on the transferability of the results from lab- to full-scale aeration measures. In addition, long-term emission development of the stabilised waste after aeration completion was assessed in an ongoing laboratory experiment. Although the initial waste material was described as mostly stable in terms of the biological parameters gas generation potential over 21days (GP21) and respiration activity over 4days (RA4), the lab-scale experiments indicated that aeration, which led to a significant improvement of leachate quality, was accompanied by further measurable changes in the solid waste material under optimised conditions. Even 75weeks after aeration completion the leachate, as well as gaseous emissions from the stabilised waste material, remained low and stayed below the authorised Austrian discharge limits. However, the application of in situ aeration at the investigated landfill is a factor 10 behind the lab-based predictions after 3years of operation, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation (e.g. high air flow resistivity due

  11. Effects of long term rice straw application on the microbial communities of rapeseed rhizosphere in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Caijuan; Lai, Songsong; Luo, Xuesong; Lu, Jianwei; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the rice straw application on rhizosphere microbial communities in the long-term rotation system remains unclear. Two experimental sites (Jingzhou and Wuxue) with the same straw fertilization have been cultivated under the rapeseed-rice rotation mode for 7years. Eco-plate data indicated that the microbial metabolic potential at both sites was enhanced in the cores applied with rice straw. Rhizosphere microbial communities at the two fields could be well distinguished by phospholipid fatty acid data. Redundancy analysis showed that the rapeseed rhizosphere microbial communities in Jingzhou were influenced by soil moisture content, available potassium and available nitrogen, whereas those in Wuxue were influenced by soil available phosphorous, available potassium, total soil carbon and available nitrogen. Variation in soil enzyme activities could be mainly explained by available potassium in Jingzhou, and it was significantly affected by total soil carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium, available phosphorous, total soil nitrogen, moisture content and total phosphorous in Wuxue. The two rapeseed rhizosphere microbial communities are differently affected by the rice-straw application. Rhizosphere with more fungi was passively influenced by the rice-straw, while that with more Gram-negative bacteria was actively in response to the treatment.

  12. 空调器运行性能影响因素简析%Analysis on the Long-term Performance of Air Conditioner Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建军; 戴兴学; 叶檀

    2013-01-01

    The effects of on-off controlled air conditioners, outdoor temperature and dust contaminate on the performance of air conditioner are carried out on the 3 different rated capacity air conditioners in the paper. The results show that the effects on the cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio are not more than 4% and 5% by on-off controlled air conditioner, 10% and 15% by temperature, 12% and 16% by dust contaminate respectively. So the dust contaminate and temperature on the air conditioner are important factors on evaluating the air conditioner is compliance with the long-term energy saving.%  本文通过3种不同额定制冷量的热泵型房间空调器研究了开停机、室外温度以及粉尘污染等因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响规律。结果表明,开停机对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过4%,EER不超过5%,室外温度对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过10%,EER不超过15%,粉尘污染对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过12%,EER不超过16%。因此,在实际评价空调器是否满足长效节能要求时,需着重考虑粉尘污染和温度负荷两个因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响。

  13. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  14. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

    2013-05-01

    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high

  15. Government Debt and the Long-Term Interest Rate: Application of an Extended Open-Economy Loanable Funds Model to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the behavior of the long-term interest rate inPoland based on a sample during 2001.Q1–2009.Q1. Both the demandfor and supply of loanable funds are considered. Extending the openeconomyloanable funds model, this paper finds thatmore governmentdebt as a percent of GDP leads to a higher long-term interest rate inPoland and that a higher real Treasury bill rate, more percent change inreal GDP, a higher expected inflation rate, a higher world long-term interestrate, and depreciation of the zloty would increase the long-terminterest rate in Poland. In the standard open-economy loanable fundsmodel including the net capital inflow, the coefficient of the net capitalinflow is positive and insignificant at the 10%level. Hence, the incorporationof the world interest rate and the nominal effective exchange ratein the model may better capture the behavior of the long-term interestrate in Poland.

  16. Combining Models and Commodity Chain Research for Making Long-Term Projections of Port Throughput: an Application to the Hamburg-Le Havre Range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Langen, P.W.; Van Meijeren, J.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections of cargo throughput are indispensable for port development plans. Although commodity flow projections are useful for governments, port authorities, terminal operating companies and port users, scientific research on commodity flow projections for ports is limited. Existing stud

  17. Les ruptures de relations de long terme entre organisations: contribution à l'étude des déterminants - Une application aux relations banques-PME -

    OpenAIRE

    Prim-Allaz, Isabelle

    2000-01-01

    While research fellows and manager are aware that long term relationships represent a high potential for companies, this field of research has been neglected. It seems to be of great interest to look for relationship termination factors. That is the reason why this research aims at identifying interorganizational long term relationship antecedents in order to better understand this phenomena. To do so, we have conducted a literature review embracing works in economics, psychology, laws, and m...

  18. Never mind the length, feel the quality: the impact of long-term epidemiological data sets on theory, application and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Pejman; King, Aaron A

    2010-10-01

    Infectious diseases have been a prime testing ground for ecological theory. However, the ecological perspective is increasingly recognized as essential in epidemiology. Long-term, spatially resolved reliable data on disease incidence and the ability to test them using mechanistic models have been critical in this cross-fertilization. Here, we review some of the key intellectual developments in epidemiology facilitated by long-term data. We identify research frontiers at the interface of ecology and epidemiology and their associated data needs.

  19. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  20. [Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen

  1. Effects of Long-Term Combined Application of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Microbial Biomass, Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Xiu-ying; JIANG Rui-bo; So Hwat Bing

    2008-01-01

    Soil health is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem.In this paper,we studied the relationship between soil quality and soil microbial properties such as soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in order to illustrate the function of soil microbial properties as bio-indicators of soil health.In this study,microbial biomass C and N contents(Cmic&Nmic),soil enzyme activities,and soil fertility with different fertilizer regimes were carried out based on a 15-year long-term fertilizer experiment in Drab Fluvo-aquic soil in Changping County,Beijing,China.At this site,7 different treatments were established in 1991.They were in a wheat-maize rotation receiving either no fertilizer(CK),mineral fertilizers(NPK),mineral fertilizers with wheat straw incorporated(NPKW),mineral fertilizers with incremental wheat straw incorporated(NPKW+),mineral fertilizers plus swine manure(NPKM),mineral fertilizers plus incremental swine manure(NPKM+)or mineral fertilizers with maize straw incorporated(NPKS).In different fertilization treatments Cmic changed from 96.49 to 500.12 mg kg-1,and Nmic changed from 35.89 to 101.82 mg kg-1.Compared with CK,the other treatments increased Cmic&Nmic,Cmic/Corg(organic C)ratios,Cmic/Nmic,urease activity,soil organic matter(SOM),soil total nitrogen(STN),and soil total phosphorus(STP).All these properties in treatment with fertilizers input NPKM+ were the highest.Meantime,long-term combined application of mineral fertilizers with organic manure or crop straw could significantly decrease the soil pH in Fluvo-aquic soil(the pH around 8.00 in this experimental soil).Some of soil microbial properties(Cmic/Nmic,urease activity)were positively correlated with soil nutrients.Cmic/Nmic was significantly correlated with SOM and STN contents.The correlation between catalase activity and soil nutrients was not significant.In addition,except of catalase activity,the soil pH in this experiment was negatively correlated with soil

  2. Comparison the Effects of Short and Long-Term Static Warm Up on Balance Indices and Motor Performance in Gymnast Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short and long-term static warm up protocol on static and dynamic balance and motor performance in gymnast athletes. Methods In this study, 16 skilled female gymnasts (mean age of 9.62 ± 1.45 years were randomly categorized to two general warm-up with no stretching (NS, n=8 and general warm-up plus static stretching (SS, n=8 groups. The warm-up protocol included a 10-minute jogging, and the Static Stretch (SS protocol included stretching programs on the different parts of body during four weeks, three times a week. The stretched body parts were the hamstrings, the gluteus, the quadriceps and hip flexors, and the lower back and shoulder. Each body part was stretched two times to the point of slightly painful yet tolerable muscle discomfort, for the duration of 15 seconds. Before and after acute protocol and also after four weeks, the indicators of the equilibrium of anterior-posterior and internal-external pressure fluctuations range, and track length of the anterior-posterior and internal-external pressure center were evaluated by a force plate in four static and dynamic unilateral and bilateral standing positions. Results Results of this study showed that static stretching has a significant effect on decreasing in the performance of balance during vault activity in the chronic compared to acute phase (P = 0.001. The results also revealed that there was no significant difference in static and dynamic balance with bilateral standing in the NS group in the acute phase compared to the chronic phase (P ≥ 0.05. However, dynamic balance during unilateral standing in the SW group was significantly decreased after four weeks (P = 0.001. Conclusions The results may indicate that long duration static stretch exercises can improve static balance during bilateral and unilateral standing in gymnast athletes, yet on the other hand, long duration static stretch exercises may disturb the

  3. LONG TERM 32-YEAR-OLD APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS FOR THE FERTILITY OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshchadim N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  5. A new method to assess long-term sea-bottom vertical displacement in shallow water using a bottom pressure sensor: Application to Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Pignagnoli, Luca; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Rodgers, Mel; Malservisi, Rocco; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-11-01

    We present a new methodology using bottom pressure recorder (BPR) measurements in conjunction with sea level, water column, and barometric data to assess the long-term vertical seafloor deformation to a few centimeters accuracy in shallow water environments. The method helps to remove the apparent vertical displacement on the order of tens of centimeters caused by the BPR instrumental drift and by seawater density variations. We have applied the method to the data acquired in 2011 by a BPR deployed at 96 m depth in the marine sector of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, during a seafloor uplift episode of a few centimeters amplitude, lasted for several months. The method detected a vertical uplift of the caldera of 2.5 ± 1.3 cm achieving an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the submarine vertical deformation in shallow water. The estimated vertical deformation at the BPR also compares favorably with data acquired by a land-based GPS station located at the same distance from the maximum of the modeled deformation field. While BPR measurements are commonly performed in deep waters, where the oceanic noise is relatively low, and in areas with rapid, large-amplitude vertical ground displacement, the proposed method extends the capability of estimating vertical uplifts from BPR time series to shallow waters and to slow deformation processes.

  6. Long term properties and microstructural evolution of 18Cr-10Ni-3Cu-Ti-Nb austenitic stainless steel for boiler tube application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Y.; Fukui, T.; Ono, T. [TenarisNKK Tubes, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Caminada, S. [TenarisDalmine, Dalmine, BG (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The allowable tensile stress of 0.1C-18Cr-10Ni-3Cu-Ti-Nb steel (TEMPALOY AA-1; ASME C.C. 2512) is more than 30% higher compared with that of ASME SA-213 Grade TP347H in the temperature range 600-700 C. This high creep rupture strength is obtained by the precipitation of MC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and Cu-rich phase. Long term creep rupture tests over 10{sup 5}h enabled to verify the superior creep rupture strength of this steel. The investigation of microstructural evolution on the creep ruptured and aged specimens has shown the high structural stability of this material. Hardness and impact properties after high temperature aging reveal similar performance as conventional 18-8 stainless steels. Excellent steam oxidation resistance can be achieved by a shot-blasting method. The scale thickness of shot-blasted tube after 1000h at 750 C is below a few micron meters. These results have revealed that the mechanical properties and environmental resistance of this steel enable the use of TEMPALOY AA-1 in the latest generation of advanced USC boiler. (orig.)

  7. Performance of the "house doctor". Effect of physician-to-patient ratio on follow up in long-term care facilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, J P; Buchanan, B.

    1993-01-01

    Do physicians with many patients in a long-term care facility provide more timely follow up of their drug orders than those with only a few? We reviewed 60 charts at random in three intermediate care facilities. Physician practices fell into two distinct groups. Those with more than 17 patients followed up sooner than those with fewer than six. We recommend a "house doctor" model of care for patients whose follow up is poor.

  8. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.

  9. Effect of Long-Term Application of K Fertilizer and Wheat Straw to Soil on Crop Yield and Soil K Under Different Planting Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN De-shui; JIN Ji-yun; HUANG Shao-wen; LI Shu-tian; HE Ping

    2007-01-01

    Effect of application of K fertilizer and wheat straw to soil on crop yield and status of soil K in the plough layer under different planting systems was studied. The experiments on long-term application of K fertilizer and wheat straw to soil in Hebei fluvo aquic soil and Shanxi brown soil in northern China were begun in 1992. The results showed that K fertilizer and straw could improve the yields of wheat and maize with the order of NPK + St > NPK > NP + St > NP, and treatment of K fertilizer made a significant difference to NP, and the efficiency of K fertilizer in maize was higher than in wheat under rotation system of Hebei. In contrast with Shanxi, the wastage of soil potassium was a more serious issue in the rotation system in Hebei, only treatment of NPK + St showed a surplus of potassium and the others showed a wane. K fertilizer and straw could improve the content of water-soluble K, nonspecifically adsorbed K, non-exchangeable K, mineral K, and total K in contrast to NP; however, K fertilizer and straw reduce the proportion of mineral K and improve proportion of other forms of potassium in the two locating sites. Compared with the beginning of orientation, temporal variability character of soil K content and proportion showed a difference between the two soil types; furthermore, there was a decrease in the content of mineral K and total K simultaneously in the two locating sites. As a whole, the effect of K fertilizer applied to soil directly excelled to wheat straw to soil. Wheat straw to soil was an effective measure to complement potassium to increase crop yield and retard the decrease of soil K.

  10. Modeling generation expansion in the context of a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. Application to the Colombian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C. [Institute for Research in Technology, University Pontificia Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, J. [Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Carrera 58 No. 42-125 Edificio Inteligente, Medellin (Colombia); Sanchez, J.J. [Secretaria de Estado de Cambio Climatico, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Rural y Marino. Plaza San Juan de la Cruz, 28071 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    In an attempt to provide electricity generation investors with appropriate economic incentives so as to maintain quality of supply at socially optimal levels, a growing number of electricity market regulators have opted for implementing a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. In this context, the ability to analyze long-term investment dynamics is a key issue not only for market agents, but also for regulators. This paper describes a model developed to serve this purpose. A general system-dynamics-inspired methodology has been designed to be able to simulate these long-term auction mechanisms in the formats presently in place. A full-scale simulation based on the Colombian system was conducted to illustrate model capabilities. (author)

  11. Free Cu2+ Ions, Cu Fractionation and Microbial Parameters in Soils from Apple Orchards Following Long-Term Application of Copper Fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dong-Mei; WANG Quan-Ying; CANG Long

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from apple orchards 5, 15, 20, 30, and 45 years old, and one adjacent forest soil was used as reference to investigate the free Cu2+ ion activity in soil solution and the soil Cu fractionation in the solid phase following long-term application of copper fungicide, Bordeaux mixture, in apple orchards and to investigate the relationships among soil free Cu2+ ions, Cu fractionation and soil microbial parameters. The total Cu concentration in the orchard soils varied from 21.8 to 141 mg kg-l, increasing with the orchard age, and the value for the reference soil was 12.5 mg kg-1. The free Cu2+ ion concentrations in the soil solutions extracted by 0.01 mol L-1 KNO3 ranged from 3.13 × 10-8 (reference) to 4.08 × 10-6 mol L-1 (45 years-old orchard). The concentration of Cu complexed in the fulvic fraction increased with orchard age from 5.16 to 52.5 mg kg-1. This was also the case for other soil Cu fractions except the residual one. The residual soil Cu remained practically constant, ranging from 4.28 to 5.66 mg kg-1, suggesting that anthropogenic soil Cu mainly existed in the more labile active fractions. Regression analyses revealed that both the free Cu2+ ions in the soil solution and the humic acid-complexed Cu fraction in the solid phase were strongly related with soil microbial parameters.

  12. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF SKIN IRRITATION POTENTIAL, MELASMA AND SEBUM CONTENT FOLLOWING LONG TERM APPLICATION OF SKIN CARE CREAM IN HEALTHY ADULTS, USING NON-INVASIVE BIOMETROLOGICAL TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Atif I; Khan, Shoaib H M; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to evaluate non-invasively, various functional skin parameters i.e., irritation potential, melasma and sebum contents following long term application of topical cream (w/o) loaded with 2% methanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. versus placebo control (base) in healthy adults. Healthy human volunteers (n = 11, aged 20-30 years) were recruited for investigation and written informed consent was taken from each volunteer. In this single blinded study every volunteer applied formulation on one side of face and placebo on the other side of face twice daily for a period of 12 weeks (three months). Different skin parameters i.e., skin irritancy, melasma, and sebum contents were measured on both sides of face at baseline and after two weeks interval, using photometric device Mexameter and Sebumeter in a draught free room with modulated conditions of temperature (22-25°C) and humidity (55-60%). It was evident from the results that no primary skin irritancy was observed with patch test. Besides, statistical interpretation indicates that treatment with formulation is superior to placebo because it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the skin irritancy, melasma and sebum secretions throughout the study and reaching maximum -20.76 ± 0.89, -54.2 ± 0.37 and -40.71 ± 0.75%, respectively, at the end of study period. Antioxidant activity of extract was 92% compared to standard antioxidant. Conclusively, active cream loaded with fruit extract was well tolerated by all the volunteers and suitable to treat contact dermatitis, greasy skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis and augmenting beauty and attraction by depigmentation of human skin. So, in the future, there is need to clinically evaluate these formulations in patients with compromised skin functions i.e., contact dermatitis, melasma, and acne vulgaris in order to explore the actual potential of this fruit.

  13. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  14. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS: LESSONS LEARNED ON DESIGN, CONTAMINANT TREATMENT, LONGEVITY, PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND COST - AN OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) performance for field sites in the U.S. was evaluated over the last 10 years by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Office of Research and Development (EPA-ORD) in collaboration with other U.S. federal agencies, consulting co...

  15. Appraising digital records for long-term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Eastwood

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to extract lessons from archivists' experience of appraising electronic records that are likely to have wider application in the preservation of other digital materials, including scientific data. It relies mainly on the work of the Appraisal Task Force of the InterPARES project on long-term preservation of authentic electronic records to develop a picture of the process of appraisal. It concludes that the aspects of assessment of authenticity, determination of the feasibility of preservation, and monitoring electronic records as they are maintained in the live environment are likely to find counterparts in attempts to appraise digital objects for long-term preservation in the scientific community. It also argues that the activities performed during appraisal constitute the first vital step in the process of preservation of digital materials.

  16. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  17. Long-term behaviour of GRP pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, H; A Vieira; Reis, J; Marques, A. T.; Guedes, R.M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the research programme /1/ described is the study of creep and relaxation behaviour of glass-rein forced thermosetting (GRP) pipes, in order to find alternative methods to predict the long-term properties, rendering a considerable reduction of the time needed for testing and assuring, as far as possible, equivalent reliability when compared to the existing methods. Experimental procedures were performed and are presented here, together with discussion of results, as well...

  18. [Effects of long-term mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on canopy apparent photosynthesis and yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Ji-wang; Zhao, Bin

    2015-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted using the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety Shimai 15. The source of organic nitrogen was cow manure, and four fertilization treatments were included, i.e., no N fertilizer application, single application of urea, single application of cow manure, and mixed application of urea and cow manure. The effects of different applications of inorganic and organic nitrogen on canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), photosynthetic rate of flag leaves (Pn), leaf area index (LAI), florescence parameters and grain yield of winter wheat were determined. The results showed that urea had the largest effect on the early growth period, as at this stage the CAP, Pn and LAI of the single application of urea were the highest, which was followed by the mixed application and the single application of cow manure. However, 10 days after anthesis, the single application of cow manure and the mixed application delayed the leaf senescence process when compared with the single application of urea. This could be due to the two treatments having higher anti-oxidant enzyme activity and promoting a longer green leaf duration, which could maintain a higher photosynthetic capability. What' s more, the mixed application had a better performance and got the highest grain yield. Consequently, the mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could delay leaf senescence and maintain a better canopy structure and higher photosynthesis capability at the late grain filling stage, which resulted in a higher grain yield.

  19. Long-term performance and stability of a continuous granular airlift reactor treating a high-strength wastewater containing a mixture of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carlos; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Carrera, Julián

    2016-02-13

    Continuous feeding operation of an airlift reactor and its inoculation with mature aerobic granules allowed the successful treatment of a mixture of aromatic compounds (p-nitrophenol, o-cresol and phenol). Complete biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, o-cresol, phenol and their metabolic intermediates was achieved at an organic loading rate of 0.61 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Stable granulation was obtained throughout the long-term operation (400 days) achieving an average granule size of 2.0 ± 1 mm and a sludge volumetric index of 26 ± 1 mL g(-1) TSS. The identified genera in the aerobic granular biomass were heterotrophic bacteria able to consume aromatic compounds. Therefore, the continuous feeding regimen and the exposure of aerobic granules to a mixture of aromatic compounds make possible to obtain good granulation and high removal efficiency.

  20. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4y9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Pugin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily, while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training and long-term effects (after 2-6 months in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls. The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

  1. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4rj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Pugin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily, while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training and long-term effects (after 2-6 months in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls. The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training.

  2. Long-Term Outcome of Combined (Percutaneous Intramyocardial and Intracoronary) Application of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Post Myocardial Infarction: The 5-Year MYSTAR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, Bonni; Charwat, Silvia; Marzluf, Beatrice; Mascherbauer, Julia; Jakab, Andras; Zimba, Abelina; Sárközy, Márta; Pavo, Noemi; Sochor, Heinz; Graf, Senta; Lang, Irene; Maurer, Gerald; Bergler-Klein, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The long-term (5-year) outcome of early (3–6 weeks after acute myocardial infarction [AMI], BM-MNC Early group) and late (3–4 months after AMI, BM-MNC Late group) combined (percutaneous intramyocardial and intracoronary) delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) was evaluated in patients with ejection fractions (EF) between 30–45% post-AMI. Methods Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and hospitalization were recorded. Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography was performed in a subgroup of patients. Pre-cell therapy myocardial voltage values of treated areas (assessed by NOGA mapping) were correlated with clinical outcome. Results Five-year MACCE incidences (7.4%. vs 24.1%) and the composite of all adverse events (11.1% vs 27.6%) were not different between the Early and Late treatment groups. The significant LV-EF increase at 1-year follow-up was preserved at the 5-year control (from baseline to 5-year: 5.3%, 95% CI:0.5–10.1, and 5.7%, 95% CI:1.7–9.6, p<0.05 in the Early and Late groups, respectively), with no significant changes between 1- and 5-year follow-ups. Similarly, RVEF increased significantly from baseline to the 5-year follow-up (Early group: 5.4%, 95% CI:1.0–9.6; and Late group: 8.4%, 95% CI:4.5–12.3). Lower baseline levels of myocardial viability of the treated cardiac area (6.3±2.4 vs 8.2±3.0 mV, p<0.05) were associated with incidence of MACCE. Conclusions Percutaneous combined delivery of autologous BM-MNCs is feasible and safe after 5 years, and may result in sustained improvement of cardiac function at 5 years in patients with low EF post-AMI (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01395212). PMID:27764157

  3. Social investigation and long-term recognition memory performance in 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and their hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hädicke

    Full Text Available When tested for their behavioural performance, the mixed genetic background of transgenic mice is a critical, but often ignored, issue. Such issues can arise because of the significant differences in defined behavioural parameters between embryonic stem cell donor and recipient strains. In this context, the commonly used stem cell donor strain '129' shows 'deficits' in different paradigms for learning and long-term memory. We investigated the long-term social recognition memory performance and the investigative behaviour in commercially available 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and two F1-hybrids (129S1/SvImJ×C57BL/6JOlaHsd by using the social discrimination procedure and its modification, the volatile fraction cage (VFC. Our data revealed an unimpaired olfactory long-term recognition memory not only in female and male 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice but also in the two hybrid lines (129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd when the full 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific was presented. Under these conditions we also failed to detect differences in the long-term recognition memory between male and female mice of the tested strains and revealed that the oestrus cycle did not affect the performance in this memory task. The performance in the VFC, based only on the volatile components of the 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific, was similar to that observed under direct exposure except that females of one F1 hybrid group failed to show an intact long-term memory. Thus, the social discrimination procedure allowing direct access between the experimental subject and the stimulus animal(s is highly suitable to investigate the impact of genetic manipulations on long-term memory in male and female mice of the strain 129S1/SvImJ, C57BL/6JOlaHsd and 129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd hybrids.

  4. A Survey of Heavy Metals content of Soil and plants As Affected by Long-Term Application of Sewage Water. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Lateef E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of a four year study evaluating the practicability and value of sewage sludge use in Egypt, soil and plant surveys were carried out on a citrus plantation, irrigated with Cairo sewage since the 1920s, in order to evaluate the long-term accumulation of trace elements and heavy metals and their bioavailability. While total and DTPA soil concentrations correlated well, no relationship could be found between soil and plant tissue concentrations, despite elevated levels of heavy metals in the soil. Study of long-term contamination of soil with potentially toxic elements (PTEs has not demonstrated a potential risk to crop quality and yield or human health from the slow accumulation of PTEs in sludge-treated agricultural soil. PTE concentrations in plant tissues remained low and within normal ranges despite significant increases in soil content after long-term irrigation with sewage effluent. Concentrations of PTEs in plant tissues were not related to total or DTPA extractable metals in contaminated soil. DTPA may not be a sufficiently reliable indicator of actual phytoavailability of trace elements in sludge-treated soil, although it is accepted that DTPA is widely used in nutrient diagnosis assessment. These data provide assurance about the minimal risk to the environment from trace elements and PTEs in sludge-treated agricultural soil, but a more detailed dietary analysis of Cd intakes under Egyptian conditions is recommended, following the approaches adopted in the UK and US for setting Cd soil limits or loading rates for this element.

  5. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  6. The effects of long-term resistance exercise on the relationship between neurocognitive performance and GH, IGF-1, and homocysteine levels in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Liang eTsai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a long-term resistance exercise intervention on executive functions in healthy elderly males, and to further understand the potential neurophysiological mechanisms mediating the changes. The study assessed forty-eight healthy elderly males randomly assigned to exercise (n=24 or control (n=24 groups. The assessment included neuropsychological and neuroelectric measures during a variant of the oddball task paradigm, as well as growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and homocysteine levels at baseline and after either a 12-month intervention of resistance exercise training or control period. The results showed that the control group had a significantly lower accuracy rate and smaller P3a and P3b amplitudes in the oddball condition after 12 months. The exercise group exhibited improved reaction times, sustained P3a and P3b amplitudes, increased levels of serum IGF-1, and decreased levels of serum homocysteine. The changes in IGF-1 levels were significantly correlated with the changes in reaction time and P3b amplitude of the oddball condition in the exercise group. In conclusion, significantly enhanced serum IGF-1 levels after 12 months of resistance exercise were inversely correlated with neurocognitive decline in the elderly. These findings suggest that regular resistance exercise might be a promising strategy to attenuate the trajectory of cognitive aging in healthy elderly individuals, possibly mediated by IGF-1.

  7. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR. All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM observation, forced swim test (FST, the open field test (OFT, the chromosome aberration (CA, the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.

  8. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao; Zhao, Hainan; Liu, Pengfei; Xu, Yang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chuai, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR). All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR. PMID:27774116

  9. Long-term effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles on performance, microbial enzymatic activity, and microbial community of a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Dong; Zhao, Yangguo; Ma, Bingrui; Gao, Feng; Wang, Xuejiao

    2017-02-01

    The nitrogen and phosphorus removal, microbial enzymatic activity, and microbial community of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were evaluated under long-term exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs). High NiO NP concentration (over 5 mg L(-1)) affected the removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The presence of NiO NP inhibited the microbial enzymatic activities and reduced the nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates of activated sludge. The microbial enzymatic activities of the activated sludge showed a similar variation trend to the nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates with the increase in NiO NP concentration from 0 to 60 mg L(-1). The Ni content in the effluent and activated sludge showed an increasing trend with the increase in NiO NP concentration. Some NiO NPs were absorbed on the sludge surface or penetrate the cell membrane into the interior of microbial cells in the activated sludge. NiO NP facilitated the increase in reactive oxygen species by disturbing the balance between the oxidation and anti-oxidation processes, and the variation in lactate dehydrogenase demonstrated that NiO NP could destroy the cytomembrane and cause variations in the microbial morphology and physiological function. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the microbial community of SBR had some obvious changes at 0-60 mg L(-1) NiO NPs at the phyla, class and genus levels.

  10. The effects of long-term resistance exercise on the relationship between neurocognitive performance and GH, IGF-1, and homocysteine levels in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Chun-Hao; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a long-term resistance exercise intervention on executive functions in healthy elderly males, and to further understand the potential neurophysiological mechanisms mediating the changes. The study assessed forty-eight healthy elderly males randomly assigned to exercise (n = 24) or control (n = 24) groups. The assessment included neuropsychological and neuroelectric measures during a variant of the oddball task paradigm, as well as growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and homocysteine levels at baseline and after either a 12 month intervention of resistance exercise training or control period. The results showed that the control group had a significantly lower accuracy rate and smaller P3a and P3b amplitudes in the oddball condition after 12 months. The exercise group exhibited improved reaction times (RTs), sustained P3a and P3b amplitudes, increased levels of serum IGF-1, and decreased levels of serum homocysteine. The changes in IGF-1 levels were significantly correlated with the changes in RT and P3b amplitude of the oddball condition in the exercise group. In conclusion, significantly enhanced serum IGF-1 levels after 12 months of resistance exercise were inversely correlated with neurocognitive decline in the elderly. These findings suggest that regular resistance exercise might be a promising strategy to attenuate the trajectory of cognitive aging in healthy elderly individuals, possibly mediated by IGF-1. PMID:25713518

  11. Field Performance Test of an Air-Cleaner with Photocatalysis-Plasma Synergistic Reactors for Practical and Long-Term Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP and total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations, respectively at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use.

  12. Practical application of cure mixture model for long-term censored survivor data from a withdrawal clinical trial of patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasaki Toshimitsu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival analysis methods such as the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression (Cox regression are commonly used to analyze data from randomized withdrawal studies in patients with major depressive disorder. However, unfortunately, such common methods may be inappropriate when a long-term censored relapse-free time appears in data as the methods assume that if complete follow-up were possible for all individuals, each would eventually experience the event of interest. Methods In this paper, to analyse data including such a long-term censored relapse-free time, we discuss a semi-parametric cure regression (Cox cure regression, which combines a logistic formulation for the probability of occurrence of an event with a Cox proportional hazards specification for the time of occurrence of the event. In specifying the treatment's effect on disease-free survival, we consider the fraction of long-term survivors and the risks associated with a relapse of the disease. In addition, we develop a tree-based method for the time to event data to identify groups of patients with differing prognoses (cure survival CART. Although analysis methods typically adapt the log-rank statistic for recursive partitioning procedures, the method applied here used a likelihood ratio (LR test statistic from a fitting of cure survival regression assuming exponential and Weibull distributions for the latency time of relapse. Results The method is illustrated using data from a sertraline randomized withdrawal study in patients with major depressive disorder. Conclusions We concluded that Cox cure regression reveals facts on who may be cured, and how the treatment and other factors effect on the cured incidence and on the relapse time of uncured patients, and that cure survival CART output provides easily understandable and interpretable information, useful both in identifying groups of patients with differing prognoses and in

  13. Preparation, characterization and application of alkaline leached CuNiZn ternary coatings for long-term electrolysis in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmaz, Ramazan [Bingoel University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 12000 Bingoel (Turkey); Doener, Ali; Kardas, Guelfeza [Cukurova University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 01330 Balcali Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    The NiCuZn ternary coating was electrochemically deposited on a copper electrode. Then, it was etched in a concentrated alkaline solution (30% NaOH) to produce a porous and electrocatalytic surface suitable for use in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The surface composition of coating before and after alkaline leaching was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The surface morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The long-term stability of electrode prepared for alkaline water electrolysis was investigated in 1 M KOH solution with the help of cathodic current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. It was found that, the NiCuZn coating has a compact and porous structure with good physical stability. Alkaline leaching process further improved the activity of NiCuZn coating in comparison with binary NiCu deposit for the HER. The long-term operation at -100 mA cm{sup -2} showed good electrochemical stability over 120 h. (author)

  14. Application of {sup 1}H-NMR-based metabolomics for detecting injury induced by long-term microwave exposure in Wistar rats' urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li-Feng; Peng, Rui-Yun; Wang, Shui-Ming; Gao, Ya-Bing; Dong, Ji; Zhao, Li; Li, Xiang; Zuo, Hong-Yan; Wang, Chang-Zhen [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Laboratory of Pathology, Beijing (China); Hu, Xiang-Jun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Gao, Rong-Lian [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Laser Medicine, Beijing (China); Su, Zhen-Tao [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Radiation Protection, Beijing (China); Feng, Xin-Xing [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Endocrine and Cardiovascular Center, Fuwai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    There has been growing public concern regarding exposure to microwave fields as a potential human health hazard. This study aimed to identify sensitive biochemical indexes for the detection of injury induced by microwave exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to microwaves for 6 min per day, 5 days per week over a period of 1 month at an average power density of 5 mW/cm{sup 2} (specific absorption rate of 2.1 W/kg). Urine specimens were collected over 24 h in metabolic cages at 7 days, 21 days, 2 months, and 6 months after exposure. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy data were analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Urine metabolic profiles of rats after long-term microwave exposure were significantly differentiated from those of sham-treated controls using principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis. Significant differences in low molecular weight metabolites (acetate, succinate, citrate, ketoglutarate, glucose, taurine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and hippurate) were identified in the 5 mW/cm{sup 2} microwave exposure group compared with the sham-treated controls at 7 days, 21 days, and 2 months. Metabolites returned to normal levels by 6 months after exposure. These data indicated that these metabolites were related to the perturbations of energy metabolism particularly in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids, monoamines, and choline in urine represent potential indexes for the detection of injury induced by long-term microwave exposure. (orig.)

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chichao; Liu, Sha; Li, Ruizhi; Sun, Fusheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs) effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M) treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK) treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichao Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  17. Uncertainty Assessment in Long Term Urban Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    the probability of system failures (defined as either flooding or surcharge of manholes or combined sewer overflow); (2) an application of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology in which an event based stochastic calibration is performed; and (3) long term Monte Carlo simulations...... with the purpose of estimating the uncertainties on the extreme event statistics of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow volumes in drainage systems. The thesis concludes that the uncertainties on both maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow volumes are considerable, especially on the large...

  18. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  19. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  20. Exploring How to Walk the Talk: Examining the Practical Application of Models of Science Communication in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartock, L.; Rickard, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the relationship between science communication at a theoretical level and the practice of science communication in long-term ecological research sites (LTERs). In particular, we examine if and how the work of LTER science communication practitioners, individuals with the responsibility to communicate, report, or interpret the findings of his/her LTER with any other group, excluding through K-12 educational programs, aligns with theoretically established models of science communication. Broadly speaking, as over two decades of research in science communication attests, these models tend to emphasize the deficit approach, dialogue with and between audiences, and/or audience participation. Does the practitioners' work fall neatly into these three "ideal type" categories, or do their practices blur the boundaries of established models? Do practitioners appeal to more than one type of model in the course of their work? Is there evidence of hybrid approaches, or other, new models that have not yet been identified in the literature? Participating organizations will be selected from the Long Term Ecological Research Network, an organization of LTERs funded by the National Science Foundation. The LTER network is actively involved in science communication, as shown by the most recent LTER Strategic Communication Plan. Science communicators may be involved in variety of practices, such as creating translational materials for policymakers to better understand the findings of LTERs, developing training courses for conservation professionals, or organizing site tours for journalists or funders. Practitioners will participate in semi-structured interviews covering how their practices relate to established models of science communication, how they view their roles and responsibilities, and how they view their audience(s). This presentation will cover emerging results from ongoing analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of these

  1. Gratitude in Long Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Abrams Sunding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a group gratitude intervention with 29 permanent residents at a long term care/skilled nursing facility in improving elder mood, behavior and well- being over a 3 week time period. The sample included individuals diagnosed with dementia, other cognitive impairment, major depressive disorder, insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. The gratitude intervention consisted of asking elders to share what they are thankful for at the dinner table each day. Measures included the Elder Well Being Scale and The Dinner Rating Scale. On both measures, higher scores indicated better functioning. To test the hypothesis that post treatment elder well-being will be significantly higher than pretreatment elder well-being ratings, a one-way ANOVA was conducted. Post-hoc tests revealed a statistically significant increase in Elder Well Being Scale scores. An ANOVA of comparing Dinner Ratings demonstrated a nonsignificant increase over the 3 week experiment. Implications are discussed.

  2. Long-term space flights - personal impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. V.

    During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

  3. Long-term application of diethylstilbestrol upregulates expressions of μ- and m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Zhongfang Shi; Yun Cui; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    distribution of adrenocorticotropin.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Expression of PRL of pituitary anterior lobe, expressions of μ- and m-calpains of pituitary intermediate lobe and distribution of adrenocorticotropin. ②Morphological observation of pituitary tissue.RESULTS: All 21 rats were involved in the final analysis. ①Results of immunohistochemical examination: Morphological changes of neoplasia in DES group were strongly positive to PRL, and this suggested that formation of prolactin adenoma was observed in pituitary tissue. As compared with vehicle control group, expression of adrenoeorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was increased in both DES group and DES + vehicle control group. In addition, expressions of U – and μ-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe were higher in DES group than that in vehicle control group. Otherwise, expressions of m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe was decreased in DES + vehicle control group, but expression of μ-calpains was still increased. ② Morphological observation of pituitary tissue: Gland tubes were orderly arranged in rats in vehicle control group. Anterior pituitary gland in rats of DES group demonstrated an apparent disappearance of gland tubes and a relatively large-scaled vasculature formation, namely the vascular lake lined by tightly arranged endothelial cells. Local integrated tumor cell arrangements were also detected. In addition, the border between the IL and the anterior lobe was locally blurred. The definite tumor-like changes in pituitary tissues were confirmed in 6 of 7 female Wistar rats in DES group, and one spontaneous occurrence of tumor formation was found in vehicle control group. In DES + vehicle control group, DES withdrawal led to the subtile emergence of gland tube cavity, although tumor-like cells still existed in 4 of 7 rats, suggesting occurrence of the tumor regression due to the withdrawal of DES. CONCLUSION: A long-term application of DES can enhance the expressions of ubiquitours neutral cysteine

  4. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  5. Indoor test and long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solar energy system (liquid) solar collector. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility and solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on a liquid solar collector are presented. The narrow flat plate collector with reflective concentrating mirrors uses water as the working fluid. The double-covered collector weighs 137 pounds and has overall dimensions of about 35" by 77" by 6.75". The test program was conducted to obtain the following information: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static load, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering.

  6. Characterisation and migration properties of silicone materials during typical long-term commercial and household use applications: a combined case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, R; Seifried, P; Fritzsche, D; Simat, T J

    2012-01-01

    In consequent continuation of previous described studies, pre-characterised silicone materials were assessed for chemical and physical parameters during long-term usage. In a particular case study silicone moulds were used in a commercial pizza bakery on a daily basis up to 1700 times. Migration behaviour, uptake of fat, the amount of volatiles and extractables, as well as physical properties (elongation, tensile strength) were monitored for the whole period. The main question was whether a significant degradation or even breakdown of the silicone elastomer could take place yielding enhanced migration of dimethyl siloxanes. Oligomeric dimethyl siloxanes are reaction side-products of the polymerisation process and despite their origin as so-called non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) were found to be the by far most dominating constituents of the overall migration. Furthermore, the influence of long-term thermal stress on the functionality of the elastomer was proven. Migration into food was determined by (1)H-NMR and was found to decrease during the experiment from values between 11 and 18 mg kg(-1) to levels below the limit of detection (LOD < 1 mg kg(-1)). No formation of migrating siloxanes beside the initial amount in the new, unused moulds could be observed. The loss of extractable siloxanes of the used compared with the new moulds was compensated by an uptake of fat and other lipophilic food constituents. The release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) decreased from 0.44% for the new moulds to 0.14% for the longest used ones (about 1700 individual uses; the corresponding summarised baking time was approximately 400 h at 180°C). GC-MS analysis of evaporating volatile compounds showed only cyclic oligomers for the new moulds but exclusively incorporated food components for the heavily used moulds. The physical properties of the silicone moulds remained almost constant during the experiment; no limitations in function due to the repeated thermal stress

  7. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H

    1983-03-01

    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  8. Development and application of long-term sublethal whole sediment tests with Arenicola marina and Corophium volutator using Ivermectin as the test compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Yvonne T. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yvonne.allen@cefas.co.uk; Thain, John E. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Haworth, Sarah [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Barry, Jon [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Short-term whole sediment tests using the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina are now routinely used in Europe to assess the acute toxicity of marine sediments. However, there is still a need to develop longer-term assays which measure effects on sublethal endpoints that are more relevant to predicting impacts at the population level. The effect of increasing exposure times and measuring additional endpoints such as growth, on the sensitivity of these assays was investigated. The test compound used was the chemotherapeutant Ivermectin (IVM), used in aquaculture to treat sea lice infestations. IVM was found to be acutely toxic to both test organisms. Extending the lugworm test to 100 days increased sensitivity of survival by a factor of three; a significant reduction in casting rate was observed at concentrations an order of magnitude lower. This assay shows potential for detecting the sublethal effects of low concentrations of sediment contaminants. Increasing the exposure time did not seem to affect the sensitivity of the amphipod, but further method development is required. - Long-term sublethal sediment tests are more sensitive than standard acute tests when assessing the toxic effects of Ivermectin.

  9. Historical framework to explain long-term coupled human and natural system feedbacks: application to a multiple-ownership forest landscape in the northern Great Lakes region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Steen-Adams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current and future human and forest landscape conditions are influenced by the cumulative, unfolding history of social-ecological interactions. Examining past system responses, especially unintended consequences, can reveal valuable insights that promote learning and adaptation in forest policy and management. Temporal couplings are complex, however; they can be difficult to trace, characterize, and explain. We develop a framework that integrates environmental history into analysis of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS. Our study demonstrates how historical data and methods can help to explain temporal complexity of long-term CHANS feedbacks. We focus on two sources of temporal complexity: legacy effects and lagged interactions. We apply our framework to a multiple-ownership forest landscape comprising tribal and nonindustrial private forest ownerships in Wisconsin. Our framework features four elements that help investigators better understand complex systems through time: (1 a temporal axis parsed into historical periods (periodization, (2 representation of links between historical periods and system feedbacks, (3 representation of land ownership history, and (4 nested geographical scales of historical analysis. The framework can help to reveal legacy effects and lagged interactions, illuminate turning points and periods in system dynamics, and distil insights from unintended consequences that inform institutional and policy adaptation. We also assess the validity of using land ownership to represent the social component of CHANS models. When treated as a categorical variable and interpreted in historical context, land ownership can validly represent decision-making structure, culture, and knowledge system in spatially explicit social-ecological models.

  10. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP.

  11. Long-term performance of grid-connected photovoltaic plant - Appendix 1: normalised annual statistics; Langzeitverhalten von netzgekoppelten Photovoltaikanlagen 2 (LZPV2). Anhang 1: Normierte Jahresstatistiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renken, C.; Haeberlin, H.

    2003-07-01

    This is second part of a four-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the University of Applied Sciences in Burgdorf, Switzerland. This report presents the findings of a project begun in 1992 that monitored the performance of around 40 photovoltaic (PV) installations in Switzerland, including the demonstration installation on Mont Soleil and three test installations using modern thin-film technologies. The specific performance of the plant and reductions in yield caused mostly by increasing soiling of the modules over the years were monitored. This extensive first appendix to the report describes the plant monitored in detail, presents the results of various performance measurements made and discusses the two monitoring concepts used. The specific yields over the years are presented in graphical form. Also, the meteorological equipment installed at the University of Applied Science in Burgdorf that was used to provide reference values is described.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON THE SUGARINESS OF BEET IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT WATERING OF THE WESTERN CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bershatskaya S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the experimental material obtained from long-term stationary experiment of GNU "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" in P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. Stationary experience was founded in 1978. It had two ten-course crop rotations and combined graingrass tilled. The ordinary black soil, low-humic, heavy loamy in mechanical composition. The capacity of humus horizon is 113-116 cm with a total content of humus on the date of the experience beginning is 3.88%. Arable (0-30cm layer was characterized by the following parameters: total nitrogen content - 0.22-0.24, mineral -10,0-10,5mg / kg of soil, total phosphorus-0,16- 0,19%, labile phosphorus - 12,2-12,9mg / kg soil total potassium -1,7-2,0%, exchange potassium- 386mg / kg soil. The degree of saturation of bases is 80-90%. The amount of absorbed bases is 30-40 m ekvg/ 100 g of soil. The reaction of the soil solution is weakly alkaline (PH water 8.0-8.2. The predecessor is winter wheat. General Agrotechnics is recommended for a given soil and climate of region. Solid mineral fertilizer were applied as mineral fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizer in the form of half-decomposed cattle manure. According to agro-climatic zonation the northern zone of the Krasnodar region, where the research was conducted, is related to the zone of insufficient watering with hydrothermal coefficient 0.7-0.9 with an annual rainfall of 350.5 to 899.8 mm. During the autumn and winter period, which determines the accumulation of water in the soil, from 150.3 to 426.8 mm of rain falls or 30,4-68,9% of the annual amount. During the vegetation of sugar beet from germination to harvest -112,0- 588,9mm of rain falls, with an average daily temperature of the air 16,5-20,000С, including the period of the greatest growth of roots and accumulation of sugar from 3.2 to 557.1 of rain falls with air temperature 19,5-28,800С. Hydrothermal index is 0

  13. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured

  14. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  15. Meteorological detrending of primary and secondary pollutant concentrations: Method application and evaluation using long-term (2000-2012) data in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lucas R. F.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution regulations and controls are evaluated based on measured air pollutant concentrations. Air pollution levels, however, are highly sensitive to both emissions and meteorological fluctuations. Therefore, an assessment of the change in air pollutant levels due to emissions controls must account for these meteorological fluctuations. Two empirical methods to quantify the impact of meteorology on pollutant levels are discussed and applied to the 13-year time period between 2000 and 2012 in Atlanta, GA. The methods employ Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters and linear regressions to detrended pollutant signals into long-term, seasonal, weekly, short-term, and white-noise components. The methods differ in how changes in weekly and holiday emissions are accounted for. Both can provide meteorological adjustments on a daily basis for future use in acute health analyses. The meteorological impact on daily signals of ozone, NOx, CO, SO2, PM2.5, and PM species are quantified. Analyses show that the substantial decreases in seasonal averages of NOx and SO2 correspond with controls implemented in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Detrending allows for the impacts of some controls to be observed with averaging times of as little as 3 months. Annual average concentrations of NOx, SO2, and CO have all fallen by at least 50% since 2000. Reductions in NOx levels, however, do not lead to uniform reductions in ozone. While average detrended summer average maximum daily average 8 h ozone (MDA8h O3) levels fell by 4% (2.2 ± 2 ppb) between 2000 and 2012, winter averages have increased by 12% (3.8 ± 1.4 ppb), providing further evidence that high ozone levels are NOx-limited and lower ozone concentrations are NOx-inhibited. High ozone days (with MDA8h O3 greater than 60 ppb) decreased both in number and in magnitude over the study period.

  16. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  17. Co-modification of nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon on Li3V2(PO4)3 particles with excellent long-term and high-rate performance for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Wu, Xianbin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, N-doped graphene and carbon co-modified Li3V2(PO4)3 composites (LVP/NGC) are successfully fabricated through a xerogel method for the first time. The obtained architecture combines two types of electronic contact with Li3V2(PO4)3 particles: the point-to-face contact of N-doped graphene and the face-to-face contact of N-doped carbon coating layers. Profiting from the favorable complex structure, graphene and carbon coating layers offer an extraordinary network for electron transfer and hence an excellent long-term and high-rate performance. Even tested at the rate of 40 C, the reversible capacity still maintains 86.9 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles without any fading. This work provides a promising route to improve the long-term and high-rate performance of cathodes for LIBs and enlightens us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced electrode materials for other energy storage devices.

  18. Stable hybridoma cultivation in a pilot-scale acoustic perfusion system: long-term process performance and effect of recirculation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, M.C.F.; Jansen, M.; Keijzer, T.M.P.; Grunsven, van W.M.J.; Oudshoorn, A.; Tramper, J.; Martens, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Perfusion systems have the possibility to be operated continuously for several months. It is important that the performance of the cell retention device does not limit the operation time of a perfusion process used in the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Therefore, the aim of this st

  19. The long-term mechanical integrity of non-reinforced PEEK-OPTIMA polymer for demanding spinal applications: experimental and finite-element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stephen J; Visser, Judith M A; Polikeit, Anne

    2006-02-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a novel polymer with potential advantages for its use in demanding orthopaedic applications (e.g. intervertebral cages). However, the influence of a physiological environment on the mechanical stability of PEEK has not been reported. Furthermore, the suitability of the polymer for use in highly stressed spinal implants such as intervertebral cages has not been investigated. Therefore, a combined experimental and analytical study was performed to address these open questions. A quasi-static mechanical compression test was performed to compare the initial mechanical properties of PEEK-OPTIMA polymer in a dry, room-temperature and in an aqueous, 37 degrees C environment (n=10 per group). The creep behaviour of cylindrical PEEK polymer specimens (n=6) was measured in a simulated physiological environment at an applied stress level of 10 MPa for a loading duration of 2000 hours (12 weeks). To compare the biomechanical performance of different intervertebral cage types made from PEEK and titanium under complex loading conditions, a three-dimensional finite element model of a functional spinal unit was created. The elastic modulus of PEEK polymer specimens in a physiological environment was 1.8% lower than that of specimens tested at dry, room temperature conditions (Pcreep test showed an average creep strain of less than 0.1% after 2000 hours of loading. The finite element analysis demonstrated high strain and stress concentrations at the bone/implant interface, emphasizing the importance of cage geometry for load distribution. The stress and strain maxima in the implants were well below the material strength limits of PEEK. In summary, the experimental results verified the mechanical stability of the PEEK-OPTIMA polymer in a simulated physiological environment, and over extended loading periods. Finite element analysis supported the use of PEEK-OPTIMA for load-bearing intervertebral implants.

  20. Analyzing Left-truncated and Right-censored Data under Cox Models with Long-term Survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-peng ZHANG; YONG ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    We analyze left-truncated and right-censored data using Cox proportional hazard models with long-term survivors.The estimators of covariate coefficients and the long-term survivor proportion are obtained by the partial likelihood method,and their asymptotic properties are also established.Simulation studies demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimators,and an application to a real dataset is provided.

  1. Long-term performance calculations based on steady-state efficiency test results. Analysis of optical effects affecting beam, diffuse and reflected radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horta, Pedro; Carvalho, Maria Joao [INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Manuel Collares; Carbajal, Wildor [AO SOL, Energias Renovaveis, SA, P. Industrial do Porto Alto, Sesmaria Limpa, 2135-402 Samora Correia (Portugal)

    2008-11-15

    There are a growing number of commercially available solar thermal collector types: flat plates, evacuated tubes with and without back reflectors and different tubular spacing or low concentration collectors, using different types of concentrating optics. These different concepts and designs all compete to be more efficient or simply cheaper, easier to operate, etc. at ever higher temperatures, and to extend the use of solar thermal energy in other applications beyond the most common water heating purposes. In view of the proper dimensioning of solar thermal systems and proper comparison of different collector technologies, for a given application, there is a growing need for existing and future simulation tools to be as accurate as possible in the treatment of these different collector types. Collector heat losses are usually considered to be well determined, under variable operating conditions, through the use of the heat loss coefficients provided by efficiency curve parameters. Yet, the traditional approach to the optical efficiency fails to describe accurately the optical effects affecting the amount of radiation which actually reaches the absorber. This paper develops a systematic approach to the proper handling of incident solar radiation, folding that with the information available from tests for determination of collector efficiency curve (steady-state) and the way the optics of different collector types uses incident solar radiation and transforms it into useful heat. (author)

  2. The use of collector efficiency test results in long term performance calculations. Revisions and clarifications in view of proper collector characterization and inter comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Maria Joao; Horta, Pedro; Mendes, Joao Farinha [INETI - Inst. Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares Pereira, Manuel; Carbajal, Wildor Maldonado [AO SOL, Energias Renovaveis, S.A., Samora Correia (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    There are a growing number of solar thermal collector types: flat plates, evacuated tubes with and without backing reflectors and different tubular spacing, low concentration collectors, using different types of concentrating optics. These different concepts and designs all compete to be more efficient or simply cheaper, easier to operate, etc. at ever higher temperatures, and even to extend the use of solar thermal energy in other applications beyond the most common water heating for domestic purposes. This means that there is a growing need for the existing and future simulation tools to be as accurate as possible in the treatment of these different collector types, to allow for the proper dimensioning of solar thermal systems as well as the proper comparison of different collector technologies for a given application. This paper develops a systematic approach to the problem of the proper handling of solar radiation available to each collector type. The proposed methodology subdivides radiation in its different components, folding that with the information available from efficiency curve tests (steady state) for each collector type and the way the optics of each particular case transforms and uses the incident solar radiation. The suggestions made will hopefully be taken at the level of the testing standards themselves, rendering them more complete and general. (orig.)

  3. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center Solar test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation of a single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions for a total of approximately ten months. The solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  4. Optimal levels of oxygen deficiency in the visible light photocatalyst TiO2-x and long-term stability of catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takuma; Ito, Ryosuke; Kogoshi, Sumio; Katayama, Noboru

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of the visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity of oxygen deficient TiO2 (TiO2-x) prepared by Ar/H2 plasma surface treatment on the degree of oxygen deficiency (x) was assessed to determine the deficiency region associated with highest performance. The highest activity was obtained at x=0.06 (TiO1.94). The maximum visible light activity for this material, estimated from the formaldehyde (HCHO) removal rate, was three times higher than that exhibited by nitrogen-doped TiO2 (TiO2-xNx). The catalytic ability was found to decrease over the first week after fabrication of the material, after which it became stable, and the performance of TiO2-x at this point was found to be nearly equal to that of TiO2-xNx. The results of ab initio calculations of density of states for TiO2-x suggest that new oxygen deficiency states emerge at almost the exact center between the valence and conduction bands when x>0.06, which increases the recombination rate between electrons and holes. Therefore the declining performance of TiO2-x at larger x values is attributed to the emergence of new oxygen deficient states.

  5. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  6. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jirí; Hamplová, Lenka; Urbanová, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale.

  7. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klanova, J.; Kohoutek, J.; Hamplova, L.; Urbanova, P.; Holoubek, I. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-11-15

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale.

  8. Does long-term fungicide exposure affect the reproductive performance of leaf-shredders? A partial life-cycle study using Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudy, Patrick; Zubrod, Jochen P; Konschak, Marco; Weil, Mirco; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2017-03-01

    Leaf-shredding amphipods play a critical role in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, a key process in many low order streams. Fungicides, however, may adversely influence shredders' behavior and the functions they provide, while there is only limited knowledge concerning effects on their reproductive performance. To assess the latter, a semi-static 56-day partial life-cycle bioassay using the model shredder Hyalella azteca (n = 30) was performed applying two environmentally relevant concentrations of a model fungicide mixture (i.e., 5 and 25 μg/L) composed of five fungicides with different modes of toxic action. Variables related to the food processing (leaf consumption and feces production), growth (body length and dry weight), energy reserves (lipid content), and reproduction (amplexus pairs, number and length of offspring) were determined to understand potential implications in the organisms' energy budget. While the fungicides did not affect leaf consumption, both fungicide treatments significantly reduced amphipods' feces production (∼20%) compared to the control. This observation suggests an increased food utilization to counteract the elevated and stress-related energy demand: although growth as well as energy reserves were unaffected, amplexus pairs were less frequently observed in both fungicide treatments (∼50-100%) suggesting a tradeoff regarding energy allocation favoring the maintenance of fundamental functions at the organism level over reproduction. As a result, the time to release of first offspring was delayed in both fungicide treatments (7 and 14 days) and the median number of offspring was significantly lower in the 25-μg/L treatment (100%), whereas offspring length remained unaffected. The results of this study thus indicate that chronic fungicide exposures can negatively impact shredders' reproductive performance. This may translate into lower abundances and thus a reduced contribution to leaf litter breakdown in

  9. Effects of long-term practice and task complexity on brain activities when performing abacus-based mental calculations: a PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tung-Hsin [Chung Shan Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taichung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Chen, Chia-Lin [Chung Shan Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taichung (China); Huang, Yung-Hui [I-Shou University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung County (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Hsieh, Jen-Chuen [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center and Institute of Brain Science, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Lee, Jason J.S. [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for the exceptional mental calculation ability possessed by Chinese abacus experts through PET imaging. We compared the different regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns using {sup 15}O-water PET in 10 abacus experts and 12 non-experts while they were performing each of the following three tasks: covert reading, simple addition, and complex contiguous addition. All data collected were analyzed using SPM2 and MNI templates. For non-experts during the tasks of simple addition, the observed activation of brain regions were associated with coordination of language (inferior frontal network) and visuospatial processing (left parietal/frontal network). Similar activation patterns but with a larger visuospatial processing involvement were observed during complex contiguous addition tasks, suggesting the recruitment of more visuospatial memory for solving the complex problems. For abacus experts, however, the brain activation patterns showed slight differences when they were performing simple and complex addition tasks, both of which involve visuospatial processing (bilateral parietal/frontal network). These findings supported the notion that the experts were completing all the calculation process on a virtual mental abacus and relying on this same computational strategy in both simple and complex tasks, which required almost no increasing brain workload for solving the latter. In conclusion, after intensive training and practice, the neural pathways in an abacus expert have been connected more effectively for performing the number encoding and retrieval that are required in abacus tasks, resulting in exceptional mental computational ability. (orig.)

  10. Long-Term Weather Data Measurements From A Danish Climate Station And The Weather’s Influence On The Thermal Performance Of Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalík Lukáš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A weather data evaluation from a climate station in Lyngby, Denmark, was carried out. Twenty years of measurements show that the increase in global radiation was almost 3.5 kWh/m2 per year, corresponding to a growth of the yearly global radiation of 7 % for the last 20 years. The global radiation variation between the least sunny year to the sunniest year was 20%. The increase in diffuse radiation was 1.9 kWh/m2 per year, corresponding to 20 years’ growth of up to 7 %. The annual diffuse radiation of nearly 19 % varied from the least cloudy year to the cloudiest year. A small increase was measured for the ambient air temperature. The measurements showed a yearly increase of 0.04 K per year. The average yearly ambient air temperature variation from the coldest to the warmest year was 3.1 K. According to the seasonal growth of the parameters measured, the ambient air temperature and diffuse radiation increased the most in the summer period, while the global radiation significantly increased in the spring months. The calculations of the solar collector's thermal performance in Lyngby showed that the energy output was mostly dependent on beam radiation. The ambient air temperature did not have a high influence on the thermal performance of the solar collectors compared to the influence of the total solar radiation.

  11. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nine Leuconostoc mesenteroides phages were isolated during blue cheese manufacture yielding faulty products with reduced eye formation. Their morphologies, restriction profiles, host ranges and long-term survival rates (25°C, 8°C, -20°C and -80°C) were analysed. Based on restriction analysis, six of them were further examined regarding resistance to physical (heat and high pressure homogenization, HPH) and chemical treatments (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, biocides A, C, E and F). According to their morphology, L. mesenteroides phages studied in the present work belonged to the Caudovirales order and Siphoviridae family. Six distinct restriction patterns were obtained with EcoRV, HindIII, ClaI and XhoI enzymes, revealing interesting phage diversity in the dairy environment. No significant reductions in phage counts were observed after ten months of storage at -20°C and -80°C, while slightly and moderate decrease in phage numbers were noticed at 8°C and 25°C, respectively. The phages subjected to heat treatments generally showed high resistance at 63°C and moderate resistance at 72°C. However, 80°C for 30 min and 90°C for 2 min led to complete inactivation of viral particles. In general, the best ethanol concentration tested was 75%, as complete inactivation for most Leuconostoc phages within 30 min of incubation was achieved. Peracetic acid, and biocides A, C, E and F were highly effective when used at the same or at a moderately lower concentration as recommended by the producer. Usually, moderate or high concentrations (600-1,600 ppm) of sodium hypochlorite were necessary to completely inactivate phage particles. Leuconostoc phages were partially inactivated by HPH treatments as remaining viral particles were found even after 8 passes at 100 MPa. This is the first report of L. mesenteroides phages isolated from an Argentinean dairy cheese plant. The results of this work could be useful for establishing the most effective physical and

  12. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  13. EFFECT OF LONG-TERM RESIDENCE ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENT%极地驻留时间对认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫巩固; 王天乐; 张学民; 夏勇军; 肖倩; 黄志华

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there was significant change in cognitive performance by prolonged duration of residence in Antarctic environment. We examined 25th Chinese explorers who spent 12 months of continuous stay at the Great Wall Station in Antarctica. Cognitive measures (tests of short-term recognition, memory searching and spatial cognition) were obtained in the summer (the first month, January 2009), at the preceding (March 2009), the beginning (April 2009) and the middle (June 2010) phases of winter in Antarctica. Repeated-measure ANOVA was conducted, with age controlled as a covariate. The tests of short-term recognition and memory searching which measured shortterm memory showed stable performance over a long-duration of residence in polar environment. Over 82% explorers showed that either the accuracy or reaction time of the task of space cognition was increased. The results of this study are of great significance to further study of the cognition performance in polar environment.%记忆、空间认知等基本认知功能是影响考察人员能否在南极高寒、单调、孤立、封闭的极端环境下完成复杂任务的基础认知能力.关于极地驻留时间长短对认知功能的影响尚缺乏专门的研究.本文通过计算机记录反应时技术,追踪自度夏到越冬中期,中国南极第25次队长城站越冬人员短时再认、记忆搜索、空间认知能力随驻留时间延长发生的变化.结果表明:在本研究期间,随极地驻留时间延长,队员短时记忆再认能力和记忆搜索能力没有显著变化,82%的队员的空间认知能力有所提高.表明短时记忆和简单空间认知能力在极地环境下保持稳定甚至有所提升.本文研究结果对进一步研究极端环境下人类认知能力的特点有重要意义.

  14. Long-term safety and performance of the orbital atherectomy system for treating calcified coronary artery lesions: 5-Year follow-up in the ORBIT I trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Parloop; Parikh, Parth [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Patel, Apurva [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chag, Milan; Chandarana, Anish [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Roosha [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Parikh, Keyur, E-mail: keyur.parikh@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India)

    2015-06-15

    Background/Purpose: The ORBIT I trial, a first-in-man study, was conducted to evaluate the safety and performance of the orbital atherectomy system (OAS) in treating de novo calcified coronary lesions. Methods/Materials: Fifty patients were enrolled between May and July 2008 based on several criteria, and were treated with the OAS followed by stent placement. The safety and performance of the OAS were evaluated by procedural success, device success, and overall major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rates, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and need for target lesion revascularization (TLR). Our institution enrolled and treated 33 of the 50 patients and continued follow-up for 5 years. Results: Average age was 54 years and 91% were males. Mean lesion length was 15.9 mm. Device success was 100%, and average number of orbital atherectomy devices (OAD) used per patient was 1.3. Stents were placed directly after OAS in 31/32 patients (96.9%). All stents (average stent per lesion 1.1) were successfully deployed with 0.3% residual stenosis. The overall cumulative MACE rate was 6.1% in-hospital, 9.1% at 30 days, 12.1% at 6 months, 15.2% at 2 years, 18.2% at 3 years and 21.2% at 5 years (4 total cardiac deaths). None of the patients had Q-wave MIs. Angiographic complications were observed in 5 patients. No flow/slow flow due to distal embolization was observed. Conclusions: The ORBIT I trial suggests that OAS treatment continues to offer a safe and effective method to change compliance of calcified coronary lesions to facilitate optimal stent placement in these difficult-to-treat patients.

  15. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  16. Accuracy-energy configurable sensor processor and IoT device for long-term activity monitoring in rare-event sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daejin; Cho, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    A specially designed sensor processor used as a main processor in IoT (internet-of-thing) device for the rare-event sensing applications is proposed. The IoT device including the proposed sensor processor performs the event-driven sensor data processing based on an accuracy-energy configurable event-quantization in architectural level. The received sensor signal is converted into a sequence of atomic events, which is extracted by the signal-to-atomic-event generator (AEG). Using an event signal processing unit (EPU) as an accelerator, the extracted atomic events are analyzed to build the final event. Instead of the sampled raw data transmission via internet, the proposed method delays the communication with a host system until a semantic pattern of the signal is identified as a final event. The proposed processor is implemented on a single chip, which is tightly coupled in bus connection level with a microcontroller using a 0.18 μm CMOS embedded-flash process. For experimental results, we evaluated the proposed sensor processor by using an IR- (infrared radio-) based signal reflection and sensor signal acquisition system. We successfully demonstrated that the expected power consumption is in the range of 20% to 50% compared to the result of the basement in case of allowing 10% accuracy error.

  17. Accuracy-Energy Configurable Sensor Processor and IoT Device for Long-Term Activity Monitoring in Rare-Event Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A specially designed sensor processor used as a main processor in IoT (internet-of-thing device for the rare-event sensing applications is proposed. The IoT device including the proposed sensor processor performs the event-driven sensor data processing based on an accuracy-energy configurable event-quantization in architectural level. The received sensor signal is converted into a sequence of atomic events, which is extracted by the signal-to-atomic-event generator (AEG. Using an event signal processing unit (EPU as an accelerator, the extracted atomic events are analyzed to build the final event. Instead of the sampled raw data transmission via internet, the proposed method delays the communication with a host system until a semantic pattern of the signal is identified as a final event. The proposed processor is implemented on a single chip, which is tightly coupled in bus connection level with a microcontroller using a 0.18 μm CMOS embedded-flash process. For experimental results, we evaluated the proposed sensor processor by using an IR- (infrared radio- based signal reflection and sensor signal acquisition system. We successfully demonstrated that the expected power consumption is in the range of 20% to 50% compared to the result of the basement in case of allowing 10% accuracy error.

  18. Effects of grass forage species and long-term period of low quality forage diet feeding on growth performance, nutrient utilization and microbial nitrogen yield in growing wether lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Choi, Ki-Choon; Song, Sang-Houn; Ichinohe, Toshiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Six growing lambs were used to evaluate the feeding value of two forage-based diets in a long-term feeding period by measuring body weight (BW) gain, digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention and microbial N (MBN) yield. The animals were fed imported low-quality timothy hay (TH) with concentrate diet (THD) or imported low-quality Italian ryegrass straw (IR) with concentrate diet (IRD) for 9 months. The forages were offered at 2% BW, and concentrate was fed at 40% of forage intake. The BW gain averaged 82.6 and 66.2 g/day for THD and IRD, respectively, without showing significant difference. Average forage intake (% BW) was significantly greater for IR than for TH, although it was not affected by feeding periods. The digestibility did not differ between diets or periods. The numerically greater (P = 0.06) ratio of retained N to absorbed N for IRD than that for THD was prominent. Neither diet nor period had significant effect on MBN supply and efficiency of MBN synthesis. The results suggest that the IR-based diet can be also used for long-term periods of feeding to growing ruminant animals as a grass hay-based diet without any detrimental effects on nutrient utilization and growth performance.

  19. Catalytic heat exchangers - a long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik A. [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A long-term evaluation concerning catalytic heat exchangers (CHEs) has been performed. The idea concerning CHEs was originally described in a number of reports issued by Catator almost a decade ago. The general idea with CHEs is to combust a fuel with a catalyst inside a heat exchanger to enable an effective heat transfer. The first design approaches demonstrated the function and the possibilities with CHEs but were defective concerning the heat exchanger design. Consequently, a heat exchanger company (SWEP International AB), which was specialised on brazed plate-type heat exchangers, joined the continued development project. Indeed, the new design approach containing Catator's wire-mesh catalysts and SWEP's plate-type heat exchangers enabled us to improve the concept considerably. The new design complied with a number of relevant technical demands, e.g.: Simplicity; Compactness and integration (few parts); High thermal efficiency; Low pressure drop; Excellent emissions; High turn-down ratio; Reasonable production cost. Spurred by the technical progresses, the importance of a long-term test under realistic conditions was clear. A long-term evaluation was initialised at Sydkraft Gas premises in Aastorp. The CHE was installed on a specially designed rig to enable accelerated testing with respect to the number of transients. The rig was operated continuously for 5000 hours and emission mapping was carried out at certain time intervals. Following some problems during the initial phase of the long-term evaluation, which unfortunately also delayed the project, the results indicated very stable conditions of operation. The emissions have been rather constant during the course of the test and we cannot see any tendencies to decreased performances. Indeed, the test verifies the function, operability and reliability of the CHE-concept. Apart from domestic boilers we foresee a number of interesting and relevant applications in heating and process technology. Since

  20. Effects of long-term dietary supplementation of monensin or saccharomyces cerevisiae on blood acid-base and productive performance in growing feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Benedito, José Luis; Méndez, Jesús; García-Partida, Paulino; Vázquez, Patricia; Pereira, Victor; López-Alonso, Marta; Hernández, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two dietary supplements (monensin and a live yeast culture) on acid-base balance in steers maintained in a commercial feedlot system, considering effects over the growing period (14 to 23 weeks of age). A 63-day feedlot study was performed using 42 double-muscled Belgian Blue steers. Steers were allotted randomly to one of the three study groups: (1) control group [no supplementation, C], (2) monensin supplementation [MON] at a concentration of 30 mg/kg (DM basis), and (3) live Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain supplementation [SACC] at a dose of 500 mg/kg (DM basis). Venous blood samples were collected for the measurement of acid-base parameters and L-lactate. Production parameters were also used as a complementary tool for understanding the internal changes associated with supplementation. Our results show that during the study period no statistical differences were observed between supplemented and control steers, although non-supplemented animals tended to gain more efficiently than those fed monensin or yeast. Nevertheless, taking into account blood parameters, these control animals showed a greater risk of acid overload due to a more marked decline in blood buffer levels over time in comparison with supplemented steers although no differences were observed between monensin or yeast supplemented animals. Additionally, significant effect of supplementation was observed in packed cell volume (PCV) values.

  1. The Prediction of Long-Term Coating Performance from Short-Term Electrochemical Data. Part 2; Comparison of Electrochemical Data to Field Exposure Results for Coatings on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F.; Taylor, S. R.; Calle, L. M.; Hintze, P. E.; Curran, J. P.; Li, W.

    2009-01-01

    The pace of coatings development is limited by the time required to assess their corrosion protection properties. This study takes a step f orward from Part I in that it correlates the corrosion performance of organic coatings assessed by a series of short-term electrochemical measurement with 18-month beachside exposure results of duplicate pan els. A series of 19 coating systems on A36 steel substrates were test ed in a completely blind study using the damage tolerance test (DTT). In the DTT, a through-film pinhole defect is created, and the electro chemical characteristics of the defect are then monitored over the ne xt 4 to 7 days while immersed in 0.SM NaCl. The open circuit potentia l, anodic potentiostatic polarization tests and electrochemical imped ance spectroscopy were used to study the corrosion behavior of the co ating systems. The beachside exposure tests were conducted at the Ken nedy Space Center according to ASTM D610-01. It was found that for 79 % of the coatings systems examined, the 18 month beachside exposure r esults could be predicted by two independent laboratory tests obtained within 7 days.

  2. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-04

    The federal facilities located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been used extensively by the U.S. government to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. Currently, the Hanford Site is under the stewardship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials has accumulated, mainly in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks located in the central plateau of the Hanford Site (Mann et al., 2001). The DOE-EM Office of River Protection (ORP) is proceeding with plans to immobilize and permanently dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction onsite in a shallow subsurface disposal facility (the Integrated Disposal Facility [IDF]). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the IDF (the source term) as part of an immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass testing program to support future IDF performance assessments (PAs).

  3. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  4. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  5. Differential requirements of hippocampal de novo protein and mRNA synthesis in two long-term spatial memory tests: Spontaneous place recognition and delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal de novo mRNA and protein synthesis has been suggested to be critical for long-term spatial memory. However, its requirement in each memory process (i.e. encoding, consolidation and retrieval) and the differences in the roles of de novo mRNA and protein synthesis in different situations where spatial memory is tested have not been thoroughly investigated. To address these questions, we examined the effects of hippocampal administration of the protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin (ANI) and emetine (EME), as well as that of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB), on rat performance in two long-term spatial memory tests. In a spontaneous place recognition test with a 6 h delay, ANI, administered either before or immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, eliminated the exploratory preference for the object in a novel place. This amnesic effect was replicated by both EME and DRB. In a 6 h delay-interposed radial maze task, however, administering ANI before the first-half and before the second-half, but not immediately or 2 h after the first-half, impaired performance in the second-half. This disruptive effect of ANI was successfully replicated by EME. However, DRB administered before the first-half performance did not impair the second-half performance, while it did impair it if injected before the second-half. None of these drugs caused amnesic effects during the short (5 min)/non-delayed conditions in either tests. These results suggest that 1) hippocampal protein synthesis is required for the consolidation of spatial memory, while mRNA synthesis is not necessarily required, and 2) hippocampal mRNA and protein synthesis requirement for spatial memory retrieval depends on the types of memory tested, probably because their demands are different.

  6. Differential requirements of hippocampal de novo protein and mRNA synthesis in two long-term spatial memory tests: Spontaneous place recognition and delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal de novo mRNA and protein synthesis has been suggested to be critical for long-term spatial memory. However, its requirement in each memory process (i.e. encoding, consolidation and retrieval) and the differences in the roles of de novo mRNA and protein synthesis in different situations where spatial memory is tested have not been thoroughly investigated. To address these questions, we examined the effects of hippocampal administration of the protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin (ANI) and emetine (EME), as well as that of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB), on rat performance in two long-term spatial memory tests. In a spontaneous place recognition test with a 6 h delay, ANI, administered either before or immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, eliminated the exploratory preference for the object in a novel place. This amnesic effect was replicated by both EME and DRB. In a 6 h delay-interposed radial maze task, however, administering ANI before the first-half and before the second-half, but not immediately or 2 h after the first-half, impaired performance in the second-half. This disruptive effect of ANI was successfully replicated by EME. However, DRB administered before the first-half performance did not impair the second-half performance, while it did impair it if injected before the second-half. None of these drugs caused amnesic effects during the short (5 min)/non-delayed conditions in either tests. These results suggest that 1) hippocampal protein synthesis is required for the consolidation of spatial memory, while mRNA synthesis is not necessarily required, and 2) hippocampal mRNA and protein synthesis requirement for spatial memory retrieval depends on the types of memory tested, probably because their demands are different. PMID:28178292

  7. Long-term storage effects-up-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long-term effects of storing batteries over a period of years prior to their use in a synchronous orbit application are discussed. A previous experiment is discussed where life testing was performed on cells after having stored the battery for a period of three years with the cell shorted and at a temperature on the order of 5-10 C. The test consisted of performing a sequence of 10 simulated eclipse seasons (equivalent in cycling of five years in synchronous orbit). Results of this test indicated very little degradation and change in the physical and chemical conditions of the cell. The program was extended for an additional year (battery was stored for four years) under the same conditions and testing. The results of the four year storage (one exception) indicate that no further change occurred that is significant from the three year test.

  8. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  9. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  10. Where to perform long-term ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Vianello, Andrea

    2002-09-01

    Given that most VAI prefer to be cared for at home and that their return home is the desire of families, health care professionals, and others concerned with LTMV, the effort to transform prolonged mechanical ventilation from a hospital-centered to a home-centered treatment needs to be continued and further developed. Nevertheless, the future of high-technology home care will undoubtedly be influenced by improvements in quality and containment of costs, as in its current status treatment of VAI at home too often leads to family disruption and presents a dramatically increasing cost burden. Careful selection of patients, closer attention to education and training, and collection of outcome data are all factors that presumably will facilitate the development of better-quality and cost-saving home care.

  11. 用自监测信息的卫星钟长稳特性评估软件设计%DESIGNING EVALUATION SOFTWARE FOR LONG-TERM STABILITY PERFORMANCE OF SATELLITE CLOCK USING AUTONOMOUS MONITORING INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔小准; 王璐; 毕少筠; 董海青

    2015-01-01

    利用卫星钟相位差的自监测信息进行在轨导航卫星星钟长稳性能估计的方法实现简单,能满足实际评估需要。由此开发了相应的软件。该软件读取地面接收机解调的卫星自监测信息,通过软件操作完成卫星钟各观察时段主备钟相位差计算,然后通过分析实现卫星钟长稳特性评估。软件具有卫星主备钟监测相位计满程刻度的修正功能和野值剔除功能,能修正由于各卫星钟实际频率与标称频率差异带来的相差计算误差,剔除小概率频率突变值,降低长稳特性评估的误差。软件界面友好,操作简单,在导航卫星在轨测试和在轨管理中得到应用。%The method of estimating long-term stability performance of on-board satellites clock using autonomous monitoring information of satellite’s phase difference for in-orbit navigation satellites is simple in implementation and can meet the requirement of actual assessment.Therefore the corresponding software has been developed.The software reads the self-monitoring information demodulated by ground receivers,completes the calculation of phase difference between master and slave clocks of satellite clock in each observation time period through software operation,and then realises the evaluation of long-term stability performance of satellite clock by analyses.The software has full scale correction function and outliers elimination function for phase meters of master and slave satellite clocks’monitoring, which can correct the calculation errors of phase differences brought about by the differences between actual frequency of each satellite clock and nominal frequency,and weed out mutated value of small probability frequency,as well as reduce the error of long-term stability performanceassessment.The software is friendly in interface,easy to operate,and has been applied in in-orbit testing and management of navigation satellites.

  12. Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellakwa AF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amin F EllakwaMenoufiya University, Shibin el Kom, Al-Menoufiya, EgyptBackground: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment.Purpose: This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Patients and methods: A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up.Results: A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13.Conclusion: Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS, with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon's time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries.Keywords: pneumatic, retinopexy, rhegmatogenous, retinal detachment

  13. 3D printed cellular solid outperforms traditional stochastic foam in long-term mechanical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Lewicki, J. P.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Duoss, E. B.; Chinn, S. C.; Pearson, M. A.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Maxwell, R. S.; Wilson, T. S.

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of polymeric foams by direct-ink-write is a recent technological breakthrough that enables the creation of versatile compressible solids with programmable microstructure, customizable shapes, and tunable mechanical response including negative elastic modulus. However, in many applications the success of these 3D printed materials as a viable replacement for traditional stochastic foams critically depends on their mechanical performance and micro-architectural stability while deployed under long-term mechanical strain. To predict the long-term performance of the two types of foams we employed multi-year-long accelerated aging studies under compressive strain followed by a time-temperature-superposition analysis using a minimum-arc-length-based algorithm. The resulting master curves predict superior long-term performance of the 3D printed foam in terms of two different metrics, i.e., compression set and load retention. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. This indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material, which might explain the latter’s improved long-term stability and mechanical performance.

  14. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  15. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  16. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  17. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  18. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  19. Bioavailability and plant accumulation of heavy metals and phosphorus in agricultural soils amended by long-term application of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, P S; Domínguez-Rodríguez, M J; Díez, J; Monterroso, C

    2007-01-01

    Amendment of agricultural soils with municipal sewage sludges provides a valuable source of plant nutrients and organic matter. Nevertheless, addition of heavy metals and risks of eutrophication continue to be of concern. Metal behaviour in soils and plant uptake are dependent on the nature of the metal, sludge/soil physico-chemical properties and plant species. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate plant production and heavy metal uptake, soil heavy metal pools and bioavailability, and soil P pools and possible leaching losses, in agricultural soils amended with sewage sludge for at least 10 years (F20) compared to non-amended soils (control). Sewage sludge application increased soil pH, N, Olsen-extractable-P, DOC and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K concentrations. Total and EDTA-extractable soil concentrations of Cu and Zn were also significantly greater in F20, and soil metal (Cu, Mn and Zn) and P fractionation altered. Compared to the control, in F20 relative amounts of acid-extractable (Mn, Zn), reducible (Mn, Zn) and oxidisable (Cu, Zn) metal fractions were greater, and a dominance of inorganic P forms was observed. Analyses of F20 soil solutions highlighted risks of PO4 and Cu leaching. However, despite the observed increases in metal bioavailability sewage sludge applications did not lead to an increase in plant shoot concentrations (in wild plants or crop species). On the contrary, depending on the plant species, Mn and Zn tissue concentrations were within the deficiency level for most plants.

  20. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  1. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program ( ... Prevention HIV/AIDS Nutrition Services Oral Health Elder Justice & Adult Protective Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention ...

  2. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  3. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  4. Anticipating Long-Term Stock Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Christian; Loch, Karin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between long-term U.S. stock market risks and the macroeconomic environment using a two component GARCH-MIDAS model. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of counter-cyclical behavior of long-term stock market volatility. Among the various macro variables in our dataset the term spread, housing starts, corporate profits and the unemployment rate have the highest predictive ability for stock market volatility . While the term spread and housing starts are...

  5. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  6. Application of RANS and LES Based CFD to Predict the Short and Long Term Distribution and Mixing of Hydrogen in a Large Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan K Sharma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper presents CFD simulations from Reynolds Average Navier Stroke(RANS and Large Edyy Simulation(LES based approach of hydrogen release and dispersion inside the large enclosure and comparison with experimental data. The experiment was reported by HySafe Network of Excellence partners, consisting of a 1 g/s vertical hydrogen release for 240 s from an orifice of 20 mm diameter into a rectangular room of dimensions 7.2X2.88X3.78 m in length, height and width respectively. Two small openings were provided at the front and bottom side of the room. During the test hydrogen concentration time histories were measured at few positions in the room, for a period up to 5160 s after the end of release, covering both the release and the subsequent diffusion phases The CFD simulations were performed using a a 3D transient in-house developed RANS CFD code b LES based Fire Dynamics Simulator(FDS. Initially when the jet is injected the turbulence intensity is high, but later on the problem is diffusion dominated. Therefore suitable approaches were used to simulate the problem. Initially k-ε High Re number model with standard wall function and buoyancy modification was used and subsequently the transport was modeled as laminar in RANS based approach. The default LES based scheme adopted for LES based computations. The gas mixture was treated as weakly compressible and gravity force was also considered. The results obtained by computations have a good agreement with experiment particularly for LES based calculation. The performed simulation provides useful insight regarding performance of CFD code to simulate hydrogen transport problem and this capability can be further utilized to simulate the hydrogen transport in the real containment geometries.

    Application of a level IV fugacity model to simulate the long-term fate of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in the lower reach of Yellow River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jiangting; Chen, Jingwen; Tian, Fulin; Cai, Xiyun

    2009-01-01

    A level IV multimedia fugacity model was established to simulate the fate and transfer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers in the lower reach of the Yellow River basin, China, during 1952-2010. The predicted concentrations of HCHs are in good agreement with the observed ones, as indicated by the residual errors being generally lower than 0.5 logarithmic units. The effects of extensive agricultural application and subsequent prohibition of HCHs are reflected by the temporal variation of HCHs predicted by the model. It is predicted that only 1.8 tons of HCHs will be left in 2010, less than 0.06% of the highest contents (in 1983) in the study area, and about 99% of HCHs remain in soil. The proportions of HCH isomers in the environment also changed with time due to their different physicochemical properties. Although beta-HCH is not the main component of the technical HCHs, it has become the most abundant isomer in the environment because of its persistence. The dominant transfer processes between the adjacent compartments were deposition from air to soil, air diffusion through the air-water interface and runoff from soil to water. Sensitivity analysis showed that degradation rate in soil, parameters related to major sources, and thickness of soils had the strongest influence on the model result. Results of Monte Carlo simulation indicated the overall uncertainty of model predictions, and the coefficients of variation of the estimated concentrations of HCHs in all the compartments ranged from 0.5 to 5.8.

  7. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  8. 长效型主动融雪沥青混合料路用性能试验%Experiment of Road Performance of Asphalt Mixture with Automatic Long-term Snowmelt Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福普; 王志军

    2012-01-01

    为全面验证Mafilon材料置换矿粉后沥青混合料的路用性能,进行了室内试验并现场观测了该沥青混合料的融冰化雪能力.对比不同Mafilon掺量的沥青混合料的性能差异,结果表明:在相同矿料级配条件下,长效型主动融雪沥青混合料高温性能优良,Mafilon掺量对沥青混合料的低温性能基本没有影响.3种沥青混合料的水稳定性满足规范要求,但是水稳定性能随Mafilon掺量的增加而降低.从室内和试验路长效型主动融雪沥青混合料的除冰雪效果看,Mafilon置换矿粉比例越高,其除冰雪效果越明显.%The asphalt mixture with Mafilon which in lieu of mineral fines and helps to deice is automatic long-term snow-melt asphalt mixture. In order to prove the performance of asphalt mixture with Mafilon content, some indoor tests were conducted, the field deicing capacity of the asphalt mixture was observed, and the performance of several asphalt mixtures with different contents of Mafilon were compared. The results show that (1 ) with the same gradation, automatic long-term snow melting asphalt mixtures has better anti-rutting performance, and the content of Mafilon has little effect on the low temperature performance of asphalt mixture; (2) the moisture stability of three kinds of asphalt mixture can meet the requirement of the specification, but it would decrease with the increase of Mafilon content. According to the indoor and outdoor deicing effects of the subjected asphalt mixture, it is better to deice pavement with more Mafilon content in the asphalt mixture.

  9. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  10. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha−1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha−1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  11. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou-Matar Ché B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  12. Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

    2012-04-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with

  13. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  14. Long-term visual tracking based on correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanlu; Lao, Songyang; Bai, Liang

    2017-03-01

    In order to accomplish the long term visual tracking task in complex scenes, solve problems of scale variation, appearance variation and tracking failure, a long term tracking algorithm is given based on the framework of collaborative correlation tracking. Firstly, we integrate several powerful features to boost the represent ability based on the kernel correlation filter, and extend the filter by embedding a scale factor into the kernelized matrix to handle the scale variation. Then, we use the Peak-Sidelobe Ratio to decide whether the object is tracked successfully, and a CUR filter for re-detection the object in case of tracking failure is learnt with random sampling. Corresponding experiment is performed on 17 challenging benchmark video sequences. Compared with the 8 existing state-of-the-art algorithms based on discriminative learning method, the results show that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance on several indexes, and is robust to complex scenes for long term visual tracking.

  15. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  16. A Simulation Tool for Downlink Long Term Evolution-advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A is an emerging mobile cellular system envisaged to provide better quality of multimedia applications. Packet scheduling becomes paramount as the LTE-A delivers multimedia applications using packet switching technology. Given that LTE-A is a new technology, its ability to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS requirements of multimedia applications demands further performance study. At present, a number of LTE-A simulators are available. However, these simulators in general are too specific in nature or their source codes are not publicly accessible for the research communities. As such, this study presents a novel simulation tool to assist the research communities to study the downlink LTE-A and further optimize packet scheduling performance. This simulation tool accurately models the downlink LTE-A taking user mobility, carrier aggregation, packet scheduling and other aspects that are relevant to the research communities into consideration. The efficacy of the simulation tool is validated through performance study of a number of well-known packet scheduling algorithms.

  17. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  18. Extraction of DNA from human embryos after long-term preservation in formalin and Bouin's solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Momoko; Minegishi, Katsura; Komada, Munekazu; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2016-05-01

    The "Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos" at Kyoto University was begun in 1961. Although morphological analyses of samples in the Kyoto Collection have been performed, these embryos have been considered difficult to genetically analyze because they have been preserved in formalin or Bouin's solution for 20-50 years. Owing to the recent advances in molecular biology, it has become possible to extract DNA from long-term fixed tissues. The purpose of this study was to extract DNA from wet preparations of human embryo samples after long-term preservation in fixing solution. We optimized the DNA extraction protocol to be suitable for tissues that have been damaged by long-term fixation, including DNA-protein crosslinking damage. Diluting Li2 CO3 with 70% ethanol effectively removed picric acid from samples fixed in Bouin's solution. Additionally, 20.0 mg/mL proteinase was valuable to lyse the long-term fixed samples. The extracted DNA was checked with PCR amplification using several sets of primers and sequence analysis. The PCR products included at least 295- and 838-bp amplicons. These results show that the extracted DNA is applicable for genetic analyses, and indicate that old embryos in the Kyoto Collection should be made available for future studies. The protocol described in this study can successfully extract DNA from old specimens and, with improvements, should be applicable in research aiming to understand the molecular mechanisms of human congenital anomalies.

  19. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  1. "Best practice" skills lab training vs. a "see one, do one" approach in undergraduate medical education: an RCT on students' long-term ability to perform procedural clinical skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Herrmann-Werner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benefits of skills lab training are widely accepted, but there is sparse research on its long-term effectiveness. We therefore conducted a prospective, randomised controlled-trial to investigate whether in a simulated setting students trained according to a "best practice" model (BPSL perform two skills of different complexity (nasogastral tube insertion, NGT; intravenous cannulation, IVC better than students trained with a traditional "see one, do one" teaching approach (TRAD, at follow-up of 3 or 6 months. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 94 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: BPSL training or TRAD teaching with follow-up at 3 (3M or 6 (6M months. BPSL included structured feedback, practice on manikins, and Peyton's "Four-Step-Approach", while TRAD was only based on the "see one - do one" principle. At follow-up, manikins were used to assess students' performance by two independent blinded video-assessors using binary checklists and a single-item global assessment scale. BPSL students scored significantly higher immediately after training (NGT: BPSL3M 94.8%±0.2 and BPSL6M 95.4%±0.3 percentage of maximal score ± SEM; TRAD3M 86.1%±0.5 and TRAD6M 84.7%±0.4. IVC: BPSL3M 86.4%±0.5 and BPSL6M 88.0%±0.5; TRAD3M 73.2%±0.7 and TRAD6M 72.5%±0.7 and lost significantly less of their performance ability at each follow-up (NGT: BPSL3M 86.3%±0.3 and TRAD3M 70.3%±0.6; BPSL6M 89.0%±0.3 and TRAD6M 65.4%±0.6; IVC: BPSL3M 79.5%±0.5 and TRAD3M 56.5%±0.5; BPSL6M 73.2%±0.4 and TRAD6M 51.5%±0.8. In addition, BPSL students were more often rated clinically competent at all assessment times. The superiority at assessment after training was higher for the more complex skill (IVC, whereas NGT with its lower complexity profited more with regard to long-term retention. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that within a simulated setting BPSL is significantly more effective than TRAD for skills of different

  2. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip;

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done......, regarding long-term NRT users’ experiences with continuing the use of NRT. Results from a survey study among long-term NRT-users, who had used NRT for 12 months or more, found that out of 92 former smokers 88 % wished to quit using NRT. The primary causes stated for wishing to quit were being tired...

  3. Downlink Scheduling in Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigated research article on resource block scheduling of Long Term Evolution (LTE. LTE is one of the evolutions of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS. It provides internet access to mobile users through smart phone, laptop and other android devices. LTE offers a high speed data and multimedia services. It supports data rates up to 100 Mbps in the downlink and 50 Mbps in the uplink transmission. Our research investigation was aim to the downlink scheduling. We have considered The Best CQI scheduling algorithm and the Round Robin scheduling algorithm. The implementation, analysis and comparison of these scheduling algorithms have been performed through MATLAB simulator. We have analyzed the impact of the scheduling schemes on the throughput and the fairness of both scheduling schemes. Here we have proposed a new scheduling algorithm that achieves a compromise between the throughput and the fairness. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has been adopted as the downlink transmission scheme. We have considered the impact of the channel delay on the throughput. In addition, MIMO transceiver systems have been implemented to increase the throughput

  4. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: Assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons Elsa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. Results The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII, respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Conclusions Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus

  5. 我国上市公司并购长期绩效实证研究%The Empirical Research on Long-term Performance of China’s Listed Companies Merger and Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森林

    2014-01-01

    公司并购是现代公司发展过程中最值得研究的活动之一,本文从沪、深股市上市公司中选取2010年117起并购样本,通过超常收益法对长期并购绩效及其影响因素进行研究。研究显示院公司并购两年内的累计超常回报为负,资产收购与资产剥离的财富效应不同,而公司规模与并购绩效具有负向关系。%The company mergers and acquisitions is one of activities worthy of research in the development process of modern companies. The paper selects 117 M&A samples from listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets in 2010, and makes a research on long-term performance of M&A and its influencing factors by means of abnormal return method. The research shows that the accumulated abnormal return of the company M&A within two years is negative, the wealth effect of asset acquisitions and divesti-tures is different, and the company scale has a negative relation with M&A performance.

  6. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  7. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Ghosal, D; Ghosh, S K; Mondal, A; Nag, D; Nayak, T K; Patra, R N; Prasad, S K; Raha, S; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S; Swain, S

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long- term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  8. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  9. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (papplication of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system.

  10. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  11. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  12. Medium- to long-term outcome of ankle arthrodesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.M. Hendrickx; S.A.S. Stufkens; E.E. de Bruijn; I.N. Sierevelt; C.N. van Dijk; G.M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvement in outcome after ankle arthroplasty, fusion of the ankle joint is still considered the gold standard. A matter of concern is deterioration of clinical outcome as a result of loss of motion and advancing degeneration of adjacent joints. We performed a long-term study to address th

  13. Long-term Results After Ankle Syndesmosis Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, N. van; Denk, K.; Kampen, A. van; Jaarsma, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Syndesmotic disruption occurs in more than 10% of ankle fractures. Operative treatment with syndesmosis screw fixation has been successfully performed for decades and is considered the gold standard of treatment. Few studies have reported the long-term outcomes of syndesmosis injuries. This study in

  14. Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term perspective on microfinance starts with a discussion of three central issues: first, views and policies, with two opposing views: "credit for target group" and "pushing the financial frontier"; second, the performance of microfinance institutions measured via two objectives: outreach a

  15. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnham, J J; Roper-Hall, M J

    1983-07-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary.

  16. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  17. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  18. A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-16

    Recently, metal halide perovskite materials have become an exciting topic of research for scientists of a wide variety of backgrounds. Perovskites have found application in many fields, starting from photovoltaics and now also making an impact in light-emitting applications. This new class of materials has proven so interesting since it can be easily solution processed while exhibiting materials properties approaching the best inorganic optoelectronic materials such as GaAs and Si. In photovoltaics, in only 3 years, efficiencies have rapidly increased from an initial value of 3.8% to over 20% in recent reports for the commonly employed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite. The first light emitting diodes and light-emitting electrochemical cells have been developed already exhibiting internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 15% for the former and tunable light emission spectra. Despite their processing advantages, perovskite optoelectronic materials suffer from several drawbacks that need to be overcome before the technology becomes industrially relevant and hence achieve long-term application. Chief among these are the sensitivity of the structure toward moisture and crystal phase transitions in the device operation regime, unreliable device performance dictated by the operation history of the device, that is, hysteresis, the inherent toxicity of the structure, and the high cost of the employed charge selective contacts. In this Account, we highlight recent advances toward the long-term viability of perovskite photovoltaics. We identify material decomposition routes and suggest strategies to prevent damage to the structure. In particular, we focus on the effect of moisture upon the structure and stabilization of the material to avoid phase transitions in the solar cell operating range. Furthermore, we show strategies to achieve low-cost chemistries for the development of hole transporters for perovskite solar cells, necessary to be able to compete with other

  19. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  20. 侵蚀性环境下桥梁CFRP/BFRP加固后的长期性能试验%Experiment for Long-term Performance of Bridge Girders Strengthened with CFRP/BFRP Sheets and Subjected to Erosion Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓燕; 董伟伟; 王海龙; 何世钦

    2013-01-01

    为了研究侵蚀性环境下服役桥梁构件采用纤维材料加固后的长期性能,对11根具有初始锈蚀损伤的钢筋混凝土梁式构件采用碳纤维布(CFRP)和玄武岩纤维布(BFRP)加固后继续退化的承载力及服役性能进行试验.通过对加固后构件进行电化学加速锈蚀和盐液浸润干湿循环模拟不同程度的后续服役性能退化,研究侵蚀性环境对CFRP和BFRP加固构件在不同后续服役期的承载力、刚度等性能影响规律,同时对比了2种加固材料的耐久性能和成本效益.结果表明:侵蚀性环境下加固后的桥梁构件承载能力评估需综合考虑钢筋锈蚀引起的承载力降低和侵蚀性环境对纤维利用效率的降低;CFRP对刚度提高显著,而BFRP加固具有更好的延性;考虑加固后长期服役性能,CFRP加固后具有较好的耐久性,而BFRP具有较高的成本效益.%To investigate the long-term performance of existing bridge girders strengthened with fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) sheets and subjected to erosion environment, the bearing capacity and service performance experiments of 11 reinforced concrete (RC) girders, which were strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sheets after initial corrosion damage, were conducted. Different subsequent performance degradations for strengthened girders were simulated through electrochemical accelerated corrosion together with wet/dry cycles of salt solution. The effect of environmental erosion on capacity, stiffness and other parameters of CFRP/BFRP strengthened girders in different follow-up service time was tested. The durabilities and costs of the two strengthening materials were also investigated. The results show that the capacity evaluation of bridge girders strengthened with FRP sheets should consider the effect of rebar corrosion together with the environmental reduction of FRP strengthening; the CFRP strengthening improves

  1. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  2. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  3. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, se

  4. Experimental hypothyroidism delays field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and disrupts hippocampal long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation and Y-maze performance in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, A S; Bitiktas, S; Taşkın, E; Dolu, N; Liman, N; Suer, C

    2012-03-01

    Manipulations of thyroid hormones have been shown to influence learning and memory. Although a large body of literature is available on the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on learning and memory functions during the developmental stage, electrophysiological and behavioural findings, particularly on propylthiouracil administration to adult normothyroid animals, are not satisfactory. The experiments in the present study were carried out on 12 adult male Wistar rats aged 6-7 months. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil in their drinking water for 21 days at a concentration of 0.05%. The spatial learning performance of hypothyroid and control rats was studied on a Y-maze. The rats were then placed in a stereotaxic frame under urethane anaesthesia. A bipolar tungsten electrode was used to stimulate the medial perforant path. A glass micropipette was inserted into the granule cell layer of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus to record field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. After a 15-min baseline recording of field potentials, long-term potentiation was induced by four sets of tetanic trains. The propylthiouracil-treated rats showed a significantly attenuated input-output (I/O) relationship when population spike (PS) amplitudes and field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) were compared. fEPSP and PS latencies were found to be longer in the hypothyroid group than in the control group. The PS amplitude and fEPSP slope potentiations in the hypothyroid rats were not statistically different from those in the control rats, except for the field EPSP slope measured in the post-tetanic and maintenance phases. The hypothyroid rats also showed lower thyroxine levels and poor performance in the spatial memory task. The present study provides in vivo evidence for the action of propylthiouracil leading to impaired synaptic plasticity, which might explain deficit in spatial memory tasks in adult hypothyroid rats.

  5. APM Best Practices Realizing Application Performance Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sydor, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of APM Best Practices: Realizing Application Performance Management is to establish reliable application performance management (APM) practices - to demonstrate value, to do it quickly, and to adapt to the client circumstances. It's important to balance long-term goals with short-term deliverables, but without compromising usefulness or correctness. The successful strategy is to establish a few reasonable goals, achieve them quickly, and then iterate over the same topics two more times, with each successive iteration expanding the skills and capabilities of the APM team. This str

  6. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-07-06

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  7. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  8. RESPONSES OF SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY TO LONG-TERM APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURE IN UPLAND RED SOIL%长期施用有机肥对红壤旱地土壤线虫群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江春; 黄菁华; 李修强; 李辉信; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    基于红壤旱地(玉米)的长期施肥试验,研究长期施用有机肥对土壤线虫分布特征及群落结构的影响.田间试验处理包括:CK(对照)、ON1(低量有机肥)、ON2(高量有机肥)和ON2L(高量改良有机肥).结果表明,施肥8a后,红壤旱地中共鉴定出15科、29属土壤线虫,包括8属植物寄生线虫、9属食细菌线虫、3属食真菌性线虫和9属捕食杂食性线虫,短体属(Pratylenchus)、小杆属(Rhabditis)和原杆属(Protorhabditis)为优势属.不同施肥处理中,土壤线虫总数的大小顺序为ON2> ONI> ON2L> CK.线虫群落生态指数对于施用有机肥有不同的响应:除SI外,其他虫群落生态指数均有显著差异,通过线虫群落结构的变化很好地反映了土壤的肥力变化状况,土壤线虫可以作为施有机肥过程中指示土壤健康质量的一个重要的生物学指标.%Based on the long-term experiment carried out in an upland field of red soil, the impacts of long-term application of organic manure on distribution and community structure of soil nematodes were studied. The long-term organic manure application experiment was designed to have four treatments; CK (no pig manure) ; ONI (low amount of pig manure) ; ON2 (high amount of pig manure) ; 0N2L (high amount of pig manure with lime). A total of 15 families and 29 genera of soil nematodes were identified in the upland field, including 8 genera of plant-parasites, 9 genera of bacteri-vores, 3 genera of fungivores and 9 genera of predators/omnivores, of which Pratylenchus, Rhabditis and Protorhabditis were found to be the dominant genera. The four treatments followed a decreasing order of 0N2 > ONI > ON2L > CK in total nematode number. The soil nematode community responded differently to the treatments in all the ecological indices except for SI, which suggests that changes in soil nematode community structure may be used as an indicator of variation of soil fertility and considered an important

  9. Long-term performance of elemental iron and hydroxyapatite for uranium retention in permeable reactive barriers used for groundwater remediation; Langzeitverhalten von elementarem Eisen und Hydroxylapatit zur Uranrueckhaltung in permeablen reaktiven Waenden bei der Grundwassersanierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, V.

    2007-11-21

    Elemental iron (Fe{sup 0}) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were evaluated as reactive mate-rials for use in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove uranium from conta-minated groundwater. Special attention was given to the long-term performance of the materials, which was investigated by means of column tests with a duration of up to 30 months using two different artificial groundwaters (AGW) with varying composition and uranium concentration. The interaction of the materials with AGW was studied in column tests using {sup 237}U as a radiotracer to monitor the movement of the contamination front through the columns. The tested materials were shredded cast iron (granulated grey cast iron, 0.3 - 1.3 mm) supplied by Gotthard Mayer, Rheinfelden, Germany, and food quality grade hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH, 99 % < 0.42 mm) supplied by Che-mische Fabrik Budenheim CFB, Germany. Both materials exhibited uranium retention of more than 99.9% and sorption capacities of up to 28.3 mg U/g HAP and more than 38.4 mg U/g Fe{sup 0} (AGW with 9.6 mg U/L and low bicarbonate content of 120 mg/L). No breakthrough was observed for the Fe{sup 0} columns with effluent uranium con-centrations being below the detection limit of 10 {mu}g/L after treating more than 2,000 pore volumes (PV) and no uranium could be leached from loaded Fe{sup 0} columns with 200 PV of uranium free AGW. However, columns with high Fe{sup 0} content ({>=} 50%) suffered from severe loss of permeability when AGW with {>=} 320 mg/L bicarbonate was used. In the HAP columns a breakthrough occurred with effluent uranium concentrations > 15 {mu}g/l after treating 1,240 PV (10% and 50% breakthrough after 1,460 PV and 2,140 PV respectively). 12.2% of the accu-mulated uranium could be desorbed again with 840 PV of uranium free AGW. Adsorption was found to be the dominant reaction mechanism for uranium and HAP. Image analysis of high uranium content samples showed uranium and phosphate bearing crystals growing

  10. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  11. Determination of Functional Capabilities, the Level of Physical Performance and the State of Main Physiological Body Systems in the First Hours after the Accomplishment of Long-term Space Flights ("Field Test")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Inesa; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Kitov, Vladimir; Reschke, Millard; Kofman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stay in weightlessness is accompanied by alterations in the activity of main physiological body systems including sensory-motor, skeletal-muscular disturbances and cardiovascular deconditioning. However, up to now, there are no data on the state and level of functional performance of cosmonauts/