Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan
Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significa...
Full Text Available Apple replant disease (ARD is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC. We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.
Mazzola, Mark; Manici, Luisa M
Replant disease of apple is common to all major apple growing regions of the world. Difficulties in defining disease etiology, which can be exacerbated by abiotic factors, have limited progress toward developing alternatives to soil fumigation for disease control. However, the preponderance of data derived from studies of orchard soil biology employing multidisciplinary approaches has defined a complex of pathogens/parasites as causal agents of the disease. Approaches to manipulate microbial resources endemic to the orchard soil system have been proposed to induce a state of general soil suppressiveness to replant disease. Such a long-term strategy may benefit the existing orchard through extending the period of economic viability and reduce overall disease pressure to which young trees are exposed during establishment of successive plantings on the site. Alternatively, more near-term methods have been devised to achieve specific quantitative and qualitative changes in soil biology during the period of orchard renovation that may lead to effective disease suppression.
1. Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. Development of non-fumigant alternatives for the control of this disease has been hindered by the absence of consensus concerning the etiology...
Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...
Weiß, Stefan; Bartsch, Melanie; Winkelmann, Traud
Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple 'M26' roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.
Full Text Available We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant and a new planting site (NewPlant in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of 'Fuji'/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil and from the new planting site (NewSoil was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant. More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition.
Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.
A low pH of the soil prevents the specific apple replant disorder (SARD). Not much is known about the effect of a low pH on the growth of fruit trees. Most authors accept a pH of between 5.5 and 6.5 as optimum for apples but this assumption is not based on experimental research. It is feasible that
Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.
Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the
Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...
This study examined the etiology of typical replant disease symptom development, including growth reduction and leaf chlorosis, that was limited to specific foci within three multi-generation apple orchards that overall demonstrated optimal growth and good quality standard production. In bioassays c...
Full Text Available Replant disease (RD severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after eight weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50 °C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after eight weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e. potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments.
Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet; Addosooki, Ahmad
Fingertip replantation is now an established technique. Although successful replantation is an ideal method for treatment of fingertip amputation, various other methods still are widely used and may be functionally acceptable. The indications for replantation to treat fingertip amputation is still controversial. This article presents a global view of the current status of replantation for the treatment of fingertip amputation. The surgical technique, strategies to overcome postoperative congestion, and overall results are discussed.
Jazayeri, Leila; Klausner, Jill Q; Chang, James
Hand surgeons have been hesitant to perform distal digital replantation because of the technical challenges and the perception of a high cost-to-benefit ratio. Recent studies, however, have shown high survival rates and excellent functional and aesthetic results, providing renewed enthusiasm for distal replantation. The authors reviewed the literature and summarize key points regarding the surgical treatment, perioperative care, and outcomes of distal digital replantation. They describe specific techniques and considerations for surgical repair in each of four distal zones as described by Sebastin and Chung. Zone 1A replantation involves an artery-only anastomosis of a longitudinal pulp artery. Venous anastomosis first becomes possible in zone 1B. Zone 1C involves periarticular amputations where arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint is usually indicated. Repair of the artery, vein, and nerve is technically optimal in zone 1D, where venous anastomosis should be performed. Overall, survival rates for distal digital replantation are similar to those reported for more proximal replantation. The literature reports good outcomes regarding nail salvage, fingertip sensibility, and range of motion, with restoration of length and aesthetic appearance. Distal replantation performed at institutions that specialize in microsurgery and specifically tailored to the level of injury is associated with good survival, function, and patient satisfaction and superior aesthetic outcome. More prospective data are needed to evaluate the cost of treatment, psychological outcomes, and functional outcomes of distal replantation compared with revision amputation.
Full Text Available Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site to control Prunus replant disease (PRD. We developed and confirmed the function of (1 GPS-based software that can be used on cleared orchard land to flexibly plan and map all of an orchard's future tree sites and associated spot fumigation treatment zones and 2 a tractor-based GPS-controlled spot fumigation system to quickly and safely treat the targeted tree site treatment zones. In trials in two almond orchards and one peach orchard, our evaluations of the composite mapping and application system, which examined spatial accuracy of the spot treatments, delivery rate accuracy of the spot treatments, and tree growth responses to the spot treatments, all indicated that GPS spot fumigation has excellent potential to greatly reduce fumigant usage while adequately managing the PRD complex.
Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance
Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Abe, Yukio; Dhawan, Vikas
Adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for successful fingertip replantation. The authors have attempted venous anastomosis in all cases of fingertip replantation to overcome postoperative congestion. In this article, the significance of venous repair for fingertip replantation is described from the authors' results of 64 complete fingertip amputations in 55 consecutive patients, which were replanted from January of 1996 to June of 2001. The overall survival rate was 86 percent. Of the 44 replantations in zone I, 37 survived, and the success rate was 84 percent. Of the 20 replantations in zone II, 18 survived, and the success rate was 90 percent. Venous anastomosis was attempted in all cases, but it was possible in 39 zone I and in all zone II replantations. For arterial repair, vein grafts were necessary in 17 of the 44 zone I and in one of the 20 zone II replantations; for venous repair, they were necessary in six zone I replantations and one zone II replantation. Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 15 replantations. There were five cases of arterial thrombosis and 10 cases of venous congestion. Venous congestion occurred in nine zone I and one zone II replantations. In five of these 10 replantations, venous anastomosis was not possible. In another five replantations, venous outflow was established at the time of surgery, but occlusion occurred subsequently. Except for the five failures resulting from arterial thrombosis, successful venous repair was possible in 49 of 59 replantations (83 percent). Despite the demand for skillful microsurgical technique and longer operation time, the authors' results using venous anastomosis in successful fingertip replantations are encouraging. By performing venous anastomosis, external bleeding can be avoided and a higher survival rate can be achieved. Venous anastomosis for fingertip replantation is a reliable and worthwhile procedure.
Chen, Ko-Kang; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Chang, Kao-Ping
Distal fingertip replantation is associated with good functional and aesthetic results. Venous anastomosis is the most challenging procedure. For replantation with an artery anastomosis-only procedure (no venous anastomosis), some protocols have been designed to relieve venous congestion involve anticoagulation and the creation of wounds for persistent bleeding. This report presents the authors' experience of fingertip survival after artery anastomosis-only replantation with no persistent external bleeding. Twelve Tamai zone I fingertip total amputation patients who underwent artery anastomosis-only replantations were recruited from February 2009 to June 2012. Nerve repair was performed if identified. The patients were not subjected to conventional external bleeding methods. Both the blood color on pinprick and fingertip temperature difference between the replanted and uninjured digits were used as indicators of deteriorated venous congestion. The replanted digits of 11 patients survived. The only failed replant exhibited an average temperature difference of more than 6°C compared with the uninjured digits and consistently exhibited darker blood during the pinprick test. All other replants exhibited average temperature differences of less than 6°C. In these Tamai zone I artery anastomosis-only replantations, fingertips survived without the use of external bleeding method, indicating that external bleeding is probably not obligatory for survival of artery anastomosis-only replanted digits distal to Tamai zone I. An increasing temperature difference between the replanted and uninjured digits and darker blood on pinprick may be used as indicators of deteriorating congestion signs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the replanted region. The patient presented to our hospital with an upper lip avulsion that was caused by a dog bite. The lip was replanted by the microvascular anastomoses of one artery and two veins using interposed vein grafts. The replanted lip showed signs of congestion on postoperative day one; exsanguination using medicinal leeches was attempted, while blood glucose levels were measured every three hours. Critical congestion, which did not occur in this patient, was defined as a blood glucose level lower than 40 mg/dL. Lip replantation was successful without any complications in this patient.
Yan, Hede; Jackson, William D; Songcharoen, Somjade; Akdemir, Ovunc; Li, Zhijie; Chen, Xinglong; Jiang, Liangfu; Gao, Weiyang
In this retrospective study, the survival rates of fingertip replantation with and without vein grafting were evaluated along with their postoperative functional and cosmetic results. One hundred twenty-one-fingertip amputations were performed in 103 patients between September 2002 and July 2007. Thirty-four amputated fingertips were replanted without vein grafting, while 87 amputated fingertips were replanted with vein grafting for arterial and/or venous repairs. The overall survival rates of the replantations with and without vein grafting were 90% (78/87) and 85% (29/34), respectively. The survival rates were 88% (36/41) with venous repair, 93% (25/27) with arterial repair, and 89% (17/19) with both. Nineteen patients without vein grafting and 48 patients with vein grafting had a follow-up period of more than one year. Good cosmetic and functional outcomes were observed in both groups of patients. The results show that vein grafting is a reliable technique in fingertip replantations, showing no significant difference (P > 0.05) in survival between those with and without vein grafting. Furthermore, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in survival was found between cases with vein grafts for arterial and/or venous repairs. In fingertip replantations with vein grafting, favorable functional and esthetic results can be achieved without sacrificing replantation survival. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.
The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. 125 I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal
Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.
The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.
Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chan, Fuan Chiang; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Yu-Te; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Lin, Chih-Hung
Replantation of amputated fingertips is a technical challenge, as many salvage procedures fail because no suitable vein in the fingertip is available for anastomosis. In this study, we examined our experience in fingertip replantation in cases without venous anastomosis with our established fingertip replantation treatment protocol. Between August 2002 and August 2010, a retrospective study examined all patients who had undergone fingertip replantation at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. All the patients (n = 24) suffered from complete digital amputations at or distal to the interphalangeal joint of the thumb, or distal to distal interphalangeal joint of the fingers. A total of 30 fingertips that were salvaged by microsurgical anastomosis of the digital arteries but not of digital veins were included in this study. On satisfactory arterial anastomosis, a 2-mm incision was made over the fingertip with a number 11 Scalpel blade, and 0.1 to 0.2 mL heparin (5000 IU/mL) was injected subcutaneously around the incision immediately and once per day thereafter to ensure continuous blood drainage from the replanted fingertip. None of the replanted nail plate was removed, and no medical leeches were used. The perfusion of the replanted digits and patient's hemoglobin level were closely monitored. The wound bleeding was maintained until physiologic venous outflow was restored. Of 30 fingertips, 27 (90%) replanted fingertips survived. The average length needed for maintaining external bleeding by chemical leech was 6.8 days (range, 5-10 days). Twelve patients (including a 2-year-old child) received blood transfusions. The average amount of blood transfusion in the 23 adults was 4.0 units (range, 0-16 units) for each patient or 3.29 units (range, 0-14 units) for each digit. A 2-year-old child received 100 mL blood transfusion or 50 mL for each digit. This study showed that a protocol that promotes controlled bleeding from the fingertip is essential to achieve consistent high
Full Text Available Fingertip amputations are one of the most common injuries faced in an emergency department. Finger tip replantation though technically possible, are not regularly done due to the presumed complexity of the procedure and doubts about the outcome. This article deals with our experience of 24 fingertip replantations in 24 patients done over a period of 8 years since the year 2000. Twenty-one fingertips survived. The most common affected digit in the series was thumb followed by index, middle, and ring. The overall success rate was 87%. Both arterial and venous repair were done in all cases. Replantation was not done if no suitable vein was found for anastomosis. Nine patients did not have nerve repair. Seven of them survived and all of them had satisfactory sensation when examined after 1 year. No patient suffered from cold intolerance. All patients were satisfied with the functional outcome and aesthetic appearance. This article highlights the technical considerations and the outcome of these fingertip replants.
Venkatramani, H; Sabapathy, S Raja
Fingertip amputations are one of the most common injuries faced in an emergency department. Finger tip replantation though technically possible, are not regularly done due to the presumed complexity of the procedure and doubts about the outcome. This article deals with our experience of 24 fingertip replantations in 24 patients done over a period of 8 years since the year 2000. Twenty-one fingertips survived. The most common affected digit in the series was thumb followed by index, middle, and ring. The overall success rate was 87%. Both arterial and venous repair were done in all cases. Replantation was not done if no suitable vein was found for anastomosis. Nine patients did not have nerve repair. Seven of them survived and all of them had satisfactory sensation when examined after 1 year. No patient suffered from cold intolerance. All patients were satisfied with the functional outcome and aesthetic appearance. This article highlights the technical considerations and the outcome of these fingertip replants.
Barbary, S; Dap, F; Dautel, G
In this article, we discuss the surgical technique of finger replantation in detail, distinguishing particularities of technique in cases of thumb amputation, children fingertip replantation, ring finger avulsion, and very distal replantations. We emphasize the principles of bone shortening, the spare part concept, the special importance of nerve sutures and the use of vein graft in case of avulsion or crushing. However, even if finger replantation is now a routine procedure, a clear distinction should be made between revascularization and functional success. The indications for finger replantation are then detailed in the second part of this paper. The absolute indications for replantation are thumb, multiple fingers, transmetacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity amputation in a child whatever the level. Fingertip amputations distal to the insertion of the Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) are also a good indication. Other cases are more controversial because of the poor functional outcome, especially for the index finger, which is often functionally excluded. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Li, Jing; Guo, Zheng; Zhu, Qingsheng; Lei, Wei; Han, Yisheng; Li, Mingquan; Wang, Zhen
The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for an unsuccessful replanted fingertip. Two hundred eleven complete fingertip amputations in 211 patients who underwent replantation surgery between August of 1990 and March of 2006 were included in this study. The patients' age, gender, smoking history, digit position, dominant hand, amputation level, injury mechanism, platelet count, ischemia time, preservation method of the amputated part, anesthesia, number of arteries repaired, venous drainage, use of vein grafting, neurorrhaphy, bone shortening, and smoking after operation were tested for their impact on fingertip survival. One hundred seventy-two of 211 patients (81.5 percent) had a successful replantation. Univariate analysis showed crush or avulsion injury, high platelet count, and inappropriate preservation of the amputated part in saline solution or ethanol to be associated with a high incidence of replantation failure. Twenty-two of 54 patients (41 percent) who had a crush or avulsion trauma had failed replantation. Logistic regression analysis identified injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of the amputated part, and the use of vein grafting as statistically significant predictive factors for success or failure. Injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of amputated part, and the use of vein grafting were found to be the main predictors for the survival of the replanted fingertip. Applying external bleeding in zone 1 and venous drainage through the medullary cavity in zone 2 or venous anastomosis combined with vein grafting rather than venous anastomosis alone were strongly recommended in the fingertip replantation of crush or avulsion injury.
Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V.
Puhaindran, Mark E; Paavilainen, Pasi; Tan, David M K; Peng, Yeong Pin; Lim, Aymeric Y T
Replantation is an ideal technique for reconstruction following fingertip amputation as it provides 'like for like' total reconstruction of the nail complex, bone pulp tissue and skin with no donor-site morbidity. However, fingertips are often not replanted because veins cannot be found or are thought to be too small to repair. Attempts at 'cap-plasty' or pocketing of replanted tips with and without microvascular anastomosis have been done in the past with varying degrees of success. We prospectively followed up a group of patients who underwent digital replantation and dermal pocketing in the palm to evaluate the outcome of this procedure. There were 10 patients with 14 amputated digits (two thumbs, five index, four middle, two ring and one little) who underwent dermal pocketing of the amputated digit following replantation. Among the 14 digits that were treated with dermal pocketing, 11 survived completely, one had partial atrophy and two were completely lost. Complications encountered included finger stiffness (two patients) and infection of the replanted fingertip with osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx (one patient). We believe that this technique can help increase the chance of survival for distal replantation with an acceptable salvage rate of 85% in our series. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayashida, Kenji; Murakami, Chikako; Fujioka, Masaki
Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.
Buntic, Rudolf F; Brooks, Darrell
Artery-only fingertip replantation can be reliable if low-resistance flow through the replant is maintained until venous outflow is restored naturally. Injuring the tip of the replant to promote ongoing bleeding augmented with anticoagulation usually accomplishes this; however, such management results in prolonged hospitalization. In this study, we analyzed the outcomes of artery-only fingertip replantation using a standardized postoperative protocol consisting of dextran-40, heparin, and leech therapy. Between 2001 and 2008, we performed 19 artery-only fingertip replants for 17 patients. All patients had the replanted nail plate removed and received intravenous dextran-40, heparin, and aspirin to promote fingertip bleeding and vascular outflow. Anticoagulation was titrated to promote a controlled bleed until physiologic venous outflow was restored by neovascularization. We used medicinal leeches and mechanical heparin scrubbing for acute decongestion. By postoperative day 6, bleeding was no longer promoted. We initiated fluorescent dye perfusion studies to assess circulatory competence and direct further anticoagulant intervention if necessary. The absence of bleeding associated with an initial rise followed by an appropriate fall in fluorescent dye concentration would trigger a weaning of anticoagulation. All of the 19 replants survived. The average length of hospital stay was 9 days (range, 7-17 d). Eleven patients received blood transfusions. The average transfusion was 1.8 units (range, 0-9 units). All patients were happy with the decision to replant, and the cosmetic result. A protocol that promotes temporary, controlled bleeding from the fingertip is protective of artery-only replants distal to the distal interphalangeal joint until physiologic venous outflow is restored. The protocol described is both safe and reliable. The patient should be informed that such replant attempts may result in the need for transfusions and extended hospital stays, factors that
Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young
Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.
Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young
Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. Case presentation A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.
Dautel, G; Barbary, S
Amputations through the distal interphalangeal joint or distal to this joint are frequent and they represent probably one of the best indications for replantation. Details on the vascular anatomy of the fingertip have to be perfectly known by the surgeon who will have to deal with these replantations. Factors such as age, mechanism of amputation and type of anastomosis will influence the overall success rate of the procedure. Return of a true static two points discrimination can be observed in children even in the absence of any neural repair.
Venkatramani, H.; Sabapathy, S. Raja
Fingertip amputations are one of the most common injuries faced in an emergency department. Finger tip replantation though technically possible, are not regularly done due to the presumed complexity of the procedure and doubts about the outcome. This article deals with our experience of 24 fingertip replantations in 24 patients done over a period of 8 years since the year 2000. Twenty-one fingertips survived. The most common affected digit in the series was thumb followed by index, middle, an...
Ren, Gao-hong; Pei, Guo-xian; Gu, Li-qiang; Guo, Gang
To describe the surgical techniques and our experiences in fingertip replantation after amputation. On the basis of examination of the anatomic features and the degree of fingertip vascular injury, 32 amputated fingertips in 26 cases were replanted, and flexible revascularization procedures of both artery and vein anastomoses, artery-only anastomosis, arterialized vein and arteriovenous anastomosis were adopted. All the replanted fingertips were trained with comprehensive rehabilitation program. Twenty-nine replanted fingertips survived but 3 failed, and the overall survival rate was 90.06%. During the follow-up lasting from 4 months to 5 years, the 29 replanted fingertips survived with excellent blood supply, good sensory functions, satisfactory shape and functions according to the criteria by Society of Hand Surgery of Chinese Medical Association. Fingertip replantation after amputation can achieve not only high survival rate but also satisfactory appearance and functions as long as appropriate operative procedures are adopted with comprehensive rehabilitation therapy.
Purisa, Husrev; Ozturk, Muhammed Besir; Kabakas, Fatih; Mersa, Berkan; Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Sezer, Ilker
The number of venous anastomoses performed during fingertip replantation is one of the most important factors affecting the success of replantation. However, because vessel diameters decrease in the zone 1 level, vessel anastomoses, especially vein anastomoses, are technically difficult and, thus, cannot be performed in most cases. Alternative venous drainage methods are crucial when any reliable vein repair is not possible. In the literature, so many artery-only replantation techniques have been defined, such as arteriovenous anastomoses, forming an arteriovenous or venocutaneous fistula, manual milking and massage, puncturing, and external bleeding via a fishmouth incision and using a medical leech. It has been shown that, in distal fingertip replantations, the medullary cavity may also be a good way for venous return. In this study, we introduce an alternative intramedullary venous drainage system we developed to facilitate venous drainage in artery-only fingertip replantations. The results of 24 fingertip replantations distal to the nail fold by using this system are presented with a literature review.
Cho, Sin-Yeon; Lee, Yoon; Shin, Su-Jung; Kim, Euiseong; Jung, Il-Young; Friedman, Shimon; Lee, Seung-Jong
Intentional replantation is an alternative to tooth extraction and prosthetic replacement when conventional endodontic treatment modalities are unfeasible or contraindicated. This study assessed tooth retention and healing after intentional replantation and explored predictors of these outcomes. Data of intentional replantation procedures performed between March 2000 and December 2010 were collected prospectively, excluding teeth with preoperative periodontal and root defects. A cohort of 159 teeth was followed up for 0.5-12 years. Retention and healed status without complications (periapical radiolucency, external root resorption, ankylosis, signs/symptoms, probing ≥6 mm) was recorded and analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model (P regression identified extraoral time ≤15 minutes as predictor of complication-free healing (P < .04; hazard ratio, 2.767; 95% confidence interval, 1.053-7.272). This prospective cohort study of contemporary intentional replantation suggested a cumulative 12-year retention rate of 93% and healed rate of 77% after 3 years. Healing occurred 1.7 times more frequently in teeth replanted within 15 minutes. Although most complications occurred within 1 year after replantation, follow-up should extend for at least 3 years to capture late complications. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abraham G Thomas
Full Text Available Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.
Woo, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Woo; Cheon, Ho-Jun; Nam, Hyun-Je; Kang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hee-Chan
There are many options in the management of fingertip or finger amputations. Injudicious revision amputation may cause complications. These complications can be prevented by tension-free closure of the amputation stump or primary coverage with appropriate flap. Replantation is the best way to keep the original length and maintain digital function. Patent vein repair or venous drainage with bleeding until neovascularization to the replanted part is the key to successful replantation. Prevention and management of complications in replantation and revision amputation increase patients' satisfaction and decrease costs. Research is needed to define new indications of replantation for digital amputation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B
Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the
Kim, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Young Man
Re-establishing adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for success of fingertip replantation. However, in zone I level, replantation is very difficult, especially in repairing venous circulation. The authors have made an attempt to replantation using Y-shaped vein (YSV) graft to identify and repair veins easily in fingertip replantation. From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 46 fingertip replantations in 44 consecutive patients with amputations in the Tamai zone I level were performed by using YSV graft. In all patients, arterial anastomosis was performed using YSV graft, and interpositional vein grafts were used for venous repair. The overall success rate of the YSV-grafted replantations was 91.3% (42/46). Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 6 YSV-grafted replantations (13%), and pulp atrophy in the YSV-grafted digits was 9.5% (4/42). Fingertip replantation in zone I level is a difficult territory to a microsurgeon, especially anastomosing veins. However, our YSV grafting technique has shown value in this setting, enabling better esthetic and functional results.
Full Text Available The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.
Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi
Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.
Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung
A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.
Stewart, D A; Coombs, C J
A successful replantation of an index fingertip in an 8-month old girl is reported. A literature review of replants in very young children suggests this is one of the youngest patients ever to undergo digital replantation and possibly the youngest finger replant performed.
Kazufumi Tachi; Masanori Mori; Reiko Tsukuura; Rintaro Hirai
Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the...
Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...
Wang Liuhong; Chao Ming; Jiang Dingyao; Zhang Guangqiang; Wu Jianjun; Chen Xianyi; Li Bin; Sun Jihong
Objective: To assess revascularization and vessel anastomosis in digital replantations with DSA. Methods: Twelve cases of digital replantations underwent digital subtract angiography during 2 to 4 days after fingers reattachment. The vessel anastomosis, hemodynamics, stenosis and discontinuation were investigated. The unobstructed and smooth anastomosis was suggested as early stage survival of the reattached fingers, the spasm and stenosis of the reattached vessels were considered as mild vascular crisis, and the discontinuation of hemodynamics were indicated as severe vascular crisis. Results: The total 27 vessels were clearly displayed on DSA. Of these vessels, 23 vessels were unobstructed and smooth, all digits were survived. Diagnosis coincidence of early stage survival was 100% (23/23). Two vessels were obstructed, which were testified having thrombus by operation research. The other 2 vessels were spasm, the digits were also survived ultimately by expectant treatment. All 4 abnormal vessel anatomosis were found by DSA. Conclusion: DSA is important modality in assessing revascularization and blood circulation for digital replantations, guiding in dealing with the vascular crisis, and in predicting early stage survival of the reattached digits. (authors)
Shi, Dehai; Qi, Jian; Li, Donghui; Zhu, Lei; Jin, Wentao; Cai, Daozhang
Although success of digital replantations in children has been reported by many authors, the very distal fingertip replantation remains technically demanding. The aim of this article is to review our experience with fingertip replantations at or distal to the nail base in pediatric patients and evaluate the clinical outcomes. From October 2000 to May 2007, 12 pediatric fingertips amputated at or distal to the nail base were replanted. Only one artery was anastomosed for revascularization with or without nerve repair; vein drainage was provided by the controlled bleeding technique. Eleven of the 12 replants (91%) survived; one replant of crushed digit failed. An average of 26 month (range, 6 to 36 months) follow-up revealed excellent restoration of finger motion and appearance. The regained static 2-point discrimination (S2PD) sensation was from 3.2 to 5.0 mm (mean, 4.2 mm). Both the parents and the children were satisfied with the final results. In conclusion, fingertip replantation in children allows good functional and esthetical recovery and should be attempted if technically feasible. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Braig, David; Thiele, Jan R; Penna, Vincenzo; Stark, G Björn; Eisenhardt, Steffen U
There are only relative indications for distal digital replantation in zones 1 and 2 according to Tamai. In contrast to primary closure for fingertip amputations, replantation is a complex procedure that requires skills in supermicrosurgical techniques, as vessels with diameters between 0.3-0.8 mm are connected. In addition the time spent in hospital and the time off from work are longer. Distal digital replantation is thus only indicated, if the expected functional and aesthetic benefits surmount those of primary closure. We retrospectively analysed all fingertip amputations in zone 1 and 2 according to Tamai between 9/2009 and 7/2014 where we attempted distal digital replantation. The success of replantation, wound healing and functional results were evaluated according to Yamano. We performed 11 distal digital replantations in the study period. There were 6 total amputations, 4 subtotal amputations and 1 avulsion of the digital pulp. Revascularisation with long-term reattachment of the amputated tissues was possible in 8 cases (73%). In 3 cases (27%) secondary amputation closure was necessary. The mean operating time was 3 h 56 min. 6 patients, which had a successful replantation, were available for follow-up examinations after a mean period of 19 months. 5 patients were satisfied with the result and would again prefer replantation over primary amputation closure. 4 patients reported a good function of the replanted digits and did not complain about any limitations in their use. 2 patients complained about restricted function. All patients could return to their previous places of employment and were free of pain. Of the 12 affected digital nerves 11 nerves had a 2-point discrimination (2-PD) of ≤15 mm, 3 of them had a 2-PD between 7 and 10 mm and 4 of them of replanted digits and nail deformities in 2 patients. Distal digital replantation is complex and technically challenging. It leads to high patient satisfaction with only minimal functional
A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.
Narushima, Mitsunaga; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao; Gonda, Koichi; Takuya, Iida; Kato, Harunosuke; Nakanishi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Araki, Jun; Abe, Hiroaki; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Uehara, Eri
Remarkable progress has been made in microsurgery. However, fingertip replantation following amputation has not gained much popularity because of its technical difficulty. We have developed the intravascular stenting (IVaS) method, in which a nylon monofilament is placed inside the vessel lumen to act as a temporary stent, facilitating anastomosis completion. This report describes 7 fingertip replantations using the IVaS method. Intravascular stent size varied from 4-0 to 6-0 (0.199-0.07 mm diameter). There were no cases in which the back wall of a vessel became inadvertently caught in the anastomosis. The overall survival rate for distal digital replants was 85% (6/7 replants). It is very difficult to evenly anastomose vessels of differing diameter, especially on a supermicrosurgical scale. In this respect, the IVaS method plays a role in stably anchoring the 2 vessel ends, allowing for the even spacing of suture knots, even in vessels of different caliber. Because of its ease of use and exactitude, many surgeons may be able to use the IVaS method to reliably complete small anastomoses in fingertip replantations.
... the surgery area. Outlook (Prognosis) Children are better candidates for replantation surgery because of their greater ability ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...
Full Text Available Old apple varieties (ˈBotaneˈ, ˈCălugăreştiˈ, ˈDomneştiˈ, ˈCreţesc auriuˈ, ˈGustav durabilˈ, ˈPătulˈ, ˈRoşii de Geoagiuˈ, ˈŞovari, ˈVerzişoareˈ, ˈTare de ghindăˈ, ˈVerzi de Rădăşeniˈ, ˈPoinicˈ were studied in order to assess pests and disease resistance during two growing season. During the experiment, the following disease and pest evaluations were made periodically: apple powdery mildew, apple scab, green apple aphid, apple codling moth, in a plot with low pesticide regime. High scab and powdery mildew resistance was observed at ˈGustav durabilˈ and ˈBotaneˈ cvs. Hight susceptibility for apple codling moth was observed on ˈGustav durabilˈ cv. and for green apple aphid at ˈVerzişoareˈ and ˈTare de ghindăˈ cvs. In conclusion, some old apple cultivars could be a significant source of genes for apple breeding rograms
Full Text Available Background: Even though replantation surgery has now become a routine procedure, it remains delicate and demanding surgery, requiring adequate training and expertise in microsurgical techniques. Functional outcomes following replantation vary with the level of injury. Replants of the fingers distal to the flexor superficial are insertion, the hand at the wrist, and the upper extremity at the distal forearm can achieve good function. With the advent of refined microscopes, sutures, and needles, along with specialized surgical training, replantation has become a routine part of hand-surgery practice in centers all over the world. Clearly, survival does not equate with function. Amputations constitute multisystem injury, with disruption of skeletal support (bone, motor function (muscle, sensibility (nerve, circulation (blood vessel, and soft-tissue coverage (skin. A lot of News work-related accidents published daily. Complete amputation of the palm with sharp objects electric disrupts quality of life and irreversible effects on their life. Replantation or repair the damaged organ can improve their quality of life, functional body. Case presentation: The case is a man with complete amputation of the palm while working with an electrical machine, at the same time as damage and severe crush was also the distal phalanx of the first finger of the right hand. Patient was admitted to the emergency unit at Fatemi Hospital of Ardabil city in January 2014, Iran, and underwent to surgery for replantation. Conclusion: Complete amputation of palm and its successful replantation are among rarely occurred and reportable cases. Complete amputation of palm and successful replantation and the 10-month follow-up indicated that the patient had a successful operation. No abnormalities were found in the blood circulation, and finger grasping was acceptable. Nerve development was acceptable.
Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ishida, Kunihiro; Arashiro, Ken; Nishizeki, Osamu
Composite grafting, grafting without microvascular anastomoses, has been widely performed for distal fingertip amputation in children with variable results, whereas successful replantation of these amputations using microsurgical technique has been reported. However, most of these reports included a wide age-range and a mix of different amputation levels. This study reviewed our cases of paediatric digital amputation, in order to verify the value of distal fingertip replantation over composite grafting, especially in early childhood. Seventeen young children (aged 3 years and 8 months on average), with single-digit fingertip amputations in Tamai zone I were reviewed from 1993-2008. Each amputation was subdivided into three types: distal, middle, and proximal. There were three distal, 13 middle, and one proximal type zone I amputations. All were crush or avulsion injuries. All three distal-type cases were reattached as primary composite grafts with one success. For middle-type cases, the survival rate of primary composite graft without exploration for possible vessels for anastomosis was 57%. On exploration, suitable vessels for anastomosis were found 50% of the time, in which all replantations were succeeded. The remaining cases were reattached as secondary composite grafts, with one success using the pocket method. Consequently, the success rate after exploration was 67%. The only one proximal-type amputation was failed in replantation. For the middle-type zone I amputation in early childhood, replantation has a high success rate if suitable vessels can be found. Therefore, exploration is recommended for amputations at this level with a view to replantation, irrespective of the mechanism of injury.
Wei, Ching-Yueh; Orozco, Oscar; Vinagre, Gustavo; Shafarenko, Mark
Refinements in microsurgery have made distal finger replantation an established technique with high success rates and good functional and aesthetic outcomes. However, it still represents a technically demanding procedure due to the small vessel caliber and frequent lack of vessel length, requiring the use of interpositional venous grafts in some instances. We describe a new technique for anastomosis in fingertip replantation, whereby the need for venous grafts is eliminated. Applying the reverse distal transverse palmar arch technique, 11 cases of distal digital replantation were performed between January 2011 and July 2016. The described procedure was used for arterial anastomosis in 10 cases and arteriovenous shunting for venous drainage in 1 case. A retrospective case review was conducted. The technical description and clinical outcome evaluations are presented. Ten of the 11 replanted digits survived, corresponding to an overall success rate of 91%. One replant failed due to venous insufficiency. Blood transfusions were not required for any of the patients. Follow-up (range, 1.5-5 months) revealed near-normal range of motion and good aesthetic results. All of the replanted digits developed protective sensation. The average length of hospital admission was 5 days. All patients were satisfied with the results and were able to return to their previous work. The use of the reverse distal transverse palmar arch is a novel and reliable technique in distal digital replantation when an increase in vessel length is required, allowing for a tension-free arterial repair without the need for vein grafts.
Wei, Jian-Min; Sun, Jun-Suo; Jiao, Xiao-Hu; Jing, Dou-Xing; He, Wei; Jin, Wen-Kuo; Chen, Shi-Gao
To discuss the replantation of fingertip amputation in lack of availability of intravenous anastomosis. From November 2009 to November 2010, 86 patients (104 fingers) with fingertip amputation were treated with replantatioin, including 64 males and 22 females, with an average age of 26 years ranging from 2 to 64 years. The time from injury to therapy was from 30 min to 12 h, time of broken finger ischemia was from 2.5 to 12 h. Preoperative examination showed no obvious abnormalities. Four different replantation methods were selectively applied to these 104 amputated fingertips of 86 cases: (1) replantation with anastomosis of single or bilateral proper digital artery in 37 fingers; (2) replantation with arteriovenous bypass in 27 fingers; (3) replantation with exclusive anastomosis of digital artery in 24 fingers; (4) replantation with removing the palmar pocket method in 16 fingers. One hundred and two of 104 amputated fingertips were survived. Among these survived fingers,75 cases (92 fingers) were followed-up for 6 to 24 months. According to the assessment standard of Chinese Medical Association of Hand Surgery, the results were excellent in 52 cases, good in 19, poor in 4. It benefits to expand the indications and improve the survival rate of replantation of fingertip amputation with the correct choice of different replantation methods according to the injury situation of the broken fingertip artery after debridement under the microscope.
Mulders, Marjolein A. M.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ring, David C.
The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with the decision to replant or revascularize rather than amputate an injured digit as well as factors associated with successful replantation or revascularization. We reviewed 315 complete and subtotal amputations at or proximal to the
Hasuo, Takaaki; Nishi, Genzaburo; Tsuchiya, Daiji; Otsuka, Takanobu
Overall survival rate for 143 digits with complete amputation of the distal phalanx was 78%. Replanted digits that underwent venous anastomosis showed a very high survival rate of 93%. Loss of the distal interphalangeal joint function in subzone IV was significantly inferior to that in subzones II and III. Protective sensation was achieved in 96% of replanted digits. Sensory recovery in the absence of nerve repair was significantly worse for avulsion injury than for crush injury. Nail deformity tended to be increased for replanted digits in subzone III or with crush-type injury. Successful venous anastomosis appears to offer the best way to promote survival of replanted digits. If venous anastomosis is infeasible, a replanted digit can survive with any methods for venous drainage in subzones II and III, but does not survive in subzone IV. To minimise nail deformity, repair of the germinal matrix is necessary.
Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Jeng, Seng-Feng; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng
Restoration of finger length and function are the goals of replantation after fingertip amputation. Methods include microsurgical replantation and nonmicrosurgical replantation, such as composite graft techniques. To increase the survival rates for composite grafts, the subcutaneous pocket procedure has been used as a salvage procedure. The subdermal pocket procedure, which is a modification of the subcutaneous pocket procedure, was used for replantation of 17 fingertips in 16 consecutive patients. Eight fingertips experienced guillotine injuries and the other nine fingertips experienced crush injuries. Revascularization of one digital artery without available venous outflow was performed for six fingers, and composite graft techniques were used for the other 11 fingers. The success rate was 16 of 17 cases. The difference in success rates for guillotine versus crush injuries was statistically significant. Comparison of patients with arterial anastomoses and patients without arterial anastomoses also indicated a statistically significant difference. Thirteen fingertips survived completely. One finger, demonstrating complete loss and early termination of the pocketing procedure, was amputated on the eighth postoperative day. Two fingers were partially lost because of severe crushing injuries. One finger demonstrated partial loss of more than one quarter of the fingertip, which required secondary revision, because the patient was a heavy smoker. The pocketing period was 8 +/- 1 days (mean +/- SD, n = 6) for the fingers revascularized with one digital arterial anastomosis and 13.3 +/- 1.9 days (n = 10) for the fingers successfully replanted with composite graft techniques. The mean active range of motion of the interphalangeal joint of the three thumbs was 65 +/- 5 degrees, and that of the distal interphalangeal joint of the other 11 fingers was 51 +/- 11 degrees. The static two-point discrimination result was 6.4 +/- 1.0 mm (n = 14) after an average of 11 +/- 5 months
Wen, Gen; Xu, Jia; Chai, Yi-Min
Fingertip amputation in children is difficult to manage using microsurgical replantation techniques and many salvage procedures have failed owing to the nonavailability of suitable veins for anastomosis in the fingertip. This study reviewed our experience of pediatric fingertip replantation involving palmar venous anastomoses and evaluated the clinical outcomes. From October 2008 to May 2013, 21 pediatric fingertips that had been completely amputated at or distal to the distal interphalangeal joint of the finger, or at or distal to the interphalangeal joint of the thumb were managed using complete replantation. One artery was anastomosed for revascularization with or without nerve repair, and a palmar venous anastomosis was performed to reestablish the outflow system. Twenty (95.2%) of the 21 fingertips survived. One replant involving an avulsion amputation of the left little finger failed, and the patient underwent stump cap-plasty. Excellent restoration of finger motion, pinch strength, and appearance was observed during the mean 39.9-month (range, 18-65 months) follow-up. The mean regained static 2-point discrimination sensation was 3.8 mm (range, 3.2-4.2 mm). All of the children and their families were satisfied with the surgical outcomes. Successful palmar venous anastomosis appears to promote the survival of replanted fingertips in children. Given that the procedure may simplify postoperative care, minimize complications, and achieve a high survival rate, it should be attempted if the technical expertise is available.
Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Seki, Yukio; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao
Fingertip replantation in young children is difficult, especially in cases with amputation at subzone 1. Replantation is preferred whenever possible, but the identification of vessels of operative size can be very challenging. Non-enhanced angiography (NEA; Genial Viewer; Genial Light, Shizuoka, Japan) emits infrared light with the wavelength of 850 nm, which is exclusively absorbed by haemoglobin. The light penetrates the bones and other soft tissues, effectively visualising vessels containing blood, and the image is shown in real time on the screen of a laptop computer. We present a case in which preoperative NEA visualised vessels in the amputated fingertip, allowing a successful replantation in a 2-year-old boy. By taking the guesswork out of vessel localisation, NEA can be useful in expanding operability of replantation surgery in fingertip amputations. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Replantation of a limb to the contralateral stump after bilateral traumatic amputations is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of crossover lower limb replantation in the literature. Case presentation We treated a 37-year-old Chinese woman with bilateral lower limb crush injuries sustained in a traffic accident. Her lower limb injuries were at different anatomic levels. We performed emergency bilateral amputations followed by crossover replantation. Five years later, the woman had recovered well, and had perfect movement and stability in her replanted leg. After reviewing the literature, we thought that presentation of our patient’s case might provide useful information for clinicians. Conclusions Crossover replantation should be considered when evaluating a patient with bilateral lower limb injuries, thus allowing the patient to touch the ground and stand using their own foot.
Bibhuti Bhusan Nayak
Full Text Available Bilateral-hand amputation is extremely rare and double-hand replantation is even rarer. Only one case of successful double replantation at arm level has been reported from India. We present a case of double-hand replantation at proximal palmar level in a young adult executed in a small nursing home. The patient presented 5 h after injury with limbs preserved well in ice. There were difficulties in executing such an unusual case in a small nursing home set-up. The patient is performing his activities of daily living and basic functions independently. We share our experience of this double-hand replantation with special emphasis on problems encountered.
High quality DNA is the basis of analyzing bacterial and fungal community structure in replant strawberry rhizosphere soil with the method of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA of soil microorganisms was extracted from the rhizosphere soil of strawberries planted in different replanted years (0, two, ...
Agus Roy Rusly Hariantana Hamid
Full Text Available Background: Replantation is the prime treatment for amputated hands and fingers due to functional and aesthetic advantages. The absolute indications for replantation are amputations of the thumb, multiple fingers, trans metacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity in a child, regardless of the amputation level. A fingertip amputation distal to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS is also a good indication. Indications have been expanded to include amputation at nail level, and when there is a request from the patient, replantation is attempted even for a single finger amputation regardless of the amputation level. Based on the mechanism of injury, a clean-cut sharp amputation is more likely replanted compare to a crush and avulsion injuries. With a proper management of the amputated finger, replantation can be attempted even after 24 hours. This report was written to provide examples of finger replantation cases and the measures that can be taken in a resource-limited hospital in order to conduct a replantation. Case Series: We reported five out of nine digital replantation cases in Sanglah General Hospital between January and July 2014. Two patients were a six and an eleven years old boys who accidentally cut their finger while playing, the rests were male labors between 20-30 years old whose amputations due to machine injuries. Result: A 100% replant survival was achieved. After a period of follow up with occupational therapy, all patients regain good functional and cosmetic results.
Shioya, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Takashi; Miake, Yasuo; Inoue, Sadayuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki
The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the dentogingival border at replanted teeth and implants. Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into groups for replantation and implantation experiments. In the former, the upper right first molars were extracted and then immediately replanted. In the latter, pure titanium implants were used. All tissues were fixed, demineralized and embedded in epoxy resin for ultrastructural observations. One week after replantation, the junctional epithelium was lost, and the oral sulcular epithelium covered the enamel surface. The amount of the epithelium increased in 2 weeks, and resembled the junctional epithelium, and the internal basal lamina and hemidesmosomes were formed in 4 weeks. One week after implantation, peri-implant epithelium was formed, and in 2 and 4 weeks, this epithelium with aggregated connective tissue cells were observed. In 8 weeks, the peri-implant epithelium receded, and aligned special cells with surrounding elongated fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibers appeared to seal the implant interface. In replantation of the tooth, the internal basal lamina remained at the surface of the enamel of the replanted tooth, which is likely to be related to regeneration of the junctional epithelium and the attachment apparatus at the epithelium-tooth interface. Following implantation, a layer of cells with characteristics of connective tissue cells, but no junctional epithelium and attachment apparatus, was formed to seal the site of the implant.
Zhang, Xu; Wen, Sumin; Wang, Baoshi; Wang, Qi; Li, Chenglin; Zhu, Hongwei
In fingertip replantation, adequate venous drainage is important for success. As the level of amputation becomes more distal, anastomosis of veins becomes more technically difficult. External bleeding is a common solution to venous congestion, but the process is burdensome because of duration of bleeding for 3 or more days after surgery. We present a new technique for reconstructing circulation without vein anastomosis in zone I replantation and analyze the outcomes of this technique in terms of eliminating external bleeding and of a high survival rate of the replanted digits. Between 1997 and 2007, we performed 120 replantations in 112 patients (83 male and 29 female; mean age, 33 years; range, 3-54 years). All were zone I amputations, based on the Tamai classification. We surgically repaired both proper digital arteries, excluded the vein, and then ligated 1 of the arteries. Using this technique, circulation was restored. Included in the outcome evaluation were 91 digits in the 87 patients (mean age, 35 years; range, 14-54) who returned for outcome assessments 12 months after surgery. Of 120 digits replanted, 115 digits survived, corresponding to an overall success rate of 96%. No patients received alternative means to alleviate venous congestion, such as leeches or other means of external bleeding. Nearly all of the 87 patients (91 digits) were satisfied with the results of the replantations. Our technique reconstructs circulation without vein anastomosis in zone I replantation. This alternative to venous congestion involves a simple surgical procedure and straightforward postoperative care. Follow-up assessments of a series of 120 replantations show that the majority of zone I replantations led to satisfactory function. We therefore propose this technique as an effective method for zone I replantation. Therapeutic IV.
Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.
Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Uzun, Hakan; Bilgen, Fatma
Despite current advances in microsurgery, fingertip replantation is still controversial, mainly due to its difficulty and cost. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique of interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture in distal fingertip replantation. A total of eight consecutive Tamai zone 1 fingertip replantations performed by the same author were included. All replantations were performed using interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture. This technique involved a vein graft of ∼ 2 cm, with appropriate calibration, obtained from the volar part of the forearm and a 2-0 polyprolene suture passed through the interposition vein graft. Then, a polypropylene suture guide carrying the vein graft was inserted into the artery. The anastomosis was easily performed with the aid of 10-0 or 11-0 nylon in a bloodless medium and without encountering the posterior wall problem. Average surgery time was 2.5 hours (range = 2-3 hours). Among eight Tamai zone 1 replantations, six were successful (75%). There were two replantations lost because of arterial failure. This technique may ease fingertip replantations and increase the success rate for Tamai zone 1 injuries.
Despite common unfavorable mechanisms, fingertip replantation is a rewarding procedure in children. Cosmetic final results are usually better than those obtained by local or pedicled flaps. The success rate and the sensory reinnervation are also better than what can be expected in adult patients.
Tiffany J. Pan
Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.
Scheker, Luis R; Becker, Giles W
Reconstruction of the fingertip distal to the flexor tendon insertion by replantation remains controversial and technically challenging, but the anatomy of the fingertip has been well described and provides help in surgical planning. The open-book surgical technique is described with potential complications and is illustrated with clinical cases. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Tuncer, Serdar; Purisa, Husrev; Sezer, Ilker; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Celikdelen, Pinar
The sensory recovery outcomes of fingertip replantations without nerve repair were retrospectively studied. Between 2000 and 2006, 112 fingertip replantations with only arterial repair were carried out in 98 patients. About 76 of the replants survived totally, with a success rate of 67.8%. Evaluation of sensory recovery was possible in 31 patients (38 replantations). Sensory evaluation was made with Semmes-Weinstein, static and dynamic two-point discrimination, and vibration sense tests. Fingertip atrophy, nail deformities, and return to work were also evaluated. According to the Semmes-Weinstein test, 29.0% (11/38) of the fingers had normal sense, 60.5% (23/38) had diminished light touch, 7.9% (3/38) had diminished protective sensation, and 2.6% (1/38) had loss of protective sensation. Mean static and dynamic two-point discriminations were 7.2 mm (3-11 mm), and 4.60 mm (3-6 mm), respectively. Vibratory testing revealed increased vibration in 42.1% of the fingers, decreased vibration in 36.8%, and equal vibration when compared with the non-injured fingers in 21.1%. Atrophy was present in 14 (36.8%) fingers and negatively affected the results. Nail deformities, cold intolerance, return to work, and the effect of sensory education were investigated. Comparison of crush and clean cut injuries did not yield any significant difference in any of the parameters. Patients who received sensory education had significantly better results in sensory testing. The results were classified as excellent, good, and poor based on results of two-point discrimination tests. The outcome was excellent in 18 fingers and good in 20 fingers. Overall, satisfactory sensory recovery was achieved in fingertip replantations without nerve repair. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Ma, Z; Guo, F; Qi, J; Xiang, W; Zhang, J
This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors affecting survival rate of digital replantation by a meta-analysis. A computer retrieval of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, and CNKI databases was conducted to identify citations for digital replantation with digit or finger or thumb or digital or fingertip and replantation as keywords. RevMan 5.2 software was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios. In total, there were 4678 amputated digits in 2641 patients. Gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation (P > 0.05). Age, injured hand, injury type, zone, and the method of preservation the amputated digit significantly influence the survival rate of digital replantation (P < 0.05). Children, right hand, crush, or avulsion and little finger are the risk factors that adversely affect the outcome. Level 5*. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zhu, Zhao-Wei; Zou, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jiang-Hui; Huang, Xi-Jun; He, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Tao
Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation. This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July 2014 to January 2016. Variations in the extent of damage, with the residual vessels or nerves in some fingers being too short or even missing, prevented tension-free suture repair in some patients. Thus, repair of four of the nine fingertips included arteriovenous anastomosis, the remaining five undergoing arterial anastomosis during replantation of the amputated fingers. Three patients underwent nerve repair, whereas the remaining six cases did not. Fingertip replantations were successful in all eight patients. Compared with the patients without vascular anastomosis, no obvious atrophy was visible in the fingertips of patients who did undergo vascular anastomosis during replantation and their sensory function did recover. Fingertip replantation provides good sensory function and cosmetic outcomes when good artery and vein anastomoses have been created, even when digital nerves have not been repaired.
Full Text Available Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation. This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July 2014 to January 2016. Variations in the extent of damage, with the residual vessels or nerves in some fingers being too short or even missing, prevented tension-free suture repair in some patients. Thus, repair of four of the nine fingertips included arteriovenous anastomosis, the remaining five undergoing arterial anastomosis during replantation of the amputated fingers. Three patients underwent nerve repair, whereas the remaining six cases did not. Fingertip replantations were successful in all eight patients. Compared with the patients without vascular anastomosis, no obvious atrophy was visible in the fingertips of patients who did undergo vascular anastomosis during replantation and their sensory function did recover. Fingertip replantation provides good sensory function and cosmetic outcomes when good artery and vein anastomoses have been created, even when digital nerves have not been repaired.
Akyürek, Mustafa; Safak, Tunç
This report presents a case of microsurgical replantation of a volar skin segment of the thumb. In a 24-year-old patient, a heavy object falling over the dominant thumb resulted in a crush-avulsion injury of a pure skin segment measuring 4 x 2 cm. Examination revealed that the distal fingertip as well as the bone-tendon structures remained intact. Exploration demonstrated that both neurovascular bundles were included in the avulsed skin segment. Microsurgical replantation was achieved successfully, repairing the radial digital artery at both ends with vein grafts as well as anastomosing a palmar vein. Both digital nerves were coapted proximally and distally. An excellent functional and cosmetic result was accomplished with a good sensory recovery. The authors conclude that microsurgical replantation should be attempted in cases of more proximal pure skin avulsions, even if the injury spares distal fingertip tissue or bone-tendon units. In such cases, replantation is superior to any other method of reconstruction. Liberal use of vein grafts is crucial to achieve success.
Zhu, Zhao-wei; Zou, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yong-jun; Liu, Jiang-hui; Huang, Xi-jun; He, Bo; Wang, Zeng-tao
Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation. This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July ...
Kong, C H; Chen, L C; Xu, X H; Wang, P; Wang, S L
Autotoxicity is a major reason for replant problems in managed tree ecosystems. Studies have related phenolics-based allelochemicals to autotoxicity. We selected a 20-year-old replanted Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lancealata (Lamb.) Hook] tree ecosystem to isolate, identify, determine the biological activity of, and quantify soil phytotoxins. Eight common phenolics (coumarin, vanillin, isovanillin, and p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, benzoic, cinnamic, and ferulic acids), friedelin, and a novel cyclic dipeptide (6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-8-nonadecyl-[1,4]-diazocane-2,5-diketone) were obtained by using the bioassay-guided isolation technique from toxic soil of the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. Chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. High concentrations of soil phenolics and friedelin were observed in the natural evergreen broadleaf forest (CK) rather than in the Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The phenolics and friedelin were not phytotoxic to Chinese fir trees. However, the cyclic dipeptide inhibited Chinese fir growth at soil concentrations determined in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. There was a significantly higher soil concentration of cyclic dipeptide in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem than in a fresh Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The results suggest that phenolics and friedelin are not key allelochemicals since they are weakly phytotoxic and are detected in low concentrations in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem, while cyclic dipeptide is a highly active allelochemical with a phytotoxic effect that limits offspring growth in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The discovery of cyclic dipeptide, as well as a further understanding of its potential action mechanism in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem, may contribute to solving the replant problems in managed tree ecosystems.
Wu, Fei; Shen, Xiaofang; Eberlin, Kyle R; Sun, Zhibo; Zhou, Xiao; Xue, Mingyu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes for patients sustaining a distal fingertip amputation who underwent replantation witharteriovenous anastomosis for venous drainage over a one year period at our institution. This technique has been utilized when insufficient veins are identified in the amputated part for standard veno-venous anastomosis. A retrospective study was performed on patients presenting from 2013 to 2014. Guillotine, crush, and avulsion/degloving injuries were included if they underwent fingertip (Tamai Zone I) replantation with arterial anastomosis for vascular inflow and arteriovenous anastomosis for venous drainage. The cases were further classified as Ishikawa subzone I and subzone II. Arteriovenous anastomosis for venous drainage during replantation was used in 45 digits in 35 patients. 41 of the 45 digits underwent successful replantation using this technique (91%). The mean active ROM in the DIP joint of the fingers and in the IP joint of thumbs was 65° and 57°, respectively. Sensory evaluation demonstrated a mean of 6.9 mm s2PD in digits where the digital nerves could be repaired. 11 replanted digits without nerve repair regained some sensory recovery with a mean of 9.6 mm s2PD. 91% of patients were highly satisfied with the appearance of the replanted digits based on Tamai criteria. Arteriovenous anastomosis for venous outflow should be considered during zone I fingertip replantation if sufficient veins are not identified in the amputated part. This technique may allow for more routine and successful distal replantation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matsuzaki, Hironori; Yoshizu, Takae; Maki, Yutaka; Tsubokawa, Naoto
In fingertip amputations, conventional stump plasty provides an almost acceptable functional result. However, replanting fingertips can preserve the nail and minimize loss of function. We investigated the functional and cosmetic results of fingertip replantation at the terminal branch of the digital artery. Outcomes were nailbed width and distal-segment length; sensory recovery; and range of motion (ROM) of thumb-interphalangeal (IP) or finger-distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints, and total active motion (TAM) of the replanted finger. Of 15 fingertips replanted after only arterial anastomosis, 13 were successful, and 12 were studied. After a median of 1.3 years, mean nailbed widths and distal-segment lengths were 95.4% and 93.0%, respectively, of the contralateral finger. Average TAM and ROM of the thumb-IP or finger-DIP joints were 92.0% and 83.0% of normal, respectively. Semmes-Weinstein results were blue (3.22 to 3.61) in 4 fingers and purple (3.84 to 4.31) in 8; the mean result from the 2-point discrimination test was 5.9 mm (range, 3 to 11 mm). Thus, amputated fingertips should be aggressively replanted.
R. D. Chakole
Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals
Li, Gui-Zhong; Man, Li-Bo; He, Feng; Huang, Guang-Lin
To evaluate the methods for the replantation of the amputated penis in Chinese men. We performed a meta-analysis on the domestic literature relating replantation of the amputated penis, particularly its successful methods published from 1964 to January 2012. We identified 109 reports on 111 cases of replantation of the amputated penis that met the inclusion criteria, including 103 adults and 8 children. The mean age, warm ischemia time and total ischemia time were 29 +/- 11 years (range 2 - 56 years), 5.2 +/- 5.7 hours (range 0 - 38 hours) and 6.3 +/- 5.7 hours (range 1 - 38 hours). Fifty-three of the cases were treated by microsurgery and 44 by non-microsurgery. Complications occurred in 81 (73%) of the cases, including ED in 14 cases, urethral stricture in 16, urinary fistula in 8, skin necrosis in 58 and skin sensory abnormality in 31. The incidences of ED, urethral stricture and urinary fistula exhibited significant differences between the microsurgery and non-microsurgery groups of the partial amputation patients (P penis and reduction of complications, and therefore can be regarded as a "standard" method for penile replantation in China.
Zhao, Gang; Mi, Jingyi; Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Xiaoyun; Yao, Qun; Qiu, Yang
Cold intolerance is a common complication of digital replantation. The exact etiology is unclear, but it is considered to be multifactorial, including nonsurgical characteristics, vascular, and neurologic conditions. Blood flow may play a significant role in cold intolerance. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of digital blood flow, including volumetric flow rate (VFR) and skin blood flow (SkBF), with cold intolerance in replanted fingers.A retrospective study was conducted among patients who underwent digital replantation between 2010 and 2013. Patients were selected into study cohort based on the inclusion criteria. Surgical data was collected on each patient, including age, sex, injury mechanism, amputation level, ischemia time, number of arteries repaired, and whether or not vascular crisis occurred. Patients were included as study cohort with both nerves repaired and without chronic disease. Cold intolerance was defined as a Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS) score over 30. The arterial flow velocity and caliber were measured by Color Doppler Ultrasound and the digital VFR was calculated. The SkBF was measured by Laser Speckle Imager. Both VFR and SkBF were calculated as a percentage of the contralateral fingers. Comparative study of surgical data and blood flow was performed between the patient with and without cold intolerance. Correlation between VFR and SkBF was also analyzed.A total of 93 patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Approximately, 42 patients were identified as having cold intolerance. Fingers that survived vascular crisis had a higher incidence of cold intolerance with a lower VFR and SkBF. The VFR was higher in 2-artery replantation, but the SkBF and incidence of cold intolerance did not differ significantly. No differences were found in age, sex, injury mechanism, amputation level, or ischemia time. Furthermore, no correlation was found between VFR and SkBF.Cold intolerance of digital replantation is associated
Since the first successful replantation of a human thumb reported by Komatsu and Tamai in 1968, thousands of severed digits and body parts have been successfully salvaged. Restoration of anatomic form and function are the goals of replantation after traumatic tissue amputation. Regardless of anatomic location, methods include microsurgical replantation and nonmicrosurgical replantation, such as composite graft techniques. Numerous techniques to maximize tissue survival after revascularization have been described, including “pocket procedures” to salvage composite grafts, interposition vein grafts, and medicinal leeches to name a few. Artery-to-venous anastomoses have been performed with successful “arterialization” of the distal venous system in fingertip replantation. Although there is documented survival of free venous cutaneous flaps, to our knowledge this is the first report of a replanted composite body part (bone, tendon, soft tissues, and skin) utilizing exclusively multiple, microvascular, nonarterialized venous–venous anastomoses. We present a patient with an isolated band saw fillet amputation to the back of the thumb at the metacarpal–phalangeal joint region, resulting in a composite graft composed of bone, tendon, soft tissue, and skin. The hand wound provided no viable regional arterial inflow source, but there were multiple good caliber superficial veins present. The amputated tissues were replanted and revascularized by using only venous blood flow. The replanted part survival was 100% with excellent function of the digit. We conclude that a hand composite body part involving bone, tendon, soft tissues, and skin can survive replantation with a strict venous blood supply if sufficient good caliber, microvascular, venous–venous anastomoses are performed, granted that arterial inflow options are not available. This is an isolated case, yet introduces a new way of thinking regarding tissue replantation. PMID:18780032
Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan
The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.
Full Text Available Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4% survived. Ten (66.6% of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2% of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100% and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%. Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%. The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.
Huan, An-Shi; Regmi, Subhash; Gu, Jia-Xiang; Liu, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Wen-Zhong
The purpose of this study was to report our experience of fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis using alternate method to counter post-operative venous congestion. 30 Patients (18 men and 12 women) with 30 fingertip amputations (Tamai zone I) were treated with artery-only anastomosis fingertip replantation between March 2010 and July 2014. Postoperative venous outflow was maintained by allowing bleeding through wound gaps combined with topical (12500 u :250mlNS) and systemic (4000 IU SC once daily) heparin. The outcomes of replantation were evaluated using standard evaluating systems. The average duration of hospital stay was 10 days (range 7-14 days). Twenty-eight (93 %) replanted fingertips survived. Five replanted fingertip experienced postoperative vascular crisis. The estimated post-operative blood loss was about 200-450 ml (mean, 292 ml). Follow-up period ranged from 12 to 24 months (average, 18 months). At final follow-up examinations, the average value of static two point discrimination test was 5.6 mm (range 3-9 mm) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test was 3.35 g (range 2.83-4.56 g). The mean range of motion of distal interphalangeal joint was 65.2° (range 0-90°) and all patients returned to their work within 7-18 weeks (average, 11 weeks). Artery-only fingertip replantation can provide satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. Adequate venous outflow can be obtained by allowing minimal external bleeding through wound gaps combined with topical and systemic heparin.
Nima Moradi Majd
Full Text Available Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extracted. The root apex was resected and the root end cavity was prepared and filled with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Then, the extracted tooth was replanted in its original position. Results. After a year the tooth was asymptomatic, and the size of periapical radiolucency was remarkably reduced and no clinical sign of ankylosis was observed. Conclusion. Intentional replantation of the necrotic calcified teeth could be considered as an alternative to teeth extraction, especially for the single-rooted teeth and when nonsurgical and surgical endodontic procedures seem impossible.
Vijay Kumar; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah
Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The ...
Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the success rate of intentionally replanted mandibular second molar with C-shaped canal configurations and to access the impact of preoperative periapical lesion on the success of intentional replantation procedure. Materials and Methods This retrospective chart review study evaluated 52 intentionally replanted mandibular second molar teeth treated at Seoul National University Dental Hospital Department of Conservative Dentistry from January 2005 to December 2007. Seventeen teeth were lost for the follow-up, and another 6 teeth did not meet inclusion criteria of C-shaped root canal configurations. Healing outcome such as success, uncertain healing, and failure after follow-up was evaluated by clinical criteria and radiographs. Results The overall success rate was 72.4% for the 29 intentionally replanted C-shaped mandibular second molars. The success rate of replanted teeth with preoperative periapical lesions was similar to that of replanted teeth which have no periapical lesions. Conclusions Therefore, root canal treatment failure on C-shaped mandibular second molar can be predictably treated by intentional replantation regardless of the presence of periapical lesion.
Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.
Zhou, Min; Qi, Baiwen; Yu, Aixi; Pan, Zhenyu; Zhu, Shaobo; Deng, Kai; Tao, Shengxiang
The object of this study was to compare the outcomes of the vacuum assisted closure (VAC) therapy and conventional wound care with dressing change for treatment of complex wounds in patients with replantation of amputated upper and lower extremities. Data of 43 patients with replantation of amputated extremities from May 2004 to December 2011 were reviewed. There were 18 wounds of 18 patients with replantation, which were treated by dressing change and 26 wounds of 25 patients by VAC therapy. The outcomes were evaluated by the survival rate of replanted extremities, growth of granulation tissue, interval between wound treatment and secondary procedure and eventual secondary wound coverage methods. Vascular thromboses were found in 3 patients with wound treatment by dressing change and 5 by VAC. All replants of two groups of patients survived after salvage procedures. The wound score was 3.6 ± 0.7 in the conventional dressing change group and 5.8 ± 0.7 in the VAC group at the sixth day after treatment, respectively. The intervals between wound treatment and secondary wound coverage procedure were 12.0 ± 1.7 days in the dressing change group and 6.1 ± 0.7 days in the VAC group. Flaps were applied for wound coverage in 9 out of 18 (50.0%) wounds in the dressing change group and 5 out of 26 (19.2%) in the VAC group (P VAC could promote the growth of granulation tissue of wound, decrease the need of flap for wound coverage, and did not change the survival of replantation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Wildfire often causes tremendous changes in ecosystems, particularly in subalpine and alpine areas, which are vulnerable due to severe climate conditions such as cold temperature and strong wind. This study aimed to clarify the effect of tree re-planting on ecosystem services such as the soil microbial community after several decades. We compared the re-planted forest and grassland with the mature forest as a reference in terms of soil microbial biomass C and N (Cmic and Nmic, enzyme activities, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA composition, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The Cmic and Nmic did not differ among the grassland, re-planted forest and mature forest soil; however, ratios of Cmic/Corg and Nmic/Ntot decreased from the grassland to re-planted forest and mature forest soil. The total PLFAs and those attributed to bacteria and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria did not differ between the re-planted forest and grassland soil. Principle component analysis of the PLFA content separated the grassland from re-planted forest and mature forest soil. Similarly, DGGE analysis revealed changes in both bacterial and fungal community structures with changes in vegetation. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure changes with the re-planting of trees after a fire event in this subalpine area. Recovery of the soil microbial community to the original state in a fire-damaged site in a subalpine area may require decades, even under a re-planted forest.
Fernando N. Facio Jr.
Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.
Muneuchi, Gan; Kurokawa, Masato; Igawa, Kazuhiko; Hamamoto, Yusuke; Igawa, Hiroharu H
The pocket principle suggested by Brent in 1979 is an alternative method for use when microsurgical replantation is not feasible. The application and the amputation level for which the method is available, however, have not been well examined. Between 1999 and 2003 we treated 6 patients (7 fingers) by nonmicrosurgical replantation using a subcutaneous pocket (the Brent technique). All patients had sustained complete fingertip amputations across or proximal to the lunula in digits other than the thumb. In every case the amputation was a crush or avulsion-type injury and microsurgical replantation was not feasible; however, cosmetic symmetry was desired strongly by the patient. Of the 7 fingers only one survived completely but became atrophic after 4 months. One finger developed necrosis involving less than half of the replant but a hooked nail deformity developed. Two fingers developed partial necrosis involving more than half of the replant but both fingers were missing the fingernail and the cosmetic results were not acceptable. Three fingers developed total necrosis. In addition a slight flexion contracture not improved with therapy in the digits was noted in 4 patients. The Brent technique should be performed scrupulously for fingertip amputation across or proximal to the lunula because of the poor survival rate and the possibility of contracture in the digits or other proximal joints.
Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.
Grzanich, Derek; Rizzo, Gabriella; Silva, Renato Menezes
Intentional replantation is a reliable and predictable treatment for cases in which nonsurgical endodontic retreatment failed or is impractical and endodontic surgery is hampered because of anatomic limitations. This article presents a protocol for intentional replantation illustrated with some interesting cases. The cases presented here are from patients (average age, 61 years) with no contributing medical history. The cases are molars with previous failed endodontic treatment/retreatment and diagnosed with apical periodontitis. Treatment procedures included atraumatic extractions with minimal manipulations of the periodontal ligament, followed by root-end resection, root-end preparation with ultrasonic tips, root-end fill with bioceramic cement, and rapid tooth replacement into the socket. Granulomatous tissue was gently curetted when applicable. All procedures were performed under the microscope. Intentional replantation with careful case selection may be considered as a last option for preserving hopeless teeth. Atraumatic extraction by using state-of-the-art equipment, instruments, and materials, minimal extra-alveolar time, and maintaining an aseptic technique are key factors for success. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Wan Fu; Jen, Yee Min; Chen, Shyi Gen; Nieh, Shin; Wang, Chih-Hung
Transplantation and replantation of the submandibular gland with microvascular techniques were demonstrated in a previous study, with good gland survival. The application of radiation on the neck bed was attempted to address an actual clinical scenario in this study. Five canine submandibular glands were transplanted using microvascular techniques to the ipsilateral femoral system. Radiotherapy at a dosage level of 3,600 cGy using 600 cGy q.d was delivered to the nasopharyngeal and neck regions 2 weeks after transplantation. The transferred glands were then reintroduced into the original but radiated neck bed. The glands were harvested for histological examination 8 weeks later. Four of five canine submandibular glands can withstand microvascular transplantation and then replantation into a radiated neck bed for at least 8 weeks. However, the salivary function was depleted. The canine submandibular gland can survive the transplantation and replantation for at least 8 weeks in spite of precipitating radiation insult on the neck bed for 3 weeks. Neurorraphy is, however, essential to maintaining the glandular function.
Mehmet Dadaci; Bilsev Ince; Zeynep Altuntas; Ozan Bitik; Haldun Onuralp Kamburoglu; Hakan Uzun
Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials a...
Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten
Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...
Gustavo H.F. Klabunde
Full Text Available Among the cultivation problems of apple production in Brazil, Apple Leaf Spot (ALS disease represents one of the main breeding challenges. This study aims at analyzing the genetic diversity among 152 apple scion accessions available at the Apple Gene Bank of EPAGRI, located in Caçador, Santa Catarina/ Brazil. Eleven genomic SSR loci were analyzed to assess genetic diversity of ALS resistant and susceptible accessions. Results revealed high genetic diversity of the studied accessions, being 120 exclusive alleles (67 unique from scion accessions resistant to ALS, and a mean PIC of 0.823. The locus Probability of Identity (I ranged from 0.017 to 0.089. The combined I was 4.11 x 10-16, and the Power of Exclusion was 99.99999259%. In addition, the DNA fingerprint patterns will contribute as additional descriptors to select parental for crosses and early identification of apple accessions for breeding purposes, and also for cultivar protection.
Yabe, Tetsuji; Tsuda, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Shunsuke; Ozawa, Toshiyuki
In this article, a comparison of replantation using microsurgical replantation (replantation) and the Brent method and its modification (pocket principle) in the treatment of fingertip amputation is reported. As a classification of amputation level, we used Ishikawa's subzone classification of fingertip amputation, and the cases of amputations only in subzone 2 were included in this study. Between these two groups, there was no statistical difference in survival rate, postoperative atrophy, or postoperative range of motion. In terms of sensory recovery, some records were lost and exact study was difficult. But there was no obvious difference between these cases. In our comparison of microsurgical replantation versus the pocket principle in treatment of subzone 2 fingertip amputation, there was no difference in postoperative results. Each method has pros and cons, and the surgeon should choose which technique to use based on his or her understanding of the characteristics of both methods. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey ... success of those programs depends on specific and sensitive ..... Applied Biostatistics Inc. Rott ME ...
Aksoy, Alper; Gungor, Melike; Sir, Emin
The purpose of this study was to compare the results of fingertip replantations without (artery anastomosis only replantations) and with venous anastomosis (replantations in which both arterial and palmar venous anastomoses were performed). Also, distribution of the veins used for anastomosis was analyzed retrospectively. First 53 digits (47 patients) received only arterial anastomosis (group 1). For relieving venous congestion, external bleeding method was used. Last 41 digits (38 patients) received both arterial and palmar venous anastomoses without external bleeding (group 2). There was statistical significance of the survival rate between group 1 [77.3% (41/53)] and group 2 [92.6% (38/41)] (P = 0.039). Venous congestion was encountered at 10 digits in group 1 (all underwent necrosis totally) and at 3 digits in group 2 (both were moderate and could be salvaged partially) (P = 0.094, no statistical significance). There was statistical significance of the mean operation time for single-fingertip replantation between group 1 (80 ± 7.8 minutes) and group 2 (105 ± 14.5 minutes) (P replantations with palmar venous anastomosis have simpler postoperative care and lower drawbacks as compared with artery anastomosis-only replantations.
Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Kai; Yin, Shao-Meng; Wang, Hai-Bing; He, Tao; Gong, Yong-Qing; Zhu, Guo-Ming; Mao, Gen-Lian; Hu, Ming-Xing; Li, Jian
To study the replantation methods and clinical results of amputated fingertip. From October 2007 to June 2011, 18 fingers of 13 cases were replanted with anastomosis of palm vein and retaining the nail, including 9 males and 4 females,with an average age of 26 years old ranging from 17 to 45 years old. The time from injury to therapy was from 30 min to 5 h, time of broken finger ischemia was from 1.5 to 7 h. All broken fingers were preservation under normal temperature. All fingers were survived, no vascular crisis happened. All cases were followed up from 3 to 24 months with an average of 14 months. The length and shape of replanted fingers were similar to that of the healthy side. The new nails were smooth, the function was perfect,the sense of pain and touched sensation had been recovered. Their two-piont discriminations ranged from 3 to 6 mm with an average of 5 mm. According to the assessment standard of Chinese Medical Association of Hand Surgery, the results were excellent in 14 cases, good in 3 cases, poor in 1 case. Fingertip replantation with anastomosis of palm vein and retaining the nail is regained satisfactory appearance and function of the digits with a high survival rate.
Full Text Available The oil palm replanting program is becoming of importance for the next decade as some of oil palm plantations are reaching the productivity peak. This research was aimed to select the priority of oil palm replanting strategy with respect to the related factors and impacts to the share holders of PIR Trans and KPPA plantation of PT. AGROWIYANA , and to identify key success indicators of replanting model. A discriptive research methodoligy was carried out using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Focus Group Discussion (FGD involving multi stakeholders of PT. AGROWIYANA . Results of this research indicated that financial is considered as the most important factor for replanting implemention with the total cutting using standard technology as chosen replanting strategy. The funding scheme through intensive fund rising IDAPERTABUN needs to be well prepared to involve more farmer groups.Keywords: PT. AGROWIYANA , Replanting Strategy
Kantarci, Umit; Cepel, Selim; Buldu, Halil
Amputations involving ten digits are very rare because of different lengths of the digits. A 34-year-old man working in a printing house presented one hour after guillotine amputation involving all ten digits. Surgery was initiated 80 minutes after admission and took seven hours. Under axillary anesthesia, the operation was performed by two teams each consisting of two microsurgeons and two assistants. Replantation was completed without the use of any skin graft or flap. Fingertip examination showed poor arterial circulation in the second, third, and fourth digits of the left hand after 24 hours of replantation and surgical exploration was performed, during which anastomosis of the ulnar digital artery of the second digit was re-established and a Y-shaped vein graft was placed at the level of the third web to restore revascularization of the third and fourth digits. However, these interventions did not prevent the development of necrosis in the distal segment of the fourth digit which resulted in dry gangrene that required amputation. After 38 months of replantation, radiographic examination showed complete union in all fingers without malunion or damage to the joint surface and about 8 degrees of medial angulation in the proximal phalanx of the fourth digit of the right hand. The patient did not have difficulty in performing daily activities and had a considerably good pinching. Losses of active range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints were within the rage of 10 to 30 degrees in both hands. In the assessment of sensation, static and dynamic two-point discrimination test results were 6.1 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively.
Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Estrella, Emmanuel P
To compare the functional outcome of successful microsurgical replantation versus amputation closure for single fingertip amputations. Forty-six fingertip amputations in 46 patients (23 were replanted successfully, 23 had amputation closure) were included in this study. Thumb amputations were excluded. Grip strength and active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint were evaluated. The patients were questioned about their symptoms of pain, paresthesia, and cold intolerance. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire was given and the disability/symptom score was evaluated. Patients' satisfaction with the surgical result was assessed. Time spent in the hospital and time off from work were reviewed. Active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint was greater in the successful replantation group. Although the existence of paresthesia and cold intolerance were not statistically different between the 2 groups, pain in the affected fingers was more frequent in the amputation closure group. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score of the successful replantation group was statistically better. All patients in the successful replantation group were highly or fairly satisfied with the surgical results, whereas 14 patients in the amputation closure group were highly or fairly satisfied. The time spent in the hospital and the time off from work for the successful replantation group were longer. Successful replantation of single fingertip amputations can result in minimal pain, better functional outcome, better appearance, and higher patient satisfaction. We recommend attempting fingertip replantation not only to obtain the best appearance but also to gain better functional outcome. If the patient requests the simple surgery and earlier return to work amputation closure is an accepted method despite the disadvantage of digital shortening and the risk for a painful stump. Therapeutic, Level III.
Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.
Pratylenchus penetrans is a component of the apple replant disease (ARD) causal pathogen complex. The potential role for biological mechanisms contributing to ASD-mediated suppression of P. penetrans was examined in greenhouse study using orchard soil with a history of ARD. Populations of P. penetra...
Sottovia, André Dotto; Sottovia Filho, Dagoberto; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Luize, Danielle Shima; Sonoda, Celso Koogi
Euro-Collins solution was developed for the preservation of organs for transplantation, whose characteristics have raised interest for its use as a storage medium for avulsed teeth before replantation. This study evaluated histologically and morphometrically the healing process of dog teeth replanted after storage in Euro-Collins solution or bovine milk. Eighty roots of 4 young adult mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20) and the root canals were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and a calcium hydroxide-based sealer. After 2 weeks, the teeth were extracted and subjected to the following protocols: GI (negative control), replantation immediately after extraction; GII (positive control), bench-drying for 2 hours before replantation; GIII and GIV, immersion in 10 mL of whole bovine milk and Euro-Collins solution at 4 degrees C, respectively, for 8 hours before replantation. The animals were sacrificed 90 days postoperatively. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were subjected to routine processing for histologic and histometric analyses under light microscopy and polarized light microscopy. Root resorption was observed in all groups. GII exhibited the greatest loss of dental structure (P < .01), and inflammatory resorption was predominant in this group. Storage in milk showed poorer results than immediate replantation and storage in Euro-Collins solution (P < .01). The teeth stored in Euro-Collins solution presented similar extension of root resorption and periodontal ligament reorganization to those of immediately replanted teeth. The findings of this study suggest that the Euro-Collins solution is an adequate storage medium for keeping avulsed teeth for up to 8 hours before replantation.
Erken, H Yener; Takka, Semih; Akmaz, Ibrahim
We report our experience, treatment protocol, and 2-year follow-up results of 24 fingertip replantations treated using the artery-only technique without vein or nerve repair. We performed a retrospective review of 24 patients who had undergone fingertip replantation at the same center between 2005 and 2011. All patients in this study had complete fingertip amputation at or distal to the distal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or interphalangeal joint of the thumb. Patients with incomplete and complete amputations who had undergone vein and/or nerve repair along with artery repair were excluded. All patients received the same protocol including removal of the nail at the surgery and intravenous heparin 70 U/kg administered at the time of arterial anastomosis. After surgery, the nailbed was mechanically made to bleed with a sterile needle and mechanically scrubbed with a heparin-saline gauze. All patients received the same postoperative medical treatment protocol until physiological outflow was restored. Successful replantation was confirmed with clinical observation. Twenty-one of the 24 fingertip replantations (88%) were successful. The mean length of hospital stay was 7 days (range, 4-9 d). Fifteen of 22 patients required blood transfusion. The average amount of blood transfusion was 1.2 U (range, 0-3 U). This study shows that the described technique and protocol reconstructed circulation without vein anastomosis and with a high success rate. Furthermore, adequate sensory recovery without any nerve repair had occurred by the 2-year follow-up. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Hyun Chul; Bahar-Moni, Ahmed Suparno; Cho, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Hyun Sik; Ahn, Sang Cheon
During replantation of distal fingertip amputation, identification of the artery is the most important but time consuming procedure. Depending on the damaged arterial structure, we classified distal fingertip amputations into 4 zones, on the basis of three dimensional concept. Zone 1 injury was defined as damage to the proximal central pulp artery; zone 2 injury, damage to the branch of the central pulp artery; zone 3 injury, damage to the distal central pulp artery; and zone 4 injury, no injury to the central pulp artery, injury only to the lateral pulp artery. From April 2010 to June 2011, 27 patients were evaluated. Successful replantation was observed in 21 patients. Skin necrosis occurred in six patients. For distal fingertip amputation classification based on the damaged arterial system is an easy method to find out the appropriate artery which should be anastomosed during replantation.
Huan, An-shi; Regmi, Subhash; Gu, Jia-xiang; Liu, Hong-jun; Zhang, Wen-zhong
Purpose The purpose of this study was to report our experience of fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis using alternate method to counter post-operative venous congestion. Methods 30 Patients (18 men and 12 women) with 30 fingertip amputations (Tamai zone I) were treated with artery-only anastomosis fingertip replantation between March 2010 and July 2014. Postoperative venous outflow was maintained by allowing bleeding through wound gaps combined with topical (12500u:250mlNS) and ...
de la Parra-Márquez, Miguel; Mondragón-González, Sergio; López-Palazuelos, Jaime; Naal-Mendoza, Norberto; Rangel-Flores, Jesús María
Restoration of the face function and cosmetic appearance after a traumatic complex wound is a challenge for the plastic surgeon. Worldwide, few cases have been reported about face replantation. To present the case of the first partial face replantation reported in the national bibliography, using the labial artery for revascularization. On June 19th 2011, a 7 years old male presented to the emergency room of the Mexican Institute of Social Security at Monterrey, Mexico, 4 hours after a partial face amputation secondary to a dog bite. The amputated segment was composed of 75% of the upper lip, 33% of the lower lip, oral commissure and 75% of the left cheek. The labial coronary artery and vein were anastomosed with 11-0 nylon sutures and the miorraphy of the orbicularis oris, the depressor anguli oris and the depressor labii inferioris with 4-0 vycril sutures. Six months after the surgery, the functional and aesthetic outcomes were excellent with reestablishment of total labial continence and total recovery of articulation of words. amputations of any facial component should be initially managed with replantation. The function and cosmetics are better than any other technique of reconstruction. The labial coronary artery is an excellent choice for revascularization up to 25% of the face (lips and cheek).
Deok Hyeon Ryu
Full Text Available Background Venous anastomosis is an important component of digital replantation, but is not always feasible, as some cases require external bleeding to treat venous congestion in the replanted tissue. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between the number of vein anastomoses and the survival rate of Tamai zone I replantations. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent replantation of a fingertip amputation between 2014 and 2016. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, the mechanism of injury, the number of venous anastomoses, and the use of anticoagulation, external bleeding, and/or leeches. The cohort was divided into 3 groups depending on the number of venous anastomoses: no veins (group 1, a single vein (group 2, and 2 or more veins (group 3. Survival rates and external bleeding rates were analyzed across the groups. Results The review identified 143 fingertip replantations among 134 patients. The overall survival rate was 94% (135 of 143. Failures were due equally to venous complications (n=4, 50% and to arterial complications (n=4, 50%. Our analysis did not identify any correlation between the number of veins anastomosed and the replant survival rate (P=0.689. However, a greater number of anastomoses was associated with a significantly lower frequency of external bleeding (P=0.017. Conclusions The number of venous anastomoses was not correlated with the survival rate. However, a greater number of venous anastomoses was associated with a decreased need for external bleeding, corresponding to a significant decrease in the need for postoperative monitoring and leech therapy.
Ryu, Deok Hyeon; Roh, Si Young; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Dong Chul; Lee, Kyung Jin
Background Venous anastomosis is an important component of digital replantation, but is not always feasible, as some cases require external bleeding to treat venous congestion in the replanted tissue. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between the number of vein anastomoses and the survival rate of Tamai zone I replantations. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent replantation of a fingertip amputation between 2014 and 2016. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, the mechanism of injury, the number of venous anastomoses, and the use of anticoagulation, external bleeding, and/or leeches. The cohort was divided into 3 groups depending on the number of venous anastomoses: no veins (group 1), a single vein (group 2), and 2 or more veins (group 3). Survival rates and external bleeding rates were analyzed across the groups. Results The review identified 143 fingertip replantations among 134 patients. The overall survival rate was 94% (135 of 143). Failures were due equally to venous complications (n=4, 50%) and to arterial complications (n=4, 50%). Our analysis did not identify any correlation between the number of veins anastomosed and the replant survival rate (P=0.689). However, a greater number of anastomoses was associated with a significantly lower frequency of external bleeding (P=0.017). Conclusions The number of venous anastomoses was not correlated with the survival rate. However, a greater number of venous anastomoses was associated with a decreased need for external bleeding, corresponding to a significant decrease in the need for postoperative monitoring and leech therapy. PMID:29076329
Yabe, T; Muraoka, M; Motomura, H; Ozawa, T
Four cases of fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision are reported. Because of lack of suitable arteries for anastomosis in the amputated finger, in each case a volar radial vein was anastomosed to the proximal digital artery and external drainage was performed through a transverse tip incision. In 3 cases the replanted fingertip survived completely; partial necrosis occurred in 1 case. Because veins are more superficial and larger than arteries, they are more available for anastomosis. The results indicate that this method is a useful alternative in fingertip replantation.
Ricieri, Camila Benez; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Okamoto, Tetuo
Several local factors that influence the healing process of replanted teeth have been investigated. However, it remains unclear how systemic alterations, such as diabetes mellitus, affect the prognosis of these cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing process of incisors of non-controlled diabetic rats replanted after storage in bovine long shelf-life (UHT) whole milk. Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection of either citrate buffer solution (group I - control; n = 16) or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution to induce diabetes (group II; n = 16). After confirmation of the diabetic status by analysis of the glycemic levels, the maxillary right incisor of each animal was extracted and immersed in milk for 60 min. The root canals of teeth were then instrumented, and were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based dressing and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic and were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The specimens containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The results showed that the connective tissue adjacent to the root surface was less organized in the diabetic animals than in the control animals in both periods; the root dentin was less severely affected by root resorption in the diabetic rats; there were no significant differences between the control and diabetic groups regarding the occurrence of replacement resorption and inflammatory resorption.
dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Negri, Márcia Regina
Minimal extraoral dry storage period and moist storage for the avulsed tooth are identified as key steps for the treatment protocol of tooth replantation. Among the possible moist storage media, bovine milk has stood out because of its capacity of preserving the integrity of the periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers. This condition has attracted the attention to investigate the use of powdered milk, which is one of the presentation forms of bovine milk, as a feasible storage medium in cases of delayed tooth replantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process after delayed replantation of rat teeth stored in reconstituted powdered milk and long shelf-life (ultra high temperature) whole milk. Forty maxillary right rat incisors were assigned to four groups (n = 10): group I--the teeth were extracted and immediately replanted into theirs sockets; group II--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of freshly reconstituted powdered milk; group III--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of long shelf-life whole milk; group IV--the teeth were kept dry for the same time. All procedures were performed at room temperature. Next, the root canals of teeth in groups II, III, and IV were instrumented, filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste, and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic therapy and were killed by anesthetic overdose 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological analysis. There was statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups I and IV regarding the presence of replacement resorption and PDL remnants on root surface. The powdered milk and long shelf-life whole milk presented similar results to each other and may be indicated as storage media for avulsed teeth.
Full Text Available Dental injuries are very common and their extent has been classified by Ellis. Avulsion of tooth is a grievous injury and ranges from 1-16% among the traumatic injuries, of which maxillary anterior are commonest. Reimplantation of avulsed teeth is a standard procedure. However, it has certain limitations. Most often their management is very challenging. In this case report we are presenting the management of maxillary incisors by replantation after 36 hrs in a 12 year old girl.
Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco
Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.
Agus Roy Rusly Hariantana Hamid; Gatot Triwono
Background: Replantation is the prime treatment for amputated hands and fingers due to functional and aesthetic advantages. The absolute indications for replantation are amputations of the thumb, multiple fingers, trans metacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity in a child, regardless of the amputation level. A fingertip amputation distal to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) is also a good indication. Indications have been expanded to include amputation at nail level,...
Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana
Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris , the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative , Malus domestica . With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.
Full Text Available Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.
Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No
Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539
Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that gro...
Full Text Available Background: Dento-alveolar trauma resulted from accidents involving the oral regions mostly affect the upper central incisors. Overjet that is beyond 5 mm and incompetent lip also contribute to increase the risk. Several literatures had already discussed different methods of replantation of avulsed teeth. However, it was not meant for further orthodontic treatment. Purpose: The objective of this review is to propose a simple replantation protocol of avulsed teeth which also prevent from ankylosis. Reviews: Protruded teeth usually need orthodontic treatment; therefore, an appropriate management should be done to avoid the development of ankylosis. Ankylosis of the periodontal ligament (PDL becomes a problem in orthodontic tooth movement in repositioned or replanted teeth. In addition, ankylosed teeth also more susceptible to root resorption. Actually, it was caused by the endodontic treatment. In particular, severely protruded or unoccluded teeth are hypofunctional, therefore have narrow PDL, thus it may facilitate to ankylosis development. Ideal management protocol such as the use of root canal sealer i.e. mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; the using of Emdogain, and resilient wiring or semi-rigid fixation with brackets has become a solution in avulsed teeth arranged for orthodontic treatment. Nevertheless, the presence of oral surgeon, endodontist and orthodontist in the same time, and also ideal preparations after an accident was difficult to achieve. Conclusion: Considering that reducing the ongoing PDL inflammation with intracanal medicaments and maintaining the functional force during mastication is possible; it is concluded that this simple replantation protocol is likely.
Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J
Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.
Guzmán-Martínez, Nayelli; Silva-Herzog, Flores Daniel; Méndez, González Verónica; Martín-Pérez, Silvia; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Cohenca, Nestor
Controversies still exist as for the regenerative role of enamel matrix derivatives and the need for removal of the periodontal ligament in replanted teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain and 24% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth. Teeth were extracted, endodontically treated and preconditioned as follows: group 1, Emdogain; group 2, Emdogain + EDTA and group 3, EDTA. Teeth were replanted after 30 min extraoral time, splinted for 15 days and animals sacrificed after 8 weeks of observation. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome and results scored based on previously reported criteria for histological evaluation. Replacement root resorption was histologically diagnosed in all groups except in the negative control. A parametric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between experimental groups. Root preconditioning with Emdogain alone or in combination with 24% EDTA showed no evidence of regeneration of collagen fibers and consequently did not prevent the development of replacement root resorption on replanted dog's teeth.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Methods: Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males with a mean age of 44.2 years (20–65 years were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19–50 months. The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ. Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. Results: The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0–39.2. The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD (P < 0.05. Several aspects of the MHQ were also statistically relevant to some or all of the three objective results. Furthermore, the grip strength showed significant correlation with DASH and most aspects of the MHQ in multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Total grip strength is the most important factor positively related to subjective outcomes. The incidence rates of psychological symptoms after digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. Keywords: Digit Replantation, DASH score, Posttraumatic stress disorder
Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Jae-Won; Roh, Si Young; Ki, Sae Hwi; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo
Successful venous anastomosis is one of the most important factors in fingertip replantation. Volar veins in the fingertip course proximally in a random pattern, which makes it difficult to find out the exact locations. Although dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold have constant location and adequate diameter for anastomosis, they have been known as hard to dissect from the immobile subcutaneous tissue. The authors present a new lateral nail fold incision technique for venous anastomosis in the fingertip amputations. From February 2010 to October 2010, 9 replantations using the new incision and venous anastomosis technique were performed in 9 patients. The levels of amputations were from the nail base to half of the nail bed. After repairing the proper digital arteries, a skin incision was made along the junction between the lateral nail fold and nail bed. Careful dissection was performed to isolate the veins in the lateral nail fold. After evaluation of the suitability of the vessel, venous anastomosis was performed. Seven male and 2 female patients were enrolled in this study. Appropriate dorsal veins for anastomosis could be found in 8 of 9 patients. All the replanted stumps survived without venous congestion and following additional procedures. A sizable volar or dorsal vein could not be found in 1 patient. The salvage technique was required in this patient. Dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold can be found easily because of the constant anatomical location. The new incision on the lateral nail fold provides not only sufficient operative field for anastomosis but also additional opportunity of successful venous anastomosis in the selected cases. The authors, therefore, propose this technique as an effective method for an alternative venous anastomosis in the zone I replantation.
Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan
Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Yu-Te; Moran, Steven L; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Chih-Hung
Replantation of the distal phalanx and pulp can be performed to improve finger function and finger aesthetics; however, establishing adequate venous drainage is a challenge. Slattery et al. reported microsurgical reattachment of a partial distal phalanx with the use of a bifurcated terminal digital artery. The bifurcation was divided into two pedicles, one of which was used for venous drainage. In this article, the authors report their experience with a similar technique and propose a new algorithm for distal finger replantation. From January of 2008 to February of 2009, five replantations were performed using a single central artery. The replanted levels were pulp, avulsed fingertip of the thumb, and distal phalanges. There was no volar vein, dorsal vein, or second artery available in the amputated part for standard venous drainage. Venous drainage in all cases was established by creating an anastomosis from a branch of the solitary terminal artery to a recipient vein. All digits were replanted successfully without evidence of arterial insufficiency or venous congestion. Partial necrosis was not identified postoperatively in any of the five fingers. There were no cases of wound infection. A branch of the central solitary artery may be used successfully to reestablish venous outflow in cases of distal finger tip replantation. This technique allowed for the salvage of all fingers in this study without the use of leeches or other techniques used in cases of venous insufficiency.
Akbar Jaleel Zubairi
Full Text Available Replantation of the lower extremity has controversial indications but nevertheless it may be considered in carefully selected patients who present early and are expected to show good functional recoveries. Here we present a successful replantation in a 3-year-old boy who has made excellent recovery with no functional deficit evident at 12 years of follow-up. He sustained a traumatic amputation at the level of distal tibia when he fell of a “Qing Qi” (motorcycle rickshaw. Replantation was attempted at 8 hours cold ischemia time with the tibia shortened 4 cm and all tendons, vessels, and nerves repaired. Patient required a second procedure during the same hospital stay for skin coverage. Patient made good recovery with ambulation without support at 6 months, less than 3 cm limb length discrepancy, plantar and dorsiflexion power 4/5, and recovery of sensation over the foot. Now at 12 years of follow-up patient has a normal gait and has integrated into society with no functional deficit. Considering the functional outcome of our case, replantation should be attempted whenever possible and feasible especially in children.
Bondonno, Nicola P; Bondonno, Catherine P; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Considine, Michael J; Maghzal, Ghassan; Stocker, Roland; Woodman, Richard J; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D
The cardioprotective effects of apples are primarily attributed to flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin. This study aimed to determine if acute and/or chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of flavonoid-rich apples improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this randomized, controlled cross-over trial, acute and 4 week intake of apple with skin (high flavonoid apple, HFA) is compared to intake of apple flesh only (low flavonoid apple, LFA) in 30 participants. The primary outcome is endothelial function assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, while main secondary outcomes are 24 h ambulatory BP and arterial stiffness. Other outcomes include fasting serum glucose and lipoprotein profile, plasma heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), F 2 -isoprostanes, flavonoid metabolites, and plasma and salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) concentrations. Compared to LFA control, the HFA results in a significant increase in FMD acutely (0.8%, p flavonoid metabolites (p effect of apple skin on endothelial function, both acutely and chronically. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.
Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,
Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...
Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Gulinelli, Jéssica Lemos; Saito, Célia T M H; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Américo de Oliveira, José; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; de Souza Gomes, Weglis Dyanne
Endodontic treatment is an important step of tooth replantation protocols, but the ideal moment for definitive obturation of replanted teeth has not yet been established. In this study, a histomorphometric analysis was undertaken to evaluate the repair process on immediate replantation of monkey's teeth after calcium hydroxide (CH) therapy for 1 and 6 months followed by root canal filling with a CH-based sealer (Sealapex(®) ). The maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors of five female Cebus apella monkeys were extracted, kept in sterile saline for 15 min, replanted and splinted with stainless steel orthodontic wire and composite resin for 10 days. In Group I (control), definitive root canal filling was performed before tooth extraction. In Groups II and III, CH therapy started after removal of splint, and definitive root canal filling was performed 1 and 6 months later, respectively. The animals were euthanized 9 months after replantation, and specimens were processed for histomorphometric analysis. In all groups, epithelial attachment occurred at the cementoenamel junction or very close to this region; the areas of resorption on root surface had small extension and depth and were repaired by newly formed cementum; and the periodontal ligament was organized. Statistical analysis of the scores obtained for the histomorphometric parameters did not show any statistically significant difference (P = 0.1221) among the groups. The results suggests that when endodontic treatment is initiated 10 days after immediate replantation and an antibiotic regimen is associated, definitive root canal filling can be performed after a short-term CH therapy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ai Xian; Chen, Qing Zhong; Mu, Shuai; Tan, Jun
The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger) in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males) with a mean age of 44.2 years (20-65 years) were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19-50 months). The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ). Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0-39.2). The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD) (P digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available La conférence internationale sur le thème « Quel avenir pour les cultures pérennes ? » est née de deux préoccupations. La première recouvre le champ des difficultés de la replantation, difficultés techniques, économiques mais aussi environnementales, sociales et politiques : comment replanter 1 ? La seconde est la baisse des cours, probablement structurelle, de la plupart des matières premières agricoles, notamment de celles produites par des cultures pérennes. Si les prix restent aussi bas de façon aussi durable, pourquoi replanter ? De même qu’il est toujours de bon aloi d’acheter des actions quand la bourse s’écroule, les économistes recommandent de planter quand les cours des matières premières sont à leur plancher. Toutefois, si des centaines de milliers d’hectares sont plantés par des producteurs qui anticipent une remontée des cours, celle-ci peut alors être fort retardée. Cette capacité à anticiper un retour à des prix élevés est ainsi une des causes du prolongement de la phase des très bas prix du cacao jusqu’en 2001, ce qui semble bien relever d’un échec du marché 2. Le pourquoi et le comment de la replantation sont bien indissociables. Face aux enjeux, de nombreux pays détenteurs du patrimoine « cultures pérennes tropicales » ne manquent-ils pas d’une véritable politique de replantation prenant acte des changements nécessaires dans les conditions de production, se remettant en cause, tout en faisant face aux difficultés à interpréter les marchés ? Les problèmes de replantation ne peuvent se surmonter qu’à partir d’une compréhension des processus en œuvre, sur le terrain, en commençant par les décisions des producteurs. Les exemples, les études de cas, par village, par région, restent donc des fondamentaux pour une réflexion globale, pour une anticipation des problèmes, une action nationale, voire internationale, sur la replantation. En même temps, la question de
Lee, P K; Ahn, S T; Lim, P
There are several treatment modalities for zone 1 or zone 2 fingertip amputations that cannot be replanted by using microsurgical techniques, such as delayed secondary healing, stump revision, skin graft, local flaps, distant flaps, and composite graft. Among these, composite graft of the amputated digit tip is the only possible means of achieving a full-length digit with a normal nail complex. The pocket principle can provide an extra blood supply for survival of the composite graft of the amputated finger by enlarging the area of vascular contact. The surgery was performed in two stages. The amputated digit was debrided, deepithelialized, and reattached to the proximal stump. The reattached finger was inserted into the abdominal pocket. About 3 weeks later, the finger was removed from the pocket and covered with a skin graft. We have consecutively replanted 29 fingers in 25 adult patients with fingertip amputations by using the pocket principle. All were complete amputations with crushing or avulsion injuries. Average age was 33.64 years, and men were predominant. The right hand, the dominant one, was more frequently injured, with the middle finger being the most commonly injured. Of the 29 fingers, 16 (55.2 percent) survived completely and 10 (34.5 percent) had partial necrosis less than one-quarter of the length of the amputated part. The results of the above 26 fingers were satisfactory from both functional and cosmetic aspects. Twenty of the 29 fingers, which had been followed up for more than 6 months (an average of 16 months), were included in a sensory evaluation. Fifteen of these 20 fingers (75 percent) were classified as "good" (static two-point discrimination of less than 8 mm and normal use). From the overall results and our experience, we suggest that the pocket principle is a safe and valuable method in replantation of zone 1 or zone 2 fingertip amputation, an alternative to microvascular replantation, even in adults.
Full Text Available Introduction: Complicated crown-root fractures are rare and their treatment is complex. Numerous methods such as crown lengthening and orthodontic or surgical extrusion have been described for the treatment of crown-root fracture. The aim of this study was to report managing complicated crown-root fracture using intentional replantation with 180° rotation. Case report: This case report demonstrates successful management of complicated crown-root fracture in central incisor of a 10-year-old boy using intentional replantation with 180° rotation. Discussion: At 18-month follow-up, the replanted tooth revealed normal function with no obvious resorption.
Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle
Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...
Marília Pacífico Lucisano
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11 had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.
Tan, Valerie H; Murugan, Arul; Foo, Tun-Lin; Puhaindran, Mark E
Venous anastomosis in distal fingertip replantations is not always possible, and venous congestion is recognized as a potential cause of failure. Methods previously described to address this problem include amputate deepithelization and dermal pocketing postarterial anastomosis to augment venous outflow. However, attachment of the digit to the palm or abdomen resulted in finger stiffness. We describe a modification of the previous methods by utilizing dermal flaps raised from the adjacent digit in the form of a cross-finger flap. The key differences are the partial deepithelization of the replanted fingertip and subsequent replacement of the dermal flap to the donor digit to minimize donor site morbidity. During the period where the 2 digits are attached, interphalangeal joint mobilization is permitted to maintain joint mobility.
Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Hyun Ho; Jung, Sung-No
Replantation of zone I finger injuries remains a challenge, particularly if the fingertip was previously scarred or atrophied, which makes it difficult to secure a suitable vein at the amputation site. In cases of artery-only anastomosis, we propose using a mechanical leech technique to maintain sufficient venous outflow until the internal circulation regenerates. We applied this procedure to eight patients who had zone 1 amputations without veins that were suitable for anastomosis. Emergent surgery was performed and an artery-only anastomosis was created. As there were no veins available, we cut a branch of the central artery and anastomosed it with a 24-gauge angioneedle, which served as a conduit for venous drainage. The overall survival rate for zone I replantation using mechanical leech was 87.5% and the average time to maintain the mechanical leech was 5 days. The mechanical leech technique may serve as an alternative option for the management of venous congestion when no viable veins are available.
Sang Wha Kim
Full Text Available Replantation of zone I finger injuries remains a challenge, particularly if the fingertip was previously scarred or atrophied, which makes it difficult to secure a suitable vein at the amputation site. In cases of artery-only anastomosis, we propose using a mechanical leech technique to maintain sufficient venous outflow until the internal circulation regenerates. We applied this procedure to eight patients who had zone 1 amputations without veins that were suitable for anastomosis. Emergent surgery was performed and an artery-only anastomosis was created. As there were no veins available, we cut a branch of the central artery and anastomosed it with a 24-gauge angioneedle, which served as a conduit for venous drainage. The overall survival rate for zone I replantation using mechanical leech was 87.5% and the average time to maintain the mechanical leech was 5 days. The mechanical leech technique may serve as an alternative option for the management of venous congestion when no viable veins are available.
Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko
Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388
Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon urological emergency. Although rare, traumatic amputation of penis is a challenging injury to treat. However, modern microsurgical reconstruction techniques have improved success rate of penile replantation and become the procedure of choice for managing these patients. Herein, we report on a case of penile amputation following an industrial accident.
Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise
Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...
Han, Seung-Kyu; Chung, Heung-Soo; Kim, Woo-Kyung
To overcome venous congestion in fingertip replantation with no venous anastomosis, the authors have used a salvage procedure that consists of continuous external bleeding through a stab incision on the paraungual area and dripping a heparinized saline solution at the incision site to maintain external bleeding. Because this method requires continuous bleeding for a certain period of time, it may be a great burden on the patient; therefore, it is most important to minimize the duration of bleeding. Many authors have studied the timing of the new venous channel formation of the flap. However, to our knowledge, a study on fingertip replantations has not yet been performed. From June of 1985 to November of 1999, the authors performed fingertip replantations on 144 fingers of 137 patients using our salvage procedure at Korea University Guro Hospital. Among the 144 fingers, 101 fingers of 96 patients were successfully transplanted, including those with partial necrosis. The authors reviewed the medical records of these 101 fingers retrospectively; they compared and analyzed the necessary duration of external bleeding according to sex, age, level of injury, cause of amputation, and the type of injury. The average period of the salvage procedure was 7.6 days. Regarding age, the shortest period (5.5 days) was required for patients younger than 10 years. On the basis of the types of injuries, the duration of bleeding was shortest for the guillotine injury group (5.9 days) compared with crush (8.2 days) or avulsion (8.0 days) injuries. Sex and level of injury did not make much difference in the duration of the procedure.
Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Sebastin, Sandeep J
The replantation of fingertip amputation (through the nail bed) requires repair of the artery and vein on the palmar side. These structures are present in different planes, with the artery being deeper and the veins superficial. The authors believe that vascular repair in such cases is facilitated by stabilization of the amputated part by nail-bed repair alone. This provides a certain degree of flexibility, which allows for easier placement of clamps in the limited space available. Although Kirschner wires were not used for bony fixation, bony union was achieved in all five cases in which this technique was used.
Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.
Levin, L; Bryson, E C; Caplan, D; Trope, M
Alendronate (ALN) is a third generation bisphosphonate with demonstrated osteoclast inhibitory activity that may slow down the resorptive process after severe traumatic injuries. Eighty-two premolar roots of five mongrel dogs were endodontically treated and restored, extracted and treated as follows: 70 roots were bench dried for either 40 or 60 min. Thirty-eight of these roots were then soaked for 5 min in a 1 mM solution of ALN in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and replanted. Thirty-two roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. In the remaining 12 roots which were not exposed to the bench drying procedure, a 0.5 mM deep lingual mid-root cemental defect was made. Six of these roots were soaked in a 1 mM solution of ALN in HBSS for 5 min and replanted. The other six roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. Historical negative and positive controls were used from similarly treated teeth in our previous studies. After 4 months the dogs were killed and the roots prepared for histological evaluation. Five-microm-thick cross-sections of the root and surrounding tissue taken every 70 microm were evaluated for healing according to the criteria of Andreasen. In the 12 roots with cemental defects, healing with cementum of the damaged root surface was evaluated. In addition, residual root mass was also measured to determine the extent of root structure loss for each soaking method. Cemental healing took place in all 12 artificially damaged roots, indicating that these soaking media did not inhibit cementogenesis. The alendronate-soaked roots had statistically significantly more healing than the roots soaked in HBSS without alendronate. This improvement in healing was seen in all dogs except one and in all teeth except the first premolar. Soaking in alendronate also resulted in significantly less loss in root mass due to resorption compared to those teeth soaked in HBSS without alendronate.
Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte
Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...... metabolome than the other apple products. We observed an effect on branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids degradation, and a decreased use of lipid fuels indicating an improvement in glucose utilisation. A reduced level of plasma bile acids after apple consumption may indicate less re...
Full Text Available In most producing countries, the population of coconut palms is growing old, and ways of replacing them are rarely implemented to ensure that production is maintained and the future of the industry and its profitability are safeguarded. Rehabilitating/replanting coconut plantations and adopting appropriate intercropping systems is one of the main challenges to be taken up for the future of coconut in the Asia-Pacific region. The example of Papua New Guinea (PNG reveals one of the lowest yields per hectare among the countries in the Asia-Pacific zone. Almost 106,000 ha were planted between 1910 and 1940, amounting to around 40% of the current coconut plantings, hence 80 to 100,000 ha can be expected to disappear in the next twenty years. Faced with this forecast, the PNG Cocoa and Coconut Research Institute (PNG CCRI launched several operations, beginning with the creation of a coconut research centre on the PNG mainland: examination of a replanting strategy for old coconut plantings, based on hybrid planting material, distribution of improved planting material through the creation of a seed garden, and development of a system for controlling pest populations in high-risk zones. The experiments set up at the station are designed to optimize the felling date for old coconut palms, by measuring the effects of competition with the underplanted hybrids, and to determine from an economic point of view the best strategy to be applied for implementing rehabilitation and/or replanting programmes in old coconut plantings. This paper describes the results of these operations.
Hinckfuss, Susan Elisabeth; Messer, Louise Brearley
Current clinical guidelines recommend prescribing systemic antibiotic therapy (SAT) for patients having an avulsed permanent tooth replanted. The principles of evidence-based dentistry can be used to assess whether this is the best approach based on currently-available evidence. The objective of this study was to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to answer the PICO question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is prescribing SAT, (C) compared with not prescribing SAT, (O) associated with an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation? A literature search was performed across four internet databases (Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science), for relevant citations (n = 35 702). Limiting citations to those in English and removing duplicates produced a set of titles (n = 14 742) that were sieved according to evidence-based dentistry principles. Relevant titles were selected for abstract assessment (n = 782), identifying papers for examination (n = 74). Inclusion criteria were applied and three papers (326 total teeth) met the final criteria for meta-analysis. Meta-analyses found no statistically significant difference between prescribing or not prescribing antibiotics for acceptable periodontal healing without progressive root resorption (common odds ratio = 0.90, SE = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals = 0.51-1.58). The evidence for an association between prescribing SAT and an increased likelihood of acceptable periodontal healing outcome is inconclusive. This investigation of antibiotic use as defined in the clinical guidelines indicates there is inconclusive clinical evidence from studies of replanted avulsed human teeth to either contradict or support the guideline. Pending future research to the contrary, dentists are recommended to follow current guidelines in prescribing SAT when replanting avulsed teeth.
Full Text Available The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those in the soils of 2-year-old seedlings. Bacillus subtilis 50-1, a microbial antagonist against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated through a dual culture technique. These bacteria acted with a biocontrol efficacy of 67.8%. The ginseng death rate and Fusarium abundance decreased by 63.3% and 46.1%, respectively, after inoculation with B. subtilis 50-1. Data revealed that microecological degradation could result from ginseng-driven changes in rhizospheric microbial communities; these changes are associated with the different ages and developmental stages of ginseng plants. Biocontrol using microbial antagonists alleviated the replanting problem. KEY WORDS: Panax ginseng, Microbial communities, Replanting problem, High-throughput sequencing, Different ages, Bioremediation
Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira
Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.
Remington, Ruth; Chan, Amy; Lepore, Alicia; Kotlya, Elizabeth; Shea, Thomas B
Preclinical studies demonstrate that apple juice exerts multiple beneficial effects including reduction of central nervous system oxidative damage, suppression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks, improved cognitive performance, and organized synaptic signaling. Herein, we initiated an open-label clinical trial in which 21 institutionalized individuals with moderate-to-severe AD consumed 2 4-oz glasses of apple juice daily for 1 month. Participants demonstrated no change in the Dementia Rating Scale, and institutional caregivers reported no change in Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS)-Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in this brief study. However, caregivers reported an approximate 27% (P Inventory, with the largest changes in anxiety, agitation, and delusion. This pilot study suggests that apple juice may be a useful supplement, perhaps to augment pharmacological approaches, for attenuating the decline in mood that accompanies progression of AD, which may also reduce caregiver burden.
Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog
Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC...... and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined...... in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5...
Various authors have described successful microsurgical replantation of totally avulsed facial tissue. In a significant nwnber of cases difficulties were experienced with the venous anastomoses and/or venous drainage of the tissue. Many different methods were used to overcome the problem. Despite these difficulties, good ...
Maslamani, Manal; Joseph, Bobby; Gabato, Severino; Andersson, Lars
Delayed (dry storage > 60 minutes) replantation results in ankylosis and replacement resorption. It has been suggested to remove the non-viable periodontal ligament before replantation to possibly reduce the rate of replacement resorption. However there has been no study on the rate of replacement resorption after such measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any difference in the rate of replacement resorption by either removing the periodontal ligament (PDL) with gauze or not removing PDL in teeth subjected to delayed replantation followed by healing for 2 or 6 weeks. Maxillary central incisors were extracted in 8 rabbits. In the right central incisors, the necrotic PDL was removed by dry gauze over the root surface. In the left eight extracted teeth PDL was left on the root surface. All extracted teeth were left to dry for 60 minutes. Extra-oral root canal treatment was performed before replantation. The rabbits were sacrificed after 2 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Histologic processing and evaluation was done. In the 2 weeks group, all teeth showed ankylosis. The cementum was intact, and fusion of the bone and root was generally seen without resorption of the root, whereas in the 6 weeks group regardless of whether PDL had been kept or not, ankylosis and osseous replacement of the dentin was seen. There was no evidence of inflammatory infiltrate in the sections examined. Removal of PDL prior to delayed replantation may result in some initial protection of the cementum during the first few weeks. However, over longer times there seems to be neither protection of the dentin from ankylosis and osseous replacement, nor any influence on the rate of replacement resorption. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reconstructive microsurgery is now in a new stage of supermicrosurgery. With this technique, very tiny (0.3mm) vascular anastomoses are possible. In this paper, we describe two cases of successful fingertip replantations employing arteriole (terminal branch of digital artery) anastomoses, the arteriole graft being obtained from the same fingertip defect, reverse arteriole flow to subdermal venule, and delayed venular drainage for venous congestion. These atypical tiny vascular anastomoses were successfully carried out under digital block.
Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)
Cristina Braga Xavier; Beatriz Farias Vogt; Giselle Daer Faria; Leandro Calcagno Reinhardt; Elaini Sickert Hosni; Josué Martos
This report proposes a discussion of the various peculiarities of a tooth 21 replantation in a 9-year-old patient and describes different treatment facets and a 6-year follow-up of the case. The splint was maintained for a 3-month period. After a 1 year therapy with calcium hydroxide to control inflammatory resorption, the final canal obturation was performed 18 months after trauma with mineral trioxide aggregate. Two years after replantation, the orthodontic treatment had been initiated and...
Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.
Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira
In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other.
de Lagausie, Pascal; Jehanno, Pascal
Total amputation of the penis is very rare in a child. This article presents a case of a traumatic penile amputation at the base of the perineum, with scissors, in a 4-year-old child. Six hours after the aggression, the penis was replanted. Three weeks after the intervention, except for skin necrosis, the results were excellent. Six years afterward, this child has done very well from pediatric, psychological, urological, and plastic surgery points of view. Sensibility and erections are present and normal. Longer follow-ups particularly during puberty are necessary. Total amputation of the penis is a very rare accident in a child. Partial lesions are more common, particularly during circumcision. As in adult cases, replantation of the penis in a child needs a clean section by scissors or a knife, a correct conservation of the penis (in ice but without direct contact), and a short period between the lesion and the surgical procedure. All these conditions explain that very few cases are reported in the literature. We present a case of amputation of the penis in a 4-year-old child, with good results 6 years afterward.
Rezkov, G I
Needle electromyography was used to study motor units of the muscles leading away the thumb and little finger, replanted after traumatic amputation of the large segment of the upper limb in 34 patients. A direct relationship was discovered between the time of the appearance of action potentials of motor units (PMU), recovery of the movements, and trauma level. The appearance of clear PMU associated with movement recovery was recorded not earlier than 6-7 months after trauma. Analysis of PMU is a reliable criterion for the recovery of the own movements of the muscles and function of the neuromotor apparatus in patients with the replanted upper limb segment.
Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.
Arata, J; Ishikawa, K; Soeda, H; Kitayama, T
Two cases of multi-level fingertip amputation are presented. In each case, replantation was achieved in a two-stage procedure, involving reattachment, de-epithelialisation and insertion into a palmar pocket in stage 1, followed by removal from the palmar pocket 16 days later. The cases are described and the technique is discussed.
Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M; Lovegrove, Julie A
There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.
Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.
Full Text Available In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.
Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea
Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.
The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.
Full Text Available Precision agriculture represents a promising technological trend in which governments and local authorities are increasingly investing. In particular, optimising the use of pesticides and having localised models of plant disease are the most important goals for the farmers of the future. The Trentino province in Italy is known as a strong national producer of apples. Apple production has to face many issues, however, among which is apple scab. This disease depends mainly on leaf wetness data typically acquired by fixed sensors. Based on the exploitation of artificial neural networks, this work aims to spatially extend the measurements of such sensors across uncovered areas (areas deprived of sensors. Achieved results have been validated comparing the apple scab risk of the same zone using either real leaf wetness data and estimated data. Thanks to the proposed method, it is possible to get the most relevant parameter of apple scab risk in places where no leaf wetness sensor is available. Moreover, our method permits having a specific risk evaluation of apple scab infection for each orchard, leading to an optimization of the use of chemical pesticides.
Cheng, L; Chen, K; Chai, Y-M; Wen, G; Wang, C-Y
We present an anatomic study of the vein distribution at the eponychial level, in order to standardize outpatient fingertip replantation. The cross sectional anatomy of 100 fingers was studied by dissection following dye injection. The distribution of the veins >0.3 mm was recorded on a pie-chart. Thirty fingers in 27 patients with fingertip amputations at the eponychial level were replanted by anastomosis of the palmar subcutaneous veins, to reconstruct the venous reflux of the amputated digits. The operations were aided by the anatomical study and confirmed that the palmar area is the preferred site for venous anastomosis Following a distal finger amputation at the level of the eponychial fold we propose starting the search for veins between the 3 to 5 o'clock or 7 to 9 o'clock positions, as these are the areas where there are most likely to be suitable veins.
GS-SEM Group - General Infrastructure and Services Department
The poplars on the border of CERN's Prévessin site were felled, according to plan, on Friday, 26 February. The work was essential as the trees were showing signs of serious ageing problems (broken and dead branches, weakened trunks and root systems, etc.) and needed to be felled to ensure the safety of drivers on the D35 The trees that have been cut will be transformed into renewable energy wood chips and used to heat local schools and crèches. They will be replaced by a hedge of hornbeams, a native fast-growing tree, which will be planted in the spring. The felling operation was entrusted to the French national forestry authorities, with the support of the Bellegarde-Pays de Gex Agence Routière et Technique. It marks the start of a vast poplar-felling and replanting campaign, which will be extended to CERN's Meyrin site. The work is part of CERN's general renovation and site planning scheme for the future.
Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael
Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akyürek, M; Safak, T; Keçik, A
The authors describe the functional and aesthetic results of microsurgical replantation of 21 fingertip amputations at or distal to the nail base-namely, zone I amputations. There were 15 male and 6 female patients, with an average age of 26 years (age range, 1-41 years). Replantations were performed using the anastomosis of the artery-only technique, with neither vein nor nerve repair. Venous drainage was provided by an external bleeding method with a fish-mouth incision in "distal" zone I amputations for approximately 7 days, and by the use of leeches in more "proximal" zone I amputations for 10 to 12 days. Results indicated that the overall survival rate was 76%, with 16 of 21 digits surviving. Sensory evaluation at an average follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-18 months) revealed an average static two-point discrimination of 6.1 mm (range, 2.0-8.0 mm). Considering the unfavorable results and the donor site morbidity of various fingertip reconstructions, a microsurgical fingertip replantation should always be considered except in extremely distal, clean-cut, pediatric cases, in which case a composite graft is a possibility. The results of this series indicate that an amputated fingertip in zone I can be salvaged successfully by microvascular anastomosis of the artery only, with a nonmicrosurgical method of venous drainage. Furthermore, acceptable sensory recovery can be expected without any nerve coaptation.
Full Text Available There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.
Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Lovegrove, Julie A.
There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26016654
Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang
We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tan, Long; Gao, Wenshan; Xi, Ali; Wang, Cong; Chen, Shouying; Zhao, Yanyan; Di, Keqian; Yang, Xincai; Weng, Shengbin
To explore the effect and mechanism of ultrashort wave (USW) for prevention and treatment of vascular crisis after rat tail replantation. Eighty 3-month old female Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 232.8-289.6 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups. In each group, based on the caudal vein and the coccyx was retained, the tail was cut off. The tail artery was ligated in group A; the tail artery was anastomosed in groups B, C, D, and E to establish the tail replantation model. After surgery, the rats of group B were given normal management; the rats of group C were immediately given intraperitoneal injection (3.125 mL/kg) of diluted papaverine hydrochloride injection (1 mg/mL); the rats of groups D and E were immediately given the local USW treatment (once a day) at anastomotic site for 5 days at the dosage of 3 files and 50 mA for 20 minutes (group D) and 2 files and 28 mA for 20 minutes (group E). The survival rate of the rat tails was observed for 10 days after the tail replantation. The tail skin temperature difference between proximal and distal anastomosis was measured at pre- and post-operation; the change between postoperative and preoperative temperature difference was calculated. The blood plasma specimens were collected from the inner canthus before operation and from the tip of the tail at 8 hours after operation to measure the content of nitric oxide (NO). The survival rates of the rat tails were 0 (0/14), 36.4% (8/22), 57.1% (8/14), 22.2% (4/18), and 75.0% (9/12) in groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively, showing significant overall differences among 5 groups (chi2 = 19.935, P = 0.001); the survival rate of group E was significantly higher than that of group B at 7 days (P 0.05). At preoperation, there was no significant difference in tail skin temperature difference among 5 groups (P > 0.05); at 8 hours, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days after operation, significant overall difference was found in the change of the skin temperature difference among groups (P
Manici , L.M.; Kelderer, M.; Caputo, F.; De Luca Picione , F.; Topp, A.
This study was performed on the impact of two different cover crops (cereal and legume) on composition of root fungal endophytes and rhizospheric bacterial communities as a function of crop health in replanted apple orchards.
Advances in Apple Transformation Technology to Confer Resistance to Fungal Diseases in Apple Crops: A Chilean Perspective Avances de la Tecnología de Transformación del Manzano para Conferir Resistencia a Enfermedades Fungosas en su Cultivo: Una Perspectiva Chilena
Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. is one of the most consumed fruit in the world. Genetic transformation is a key process to sustain this demand by permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as the development of new cultivars resistant to pests, diseases, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. This review summarizes the advances of genetic engineering applied to the development of resistant apple cultivars to fungus disease, with particular attention in the generation of apples resistant to Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, the main phytosanitary problem that affects apple crops in Chile.La manzana (Malus domestica Borkh. es una de las frutas más consumidas en el mundo. La transformación genética es un proceso clave para sustentar esta demanda, permitiendo el mejoramiento potencial de los cultivares existentes, así como el desarrollo de nuevas variedades resistentes a plagas, enfermedades y problemas de almacenamiento que se originan en las zonas de producción más importantes. Esta revisión resume los avances de la ingeniería genética aplicada al desarrollo de variedades de manzana resistentes a enfermedades fungosas, con especial atención en la generación de manzanas resistentes a Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, el principal problema fitosanitario que afecta a los cultivos de manzana en Chile.
Liu Yifan; Hong Tianlu
Objective: To study the value of CT in the bone healing. Methods: The rabbit's tibia segments were resected and replanted X-ray and CT photograph were taken after operation at 2,4,8,12 week. Results: CT is more clear than X-ray. Conclusion: CT is superior to X-ray photography in observed bone healing
Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.
Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...... monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time...
Heidi J Chial
Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments
Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho
The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...
Xu, Jing-Hong; Gao, Zheng-Jun; Yao, Jing-Ming; Tan, Wei-Qiang; Dawreeawo, Javed
Reconstruction of an amputated fingertip in a young child demands special techniques for success. We report a 2.5-year-old female patient with an amputated left index fingertip with the vascular defect being too severe to perform the usual replantation. Comparing several methods, we used the neighbouring digital artery as the feeding artery to perform foster replantation. Finally, the patient was satisfied with the appearance and function of her fingers. The clinical case, techniques, results are described and discussed. We consider it a useful technique, especially for those with a rather severe vascular defect. A 2.5-year-old girl suffered a crush amputation of the left index fingertip. Only the flexor tendon of the amputated fingertip was connected to the proximal finger tissue and the blood supply was completely lost (Figure 1). The distal amputated fingertip was fixed using Kirschner wire under general anaesthesia. Then, microsurgery operation was carried out immediately to replant this amputated fingertip. Both ulnar and radial digital arteries were avulsed, while the dorsal vein was intact and the digital nerve was also surviving. The integrity of blood vessels was too traumatised to connect to the proximal part. In the case of the distal part of the ulnar artery of the injured index finger, the blood supply was established by anastomosing the distal end of the amputated tip and the radial artery of the middle finger, which was the feeding artery (Figure 2). A 11/0 nylon suture was used. The dorsal vein and digital nerve were repaired by means of microsurgical anastomosis. The wound was covered with the dorsal skin of the middle finger and the palmar skin of the index finger to form a skin pedicle, and then, immobility of the two fingers was maintained to prevent avulsion. The index tip obtained good blood supply and survived completely (Figure 3). Detachment of the index and middle finger was performed after 3 weeks, and both of the fingers showed good
Butt, Ahsan Masood; Ismail, Amir; Lawson-Smith, Matthew; Shahid, Muhammad; Webb, Jill; Chester, Darren L
Leeches are a well-recognized treatment for congested tissue. This study reviewed the efficacy of leech therapy for salvage of venous congested flaps and congested replanted or revascularized hand digits over a 2-year period. All patients treated with leeches between 1 Oct 2010 and 30 Sep 2012 (two years) at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK were included in the study. Details regarding mode of injury requiring reconstruction, surgical procedure, leech therapy duration, subsequent surgery requirement and tissue salvage rates were recorded. Twenty tissues in 18 patients required leeches for tissue congestion over 2 years: 13 men and 5 women. The mean patient age was 41 years (range 17-79). The defect requiring reconstruction was trauma in 16 cases, following tumour resection in two, and two miscellaneous causes. Thirteen cases had flap reconstruction and seven digits in six patients had hand digit replantations or revascularisation. Thirteen of 20 cases (65%) had successful tissue salvage following leech therapy for congestion (77% in 10 out of 13 flaps, and 43% in 3 of 7 digits). The rate of tissue salvage in pedicled flaps was good 6/6 (100%) and so was in digital revascularizations 2/3 (67%), but poor in digital re-plants 1/4 (25%) and free flaps 0/2 (0%). Leeches are a helpful tool for congested tissue salvage and in this study, showed a greater survival benefit for pedicled flaps than for free flaps or digital replantations.
Bi Jinfeng; Ding Yuanyuan; Wang Pei; Bai Shasha
Many factors affect the quality of explosion puffed apple slices. Apple varieties of Guoguang, Fuji, Hongxiangjiao and Huangxiangjiao were used as materal, the quality of fresh apple and explosion puffed products were analyzed based on the data of their physical and chemical characteristics and flavor. The results showed that Guoguang apple had the optimal flavor and Huangxiangjiao apple had the optimal product quality. So the Guoguang apple was selected as the material for the following results showed that irradiation could soften apple tissue, improve the pre-drying rate, increase products crispness, and also reduce the products hardness, but the irradiation of 2 and 5 kGy could turn products brown seriously, which reduced the product quality. (authors)
MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.
Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...
Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders
Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.
Park, Hyun Chul; Bahar-Moni, Ahmed Suparno; Cho, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Hyun Sik; Ahn, Sang Cheon
During replantation of distal fingertip amputation, identification of the artery is the most important but time consuming procedure. Depending on the damaged arterial structure, we classified distal fingertip amputations into 4 zones, on the basis of three dimensional concept. Zone 1 injury was defined as damage to the proximal central pulp artery; zone 2 injury, damage to the branch of the central pulp artery; zone 3 injury, damage to the distal central pulp artery; and zone 4 injury, no inj...
In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y
Köhl, J.; Scheer, C.; Holb, I.J.; Masny, S.; Molhoek, W.M.L.
Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most important disease in apple production, reducing yield and quality of fruit. Control of apple scab in commercial orchards currently depends on multiple applications of fungicides. The potential of the antagonistic isolate Cladosporium
In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...
Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting
Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.
Allison J. Bigbee
Full Text Available Injuries to the conus medullaris and cauda equina portions of the spinal cord result in neurological impairments, including paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and pain. In experimental studies, earlier investigations have shown that a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA injury results in allodynia, which may be ameliorated by surgical replantation of the avulsed ventral roots. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of an L6 + S1 VRA injury on the plasticity of three populations of afferent projections to the dorsal horn in rats. At 8 weeks after a unilateral L6 + S1 VRA injury, quantitative morphological studies of the adjacent L5 dorsal horn showed reduced immunoreactivity (IR for the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and isolectin B4 (IB4 binding, whereas IR for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was unchanged. The IR for VGLUT1 and CGRP as well as IB4 binding was at control levels in the L5 dorsal horn at 8 weeks following an acute surgical replantation of the avulsed L6 + S1 ventral roots. Quantitative morphological studies of the L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs showed unchanged neuronal numbers for both the VRA and replanted series compared to shams. The portions of L5 DRG neurons expressing IR for VGLUT1 and CGRP, and IB4 binding were also the same between the VRA, replanted, and sham-operated groups. We conclude that the L5 dorsal horn shows selective plasticity for VGLUT1 and IB4 primary afferent projections after an L6 + S1 VRA injury and surgical repair.
Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,
By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab
Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia
Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Janik, Katrin; Mithöfer, Axel; Raffeiner, Margot; Stellmach, Hagen; Hause, Bettina; Schlink, Katja
The plant pathogen Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (P. mali) is the causative agent of apple proliferation, a disease of increasing importance in apple-growing areas within Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation within apple trees. In this study, we identified two TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR) transcription factors of Malus x domestica as binding partners of the P. mali SAP11-like effector ATP_00189. Phytohormone analyses revealed an effect of P. mali infection on jasmonates, salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels, showing that P. mali affects phytohormonal levels in apple trees, which is in line with the functions of the effector assumed from its binding to TCP transcription factors. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the molecular targets of a P. mali effector and thus provides the basis to better understand symptom development and disease progress during apple proliferation. As SAP11 homologues are found in several Phytoplasma species infecting a broad range of different plants, SAP11-like proteins seem to be key players in phytoplasmal infection. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte
Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patter...
Koul, Ashok R; Nahar, Sushil; Valandi, Beena; Praveen, Kumar H P
We present a new technique for stabilizing an avulsed scalp during and after replantation/revascularization. We used an aluminium "halo" frame with 4 screws. This technique can rigidly stabilize an avulsed scalp and eliminate the possibility of shearing/pressure necrosis. This device can make perioperative management easier and more comfortable for the patient and caregivers.
Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.
Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo
China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple
de Souza, Fernando Isquierdo; Poi, Wilson Roberto; da Silva, Vanessa Ferreira; Martini, Ana Paula; Melo, Regis Alexandre da Cunha; Panzarini, Sonia Regina; Rocha, Eduardo Passos
The aim was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the supporting bony structures of replanted teeth and the periodontal ligament (PDL) of adjacent teeth when orthodontic wires with different mechanical properties are applied, with three-dimensional finite element analysis. Based on tomographic and microtomographic data, a three-dimensional model of the anterior maxilla with the corresponding teeth (tooth 13-tooth 23) was generated to simulate avulsion and replantation of the tooth 21. The teeth were splinted with orthodontic wire (Ø 0.8 mm) and composite resin. The elastic modulus of the three orthodontic wires used, that is, steel wire (FA), titanium-molybdenum wire (FTM), and nitinol wire (FN) were 200 GPa, 84 GPa, and 52 GPa, respectively. An oblique load (100 N) was applied at an angle of 45° on the incisal edge of the replanted tooth and was analyzed using Ansys Workbench software. The maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stresses generated in the PDL, cortical and alveolar bones, and the modified von Mises (σvM) values for the orthodontic wires were obtained. With regard to the cortical bone and PDL, the highest σmin and σmax values for FTM, FN, and FA were checked. With regard to the alveolar bone, σmax and σmin values were highest for FA, followed by FTM and FN. The σvM values of the orthodontic wires followed the order of rigidity of the alloys, that is, FA > FTM > FN. The biomechanical behavior of the analyzed structures with regard to all the three patterns of flexibility was similar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stemann Andersen, Peter; Elberg, Jens Jørgen
The survival of a microsurgically replanted segment of nose in a 41-year-old woman was facilitated by the assistance of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. An arterial microanastomosis was made to a severed partial segment of nose with no possibility of recreating a venous anastomosis. The re....... The resulting venous congestion was treated with nine days of treatment with a medical leech until venous neovascularisation had been achieved. At follow-up six months after discharge there was a well-heeled nasal segment and a satisfying functional - as well as cosmetic - result....
... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...
Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid
Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin
Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.
Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.
Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.
The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana
Full Text Available Sur les bourses européennes, la notion de durabilité des investissements dans les valeurs est explicite « Développement durable rime avec investissement rentable » (La Tribune, 11 mars 2000. La maxime émerge avec le développement des fonds éthiques. Selon leurs promoteurs, plus une société commerciale aura le souci de son environnement, plus elle sera boursièrement performante. D’une certaine façon, ce raisonnement reprend des courants de l’écologie humaine et de l’économie rurale, s’appliquant fort bien aux cultures pérennes. En l’absence de pensions et de retraites, les planteurs voient dans les cultures pérennes un moyen efficace pour accumuler des richesses, épargner, et éventuellement pour les transmettre à la génération suivante [1, 2]. Les cultures pérennes représentent bien un patrimoine, et leur propriétaire est à la fois un entrepreneur qui investit et un épargnant soucieux de la valeur de son patrimoine, donc de l’environnement garantissant sa durabilité. Cette notion de durabilité peut signifier une stratégie de prolongement de vie économique de l’actif épargné, la plantation, mais peut aussi passer par des stratégies de vente, de rachat, de reconversion, replantation, diversification. Pour un planteur, tout à la fois chef de famille, entrepreneur, épargnant et consommateur, la notion de durabilité s’applique d’abord à celle des revenus disponibles pour la famille. Par rapport à un objectif de durabilité des revenus, comment, pourquoi et quand un planteur prend-il la décision de replanter ? Nous essayerons ici de répondre à cette question sous forme de réflexion et d’exemples pris dans différents pays pour diverses cultures pérennes.
at once it, and therefore, it allows exploring the effect of food in a more global way compared to traditional techniques. The aim of this PhD project was to uncover the effect of consumption of apple or apple products on biochemical mechanisms and explore health related associations by using an LC...... with a diet supplemented with two dosages (5 g/day and 10g/day) of whole fresh apple pieces through 16 weeks (PAPER I). Plasma samples were analysed by LC-MS. Due to the complexity of the design of the study, several chemometric analyses have been employed. Initially, ASCA was applied in order to isolate...... the metabolic variations related to the consumption of fresh apples, successively PLS-DA to reveal discriminative metabolites in control vs. apple fed rats and finally PLS analysis to investigate possible dose-responses. Findings are related to a decrease in toxic catabolic products produced by protein...
Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.
Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi
Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.
Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.
Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from
Li Na; Tan Genjia; Li Zenzhi; Liu Shufang; Hou Xiaodan; Yang Weilai
The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a nosogenesis important fungus that causes the serious economic loss on apple, however, inducing resistance of the host may reduce the loss. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was treated by ion implantation and by alternating magnetic field to induce aberrance. It was screened through eyeballing first, and then screened through growth on apple. Two aberrance strains (C100-2-5 and C0.25-1-2 were selected. Both the strains have good protective function and good effect to control the apple disease. (authors)
Schouten, H.J.; Brinkhuis, J.; Burgh, van der S.; Schaart, J.; Groenwold, R.; Broggini, G.A.L.; Gessler, C.
Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is a serious disease of apple. Previously, the scab resistance Rvi15 (Vr2) from the accession GMAL 2473 was genetically mapped, and three candidate resistance genes were identified. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of these three
Šumić Zdravko M.
Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.
Hendry, Archibald W.
Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: International breeding programs launched new genetic material of apple rootstocks that in addition to precocity and great yield are resistant to major diseases and soil pests encountered in the largest apple producing regions in Brazil. Given this, there is a necessity for vegetative propagation of these materials for study and possible replacement of existing rootstocks. The objective was to adapt a micropropagation protocol for new apple rootstock ‘G. 814’. In the multiplication phase were evaluated BAP concentrations: 0; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4mg L-1 and in the rooting phase were evaluated IBA concentrations: 0; 0.25; 0.50; 1; 1.5 and 2.5mg L-1. These new results demonstrated that this new rootstock selection can be propagated with this tissue culture adapted protocol. For the successful in vitro propagation of apple rootstock ‘G. 814’ it is indicated the use of 1mg L-1 BAP at multiplication phase and 1.5mg L-1 IBA at rooting phase.
Full Text Available Bioactive polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. The present work focused on fractionation of ethanol extract of apple pomace using macroporous absorbent resin chromatography and HPLC analysis of all fractions recovered from polyphenol-enriched extract and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharides (LPS -induced mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Six fractions API-VI were achieved through fractionation eluting with aqueous alcohol. HPLC analysis indicated that APIII eluted by 40% ethanol had the highest content of total phenolics, which was 148.1 ± 3.11 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry apple pomace. Anti-inflammatory assays showed that APIII had the strongest activity against COX-2 expression at 5 ?g mL-1 and procyanidin B2 and quercetin exhibited positive correlation with their anti-inflammatory effects. Our data suggested that phenolics could be prepared from apple pomace and applied in the management of inflammatory diseases.
Bull’s-eye rot is a major postharvest disease of apple caused by several fungi belonging to the Neofabraea and Phlyctema genera. Chemical control of these fungi is a crucial component of disease management for apples that are conventionally grown. The efficacy of several pre-harvest and postharvest ...
Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz
healthy subjects; this was caused by the fructose-induced rise of serum uric acid levels, but was not due to the presence of antioxidant polyphenols in juice. Thus, short-term consumption of apple juice seems not to be the effective dietary intervention to augment plasma antioxidant activity due to the concomitant possibility for uric acid to be a risk factor for several diseases, as verified by other authors.
Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M
Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.
Bastos, Juliana Vilela; Ilma de Souza Côrtes, Maria; Andrade Goulart, Eugenio Marcos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas
External root resorption (ERR) is a serious complication after replantation, and its progressive inflammatory and replacement forms are significant causes of tooth loss. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the factors related to the occurrence of inflammatory ERR (IERR) and replacement ERR (RERR) shortly after permanent tooth replantation in patients treated at the Dental Trauma Clinic at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Case records and radiographs of 165 patients were evaluated for the presence, type, and extension of ERR and its association with age and factors related to the management and acute treatment of the avulsed tooth by using the logistic regression model. The patient's age at the moment of trauma had a marked effect on the ERR prevalence and extension. The patients older than 16 years at the moment of trauma had less chance of developing IERR and RERR (77% and 87%, respectively) before the pulp extirpation, regardless of the extension of the resorption. The patients older than 11 years of age at the moment of trauma showed the lowest indices of IERR (P = .02). Each day that elapsed between the replantation and the pulp extirpation increased the risk of developing IERR and RERR by 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively, and also raised the risk of severe IERR by 0.5% per day. The risk of mature teeth developing severe IERR before the onset of endodontic therapy was directly affected by the timing of the pulpectomy and was inversely proportional to age. Systemic antibiotic therapy use had no effect on the occurrence and severity of IERR in mature teeth. The occurrence of RERR before the onset of endodontic treatment stimulates further investigations of the early human host response to trauma and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marchetti, E.; Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Chicca, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Pasqualini, E.; Baroni, P.
A study of the constitutive resistance of the apple cultivar Florina, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera Aphididae), was performed for the first time by the electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system, using the susceptible apple
Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O
Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.
In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat
Jensen, Philip J; Fazio, Gennaro; Altman, Naomi; Praul, Craig; McNellis, Timothy W
Apple tree breeding is slow and difficult due to long generation times, self-incompatibility, and complex genetics. The identification of molecular markers linked to traits of interest is a way to expedite the breeding process. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes whose steady-state transcript abundance was associated with inheritance of specific traits segregating in an apple (Malus × domestica) rootstock F1 breeding population, including resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) disease and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum). Transcription profiling was performed for 48 individual F1 apple trees from a cross of two highly heterozygous parents, using RNA isolated from healthy, actively-growing shoot tips and a custom apple DNA oligonucleotide microarray representing 26,000 unique transcripts. Genome-wide expression profiles were not clear indicators of powdery mildew or woolly apple aphid resistance phenotype. However, standard differential gene expression analysis between phenotypic groups of trees revealed relatively small sets of genes with trait-associated expression levels. For example, thirty genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. Interestingly, the genes encoding twenty-four of these transcripts were physically clustered on chromosome 12. Similarly, seven genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to woolly apple aphid, and the genes encoding five of these transcripts were also clustered, this time on chromosome 17. In each case, the gene clusters were in the vicinity of previously identified major quantitative trait loci for the corresponding trait. Similar results were obtained for a series of molecular traits. Several of the differentially expressed genes were used to develop DNA polymorphism markers linked to powdery mildew disease and woolly apple aphid resistance. Gene expression profiling
Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.
IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1
Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S
Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
..., commenters asked that the NOP and the NOSB develop a phase-out plan for the use of antibiotics in fruit trees..., Elizabeth, and David Granatstein. Status of Organic Tree Fruit in Washington State--2009, Washington State... apple and pear growers (e.g. cost to replant trees, reduced productivity in existing trees) and organic...
DeFazio, Michael V; Han, Kevin D; Paryavi, Ebrahim
Successful replantation of distal digital segments necessitates the establishment of sufficient outflow to minimize congestion and progressive tissue necrosis. In cases where only arterial anastomosis is feasible, an artificial outlet must be provided to maintain physiological requirements until microvenous circulation regenerates. This can be accomplished using any number of "exsanguination techniques" designed to facilitate egress through ongoing passive blood loss. Although reportedly effective, these measures are imprecise and carry a substantial risk of infection, scarring, and/or uncontrolled hemorrhage. Herein, we describe a preemptive alternative for provisional venous drainage, whereby direct catheterization of a distal arterial branch is used to enhance the precision of outflow management following artery-only digital replantation. The establishment of intravascular access, using the technique described, permits remote manipulation of the microcirculatory environment through timed administration of heparinized saline and regulated removal of controlled volumes of blood.
Replant disease is a major limitation for strawberry production in greenhouse. Bio-control may be a good way to cope with the replant diseases. Here, we report identification and characterization of a bacterial strain TS06 that may be used as a bio-control agent against the replant diseases in strawberry. TS06 was identified ...
Full Text Available The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1% to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20 °C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of P. expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples.
... for Educators Search English Español What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's an Adam's Apple? Print You're at the high school baseball ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...
Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P
The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and oral...
Köhl, J.; Wenneker, M.; Haas, de B.H.; Anbergen, R.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.
Post-harvest diseases of apple and pear result in significant economic losses during long storage. Pathogens causing quiescent infections in the orchard leading to late post-harvest losses in The Netherlands are Neofabraea alba (Lenticel spot disease), N. perennans (Bull eye rot), Neonectria
Schlenker, Richard M.
This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…
ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet
Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...
Davis, Matthew A; Bynum, Julie P W; Sirovich, Brenda E
Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non-apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. The primary outcome measure was success at "keeping the doctor away," measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)--those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non-apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (Paway: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9% of non-apple eaters (P=.03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.93-1.53; P=.15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at avoiding prescription medications (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.00-1.63). There were no differences seen in overnight hospital stay or
Holb, I.J.; Heijne, B.; Jeger, M.J.
A 2-year study on epidemic progress of apple scab was conducted at Randwijk, the Netherlands, in 1998 and 1999. The summer epidemic caused by conidia was studied instead of the well-described spring season epidemic originating from ascospores. The aim was to investigate relationships between disease
Full Text Available A palato-radicular groove (PRG is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed.
Khaled A.L. Rihani
In the present study, the flavonoid pathway was successfully modified in apple by overexpressing the MdMyb10 transcription factor to validate the hypothesis of increased effect on plant disease resistance.
Full Text Available Fire blight, which is an important disease of apples and pears, has never been detected in continental Finland. In this study the suitability of the Finnish climate for apple blossom blight infections by Erwinia amylovora was evaluated with the epidemiological model MaryblytTM. This was done in fourteen locations, and for two apple cultivars differing in flowering times. Climatic conditions were predicted to be suitable for blossom infections in 18 - 51% of the years, and the annual period of suitable conditions was predicted to last up to two to five days, depending on the location and apple cultivar. The suitable period was predicted to be longer in some locations in central Finland than in those in the southernmost parts of the country. Based on these results the official surveys that are carried out to confirm the absence of fire blight in Finland cannot be targeted only to some parts of the country.
Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.
Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel
The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.
Harris, Linda J; Yada, Sylvia; Mitcham, Elizabeth
Apples are generally abundant and inexpensive, and they add a healthy component to a well-balanced diet. Learn how to get the most out of the apples you buy at market or from a U-Pick farm or grow in your own garden. Contains detailed instructions for freezing, drying and canning, including recipes for Applesauce, Apple Butter, Apple Chutney, and Sweet Apple Relish.
Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne
Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.
Bachelor thesis is dedicated to the analysis of Apple stock title. Analysis of stock title is provided on the basis of methods of fundamental and technical analysis, taking into account sectoral and fundamental analysis. The main objective of this thesis is to derive investment recommendations in relation to the stock Apple title, based on the evaluation of the related fundamental and technical factors on the price of the shares it operates. The hypothesis is the following statement: Apple sh...
Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on
Hansen, K.S.; Vestergaard, H.S.; Skov, P.S.
The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...
Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian
The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.
Moscetti, Roberto; Carletti, Letizia; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Stella, Elisabetta; Massantini, Riccardo
Apples are subject to a high degree of fungal diseases, but the use of synthetic fungicides has been questioned because of public safety concerns, social rejection, and the development of resistance in pathogens. Thus, development of new postharvest treatments against apple fungal pathogens is necessary. Most studies have reported their effectiveness, but not all report the effects on the quality and storability of the fruit. In this study, the effects of physical (hot water), chemical (quercetin) and biological (yeast antagonist) microfungal control on the quality of 'Golden Delicious' apple during storage at 2 ± 0.5 °C, and 90 ± 2% of relative humidity, for 2 months were investigated and compared. Heat-treated apples exhibited peel fruit damage (surface browning and internal breakdown disorders) and promoted ripening in the fruit. The quercetin caustic spray caused the development of peel chemical burn in all treated fruit. Both yeast antagonist and quercetin treatments did not affect the apple ripening process but stimulated an increase in ethylene production and in respiratory activity. The data indicated that the effects on quality and storability were dependent on the method of treatment used, and antagonistic yeast was the best microfungal control because of it did not cause any disorders or negative effects on apple quality during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cláudia Simone Madruga Lima
Full Text Available A physalis (Physalis peruviana é uma pequena fruta com grandes potencialidades, que, associadas ao seu ciclo curto e às propriedades nutracêuticas, apresenta possibilidade de alto retorno econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema de tutoramento e a época de transplante mais adequados para o crescimento e a produção de frutos de P. peruviana nas condições edafoclimáticas do sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Pelotas, RS, na safra de 2007/2008. O transplante de mudas de physalis foi realizado em duas épocas (época 1, 21/11/2007 e época 2 15/01/2008, sendo as plantas tutoradas em quatro sistemas de condução (sistema "V" invertido, sistema triangular, sistema vertical com bambu e sistema vertical com fitilho, semelhantes aos utilizados na cultura do tomateiro. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, sendo cada um representado por dez plantas. Os tratamentos formaram um fatorial 2x4 (épocas de transplante x sistemas de tutoramento. As variáveis analisadas foram: incremento do comprimento e da área da seção do ramo principal, área da seção do ramo principal, produtividade e eficiência produtiva. Foi evidenciado que a primeira época de transplante associada aos sistemas de tutoramento "V" invertido e triangular proporciona melhor desempenho agronômico das plantas de physalis.The cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana is a small fruit with great potentialities that whether associated to its short cycle and nutraceutical properties it shows high economical return. The work aimed to evaluate the best training system and replant period to plant growth, production and fruit quality of P. peruviana under edaphoclimatic at conditions of southern Rio Grande do Sul. The trial was carried out in Pelotas, RS, in 2007/2008 crop. Transplanting seedlings cape-gooseberry was conducted in two seasons Plant replanting was done in two periods (period 1, 21
Schlenker, Richard M.
This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…
Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.
The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented
Salem, E.A.; Moussa, Z.
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of physical and chemical methods to extend the shelf life of apple fruits by control the blue mold disease causing by Penicillium expansum. Apple fruits are subjected to different temperatures between 38, and 50 degree C for 24 hr. and stored at 0 degree C for 4 months. Increasing in temperature caused decreasing in firmness and blue mold incidence percentage (%) caused by P. expansum. At 50 degree C the treated apple fruits gave sharp softness and inhibition of blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum exposing for 4 days and cold storage at 0 degree C for 4 months and 5 days at 20 degree C. Dipping apple fruits in CaCl 2 at 2% and 4% decreased blue mold incidence (%) caused by P. expansum and increased apple fruits firmness at 2 and 4 months storage periods. Also, CaCl 2 treatments gave insignificant change in total soluble solid (TSS%) and in titratable acidity (TA%) of apple fruits. Gamma irradiation doses above 1 kGy significantly decreased firmness of apple fruits with the decrement being higher at higher doses.
Shen, Youming; Nie, Jiyun; Li, Zhixia; Li, Haifei; Wu, Yonglong; Dong, Yafeng; Zhang, Jianyi
The diverse fungal communities that colonize fruit surfaces are closely associated with fruit development, preservation and quality control. However, the overall fungi adhering to the fruit surface and the inference of environmental factors are still unknown. Here, we characterized the fungal signatures on apple surfaces by sequencing internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. We collected the surface fungal communities from apple fruits cultivated in rural and peri-urban orchards. A total of 111 fungal genera belonging to 4 phyla were identified, showing remarkable fungal diversity on the apple surface. Comparative analysis of rural samples harboured higher fungal diversity than those from peri-urban orchards. In addition, fungal composition varied significantly across apple samples. At the genus level, the protective genera Coniothyrium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Periconia were enriched in rural samples. The pathogenic genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Tilletiposis were enriched in peri-urban samples. Our findings indicate that rural samples maintained more diverse fungal communities on apple surfaces, whereas peri-urban-planted apple carried potential pathogenic risks. This study sheds light on ways to improve fruit cultivation and disease prevention practices.
Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.
Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis
Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.
Lai, Hsin-Ti; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Lai, Ya-Wei; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lee, Su-Shin; David Wang, Hui-Min; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Sin-Daw; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Shu-Hung
Non-replantable fingertip amputation is still a clinical challenge. We performed modified composite grafting with pulp adipofascial advancement flap for Hirase IIA fingertip amputations. Results from a series of patients are presented and achieved better outcome than traditional composite grafting. From September 2012 to April 2014, fourteen patients with sixteen digits were included in our study. Mean age of patients was 43.9 years (20-71 years). All of our patients underwent this procedure under digital block anesthesia. We performed pulp adipofascial advancement flap for better soft tissue coverage of bone exposure stump first. The amputated parts were defatted, trimming, and reattached as composite graft. Age and gender of patients, injured finger, Hirase classification, mechanism of trauma, overall graft survival area, two-point discrimination (2PD) (mm) at six-month, length of shortening of digit, The average disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score and subjective self-evaluation questionnaire at 6 month were recorded. Average graft survival area was 89% (75-100%). Average length of shortening was 2.2 mm (1.8-3.5 mm). 2PD at six-month after surgery was 6.3 mm in average (5-8 mm). Average DASH score at 6 month was 1.45 (0.83-2.5). The self-evaluated aesthetic results showed twelve patients (85.7%) were very satisfied, and no patient was completely unsatisfied. In Hirase zone IIA traumatic fingertip amputation where replantation is difficult, our modified technique of composite grafting with pulp adipofascial advancement flap provided an alternative choice with high successful rate, acceptable functional and aesthetic outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:651-657, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.
The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The...
The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.
Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine
PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood......-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS...
Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J
Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H
The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...
Milenković Slobodan; Marčić Dejan; Ružičić Lazar
The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a) predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata), b) predator activity (C. septempunctata) + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S), and c) predator activity (C. septempun...
Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J
The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women
Furfaro, Francesco; Ang, Estabelle S M; Lareu, Ricky R; Murray, Kevin; Goonewardene, Mithran
This study aims to investigate, utilising micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology, whether the topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can enhance periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal tissue regeneration while minimising the risk of pulpal necrosis, root resorption and ankylosis of replanted molars in a rat model. Twelve four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, collagen, EGF and NGF. The maxillary right first molar was elevated and replanted with or without a collagen membrane impregnated with either the growth factors EGF or NGF, or a saline solution. Four weeks after replantation, the animals were sacrificed and the posterior maxilla was assessed using histological and micro-CT analysis. The maxillary left first molar served as the control for the corresponding right first molar. Micro-CT analysis revealed a tendency for all replanted molars to have reduced root length, root volume, alveolar bone height and inter-radicular alveolar bone volume. It appears that the use of the collagen membrane had a negative effect while no positive effect was noted with the incorporation of EGF or NGF. Histologically, the incorporation of the collagen membrane was found to negatively affect pulpal, root, periodontal and alveolar bone healing with pulpal inflammation and hard tissue formation, extensive root resorption and alveolar bone fragmentation. The incorporation of EGF and NGF did not improve root, periodontal or alveolar bone healing. However, EGF was found to improve pulp vascularisation while NGF-improved pulpal architecture and cell organisation, although not to the level of the control group. Results indicate a possible benefit on pulpal vascularisation and pulpal cell organisation following the incorporation of EGF and NGF, respectively, into the alveolar socket of replanted molars in the rat model. No potential benefit of EGF and NGF was detected in periodontal or root
Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.
Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...
Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.
Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple
It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.
Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.
Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To
Dhir, Sunny; Walia, Yashika; Zaidi, A A; Hallan, Vipin
A simple method to amplify infective, complete genomes of single stranded RNA viruses by long distance PCR (LD PCR) from woody plant tissues is described in detail. The present protocol eliminates partial purification of viral particles and the amplification is achieved in three steps: (i) easy preparation of template RNA by incorporating a pre processing step before loading onto the column (ii) reverse transcription by AMV or Superscript reverse transcriptase and (iii) amplification of cDNA by LD PCR using LA or Protoscript Taq DNA polymerase. Incorporation of a preprocessing step helped to isolate consistent quality RNA from recalcitrant woody tissues such as apple, which was critical for efficient amplification of the complete genomes of Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV). Complete genome of ASGV was cloned under T7 RNA polymerase promoter and was confirmed to be infectious through transcript inoculation producing symptoms similar to the wild type virus. This is the first report for the largest RNA virus genome amplified by PCR from total nucleic acid extracts of woody plant tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
H. Etemadi Nasab
Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.
Banani, Houda; Olivieri, Leone; Santoro, Karin; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide
The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold) in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea . After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit.
Kawasaki, Hiromitu; Maki, Koichi; Seki, Yasushi.
A code APPLE was produced in 1976 for calculating and plotting tritium breeding ratio and tritium production rate distributions. That code was improved as 'APPLE-2' in 1982, to calculate and plot not only tritium breeding ratio but also distributions of neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, their spectra, nuclear heating rates and other reaction rates, and dose rate distributions during operation and after shutdown in 1982. The code APPLE-2 can calculate and plot these nuclear properties derived from neutron and gamma-ray fluxes by ANISN (one dimensional transport code), DOT3.5 (two dimensional transport code) and MORSE (three dimensional Monte Carlo code). We revised the code APPLE-2 as 'APPLE-3' by adding many functions to the APPLE-2 code in accordance with users' requirements proposed in recent progress of fusion reaction nuclear design. With minor modification of APPLE-2, a number of inconsistencies have been found between the code manual and the input data in the code. In the present report, the new functions added to APPLE-2 and improved users' manual are explained. (author)
Deaconescu, Răzvan; Deshotels, Luke; Bucicoiu, Mihai; Enck, William; Davi, Lucas; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza
In order to limit the damage of malware on Mac OS X and iOS, Apple uses sandboxing, a kernel-level security layer that provides tight constraints for system calls. Particularly used for Apple iOS, sandboxing prevents apps from executing potentially dangerous actions, by defining rules in a sandbox profile. Investigating Apple's built-in sandbox profiles is difficult as they are compiled and stored in binary format. We present SandBlaster, a software bundle that is able to reverse/decompile Ap...
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.
Terry, D.E.; Tabor, R.L.
This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques
Full Text Available ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. These, in turn, stem from the striking uniqueness of his creative path and from the severe problems it brought about. To them, he reacted following his own nature, eventually shaping the peculiar personality of Apple. The following paper will try to clarify such notion.
Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian
Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...
Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...
Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L
We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.
Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie
We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.
Full Text Available Apple proliferation (AP and pear decline (PD are the most severe diseases in pome fruit growing areas. AP-infected trees show typical symptoms such as witches’ broom, enlarged stipules, tasteless and dwarf fruits. PD-infected pears show a progressive weakening, reduced terminal growth, smaller fruits and die within weeks (quick decline or years (slow decline. The diseases are caused by the cell-wall lacking bacteria Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (AP phytoplasma and Ca. P. pyri (PD phytoplasma, respectively. In previous studies it has been shown that AP-infected apple trees emitted higher amounts of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene, an attractant of the insect vector Cacopsylla picta (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, thereby facilitating the dispersal of AP phytoplasma. In the present study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs occurring in the headspace of plants infected with Ca. P. mali strains causing different severity of symptoms in apple plants were collected, analyzed and identified. Headspace samples from healthy and AP-infected model plant tobacco (Nicotiana occidentalis and apple (Malus domestica as well as from healthy and PD-infected pear (Pyrus communis were investigated via thermodesorption and GC-MS analysis. Significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate were produced in all phytoplasma-infected plants compared to healthy ones and an as yet unidentified sesquiterpene differed between the odor bouquets of healthy and by Ca. P. mali infected tobacco plants. Additionally, statistically significant higher amounts of both compounds were measured in the headspace of plants infected by the virulent AP strain. In apple, significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate and methyl salicylate were observed for trees infected with strains of Ca. P. mali. Ethyl benzoate was also detected in the headspace of pear trees infected with Ca. P. pyri.
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the presence of chlorpyrifos in two varieties of apples: Golden Delicious and Idared in two different locations (Evla and Krveni from the Resen region in the country. Chlorpyrifos is organophosphate pesticide (insecticide used to protect apples from insects which can cause significant damage in apple production. The apples are analyzed in four development phases and in each phase the presence of chlorpyrifos is determined. Chlorpiryfos analysis of the apples is performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS followed by an extraction/separation cleansing with acetonitrile and the dispersive SPE - QuEChERS - method. The results are compared with the maximum residue levels (MRL prescribed by the legislation of the Republic of Macedonia. The conclusion is that chlorpyrifos is variously represented in most phases, regardless of the phase and location where the apple is grown. At certain phase the concentration exceedes MRL, however during the harvest, apples are safe to be consumed. Higher presence of chlorpyrifos is found in Idared apples at Kriveni location as compared to Evla. Тhe presence of chlorpyrifos in Golden Delicious is almost equal in both locations. From the statistical analysis of the data it is noticeable that the use of chlorpyrifos does not depend on the (type variety of apple but rather on the location where the apple is grown.
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...
Sigita Boca; Ruta Galoburda; Inta Krasnova; Dalija Seglina; Aivars Aboltins; Imants Skrupskis
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added...
Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E
Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study
Michael Paul Douglas Garratt
Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.
Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.
The use of 2 Apple microcomputers by the radiation protection group working with CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is described. The first Apple is used primarily to process the data from the radiation monitoring system around the ring before the maintenance engineers can commence work on the SPS. The second Apple is being developed to help in the calibration of the ring's 1,100 monitors. (U.K.)
Full Text Available Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS. It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice.
Full Text Available Flavour is a key quality att ribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in Apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.
Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo
Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895
Full Text Available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology has enabled the researchers to investigate the host global gene expression changes in plant-virus interactions which helped to understand the molecular basis of virus diseases. The re-analysis of RNA-Seq studies using most updated genome version and the available best analysis pipeline will produce most accurate results. In this study, we re-analysed the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV infected apple shoots in comparison with that of virus-free in vitro shoots  using the most updated Malus x domestica genome downloaded from Phytozome database. The re-analysis was done by using HISAT2 software and Cufflinks program was used to mine the differentially expressed genes. We found that ~20% more reads was mapped to the latest genome using the updated pipeline, which proved the significance of such re-analysis. The comparison of the updated results with that of previous was done. In addition, we performed protein-protein interaction (PPI to investigate the proteins affected by ASGV infection.
Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol.
Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.
Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)
Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram
Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Apple Configurator 2 (AC2) is a free mass-deployment utility that allows you to update multiple iPads, iPhones, iPod Touch devices, and Apple TVs at the same time, including apps, website links, iBooks, and software updates.
Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M
QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.
Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka
Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea. After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit.
Kim, Y K; Xiao, C L
Phenotype stability, fitness, and competitive ability of pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea from apple were investigated. Stability of resistance was determined after consecutive transfers on potato dextrose agar (PDA) or being cycled on apple fruit. In vitro fitness components mycelial growth, osmotic sensitivity, conidial germination, and sporulation were evaluated on agar media. Pathogenicity, virulence and sporulation on apple fruit were evaluated at both 20 and 0°C. Competition between fungicide-resistant and -sensitive isolates on apple fruit also was evaluated. Resistance to the two fungicides was retained at levels similar to that of the initial generation after 20 and 10 transfers on PDA and five and three disease cycles on apple fruit at 20 and 0°C, respectively. Great variability in individual fitness components tested was observed among isolates within the same phenotype groups either sensitive or resistant to the fungicides but, when compared as phenotype groups, there were no significant differences in the mean values of these fitness components between resistant and sensitive phenotypes except that the phenotype resistant only to boscalid produced fewer conidia in vitro than sensitive isolates. Resistant isolates were as pathogenic and virulent on apple fruit as sensitive isolates. There was no significant correlation between the values of individual fitness components tested and the level of resistance to pyraclostrobin or boscalid, except that virulence at 20°C positively correlated with the level of resistance to the two fungicides. The final frequency of pyraclostrobin-resistant individuals in the populations was significantly decreased compared with the initial generation and no boscalid-resistant individuals were detected after four disease cycles on apple fruit inoculated with a pair mixture of a dual-sensitive isolate and one isolate each of the three phenotypes resistant to pyraclostrobin, boscalid, or
Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi
For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g
Preventing apple scab infections by strategic irrigation is possible but only at a low level. The strategic irrigation alone does not sufficiently prevent apple scab, but might be a good supplement to fungicide sprays. The apple scab warning programmes might need an adjustment for Danish conditions......, with more focus on the earliest infection periods before flowering. Apple cultivars like ‘Red Aroma’, ‘Alkmene’ and ‘Holsteiner Cox’ are very robust against apple scab, with a maximum of 4% apple scab infection during 4 years of trial in an unsprayed orchard....
Lavelli, Vera; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William; Vantaggi, Claudia
Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (a(w)) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30°C. Products were evaluated for colour (L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) Hunter's parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid>flavan 3-ols>dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165d at a(w) of 0.75, 30°C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers' nutritional needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu
Studies on '60'Co-gamma irradiation of Golden Delicious apple have been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation dosage for stored apple was ranged from 0.3-0.5 k Gy, with this dosage, the contents of vitamin c and titratalbe acidity in these apples had no significant change compared with unirradiated apples. The respiratory rate and the amount of ethylene release were decreased after irradiation. The mortality of the verticillate pathogenic fungi was 97% at the dose of 0.5 k Gy
Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.
The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple
Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig
Plastic rain shields reduce the leaf and fruit wetness and protect apple trees against major leaf diseases and hail damage. Shielding the trees may reduce incoming radiation, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the light spectrum, and affect the microclimate and photosynthesis.
Liebhard, R.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Koller, B.; Ryder, C.D.; Tarchini, R.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gessler, C.
The availability of suitable genetic markers is essential to efficiently select and breed apple varieties of high quality and with multiple disease resistances. Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSR) are very useful in this respect since they are codominant, highly polymorphic, abundant and
Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P
Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.
Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. Aerial and/or ground surveys were undertaken to assess the current status of the disease spread. The survey showed that the spread of the disease for the past 5 years has mainly been the expansion of existing foci. However, new outbreaks were identified at Glidzi in the Volta, Bawjiase and Efutu Breman in Central regions. After the resurgence in the Volta region in 1995, the Woe-Tegbi-Dzelukope corridor has remained endemic, but less aggressive. Pockets of healthy groves remain along all the coastline and inland of known disease zones. Eradication of diseased palms at Ampain focus lying just about 60 km to the Ivorian border, and disease situations on new replanting with MYD × VTT hybrid are discussed.
Sep 17, 2015 ... cashew apples, drying kinetics, and product quality were investigated. It was found ..... Cashew apple residues from fruit juice industry as dehydrated fruit ... surface tension of both media (Rocha et al., 2006). Cashew apple ...
Jensen Philip J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight
Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W
Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.
Rebecca K. Peisley
Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.
Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu; Ma Xiuye; Zhang Shufen; Liu Shucheng
The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author)
Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C
Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.
Stoll, Peter F.
In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…
Ju Yeon Yoon
Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.
Zhang, Qiulei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Chuanbao; Wang, Shengnan; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengyuan; Li, Tianzhong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple ( Malus × domestica ). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a 2-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain. Md-miR395 targets another transcription factor, MdWRKY26, which contains two WRKY domains. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 levels increased, while MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression decreased in ALT1-inoculated GD leaves; furthermore, the overexpression of Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 resulted in a significant reduction in MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression. To investigate whether these miRNAs and their targets play a crucial role in plant defense, we overexpressed MdWRKYN1 or knocked down Md-miR156ab activity, which in both cases enhanced the disease resistance of the plants by upregulating the expression of the WRKY-regulated pathogenesis-related (PR) protein-encoding genes MdPR3-1, MdPR3-2, MdPR4, MdPR5, MdPR10-1 , and MdPR10-2 . In a similar analysis, we overexpressed MdWRKY26 or suppressed Md-miR395 activity, and found that many PR protein-encoding genes were also regulated by MdWRKY26 . In GD, ALT-induced Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 suppress MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression, thereby decreasing the expression of some PR genes, and resulting in susceptibility to ALT1.
IT/Communications Systems Group
AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: * SMB or HTTP for file services * LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group
AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: SMB or HTTP for file services LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group
Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.
McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean
The apple (Malus?domestica Borkh.) is one of the world?s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted a...
Fuchs, J. G.; Haseli, A.; Tamm, L.
Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Swiss organic apple production. In 2000 and 2001 a late season application strategy with coconut soap (Biofa Cocana RF) was evaluated. Coconut soap reduced disease occurrence in ali experiments. However, the efficacy was much higher in 2000 than in 2001, probably due to a much higher disease pressure in 2001.
Boshuizen, A.J.; Boshuizen, P.C.; Jong, de P.F.
Fruit tree canker (Neonectria ditissima syn. Nectria galligena Bres.) is an important fungal disease in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Leaf fall is the predominant infection period for this disease. However, in The Netherlands and Belgium, no historical data on leaf fall of apple are available.
In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...
Full Text Available The efficacy of several fungicide mixtures in controlling Venturia inaequalis in apple was evaluated in field trials. The efficacies of Flint Plus (trifloxystrobin + captan and Tercel (pyraclostrobin+ dithianon in comparison with standard fungicides Zato 50-WG (trifloxystrobin and Stroby + Delan (kresoxim-methyl + dithianon were tested in the localities Mihajlovac, Radmilovac and Landol in 2004 and 2005. Both tested fungicides exhibited high efficacy in controlling apple scab. There were significant differencies in the efficacies of Flint Plus (91.3-98.5% and Zato 50-WG (68.2% and 78.4%; and Tercel (88.7-93.5% and Stroby + Delan (77.9% and 82.1%. Our experiments showed that the investigated fungicide mixtures arehighly effective against V. inaqeulais, even under high disease pressure.
Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Geijn, van de F.G.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.
In a survey for postharvest diseases of apples and pears in the Netherlands, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed. The disease appeared to originate from infected lenticels. A fungus was consistently isolated from the decayed fruits. The fungal pathogen was isolated on potato dextrose
Frans A. Krens
Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic
Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.
Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...
Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.
A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes. Therefore ...
Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Schiller, Michaela; Lund, Ole Søgaard
. The associated pathogen has not previously been identi- fied, but symptoms are identical to those described for el- sinoe leaf and fruit spot (ELFS) caused by the ascomycete, Elsinoe pyri (Scheper et al., 2013). In 2012, DNA from fruit skin of apples was purified from two cultivars, Pigeon fra Juellinge...... (Scheper et al., 2013) were recovered by inoculating Topaz- spot infected fruit skin onto potato dextrose agar. Sequenc- ing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region revealed two identical 628 bp sequences (GenBank KC928079, KC928080) with 99% sequence identity to the previously published sequences of E. pyri. Our......An apple disease, known as “Topaz spot” in northern Europe (Trapman and Jansonius, 2008) has since year 2000 become widespread in Danish organic apple orchards (Malus domestica). Characteristic symptoms are small spots (black on fruits, brown on leaves) having a silvery-grey cen- tre...
Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...
Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł
Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...
Ruizhen, Fang; Siyi, Li; Lei, Gao; Li'an, Wu
Replacement resorption is the most frequent complication after delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. The resorption can interfere with the development of the alveolar ridge and lead to tilt of the adjacent teeth in growing patients. However, there is no means of arresting or reversing the process. Recently decoronation is recommended by International Assocaition of Dental Traumatology as the optimal choice to manage it. This paper demonstrates the procedure and effectiveness of the decoronation by literature review and a case report with 4-year follow-up.
Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.
Zhao Kejian; Lu Dunzhu; Wan Hong; Zhu Zhaonan; Xu Shanmei
The radiation effects on respiration and ethylene production in apple and its radiation preservation were reported in this paper. It shows that, when irradiation was applied immediately after harvest, the respiratory rate and ethylene production increase with the increasing of irradiation dose. When irradiation was applied after 7-10 days of storage, the respiratory rate still rises with the dose, while there is a decrease in ethylene production with the increasing of dose. If the irradiation dose is less than 800 Gy the rise of respiratory rate of irraadiated apple returns to the level of the control within 5 days, but ethylene production of irradiated apple keeps a lower level. According to the above results, dose of 300-500 Gy may be recommended for radiation preseration of apple. Ascorbic acid is unstable and sensitive to radiation. The radiation effects on ascorbic acid in apple is very small because the saccharides and some organic acid in apple, especially malic acid, are able to protect ascorbic acid from radiation damage. From measuring the saccharides and acids in apple, it is obvious that there is no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated apple. Long-life free radical in apple was not detected after irradiation. The scald of apple is reduced from 60% to less than 15% after cold storage for 8 monthes. The taste results indicated, tasting them without knowing which is irradiated or not, that the irradiated apple is superior to controlled sample
Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno
Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.
Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.
Rita Riekstina-Dolge; Zanda Kruma; Daina Karklina; Fredijs Dimins
Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titr...
M. R Bayati
Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the
Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N
New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.
...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...
Gustavo Franco; Carlos Henrique Cirino Lacerda; Carlos Filipe de Oliveira Pedrosa; Bruno da Silva Chiriu; Antonio Marcos Pereira; Sergio Luiz; Vinícius José Andrade Silveira
Este artigo pretende mostrar os fatos e caminhos seguidos pela empresa de computadores Apple e seus fundadores no decorrer de sua história. Tem também o objetivo de relatar os desfechos e as grandes idéias que fizeram da Apple uma das maiores empresas fabricantes de softwares e computadores pessoais, desde sua criação em 1976.
Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun
"6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)
Simonaitiene, Dovile; Brink, Ieva; Sipailiene, Ausra; Leskauskaite, Daiva
Penicillium expansum causes a major post-harvest disease of apples. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films containing different amounts of quince and cranberry juice against P. expansum on the simulation medium and on apples. The mechanical properties of films were also evaluated. The presence of cranberry and quince juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in elasticity and decrease in tensile strength of films. Chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films with quince and cranberry juice demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibition effect against P. expansum growth on the simulated medium and apples. The presence of cranberry juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films resulted in a longer lag phase and a lower P. expansum growth rate on the simulation medium in comparison with films made with the addition of quince juice. These differences were not evident when experiment was conducted with apples. Addition of quince and cranberry juice to the chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films as natural antifungal agents has some potential for prolonging the shelf life of apples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Giomaro, Giovanna; Karioti, Anastasia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Bucchini, Anahi; Giamperi, Laura; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele
Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. CATECHINS, PROCYANIDINS, HYDROXYCINNAMIC ACIDS, FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES, DIHYDROCHALCONE GLYCOSIDES AND ONE ANTHOCYANIN: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple.
Codrea, Marius C.; Nevalainen, Olli S.; Tyystjärvi, Esa; VAN DE VEN, Martin; VALCKE, Roland
Classification of harvested apples when predicting their storage potential is an important task. This paper describes how chlorophyll a fluorescence images taken in blue light through a red filter, can be used to classify apples. In such an image, fluorescence appears as a relatively homogenous area broken by a number of small nonfluorescing spots, corresponding to normal corky tissue patches, lenticells, and to damaged areas that lower the quality of the apple. The damaged regions appear mor...
Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.
iPodi pleierite ja Mac-arvutite kasvav müük aitas Apple'i kasumit aastaga viiekordistada 61 miljonilt 320 miljoni dollarini. Diagramm: Tulemused vedasid Apple'i tõusule. Vt. samas: Eesti investorid mängisid Apple'i tõusu peale
In agri-horticulture agroforestry approach apple trees were integrated with vegetables at ... activities incorporating their own farm resources to minimize input costs. ... Keywords: Agri-horticulture system; Apple tree adoption; Household income ...
Savatović Slađana M.
Full Text Available Granny Smith apple pomace was subjected to evaluation as valuable source of antioxidant and anticancer phytochemicals on the basis of its content in phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The total cotent of phenolics, flavonoids and flavan-3-ols in apple pomace determined spectrophotometrically, was 7.02 mg/g, 0.51 mg/g and 8.80 mg/g. Major phenolics (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids and dihydrochalcons in apple pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of apple pomace on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals, was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 9.51 mg/ml and 29.17 mg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative activities of apple pomace on cervix epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa, colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 cell lines were determined according to the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The IC50 HeLa , IC50 HT-29 and IC50 MCF7 values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 26.40 mg/ml, 22.47 mg/ml and 21.26 mg/ml, respectively. The significant correlations between antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities were established (p<0.05.
Miranda, Gabriel C.; Bujan, Alfonso; Leiva, Carlos H.; Yusef, Maria V.
The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples (var. Red delicious).The irradiation of apples caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryo. A dose of 100 Gy or more, inhibits the epicotyl development and with 50 Gy dose is possible to observe a great contrast with the non-irradiated apples. If the epicotyl development is less than 4 cm., the apples are identified as irradiated. The assessment can be made after 7 days. (author)
The main goal of this thesis is a definition of marketing goals and strategies of the Apple company on the basis of the complex positional analysis, whose output is the SWOT analysis. For purpose of using theoretical knowledge in praxis one part is devoted to the marketing instruments, which are used by the analyzed company. This part leads to analysis of the company's marketing mix of one of the product made by Apple. This thesis includes also results of the market research which was focused...
Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.
Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar
Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.
China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...
Milroy, B C; Sackelariou, R P; Lendvay, P G; Baldwin, M R; McGlynn, M
This paper describes a simple method of classification and evaluation of the functional results of replanted and revascularized parts in the hand. The results are presented in graphic form and have been analyzed to correlate various factors: injured part, cause, and zone (level) of injury. The type of injury, ischemic time and age have been studied in more detail to determine their influence of the final functional result. The series contains 187 amputated and devascularized parts of the hand in 119 patients who have undergone surgery at the Prince of Wales Hospital from 1984 through 1988. The length of cold or warm ischemic times, up to 16 hours in this series, while not affecting survival of the amputated part, does adversely affect the functional result. The survival rate of replanted parts in children was significantly less favorable than in adults, but the functional results were uniformly superior.
Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...
Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane
By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr
In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...
Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar
In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.
Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H
Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.
Laaksoviita, J. (Joonas)
Tiivistelmä Tämä kandidaatintutkielma perehtyi vakuuttavaan teknologiaan Apple Watch -älykellossa. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä osassa esiteltiin kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta älykellojen taustaa ja tutkittava laite. Sen jälkeen luotiin katsaus vakuuttavan teknologian perusideaan ja esiteltiin Persuasive Systems Design -malli vakuuttavan teknologian sovellusten analysointiin. Toisessa osiossa suoritettiin analyysi Apple Watchin...
Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.
A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 –
Full Text Available Apple ( X Borkh. is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS. However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficiently large samples. To establish genotype-phenotype relationships and advance MAS in apple, we extracted over 24,000 phenotype scores from the USDA-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database and linked them with over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 689 apple accessions from the USDA apple germplasm collection clonally preserved in Geneva, NY. We find significant genetic differentiation between Old World and New World cultivars and demonstrate that the genetic structure of the domesticated apple also reflects the time required for ripening. A genome-wide association study (GWAS of 36 phenotypes confirms the association between fruit color and the MYB1 locus, and we also report a novel association between the transcription factor, NAC18.1, and harvest date and fruit firmness. We demonstrate that harvest time and fruit size can be predicted with relatively high accuracies ( > 0.46 using genomic prediction. Rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD in apples means millions of SNPs may be required for well-powered GWAS. However, rapid LD decay also promises to enable extremely high resolution mapping of causal variants, which holds great potential for advancing MAS.
Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan
Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject Abstract The goal of the submitted thesis is the study of the company Apple Inc. in the context of how it is percieved by subjects. After a brief introduction of the company Apple Inc. we will focus on semiotic analysis of the brand Apple, its products and marketing strategies. The object of study will be also a present society, whose distinguishing feature is a consumption, and brand perception of a subject in connection with...
This studymainly focusing on Apple marketing, sailing products and Apples customer’sfeedback. It could be successful in terms of business that innovate from Applecompany to its customers yet the most important assets of the organizationrelationships with the media across all the productions units of apple.However, apple is facing poor human resources and procedures. In this study weare mainly focusing on SWOT analysis which innovates products and diversified portfolioof apple to show the stre...
Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei; Yamadera, Akira
The activities of seven kinds of apples produced in Aomori prefecture were measured with a high pure Ge detector set in a 15 cm-thick lead shield. The activities of 40 K were detected in all samples, but an artificial radioactive nuclide was not detected. The slices of an apple were contacted to an imaging plate for 15 days in a 15 cm-thick lead shield and cross sectional activity distributions were measured. By using the distribution map, the activities of skin, flesh and lead portion of an apple 'Ohrin' were calculated to 0.041, 0.032 and 0.046 Bq/g, respectively. This measuring system will be used for the activity estimations of the farm products, specially apples, because of that many atomic institutions are in operation and in the planning stage on Aomori prefecture. (author)
Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.
Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Gelvonauskienė, Dalia
There were investigated two columnar apple cultivars ‘Arbat’ and No. 24217 and apple cultivar ‘Aldas’ in an orchard at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars were released at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, ‘Arbat’ – in Russia. Cultivars and selections were budded on rootstocks P 60, M.26 and MM.106. In orchard apple trees were spaced at 1.0 x 3.5 m. Tree height, stem diameter, total length of one-year-old shoot, leaf area on a tree was measured and numbe...
Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare
Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.
Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p radiation may be an effective method for treating patulin-containing apple cider and juice.
Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin
The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...
Full Text Available The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica, on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.
Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana
The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740
C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...
Jaber, F.; Al Iskandarani, M.
The apple's crop can be affected by many pests during the growing season, which requires careful monitoring. Both apple fruit and apple tree need to be treated by pesticides in order to protect them from pests. Such treatment often leads to the accumulation of stable pesticides inside the fruit. The local market provides a large variety of pesticides allowing farmers to use more than one active substance in order to protect their crop, often without proper advice. Monitoring pesticides on apples and other agricultural crops is the best way to protect consumers health from the hazards of pesticides residues. The development of new, rapid and effective method to analyze the multi pesticides residues at trace levels in apple samples is essential. This work describes the extraction procedure and the analytical method developed to detect the pesticide residues using the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach (GC-MS). The developed method was successfully applied to analyze apple samples collected from different Lebanese markets for a one year period in order to monitor the presence of pesticides and their stability in apple fruits during storage. (author)
Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan
Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.
The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium
Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.
During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)
... pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of coat protein gene for Turkish ApMV isolates. Apple mosaic virus isolates were collected in 2007 to 2010 and the presence of the pathogen was detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR tests.
Sohn, M.R.; Cho, R.K.
In non-destructive evaluation of free acid content in apples by near- infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), browning and heat treatment of squeezed apple juice affected to the accuracy but titratable alkali concentration did not. The free acid content in apples after harvest was able to determine using different apples in harvest time for calibration making. The result of MLR, multiple correlation coefficient(R) was 0.77 and standard error of prediction(SEP) was 0.03%. The free acid content in apples during storage was able to determine using calibration equation established with stored apples, R was 0.90 and SEP was ca. 0.04%. The prediction accuracy by NIR was not sufficient for use of quantitative analysis of free acid content in apple, but classification of low and high level in acid content was supposed to be applicable
This bachelor's thesis is aimed at comparison of value management way of innovations and innovations according to Apple. At the first part there are analyzed theoretical, methodical and practical aspects of both of ways. Key theme for value innovation is value for customer, which is analyzed from both points of view value management and Apple. Except of product innovations there are mentioned for example marketing innovations or process innovations. In last part of the thesis there are demons...
Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima
Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple
Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.
The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)
This article discusses the contributions of the two pioneers of the surgical procedure of replantation-Ronald Malt in the US and Chen Zhongwei in China. Ronald Malt performed the reattachment surgery on a boy who had an accident in 1962, but he published his case report two years later in 1964. Chen Zhongwei performed a similar surgery on a worker who cut off his forearm in 1963, but he published his case report the same year. There is some debate about which one of these reputed surgeons should be given credit for being the first one to perform this breakthrough surgery, because although Malt was the first to perform the procedure, Zhongwei was the first to report it. To shed light on this controversy, criteria for scientific priority suggested by Ronald Vale and Anthony Hyman were applied. Although the criteria mainly favored Zhongwei as the pioneer of this procedure, he did not entirely fulfill one of the criteria. Therefore, the article could not present a definitive answer to the question, and it concludes by pointing out the highly commendable achievements and contributions of both Ronald Malt and Chen Zhongwei.
Harris, John E.
Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336
Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.
Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.
Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.
Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R
In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.
Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai
Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.
ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik
Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...
人見, 英里; 長崎, 有希; 赤山, 緩奈
This study aimed at inspecting the difference in the quality of apples which have been cultivated employing either bagged or unbagged methods in an apple farm located in Atou, Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The apples subjected were; 1)2015:4 varieties including Houmei, Ryoka-nokisetsu, Akibae, and Hoshi-no-kinka 2)2016:6 varieties including Houmei, Shinano-sweet, Ryoka-no-kisetsu, Yoko, Hoshi-no-kinka, Ourin. The apples from the same respective trees were set either to be bagged or un...
Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.
The Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) is a subroutine-based library of communication primitives that is callable from applications written in FORTRAN or C. APPL provides a consistent programmer interface to a variety of distributed and shared-memory multiprocessor MIMD machines. The objective of APPL is to minimize the effort required to move parallel applications from one machine to another, or to a network of homogeneous machines. APPL encompasses many of the message-passing primitives that are currently available on commercial multiprocessor systems. This paper describes APPL (version 2.3.1) and its usage, reports the status of the APPL project, and indicates possible directions for the future. Several applications using APPL are discussed, as well as performance and overhead results.
May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...
Wang, Sheng; Li, Qian; Zang, Yue; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Nan; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Xiaotao; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing
The saying "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" has been known for over 150 years, and numerous studies have shown that apple consumption is closely associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. It has been well accepted that dysbiosis is the reflection of various chronic diseases. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of apple polysaccharides (AP) on gut dysbiosis. High-fat diet (HFD) fed rats were treated for 14 weeks with AP. The microbiota composition, microbiota-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gut permeability and chronic inflammation were analyzed. AP treatment showed higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus while lower Firmicutes and Fusobacteium. AP significantly increased total SCFAs level that contributed by acetic acid and isobutyric acid. Moreover, AP dramatically alleviated dysbiosis-associated gut permeability and chronic inflammation with decreased plasma LBP, up-regulation of Occludin, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The potential mechanism is due to the fact that AP reduces gut permeability, which involves the induction of autophagy in goblet cells. Therefore, AP exerts health benefits through inhibiting gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation and modulating gut permeability in HFD-induced dysbiosis rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...
Liu, Cheng-Qian; Hu, Kang-Di; Li, Ting-Ting; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Li, Yan-Hong; Liu, He-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Hua
Aspergillus niger, a saprophytic fungus, is widely distributed in soil, air and cereals, and can cause postharvest diseases in fruit. Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the main enzymes in fungal pathogens to degrade plant cell wall. To evaluate whether the deletion of an exo-polygalacturonase gene pgxB would influence fungal pathogenicity to fruit, pgxB gene was deleted in Aspergillus niger MA 70.15 (wild type) via homologous recombination. The ΔpgxB mutant showed similar growth behavior compared with the wild type. Pectin medium induced significant higher expression of all pectinase genes in both wild type and ΔpgxB in comparison to potato dextrose agar medium. However, the ΔpgxB mutant was less virulent on apple fruits as the necrosis diameter caused by ΔpgxB mutant was significantly smaller than that of wild type. Results of quantitive-PCR showed that, in the process of infection in apple fruit, gene expressions of polygalacturonase genes pgaI, pgaII, pgaA, pgaC, pgaD and pgaE were enhanced in ΔpgxB mutant in comparison to wild type. These results prove that, despite the increased gene expression of other polygalacturonase genes in ΔpgxB mutant, the lack of pgxB gene significantly reduced the virulence of A. niger on apple fruit, suggesting that pgxB plays an important role in the infection process on the apple fruit.
Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce
The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.
... on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same conditions... apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to protect against the...
Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang
Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818
Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro
Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".
Joatan Machado da Rosa
Full Text Available Abstract The pollination services performed by Apis mellifera are essential for the high-quality apple production. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the pollination services used in the municipalities of Vacaria-RS e São Joaquim-SC, the main apple-producing regions in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with apple growers and technicians responsible for the orchards during 2013 and 2015. The obtained information was: a cropping systems; b use of pollination services; c number of hives per hectare during flowering; d renting value of hives; e mortality of colonies; f agrochemicals used on flowering; g presence of native bees on flowering. In Vacaria and São Joaquim, respectively, 70% and 68.6% of the apple growers use the integrated apple production as their production model. The directed pollination is used by 100% and 90.0% of respondents respectively, from which, 80% and 47.1% opt for the hive rent. On average, three hives were used per hectare in both regions. The average cost is U$ 17.52 and U$ 17.74 per hive, respectively. During the flowering period, insecticides and fungicides are used by 100% and 97.2% of the apple growers. The highest mean percentage of mortality of colonies during flowering was reported in Vacaria, 11.8%. Native bees are often found in apple flowers. The development of management strategies for the conservation of domestic and wild pollinators is essential.
Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Korsgaard, Maren; Nordling, Jonas
by Robert Hogg in 1880s. Other parameters focus on quality for use (table fruit, cooking, juice), flowering characteristics and tree growth and health (disease sensitivity). The development and use of the Apple Key is demonstrated and the stability of different characters in cultivar identification......Cultivar descriptions and correct identification are central for the work with genetic material, especially in Genebanks. The data collection of many descriptive parameters is very laborious in itself, but the handling of the data is also a challenge. However, when it comes to the level of use....... A dual aim was; firstly to present the diversity of apples in terms of appearance and qualities and also allow the inclusion of unique historical and cultural information including photos, pomological drawings and paintings. Secondly, the aim was to develop a tool for identification of cultivars and easy...
Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D
People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos.
Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai
Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974
Full Text Available Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.
Sep 17, 2015 ... the apple juice or powder with other tropical food to increase it vitamins and .... MANAGEMENT AND SPACING ON CASHEW APPLE. QUALITY. The quality ..... of beverages prepared from fruit and vegetable juices. (Gao and ...
Stephan, George R.
The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.
Marolleau, Brice; Gaucher, Matthieu; Heintz, Christelle; Degrave, Alexandre; Warneys, Romain; Orain, Gilles; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle
Plant resistance inducers, also called elicitors, could be useful to reduce the use of pesticides. However, their performance in controlling diseases in the field remains unsatisfactory due to lack of specific knowledge of how they can integrate crop protection practices. In this work, we focused on apple crop and acibenzolar- S -methyl (ASM), a well-known SAR (systemic acquired resistance) inducer of numerous plant species. We provide a protocol for orchard-effective control of apple scab due to the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis , by applying ASM in combination with a light integrated pest management program. Besides we pave the way for future optimization levers by demonstrating in controlled conditions (i) the high influence of apple genotypes, (ii) the ability of ASM to prime defenses in newly formed leaves, (iii) the positive effect of repeated elicitor applications, (iv) the additive effect of a thinning fruit agent.
Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar
Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)
Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P
Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.
Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio
The bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested against exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus dioliovorans and Pediococcus parvulus as well as two 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA)-producing Lb. collinoides strains causing apple cider spoilage. In fresh-made apple juice, a bacteriocin concentration of 2.5 microg/ml reduced the LAB viable cell counts below detection levels during the course of incubation at 10 and 22 degrees C for most strains tested, except for Lb. collinoides 5 and Lb. dioliovorans 29. These two strains were significantly inhibited at 10 degrees C by 5 microg/ml AS-48 or completely inactivated at 22 degrees C. In a commercial Basque apple cider, the added bacteriocin (2.5 microg/ml for Lb. collinoides strains 9 and 10, and 5 microg/ml for the rest of strains) completely inactivated all LAB strains tested during storage at 10 as well as 22 degrees C. In the commercial Asturian apple cider tested the LAB strains showed a poor capacity for survival, but the added bacteriocin was equally effective in reducing the numbers of survivors. When a cocktail of the five LAB strains was tested in commercial Basque apple cider, viable cell counts were reduced below detection levels after 2 days for a bacteriocin concentration of 12.5 microg/ml regardless of storage temperature. Comparison of RAPD-PCR profiles revealed that strain Lb. dioliovorans 29 was always the predominant survivor detected in bacteriocin-treated samples.
Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.
Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng
The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.
Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua
International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...
A new prediction model for the early warning of apple scab is proposed in this study. The method is based on artificial intelligence and time series prediction. The infection period of apple scab was evaluated as the time series prediction model instead of summation of wetness duration. Also, the relations of different ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Weed management in apple orchards (Malus domestica can affect the leaching of nitrogen (N in soil. The study aimed to evaluate the potential leaching of N forms in soil of an apple orchard with different weed management treatments. The experiment was conducted in an apple orchard implanted in 2008. In October 2011, 80 plants were selected and the following treatments were implemented: no weed management (NM, desiccation of weeds on the tree row with herbicide use (DR and mechanical mowing of weeds on the tree row (MR. Yield was evaluated in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop seasons. In May 2012 porous cup lysimeters were installed in the NM, DR and MR treatments. In the solution collected at 0.20m, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed sixteen times and mineral N concentration was calculated. The highest concentrations of NO3 --N and mineral N occurred in soil solution with DR, which increases availability of the nutrient to apple trees, but also enhances the potential losses. Weed management and N flow in the solution did not affect apple yield.
Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.
Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory
Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.
Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.
Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.
Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio
The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples and cherries. The optimum incubation temperature for apples and cherries was 30 o C and 25 o C, respectively. Benzyladenine stimulated the shooting of cherry half-embryos, therefore, they were incubated with 10 μM benzyladenine. The irradiation of apples and cherries caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryos. A dose of 0.15 kGy or more almost totally retarded shoot elongation. If shooting is less than 50%, the apples and cherries are identified as ''irradiated''. An assessment could be made after 1 to 4 days and the detection limit of the irradiation dose is 0.15 kGy. (author)
Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi
This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...
Manning, W.J.; Cooley, D.R.; Tuttle, A.F.; Frenkel, M.A.; Bergweiler, C.J.
Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects
Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. Written in a step-by-step tutorial style, this book shows you in simple steps how to get the most from your iBooks experience.This book is for literary geeks who want to explore the Apple iBooks universe. From buying books from the Apple iBookstore to organizing books and PDFs, this book goes forward by explaining how to write an interactive book with iBooks Author.
Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N.; Markowski, Jarosław
The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects...... to the fibre and other fruit constituents present in the pomace. Presence of apple seeds seems to impart no toxicity even at 6.5% pomace in the feed and seeds also had no influence on the biological effect of the pomace. In the future, apple pomace could potentially be used as a bioactive and possibly health...
Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.
Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral
Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Dubois, A.E.J.
Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral
Mesarich, C.H.; Schmitz, M.; Tremouilhac, P.; McGillivray, D.J.; Templeton, M.D.; Dingley, A.J.
Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues
Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q
There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh
Lötze, Elmi; Daiber, Stephan H.; Midgley, Stephanie J. E.
Sunburn damage on apple fruit has been reported widely . Sunburnincidence is expected to increase in future, specifically in the Western Capein South Africa, with very clear climate change predictions . Sunburn thus hassignificant financial implications on profitability for the South Africanexport dominated apple industry, as sunburnt fruit is not accepted in the mainexport markets. In the United Kingdom, no visible sunburn on apples is allowed,whereas only fruit with class 1 sunburn (S...
Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla
Le Deun, Erell; Van der Werf, Remmelt; Le Bail, Gildas; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Sylvain
The pigments responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of apple juices have remained largely unknown up to now. Four French cider apple juices were produced in conditions similar to those used in the cider-making industry. The oxidized juices, characterized using the CIE L a b parameters, displayed various colors depending on the apple variety and native phenolic composition. HPLC-DAD-MS revealed contrasting pigment profiles related to oxidized tanning and nontanning molecules. The latter were divided into two groups according to their polarity and their visible spectra. With regard to phenolic classes, flavanol monomers and hydroxycinnamic acids played an essential role in the formation of oxidation products. Interestingly, dihydrochalcones appeared to include precursors of some yellow compounds. Indeed, the yellow pigment phloretin xyloglucoside oxidation product (PXGOPj), derived from phloretin xyloglucoside, was clearly identified in apple juices as a xyloglucose analogue of the yellow pigment phloridzin oxidation product (POPj), previously characterized in a model solution by Le Guernevé et al. (Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45 (35), 6673-6677).
Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T
This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Bassett, Carole Leavel; Baldo, Angela M; Moore, Jacob T; Jenkins, Ryan M; Soffe, Doug S; Wisniewski, Michael E; Norelli, John L; Farrell, Robert E
Individual plants adapt to their immediate environment using a combination of biochemical, morphological and life cycle strategies. Because woody plants are long-lived perennials, they cannot rely on annual life cycle strategies alone to survive abiotic stresses. In this study we used suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genes both up- and down-regulated in roots during water deficit treatment and recovery. In addition we followed the expression of select genes in the roots, leaves, bark and xylem of 'Royal Gala' apple subjected to a simulated drought and subsequent recovery. In agreement with studies from both herbaceous and woody plants, a number of common drought-responsive genes were identified, as well as a few not previously reported. Three genes were selected for more in depth analysis: a high affinity nitrate transporter (MdNRT2.4), a mitochondrial outer membrane translocase (MdTOM7.1), and a gene encoding an NPR1 homolog (MpNPR1-2). Quantitative expression of these genes in apple roots, bark and leaves was consistent with their roles in nutrition and defense. Additional genes from apple roots responding to drought were identified using suppression subtraction hybridization compared to a previous EST analysis from the same organ. Genes up- and down-regulated during drought recovery in roots were also identified. Elevated levels of a high affinity nitrate transporter were found in roots suggesting that nitrogen uptake shifted from low affinity transport due to the predicted reduction in nitrate concentration in drought-treated roots. Suppression of a NPR1 gene in leaves of drought-treated apple trees may explain in part the increased disease susceptibility of trees subjected to dehydrative conditions.
In this study, three different apple varieties grown in Karaman provinceare classified using kNN and MLP algorithms. 90 apples in total, 30 GoldenDelicious, 30 Granny Smith and 30 Starking Delicious have been used in thestudy. DFK 23U445 USB 3.0 (with Fujinon C Mount Lens) industrial camera hasbeen used to capture apple images. 4 size properties (diameter, area, perimeterand fullness) and 3 color properties (red, green, blue) have been decided usingimage processing techniques through analyzin...
Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W
Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.
Yang, Fuzeng; Yang, Liangliang; Yang, Qing; Kang, Likui
The internal quality of apple is impossible to be detected by eyes in the procedure of sorting, which could reduce the apple’s quality reaching market. This paper illustrates an instrument using X-ray and machine vision. The following steps were introduced to process the X-ray image in order to determine the mould core apple. Firstly, lifting wavelet transform was used to get a low frequency image and three high frequency images. Secondly, we enhanced the low frequency image through image’s histogram equalization. Then, the edge of each apple's image was detected using canny operator. Finally, a threshold was set to clarify mould core and normal apple according to the different length of the apple core’s diameter. The experimental results show that this method could on-line detect the mould core apple with less time consuming, less than 0.03 seconds per apple, and the accuracy could reach 92%.
Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.
As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1
Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...
Millet, Melanie; Poupard, Pascal; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Bauduin, Remi; Guyot, Sylvain
Producers of apple-based beverages are confronted with colloidal instability. Haze is caused by interactions between molecules that lead to the formation of aggregates. Haze composition in three apple-based beverages, namely, French sparkling cider, apple juice, and pommeau, was studied. Phenolic compounds, proteins, polysaccharides, and minerals were analyzed using global and detailed analytical methods. The results explained apple juice hazes, where they were the main constituents (18 and 24%). Polysaccharides accounted for 0-30% of haze. Potassium and calcium were the main minerals.
The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern. Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were ... All the fungal isolates were pathogenic on the star apple fruits with the exception of ..... Mineapolis: Burgress Publishing Company, Minneapolis MN 241 p. Booth C (1971). The genus ...
Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...
Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.
This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high…
Blandina Felipe Viana
Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.
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Juarez-Enriquez, Edmundo; Salmerón, Ivan; Gutierrez-Mendez, Nestor; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique
Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake. PMID:28231106
Full Text Available Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake.
This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...
Results are reported of 15 N study of absorption and dislocation of nitrogen fertilization in apple and cherry plantations and field trials localized nitrogen fertilization of apple plantations. It is found that there is a good functional relation between the individual roots and all skeletal branches of the crown. The apple- and cherry trees can satisfy their nitrogen needs by a part of their root system and hence the introduction of nitrogen into the whole nutrition area is not absolutely necessary. The localized nitrogen fertilization in every other row or only in the row band of apple plantations increases its biological, economic and ecological efficiency. The method is patented. 2 tabs, 7 figs, 5 refs
Hansen, K.S.; Khinchi, M.S.; Skov, P.S.
Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...
Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage
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Background and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.
Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group, high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group, %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group. The C-Reactive Protein (CRP, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized-LDL (OxLDL, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, nitrite, nitrate, glucose, fibrinogen triacylglycerol (TG, apolipoprotein A (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB100 were all measured before the experiment and three hours after feeding with these treatment diets.
Results: In high cholesterol diet fibrinogen, nitrite, glucose, OxLDL, MDA and CRP showed a significant increase compared to normal diet. Significant differences were observed between both groups of apple cider vinegar by fibrinogen in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Using 10ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant reduction in Ox-LDL, MDA and glucose in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Moreover, the consumption of 5ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant decrease in LDL-C and TC compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. No significant difference was found between apple cider vinegar taking groups and
Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of â€œGala Mustâ€ apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-841 (Second Review)] Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non- frozen apple juice concentrate from China would...
Rowles, Kristin; Henehan, Brian M.; White, Gerald B.
This report compiles the results of several studies focused on the markets for processed apple products. These studies were conducted as part of a multidisciplinary project examining the processing apple industry in the Northeastern United States. The purpose of the studies was to explore the potential for new products and new marketing strategies that might bring innovation to the apple industry. In the global and highly competitive markets in which apple products fight for shelf space and c...
Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther
Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...
Lemuel M. Diamante
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.
Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.
Yang, Shou-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Xue, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Fen; Shi, Shu-Yi
Apple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰ salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance. The results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2‰ and 4‰ salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl - and Na + concentrations clearly increased and K + contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K + /Na + ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4‰ salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6‰ salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively. These results suggest that 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.
Full Text Available The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cinerea developed on the apple but not that grown on the artificial medium (PDA was able to directly penetration uninjured apple skin. It was observed that sometimes rotted spots develo ped arround the lenticels.
Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.
Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681
Sasaki, Shigemi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Goto, Kiminori
A newly constructed quasi-periodic APPLE-II undulator was installed in the HiSOR ring at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University during the summer shutdown period in 2011. This 1.8 m-long undulator has a period length of 78 mm. In this article, the mechanism of magnetic field generation for various polarization modes of APPLE undulator, the principle of quasi-periodic undulator and the performance of HiSOR QP-APPLE-II undulator are described. (author)
Fernando José Hawerroth
Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.
Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and rising cost levels for high tech breeding methods entire programmes are nowadays urged to...