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Sample records for appearance perception scale

  1. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

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    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones.

  2. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

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    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  3. Components of Appearance in the Structure of Perception of Visual Representations of Age

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    Shkurko T.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of perception of age (one’s own and that of other people, which is regarded as a special case of social perception. The aim of this study was to analyze the components of another person’s appearance in the structure of perception of visual representations of age. For these purposes the authors created a special technique, “Identifying Age through Photo Visualization” (Shkurko T.A., Nikolaeva E. G.. The study enrolled 20 individuals (10 men, 10 women aged 18 to 58 years as “models” (i.e. objects of perception and 60 individuals (47 women and 13 men aged 18 to 77 years as subjects of perception. The paper shows that in the structure of perception of visual representations of age the most important are stable, moderately stable and dynamic components of appearance, among which the stable parameters prevail. The face as the focus of the stable, moderately stable and dynamic components of appearance is the key element of appearance in one’s perception of other people’s age.

  4. When and How Are Spatial Perceptions Scaled?

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    Witt, Jessica K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Epstein, William

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to test the predictions of 2 approaches to perception. By most traditional accounts, people are thought to derive general-purpose spatial perceptions that are scaled in arbitrary, unspecified units. In contrast, action-specific approaches propose that the angular information inherent in optic flow and ocular-motor…

  5. Perception of stress level, trunk appearance, body function and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. Methods The study design was comprised of three quest...

  6. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

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    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  7. Exogenous attention and color perception: performance and appearance of saturation and hue.

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    Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-11-01

    Exogenous covert attention is an automatic, transient form of attention that can be triggered by sudden changes in the periphery. Here we test for the effects of attention on color perception. We used the methodology developed by Carrasco, Ling, and Read [Carrasco, M., Ling, S., & Read, S. (2004). Attention alters appearance. Nature Neuroscience, 7 (3) 308-313] to explore the effects of exogenous attention on appearance of saturation (Experiment 1) and of hue (Experiment 2). We also tested orientation discrimination performance for single stimuli defined by saturation or hue (Experiment 3). The results indicate that attention increases apparent saturation, but does not change apparent hue, notwithstanding the fact that it improves orientation discrimination for both saturation and hue stimuli.

  8. Development and Validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS)

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    Vandercruysse, Sylke; Vandewaetere, Mieke; Maertens, Marie; ter Vrugte, Judith; Wouters, Pieter; de Jong, Ton; van Oostendorp, Herre; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of perception and considerable impact of perception on the use of ICT for educational purposes, there is a surprising paucity of perception assessment instruments. The present proposal expands on this through the development and initial validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS). Based on perception literature,…

  9. The Taiwanese Derriford Appearance Scale: The translation and validation of a scale to measure individual responses to living with problems of appearance.

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    Moss, Timothy Peter; Lawson, Victoria; Liu, Chiu Ying

    2015-09-01

    The extent of concern about physical appearance is increasingly the subject of scientific study, interventions by health professionals, and media attention. To enable carefully evaluated studies exploring the psychosocial antecedents of appearance distress, and to determine the success of interventions, the Derriford Appearance Scale 24 (DAS24) was developed. This psychometrically sound measure is well used and cited in the appearance psychology field. Outside of a Western context, the extent and impact of appearance distress is less well known. This paper describes the adaptation of the DAS24 for use in Taiwan. A formal translation protocol was followed to adapt the DAS24 into Taiwanese/Cantonese. Two hundred and eight participants from a general population and a visibly different population were recruited in Taipei, Taiwan. These participants completed a test pack administered comprising the translated DAS24, and established measures of anxiety and depression. The scale was analyzed on the basis of classical test theory. A translated DAS Scale comprising 19 items and including three clear factors was the best solution. The scale had good internal consistency, clear convergent validity, and good test-retest reliability. The three factors that emerged were appearance-related social avoidance, social distress, and negative affect. Consistent with expectations, (a) women scored higher than men (greater appearance distress), (b) the cause of appearance difference (burns, cleft lip/palate, etc.) was unrelated to appearance distress, and (c) those with visible differences were more concerned about their appearance than those without. The Taiwanese DAS19 is a user-friendly and psychometrically sound scale that fulfils an important clinical and scientific need. The items that were omitted from the translated version were considered in relation to cultural differences in the experience and expression of shame between Western countries and Taiwan/China, which demands a

  10. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

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    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  11. Perception of patient appearance following various methods of reconstruction after orbital exenteration.

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    Kuiper, Justin J; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Pagedar, Nitin A; Carter, Keith D; Allen, Richard C; Shriver, Erin M

    2016-08-01

    This article compares the perception of health and beauty of patients after exenteration reconstruction with free flap, eyelid-sparing, split-thickness skin graft, or with a prosthesis. Cross-sectional evaluation was performed through a survey sent to all students enrolled at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. The survey included inquiries about observer comfort, perceived patient health, difficulty of social interactions, and which patient appearance was least bothersome. Responses were scored from 0 to 4 for each method of reconstruction and an orbital prosthesis. A Friedman test was used to compare responses among each method of repair and the orbital prosthesis for each of the four questions, and if this was significant, then post-hoc pairwise comparison was performed with p values adjusted using Bonferroni's method. One hundred and thirty two students responded to the survey and 125 completed all four questions. Favorable response for all questions was highest for the orbital prosthesis and lowest for the split-thickness skin graft. Patient appearance with an orbital prosthesis had significantly higher scores compared to patient appearance with each of the other methods for all questions (p value < 0.0001). Second highest scores were for the free flap, which were higher than eyelid-sparing and significantly higher compared to split-thickness skin grafting (p value: Question 1: < 0.0001; Question 2: 0.0005; Question 3: 0.006; and Question 4: 0.019). The orbital prosthesis was the preferred post-operative appearance for the exenterated socket for each question. Free flap was the preferred appearance for reconstruction without an orbital prosthesis. Split-thickness skin graft was least preferred for all questions.

  12. Is Obesity Stigma Based on Perceptions of Appearance or Character? Theory, Evidence, and Directions for Further Study

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    Florian van Leeuwen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to stigmatization have highlighted distinct psychological mechanisms underlying distinct instances of stigmatization. Some stigmas are based on inferences of substandard psychological character (e.g., individuals deemed untrustworthy, whereas others are based on perceptions of substandard physical appearance (e.g., individuals with physical deformities. These inferences and perceptions are associated with specific cognitive and motivational processes, which have implications for understanding specific instances of stigmatization. Recent theoretical approaches and empirical findings suggest that obesity stigma involves both inferences of substandard psychological character and perceptions of substandard physical appearance. We provide a review of the relevant evidence and discuss directions for future research.

  13. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

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    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical

  14. Development of a Scale for Measuring Physician Perception: Physician Related Health Care Perception Scale

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    Meryem Heybet1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recently increased incidence of workplace violence in health care highlights the need for investigating the causes of such changes in clinical practice settings. The focus on the changes in attitudes of patients let us wonder whether the physician perception of the patients has changed and what the current perception is. The objective was to build up a scale to measure patients’ perceptions of health care. Methods: For developing a new scale we decided eight factors to be included in the scale; respect, trust, patient-doctor relation, medical practice skills, being knowledgeable about the medicine as a job, the perceptions and reflections of doctors in media, thoughts about violence against physicians and comply to rules of hospital. 77 attitude sentences were created. The draft scale with these attitude sentences were reviewed by two psychiatrists and a family physician who have experience with scale development. According to received feedbacks, the attitude sentences were further revised. Randomly selected 93 patients, who are above 18 years of age and who are willing to participate, were included in the study. We measured sentences by 5 fold Likert scale. We analyzed data by factor and reliability methods in SPSS 13.00 for Windows and evaluated for validity. Principal Component Analysis and Varimax rotation were used. Results: We obtained a scale with 6 factors and 34 attitude sentences. Cronbachalpha value was 0.891 (corrected 0.894. Factors were; respect, trust, patientdoctor relation, being knowledgeable about the medicine as a job, thoughts about violence against physicians and comply to rules of hospital. According to Principal Component Analysis, total variance explained rate 58.8%. Conclusions: There is no scale in the literature to measure patients’ perception of health care, so this scientific scale makes a high contribution to the current literature.

  15. Equal Appearing Interval and Visual Analogue Scaling of Perceptual Roughness and Breathiness

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    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Ng, Chi-Yan

    2004-01-01

    One of the factors that affects the reliability of perceptual voice evaluation is the rating scale. Equal-appearing interval (EAI) and visual analogue (VA) scales are the two most common scales used and have attracted much attention in recent studies of perceptual voice evaluation. Available findings are contradictory, with one study finding the…

  16. Assessment of the Self-Perception of Dental Appearance, Its Comparison with Orthodontist’s Assessment and Demand for Treatment in Eastern Nepalese Patients

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    Varun Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of dental appearance among Eastern Nepalese patients using aesthetic component (AC of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN and to compare it with that of an orthodontist’s assessment using the same scale and determine whether gender, area of residence, and level of education influence subject’s self-perception and orthodontist’s ratings. Methods. A total of 252 subjects (equal number of male and female were conveniently selected. The average ages of subjects were 22.33±2.114 years. The level of subject’s perception and orthodontist’s assessment was analyzed by nonparametric Chi square test. Kappa coefficient was done to verify its agreement. The Spearman’s correlation test was used to check the association of educational level and age. Mann-Whitney test was used to check the associations of sex and areas of residence. Results. The demand for treatment was significantly associated with the perception of the subject and orthodontist’s assessment. However, age, gender, and educational level were statistically insignificant in influencing subject perception and orthodontist’s assessment. Conclusion. Patient’s self-perception should be given equal importance while planning orthodontic treatment.

  17. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS): an alternative remodelled sub-scale structure and its reliability.

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    McFadyen, A K; Maclaren, W M; Webster, V S

    2007-08-01

    The original 4 sub-scale version of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was published by Luecht et al. (1990, Journal of Allied Health, 181 - 191). There appears however to be a lack of evidence of the stability of the original instrument and of the test-retest reliability of the items and sub-scales when used with undergraduates. Given that during its development only 143 subjects completed the questionnaire which contained 18 items the generalizability of the instrument should perhaps have been investigated further. The Interprofessional Learning Group (IPL) at Glasgow Caledonian University has been using both the IEPS and the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) (Parsell & Bligh, 1999, Medical Education, 33, 95 - 100) to monitor changes in attitudes and perceptions of undergraduate students from eight different health and social care programmes. This paper reports the development of an alternative sub-scale model for the IEPS based on a sample of 308 students. Various aspects of the reliability of this revised model based on a subsequent data set of 247 students are also reported. This revised model appears to be stable for use with undergraduate students yielding Cronbach Alpha values for two of the sub-scales greater than 0.80 and test-retest weighted kappa values for items being fair to moderate.

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

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    Mohammad Atari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale. Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students. The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Life Orientation Test (LOT, Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS, and Body Mass Index (BMI were used for assessment of concurrent validity. The factor structure of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, bivariate correlation coefficients, and one-sample t-test were used in SPSS software for statistical analysis. Effect sizes were also computed in comparisons between the Iranian sample and the American sample on which the scale was developed. Moreover, the reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. Results: All items had adequate psychometric qualities in item analysis. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.97 and one-dimensional. It was positively correlated with BMI and interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Furthermore, PACS-R was inversely associated with optimism and body appreciation. Cross-cultural comparisons suggested that Iranian female participants had lower scores in physical appearance comparison. Conclusion: The Persian version of the PACS-R is a reliable and valid psychometric scale and may be used in clinical and research settings.

  19. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24.

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    Moss, Timothy P; Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24) is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale. Methods. A large (n = 1,265) sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24. Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker's Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979) and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC), was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC). The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body. Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale.

  20. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

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    Timothy P. Moss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24 is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale.Methods. A large (n = 1,265 sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24.Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979 and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC, was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC. The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body.Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale.

  1. Keeping up appearances: Perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar

    2008-01-01

    trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food-not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance......, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives....

  2. Dependence of the appearance-based perception of criminality, suggestibility, and trustworthiness on the level of pixelation of facial images.

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    Nurmoja, Merle; Eamets, Triin; Härma, Hanne-Loore; Bachmann, Talis

    2012-10-01

    While the dependence of face identification on the level of pixelation-transform of the images of faces has been well studied, similar research on face-based trait perception is underdeveloped. Because depiction formats used for hiding individual identity in visual media and evidential material recorded by surveillance cameras often consist of pixelized images, knowing the effects of pixelation on person perception has practical relevance. Here, the results of two experiments are presented showing the effect of facial image pixelation on the perception of criminality, trustworthiness, and suggestibility. It appears that individuals (N = 46, M age = 21.5 yr., SD = 3.1 for criminality ratings; N = 94, M age = 27.4 yr., SD = 10.1 for other ratings) have the ability to discriminate between facial cues ndicative of these perceived traits from the coarse level of image pixelation (10-12 pixels per face horizontally) and that the discriminability increases with a decrease in the coarseness of pixelation. Perceived criminality and trustworthiness appear to be better carried by the pixelized images than perceived suggestibility.

  3. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

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    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  4. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

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    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  5. The First Appearance of Symmetry in the Human Lineage: Where Perception Meets Art

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    Derek Hodgson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although symmetry may be important for understanding the selection of form in art over the historical period, this preference may have originally stemmed from certain basic perceptual mechanism that initially arose during prehistory. The first signs of an awareness to symmetry can be found in the archaeological record with the arrival of Acheulean handaxes, especially those dating from 500,000 years ago onwards, which are typified by a prodigious bilateral symmetry. As handaxes represent the earliest material record of an interest in symmetry by the human lineage, they provide a privileged means of understanding why this kind of form came to be valued by later human groups, particularly in relation to “art”. Although still controversial, the preference for symmetry at such an early date has been linked to various aspects of perception relating to enduring evolutionary factors. In this regard, it will be demonstrated how the preference for symmetrical Acheulean tools arose out of long standing perceptual correlates relating to ecological factors that predated the arrival of hominins.

  6. Creation of the physical appearance and the body image rating scale for the Czech context

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    Lenka Šrámková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem and methods: Physical appearance is one of the key components of selfperception from early childhood. An individual’s perceived physical attractiveness is largely conditioned by geographical, cultural and historical factors. Every culture develops its own criteria of attractiveness and any deviations to those are often a cause of ostracism, for example through exclusion or rejection. Still, there are certain universal principles of attractiveness (e.g. a higher waist-hip ratio, facial symmetry, sexually dimorphic features, which exist across cultures and time periods with little variation. To measure a person’s level of satisfaction with his/her physical appearance, psychologists regularly employ figure rating scales. The primary goal of our work was to develop and verify an updated visual body rating scale called the Basic Olomouc Body Rating (BOBR, making sure that it is widely usable, valid and reliable. The scale was created using the method of document analysis of academic papers according body-rating scales and a method of interview with potential probands. In the pilot data gathering phase, a group of respondents was presented with the 3 scales commonly used in the European context, i.e. FDS (Stunkard, Sorensen & Schulsinger, 1983, CDRS (Thompson & Gray, 1995 and BIAS-BD (Gardner, Jappe & Gardner, 2009. The purpose of this was to get feedback on these scales and find out if people are able to use these scales to rate themselves. New schematic figure rating scale for both men and women which would do away with the limitations of the scales used so far was developed. Results: The result is creation of a body-rating scale widely usable in further research and practical consulting. The paper briefly summarizes results of an additional study – the goal definition phase was followed by online research on the subject of body image and the self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Altogether, 5,616 respondents from the Czech Republic

  7. Persistent self-consciousness about facial appearance, measured with the Derriford appearance scale 59, in patients after long-term biochemical remission of acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Wagenmakers, M.A.E.M.; Wessels, J.F.; Sterenborg, R.B.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Netea-Maier, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acromegaly is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL) and causes anatomical disproportions, which may contribute to the decreased QoL after successful treatment. The Derriford appearance scale 59 (DAS59) is a questionnaire measuring psychological distress and disruptions to everyday

  8. Measuring the perception of symptom, drug use and allergen immunotherapy efficacy using the Visual Analogue Scale.

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    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Tosca, Maria Angela; Silvestri, Michela

    2014-02-01

    The availability of a simple and reliable tool for quantitatively measuring symptom perception is surely very important in the daily practice. Especially, this concept appears to be fundamental in doctor's office and at home, where there are no adequate resources. The Visual Analogue Scale is a very simple and popular tool that could be used by anyone anywhere. The advantage given by the Visual Analogue Scale consists in the translation of a subjective sensation in an objective measure provided by numbers.

  9. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: factor, convergent, and divergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS in two samples of undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 323), the authors tested the factor structure, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS with measures of the Big Five personality traits, negative affect, fear of negative evaluation, and social interaction anxiety. In Study 2 (N = 118), participants completed a body evaluation that included measurements of height, weight, and body fat content. The SAAS exhibited excellent convergent and divergent validity with self-report measures (i.e., self-esteem, trait anxiety, ethnic identity, and sympathy), predicted state anxiety experienced during the body evaluation, and predicted body fat content. In both studies, results confirmed a single-factor structure as the best fit to the data. These results lend additional support for the use of the SAAS as a valid measure of social appearance anxiety.

  10. Reliability and Validity Analysis of the Multiple Intelligence Perception Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Rustu; Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2010-01-01

    This study mainly aims to develop a scale to determine individual intelligence profiles based on self-perceptions. The study group consists of 925 students studying in various departments of the Faculty of Education at Ahi Evran University. A logical and statistical approach was adopted in scale development. Expert opinion was obtained for the…

  11. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Hungarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, Bernadett; Urbán, Róbert; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Limited studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a measure of muscle dysmorphia, in different cultures and languages. The aims were to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the MASS (MASS-HU), and to investigate its relationship with self-esteem and exercise-related variables. Two independent samples of male weight lifters (ns=289 and 43), and a sample of undergraduates (n=240) completed the MASS, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the MASS only in the weight lifter sample. The MASS-HU had excellent scale score reliability and good test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the MASS-HU was tested with multivariate regression analyses which indicated an inverse relationship between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. The 18-item MASS-HU was found to be a useful measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia among male weight lifters.

  12. Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E; Mack, Diane E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride for use in body and appearance contexts. In Study 1, 41 potential items were developed and assessed for item quality and comprehension. In Study 2, a panel of experts (N=8; M=11, SD=6.5 years of experience) reviewed the scale and items for evidence of content validity. Participants in Study 3 (n=135 males, n=300 females) completed the BASES and various body image, personality, and emotion scales. A separate sample (n=155; 35.5% male) in Study 3 completed the BASES twice using a two-week time interval. The BASES subscale scores demonstrated evidence for internal consistency, item-total correlations, concurrent, convergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, and 2-week test-retest reliability. The 4-factor solution was a good fit in confirmatory factor analysis, reflecting body-related shame, guilt, authentic and hubristic pride subscales of the BASES. The development and validation of the BASES may help advance body image and self-conscious emotion research by providing a foundation to examine the unique antecedents and outcomes of these specific emotional experiences.

  13. Development of the Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS): perception of delivery and the first postpartum week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijens, Sophie E M; Wijnen, Hennie A; Pommer, Antoinette M; Oei, S Guid; Pop, Victor J M

    2014-10-01

    Some caregivers suggest a more positive experience of childbirth when giving birth at home. Since properly developed instruments that assess women's perception of delivery and the early postpartum are missing, the aim of the current study is to develop a Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS). Three focus groups with caregivers, pregnant women, and women who recently gave birth were conducted. Psychometric properties of 23 candidate items derived from the interviews were tested with explorative factor analysis (EFA) (N = 495). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed in another sample of women (N = 483) and confirmed a 12-item CPS. The EFA in sample I suggested a two-component solution: a subscale 'perception of delivery' (six items) and a subscale 'perception of the first postpartum week' (six items). The CFA in sample II confirmed an adequate model fit and a good internal consistency (α = .82). Multivariate linear regression showed a positive effect of home delivery on perception of delivery in multiparous but not in primiparous women. The 12-item CPS with two dimensions (perception of delivery and perception of first postpartum week) has adequate psychometric properties. In multiparous women, home delivery showed to be independently related to more positive perception of delivery.

  14. Self-Perceptions of Sexual Attractiveness: Satisfaction With Physical Appearance is Not of Primary Importance Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita P

    2016-01-01

    Research on self-perceived sexual attractiveness has predominantly focused on the importance of physical appearance, overlooking nonphysical traits that may contribute to these self-perceptions. The present study examined and compared the importance of a variety of traits for self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Self-identified heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men (N = 1,801) and heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women (N = 1,092) completed an online questionnaire examining self-perceived sexual attractiveness, body esteem, sexual esteem, adherence to gender norms, and sexual experience. Body esteem and sexual esteem were significant predictors of self-perceived sexual attractiveness, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Adhering to a masculine gender norm was a significant predictor among all groups (to varying extents) but heterosexual women. Adhering to a feminine gender norm was a significant predictor among heterosexual men and bisexual women. Finally, sexual experience was a significant predictor for all men and bisexual women. Furthermore, while body esteem was a predictor across all groups, for most individuals it did not appear to be of primary importance, with either sexual esteem or masculinity proving to be of greater importance. These findings suggest the need to consider traits related to both physical and nonphysical factors for improving an individual's self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  15. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  16. Multidimensional Scaling of High School Students' Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur; Gilbert, Kimberly A.; Silva, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Although cheating on tests and other forms of academic dishonesty are considered rampant, no standard definition of academic dishonesty exists. The current study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of academic dishonesty in high school students, utilizing an innovative methodology, multidimensional scaling (MDS). Two methods were used to…

  17. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  18. Measuring large scale space perception in literary texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo

    2007-07-01

    A center and radius of “perception” (in the sense of environmental cognition) can be formally associated with a written text and operationally defined. Simple algorithms for their computation are presented, and indicators for anisotropy in large scale space perception are introduced. The relevance of these notions for the analysis of literary and historical records is briefly discussed and illustrated with an example taken from medieval historiography.

  19. Geographic literacy perception scale (GLPS validity and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Dikmenli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic literacy could be defined as the competence of turning understanding and comprehension of geographical knowledge into a skill because literacy consists of solving problems, reasoning, critical and creative thinking processes. Today, in order to impart literacy skills to individuals, teachers should first have these skills. It is important that teacher candidates should attain these skills before graduation. When these conditions are established, it will be easier for teacher candidates to be aware of their geographic literacy skills, bring these competences to a conscious level and contribute to students’ geographic literacy skills and processes in their professional lives. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude scale in order to specify teacher candidates’ geographic literacy perception levels. The study group of the research consisted of 473 teacher candidates. In order to detect the validity of the scale, exploratory factor analyses, item factor total correlations and item discriminations were conducted. In order to assess the reliability of the scale, the level of internal consistency and stability levels were calculated. The analyses provided evidence that the Geographic Literacy Perception Scale (GLPS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in order to determine geographic literacy levels

  20. Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

  1. Development and Validation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale: Assessing Body Image among Burn-Injured Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John W.; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Roca, Robert; Munster, Andrew; Spence, Robert; Fauerbach, James A.

    1998-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) was administered to 165 burn victims. SWAP showed a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, r(a)=0.87); an 84-subject retest measured reliability (r(tt)=0.59). SWAP is both a reliable and valid measure of body image for a burn-injured population. (Author/MAK)

  2. Large-scale appearance of ultraconserved elements in tetrapod genomes and slowdown of the molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Stuart; Pheasant, Michael; Makunin, Igor V; Mattick, John S

    2008-02-01

    Mammalian genomes contain millions of highly conserved noncoding sequences, many of which are regulatory. The most extreme examples are the 481 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) that are identical over at least 200 bp in human, mouse, and rat and show 96% identity with chicken, which diverged approximately 310 MYA. If the substitution rate in UCEs remained constant, these elements should also be present with a high level of identity in fish (approximately 450 Myr), but this is not the case, suggesting that many appeared in the amniotes or tetrapods or that the molecular clock has slowed down in these lineages, or both. Taking advantage of the availability of multiple genomes, we identified 13,736 UCEs in the human genome that are identical over at least 100 bp in at least 3 of 5 placental mammals, including 2,189 sequences over at least 200 bp, thereby greatly expanding the repertoire of known UCEs, and investigated the evolution of these sequences in opossum, chicken, frog, and fish. We conclude that there was a massive genome-wide acquisition and expansion of UCEs during tetrapod and then amniote evolution, accompanied by a slowdown of the molecular clock, particularly in the amniotes, a process consistent with their functional exaptation in these lineages. The majority of tetrapod-specific UCEs are noncoding and associated with genes involved in regulation of transcription and development. In contrast, fish genomes contain relatively few UCEs, the majority of which are common to all bony vertebrates. These elements are different from other conserved noncoding elements and appear to be important regulatory innovations that became fixed following the emergence of vertebrates from the sea to the land.

  3. Perception of Environmental Risk Factors Scale for the primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Özabacı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to determine the effect of perception of environmental risk factors on primary school students. The participants of this study were 409 students of both low and high socio-economic level from 2 primary schools in Gaziantep. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used for scale development study. As a result of the analysis, it has been determined that the scale has a structure composed of six subscales and 55 items. Subscales of the scale are; perceptions of in school experience, perceptions of oneself, perceptions of family attitudes, perceptions of family interactions, perceptions of problems within the family, perceptions of the nearest living area. Cronbach Alpha for the scale was found to be .85.

  4. VARIETY OF GRAY-SCALE SONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF UNTREATED LIVER METASTASES ALI HADIDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI HADIDI

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Encountered wit h b izarre patterns o f l i v e r metas t a s es dec l i ned our accuracy rate s o the humi liation o f mist ake s motivated me to re-assess t he value o f hepatic sonography in patients s u spe c t ed o f having metastatic l i ver neoplasms . 43 pat ients , who had no t recieved any prior the r a phy , had been studied by gray-scale ult r a s ound . The echographic evidence i n accordance with o ur e x p e r ~ e n ce can be categorized as fo l l ows : I l a rge echo g enic or ~c ho poor area , II d iscrete masse s wi t.h high-level e c hoes spreaded t hroughout a lobe o f the l i ve r , III e cho f ree mass with i r regular mar q i.n , r .J d i f f use a lterat ion of the homogeneous e cho pattern of t he liver , V Bull ' s - eye ,VI abscess like,VII sol id echogenic mass vei th a centra l hyperechoic hor izontal l i ne , VIII echogenic mass ".;i t;l two l a t eral hypo e choic marg i n s, rX isodense e chog eni c a r ea bounded by an hypoechoic c i r c l e . The f e at u r e s seen i n l iver ultra sonography of t he entire pat t e r ns , a nd those s e en as new c r i teria are presented ~

  5. Development and Validation of the Game Perceptions Scale (GPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandercruysse, S.; Vandewaetere, M.; Maertens, M.; terVrugte, J.; Wouters, P.; de Jong, T.; van Oostendorp, H.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of perception and considerable impact of perception on the use of ICT for educational purposes, there is a surprising paucity of perception assessment instruments. The present proposal expands on this through the development and initial validation of the Game Perception Sca

  6. The role of spatial scale and the perception of large-scale species-richness patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    scale effects (extent and grain size) can influence our perception of patterns and processes. For example, a hump-shaped altitudinal species-richness pattern is the most typical (c. 50%), with a monotonic decreasing pattern (c. 25%) also frequently reported, but the relative distribution of patterns...... changes readily with spatial grain and extent. If we are to attribute relative impact to various factors influencing species richness and distribution and to decide at which point along a spatial and temporal continuum they act, we should not ask only how results vary as a function of scale but also......Despite two centuries of exploration, our understanding of factors determining the distribution of life on Earth is in many ways still in its infancy. Much of the disagreement about governing processes of variation in species richness may be the result of differences in our perception of species-richness...

  7. Self-perception and satisfaction with dental appearance and aesthetics with respect to patients’ age, gender, and level of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patient’s subjective evaluation of dental appearance and aesthetics is becoming an increasingly important factor in aesthetic treatments and prosthetic therapy. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, education level, gender, and different dental status and the appearance of the upper anterior teeth (color, size, shape, position and alignment of the anterior teeth on the satisfaction of the respondents with dental appearance and aesthetics of their upper anterior teeth and their desire for improvement. Methods. The study encompassed 480 people aged 20 to 50 years with an average age of 30.84 years. There were 236 male and 244 female subjects. The respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire specially designed for the purpose of this research. For the study, the subjects were divided into the following three age groups: the younger age group (20-30 years of age, the middle age group (31-40 years of age, and the older age group (41-50 years of age. Results. The conducted study did not reveal statistical significance with respect to gender in any of the examined parameters (p > 0.05. A little more than one half of the respondents in each age group were satisfied with their dental appearance and aesthetics (60.3% of the respondents in the age group of 20-30 years, 55.7% in the age group of 31-40, and 53.7% in the age group of 41-50 years of age. Satisfaction with dental appearance and aesthetics increases linearly with the increase in the level of education and was the highest among the respondents with university degree (33.3%. Conclusion. Female respondents were more dissatisfied with their dental appearance and aesthetics as compared with male respondents, but the difference was found to be non-significant. Patients with higher education level were more satisfied with their dental appearance and aesthetics than those with lower education.

  8. Validation of a Spanish version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: escala de satisfacción muscular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martí, Irene; Bustos, Juan Gregorio Fernández; Jordán, Onofre Ricardo Contreras; Mayville, Stephen B

    2012-09-01

    The psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS; Mayville, Williamson, White, Netemeyer, & Drab, 2002) were examined using a sample of five hundred and sixty-one male weightlifters. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the 19-item Spanish version of the MASS called the Escala de Satisfacción Muscular (ESM), was represented by five subscales similar to the original MASS. Internal consistency of the measure was good (α = .86-.95), and various measures of construct validity indicated that the ESM may be a useful measure of Muscle Dysmorphia symptoms among Spanish speaking populations.

  9. Development of a Scale to Measure Adults' Perceptions of Health: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; Becker, Julie A.; Arenson, Christine A.; Chambers, Christopher V.; Rosenthal, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Given the national agenda on chronic disease self-management, the goal of the project described in this brief report was to develop a scale that measured adult perceptions about health but did not focus on a specific condition. The Perception of Health Scale (PHS) is based on earlier work that used the Health Belief Model as a focus. The 15-item…

  10. Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): validation of the adapted Satisfaction with Appearance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinberg, Leslie J; Kudel, Ian; White, Barbara; Kwan, Amy; Medley, Keya; Wigley, Fredrick; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer

    2007-03-01

    People with scleroderma often experience disfiguring appearance-related changes in socially visible and interpersonally salient areas. Although disfigurement can lead to body image dissatisfaction, this phenomenon has not been well investigated due to the lack of a disfigurement-specific measure. The Satisfaction With Appearance (SWAP) scale, previously developed in burn survivors, was adapted and administered to 254 participants with scleroderma to evaluate its psychometric integrity and its validity for use in a different medical population that experiences changes in appearance. Principal component analysis revealed two factors - Subjective Dissatisfaction and Perceived Social Impact - rather than the four found in burn victims. Excellent estimates of internal consistency and temporal stability and strong evidence for the reliability of the two-factor solution were found. The resulting factor structure in a scleroderma population suggests that differing medical conditions may create alternate constellations of BID, reflects the need for body image researchers to assess psychometrics across medical populations and may have clinical implications for BID interventions.

  11. Teacher Perception for M-Learning: Scale Development and Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunboylu, H.; Ozdamli, F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful integration of mobile learning (m-learning) technologies in education primarily demands that teachers' perception of such technologies should be determined. Therefore, the perceptions of teachers are of great significance. There is no available instrument that assesses teachers' perceptions of m-learning. Our research provided the first…

  12. Role of appearance and nonverbal behaviors in the perception of sexual orientation among lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lynne; Gilroy, Paula J

    2002-08-01

    According to the zero-acquaintance paradigm gay men and lesbians possess the ability to identify other homosexuals accurately after only very brief interpersonal contact. Given the vulnerability gay men and lesbians face in terms of antigay violence and prejudice, perceptual accuracy provides self-protection. In an exploratory study, 123 respondents were classified as low, moderate, and high perceivers on the basis of their responses to a recognition index designed by the authors. Next, respondents rated on a series of 5-point Likert scales the helpfulness of several characteristics for identifying gay men and lesbians. Analysis supported the importance of eye contact for lesbians and gay men in identifying one another. For both lesbian and gay male participants, several other variables emerged as significantly helpful in identifying gay men: clothing style and fit, jewelry, facial expressions, posture, body type, walk or gait, and both the types and frequencies of gestures.

  13. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  14. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  15. Examining perceptions of academic stress and its sources among university students: The Perception of Academic Stress Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia Bedewy; Adel Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts (n = 12) participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to (n = 100) students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach’s alpha), there was evidence for cont...

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the FACE-Q satisfaction with appearance scale: a new patient-reported outcome instrument for facial aesthetics patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie M; Cano, Stefan J

    2013-04-01

    Satisfaction with appearance and improved quality of life are key outcomes for patients undergoing facial aesthetic procedures. The FACE-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument encompassing a suite of independently functioning scales designed to measure a range of important outcomes for facial aesthetics patients. FACE-Q scales were developed with strict adherence to international guidelines for PRO instrument development. This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the core FACE-Q scale, the Satisfaction with Facial Appearance scale. Both modern and traditional psychometric methods were used to confirm that this new 10-item scale is a reliable, valid, and responsive measure.

  17. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…

  18. Developing a Scale to Measure Reader Self-Perception for EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunyarittigun, Dumrong

    2015-01-01

    The development of a scale for measuring self-perception for readers of English as a foreign language is discussed in this paper. The scale was developed from the four dimensions of self-efficacy theory proposed by Bandura (1977a): progress, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states. A 36 item scale was developed to…

  19. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 ...

  20. Factor structure of the Persian version of general, social, and negative self-consciousness of appearance domains of Derriford Appearance Scale 59: an application in the field of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1 Zahra Zare,2 Fatemeh Ranjbar3 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran; 3Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: The Derriford Appearance Scale 59 (DAS59 is a widely used measure of the spectrum of psychological distress and dysfunction that is characteristic of disfigurement. Also, disfigurement due to burn injury leads to feeling guilty or less socially competent, avoiding social situations, suicide, poor self-esteem, sexual difficulties, and depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt three subscales of DAS59 into Persian language and to investigate its factor structure for Iranian burned patients.Method: Translation–back translation of the scale into Persian was done. The internal consistency of the translated scale was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha. Next, construct validity of the translated instrument was assessed by exploratory factor analysis using principal components and rotation of varimax methods. This research involved a convenience sample of 189 adult burned patients with disfigurement in their face, head, ears, neck, hands, and legs.Result: The Cronbach’s alpha for overall scale, subscales 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93, 0.93, 0.89, and 0.80, respectively. The best solution from the principal components analysis of the 40 items of the DAS59 revealed three factors corresponding to the three subscales with 20 items: factor 1 (general self-consciousness of appearance consisted of 9 statements accounting for 33.23% of the variance (eigenvalue =9.23; factor 2 (social self-consciousness of appearance consisted of 7 statements accounting for 22.91% of the variance

  1. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  2. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  3. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration percep

  4. Factor structure of the Persian version of general, social, and negative self-consciousness of appearance domains of Derriford Appearance Scale 59: an application in the field of burn injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Zare, Zahra; Ranjbar, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Background The Derriford Appearance Scale 59 (DAS59) is a widely used measure of the spectrum of psychological distress and dysfunction that is characteristic of disfigurement. Also, disfigurement due to burn injury leads to feeling guilty or less socially competent, avoiding social situations, suicide, poor self-esteem, sexual difficulties, and depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt three subscales of DAS59 into Persian language and to investigate its factor structure for Iranian burned patients. Method Translation–back translation of the scale into Persian was done. The internal consistency of the translated scale was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha. Next, construct validity of the translated instrument was assessed by exploratory factor analysis using principal components and rotation of varimax methods. This research involved a convenience sample of 189 adult burned patients with disfigurement in their face, head, ears, neck, hands, and legs. Result The Cronbach’s alpha for overall scale, subscales 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93, 0.93, 0.89, and 0.80, respectively. The best solution from the principal components analysis of the 40 items of the DAS59 revealed three factors corresponding to the three subscales with 20 items: factor 1 (general self-consciousness of appearance) consisted of 9 statements accounting for 33.23% of the variance (eigenvalue =9.23); factor 2 (social self-consciousness of appearance) consisted of 7 statements accounting for 22.91% of the variance (eigenvalue =1.53); and factor 3 (negative self-concept) consisted of 4 statements accounting for 14.98% of the variance (eigenvalue =1.13). Conclusion The factor structure of the three subscales of DAS59 provides a widely acceptable, psychometrically robust, factorial self-report scale to assess distress and dysfunction in problems of appearance among Iranian burned patients, and facilitates further research into the efficacy of treatment approaches for

  5. Development of scales to assess patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rukhsana; Bates, Benjamin R

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development of scales to measure patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions and thus contributes to promoting awareness of physician-patient intercultural interaction processes. Surveys were administrated to a total of 682 participants. Exploratory factor analyses were employed to assess emergent scales and subscales to develop reliable instruments. The first two phases were devoted to formative research and pilot study. The third phase was devoted to scale development, which resulted in a five-factor solution to measure patient perception of physicians' cultural competence for patient satisfaction.

  6. Examining perceptions of academic stress and its sources among university students: The Perception of Academic Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedewy, Dalia; Gabriel, Adel

    2015-07-01

    The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts (n = 12) participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to (n = 100) students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach's alpha), there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete.

  7. Examining perceptions of academic stress and its sources among university students: The Perception of Academic Stress Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Bedewy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts (n = 12 participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to (n = 100 students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach’s alpha, there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete.

  8. Presentation of Three Types of The Scale of Self-Perception for Preschool Children (LSPO

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    Zlatka Cugmas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the established methods of measuring child's self-perception. She points out that in creating the instruments for measuring self-perception of younger children, it is necessary to take into account some of their developmental psychological characteristics, such as short attention-span, inconsistency in their answers, tendency to give socially acceptable answers, etc. The author presents the Scale of Self-Perception for Preschool Children (slov.: LSPO which she developed on the basis of her own findings and on the basis of the experience of other authors developing psychological instruments of this type. The scale was tested in a research which involved 214 children attending kindergarten. They were 4 to 5 years old. The article describes the sub-scales of LSPO and their psychometric characteristics and presents descriptive data of the children's self-estimates, their motivation for solving the scale and their understanding of the items, as well as the correspondence between the self-evaluation of the children and the evaluation of the children's self-perception conveyed by the mothers and teachers. The results are presented separately with respect to the three types of LSPO implementation (verbally, with puppets and with drawings. It was established that the psychometric characteristics of the scale are adequate, however, in further research the implementation with drawings or puppets is recommended.

  9. M-Learning: A Psychometric Study of the Mobile Learning Perception Scale and the Relationships between Teachers' Perceptions and School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Allyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of Uzunboylu and Ozdamli (2011) Mobile Learning Perception Scale (MLPS) in order to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teachers' perception of mobile learning (m-learning) in the classroom. A second purpose was to determine if relationships…

  10. Examining Perceptions and Attitudes: A Review of Likert-Type Scales Versus Q-Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K

    2016-07-24

    The purpose of this article is to compare and discuss the use of Likert-type scales and Q-methodology to examine perceptions and attitudes in nursing research. This article provides a brief review of each approach, and how they have been used to advance our knowledge in health-related perceptions and attitudes. Although Likert-type scales are economical, efficient, and easy to analyze, the results can be difficult to interpret or translate into meaningful practice. In contrast, Q-methodology yields holistic and in-depth information on what the prevailing perceptions and attitudes are, but its conduct is logistically challenging and the results' generalizability can be limited. The appropriate uses of either or both approaches to answer different research questions will be discussed. Nurse scientists are called upon to continue our exploration, utilization, and expansion of unique methodologies that directly speak to a meaningful examination of these important constructs in nursing research.

  11. A Turkish Scale for Elementary School Students’ Self Perceptions of Computer Game

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    Hafize Keser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the self-perceptions of elementary school sixth-, seventh- and eighth-grade students who are aged between 12 and 15 about computer game addiction. In the research, the game addiction scale was employed in order to determine students’ self-perceptions. The scale was administered to 1467 elementary school students. Of the participants students in the research, 16,8% described themselves as individuals experiencing problems in computer game addiction. On the other hand, it was determined that the factors of age and gender create significant differences in students’ self-perceptions, whereas the factors of socioeconomic level and grade level do not.

  12. Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC): Factor Structure and Invariance across Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Octavio; dos Santos, Rute Andrade; Rocha, Magda; Matos, Paula Mena

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) is based on the cognitive-contextual framework for understanding interparental conflict. This study investigates the factor validity and the invariance of two factor models of CPIC within a sample of Portuguese adolescents and emerging adults (14 to 25 years old; N = 677). At the…

  13. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  14. Perception of Farmers Towards Small Scale Feed Mill in Terms of Socio-economic Factors in Sindenreng Rappang Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, St; Irmasusanti; A.R Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze farmers??? perception towards small scale feed mill in terms of socio-economic factors. The study was conducted with purposive sampling. Data were analyzed descriptively and likert scale analysis. The results showed that the perception of farmer laying on the socio-economic factors of the small scale feed mill is quite good and positive to support the sustainability of small and medium scale enterprise.

  15. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  16. Development of Teachers’ Ethical Values Scale According to Student Perception: A Study of Validity and Reliability

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    Yüksel GÜNDÜZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that measure teachers’ ethical values according to students perceptions. The sampling of the research consisted of 617 students attending the elemantary schools 4, 5, 6 and 7th grades in the city of Artvin Center county in academic year of 2010-2011. In order to determine structural validity of scale, explanatory factor analysis procedure is applied by Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Also, in order to determine criteria validity of Teachers’ Ethical Values Scale According to Student Perception, Adjective Check List (ACL test is applied. For calculation of scale reliability Cronbach-alpha internal coherence coefficient and test-retest calculations were made. After the explanatory and corroborant factor analysis, the scale consisted of 30 items and two dimentions. Internal coherence coefficient of the scale is .95 and test-retest correlation coefficient is .88. These values could be considered as an indication that this scale can perform a valid and reliable measurement of teachers’ ethical values.

  17. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key Points Measurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES. The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocity Regular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads PMID:25177180

  18. Validation of Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS in the Portuguese population

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    João José de Sousa Franco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since when midwives are prominent in different socio-cultural contexts of individuals and populations associated with the control of women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum? In Portugal, the level of training of nurses in breastfeeding and obstetric has evolved, is considered the most advanced in the European context, and this would have posed new challenges for these professionals. Methodology: focusing on what the perception of empowerment that have specialized nurses in midwifery and maternal health in Portugal, it was decided to conduct this study, entitled "Validation of the Portuguese population scale - Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS" . We responded to the research question, what are the levels of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal? Objective: To determine the level of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal. In this study we used the quantitative method and descriptive. To accomplish this we proceeded to the implementation of a data collection instrument organized into two distinct parts. The first part allowed us to collect sociodemographic data and professional reviewers. In the second use "Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale" (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, measuring tool we had to validate cross-culturally. The study presented here took samples of 309 Portuguese health nurses maternal obstetrical nurse specialists. Results: 'Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS' (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, presents a framework pentafatorial (effective management and interdisciplinary relationships, sustained and autonomous practice, professional communication and consent, recognition health team, training and education, which together account for 72.9% of the variance of the results. On average, nurses in maternal health nursing and midwifery have a low level of empowerment, the lowest level

  19. Perceptions of coronary heart disease: the development and psychometric testing of a measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) have implications for the ways in which they respond to the disease, process risks, make decisions, and take action to reduce CHD risks. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the perceptions of coronary heart disease scale (PCS) among a Hong Kong Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample (n = 232) of participants recruited from a variety of catchments including public domains, a cardiac unit, and a cardiac rehabilitation and prevention center. Exploratory factor analysis identified a nine-item, two-factor model that accounted for 52.5% of the total explained variance. The two factors were the perceived risk (five items) and perceived seriousness (four items) of CHD. The PCS demonstrated good content validity; acceptable total, and subscale internal consistency (.73, .61 - .81); and significant contrast-group differences with higher levels of CHD perceptions among males (p = .002), younger participants (p psychometric properties as a short measurement scale, which supports its use in future research. Future validation of this scale is warranted.

  20. Conceptual and Psychometric Properties of a Self-Efficacy Perception Scale Based on Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cavus; Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Kocer, Tugba; Kocer, Omer

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive research study is to investigate the conceptual and psychometric properties of a self-efficacy perception scale developed for determining self-efficacy perception of 3rd and 4th grade Turkish pre-service teachers, who took Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL) course theoretically in undergraduate level, towards…

  1. Psychometric analysis of a perception scale on the usefulness of Moodle in the University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos-Migueláñez, S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acquired relevance of learning management systems in higher education, and the spread of the use of the Moodle platform in many academic institutions, a scale of perceived usefulness of the Moodle in this context is designed, and the psychometric validity of the scale has been tested. The aim is to provide a reliable and valid instrument to measure the students’ perception about the usefulness of Moodle. The study obtained a sample of 754 subjects from the population of university students in fields of Educational Sciences. The results show that the scale evaluates the utility of the platform adequately in five dimensions: content, activities, assessment, interaction and learning. Finally, a discussion is developed about the usefulness of the scale to evaluate the usefulness of Moodle and to implement processes to improve its use in higher education institutions.

  2. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

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    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  3. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES

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    Mei-Yu Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES and to perform a cross-cultural validity assessment. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, 554 inpatients in three general hospitals in northern Taiwan were recruited. Principal component analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the measurement model of the Chinese version of the PPES. Results. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the presence of a second-order four-factor model (information, decision, individual, and self-management of the Chinese version of the PPES when used with a Taiwanese inpatient population. The results indicate that the 11-item, second-order, four-factor Chinese version of the PPES provided best goodness-of-fit for the data in this study. Conclusion. The 11-item four-factor Chinese version of the PPES is a self-completion scale. This study demonstrated that the Chinese version of the PPES is a reliable and valid self-report instrument for the assessment of patient perceptions of empowerment in clinical practice. Further adaptation and evaluation of the scale will hopefully stimulate further studies on PPES in the fields of psychometrics in Taiwan.

  5. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  6. Using analogy to learn about phenomena at scales outside human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Ilyse; Davatzes, Alexandra; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and reasoning about phenomena at scales outside human perception (for example, geologic time) is critical across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Thus, devising strong methods to support acquisition of reasoning at such scales is an important goal in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. In two experiments, we examine the use of analogical principles in learning about geologic time. Across both experiments we find that using a spatial analogy (for example, a time line) to make multiple alignments, and keeping all unrelated components of the analogy held constant (for example, keep the time line the same length), leads to better understanding of the magnitude of geologic time. Effective approaches also include hierarchically and progressively aligning scale information (Experiment 1) and active prediction in making alignments paired with immediate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2).

  7. Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

    2014-01-01

    Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

  8. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

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    Anita T. Morzillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, and policy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon-Vancouver (Washington metropolitan areas, USA, two states with similar geographical and ecological characteristics, but different approaches to land-use planning, to explore resident perceptions about natural resources at three scales of analysis: property level ("at or near my house", neighborhood ("within a 20-minute walk from my house", and metro level ("across the metro area". At the metro-level scale, nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed that the two cities were quite similar. However, affinity for particular landscape characteristics existed within each city with the greatest difference generally at the property-level scale. Portland respondents expressed affinity for large mature trees, tree-lined streets, public transportation, and proximity to stores and services. Vancouver respondents expressed affinity for plentiful accessible parking. We suggest three explanations that likely are not mutually exclusive. First, respondents are segmented based on preferences for particular amenities, such as convenience versus commuter needs. Second, historical land-use and tax policy legacies may influence individual decisions. Third, more environmentally attuned worldviews may influence an individual's desire to produce environmentally friendly outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of acknowledging variations in residents' affinities for landscape characteristics across different scales and locations because these differences may influence future land-use policies about urban natural resources.

  9. Validation of a Spanish language version of the pain self-perception scale in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pain Self-Perception Scale (PSPS is a 24-item questionnaire used to assess mental defeat in chronic pain patients. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish language version of the PSPS (PSPS-Spanish, to assess the instrument's psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia and to confirm a possible overlapping between mental defeat and pain catastrophizing. Methods The PSPS was translated into Spanish by three bilingual content and linguistic experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered, along with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Results PSPS-Spanish was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90 and the item-total r correlation coefficients ranged between 0.68 and 0.86. Principal components analysis revealed a one-factor structure which explained 61.4% of the variance. The test-retest correlation assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient, over a 1-2 weeks interval, was 0.78. The total PSPS score was significantly correlated with all the questionnaires assessed (HADS, PVAS, PCS, and FIQ. Conclusions The Spanish version of the PSPS appears to be a valid tool in assessing mental defeat in patients with fibromyalgia. In patients with fibromyalgia and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, PSPS-Spanish correlates more intensely with FIQ than in patients without PTSD. Mental defeat seems to be a psychological construct different to pain catastrophizing.

  10. Exploring psychometric properties of the interdisciplinary education perception scale in health graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Designed as a measure of perceptions of collaboration, the original psychometric testing of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) indicated a four-factor solution to this measure, although subsequent research has suggested a three-factor solution may have better fit indices. This study aimed to better understand psychometric properties of the IEPS in a new population, health graduate students in the United States, to determine which sub-scale structure may be a better fit. Additionally this research explores the IEPS through a targeted literature review and content analysis in combination with factor analysis to better understand what constructs are able to be assessed by this measure. Results showed that the three-factor model was the best fitting model for the IEPS, suggesting this structure should be used when looking at graduate-level health students. Results also suggested that the IEPS may be able to be as a measure of perceived professional prestige, for which there is currently no existing measure. The dimension of professional prestige should be explored in further research to create a more robust understanding of its role in collaboration between professions.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A VISUAL MATH LITERACY SELF EFFICACY PERCEPTION SCALE (VMLSEPS FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BEKDEMİR

    2012-03-01

    mathematics, an 58-item draft scale that can measure the self-efficacy of elementary students concerning their visual math literacy was prepared by a group of six experts, among which four were elementary school math teachers and two were faculty members at department of mathematics, by taking into account the majority of votes; and it was decided to entitle the scale as the Visual Math Literacy Self-efficacy Perception Scale, and abbreviated as VMLSEPS. Researchers decided to prepare a Likert type scale because it is a direct and the easiest way to determine VMLSEPS’ self-efficacy perceptions of visual math literacy, and in order to make it more sensitive and useful 5 point scale was developed. Out of the 58 items, 19 were stated as negative and the rest, 39 items, were stated as positive. Having obtained necessary permissions, the scale was tested on 428 students at 6th, 7th, and 8th grades in related schools. The test took a course hour. It was revealed that students can answer the scale generally between 15 to 25 minutes. VMLSEPS scale was basically analyzed regarding its extent and structural validity. Considering the structural validity of the VMLSEPS, experts were consulted if visual math literacy of each statement is related to its self-efficacy perceptions or sub-dimensions, and if elementary education mathematic program and students’ levels are congruent; and related corrections were made in accordance with experts’ opinions. Factor analysis was done for the structural validity of scale. For the adequacy of the sample, KMO value was calculated as 0. 959 and this value showed that the adequacy of the selected sample is perfect. Bartlett-Sphericity test was conducted in order to determine if the sample provides a normal range, and the value of significance was found as .000. The value of significance showed that the sample provides a normal range within the population. At the end of the factor analysis the items were clustered around three factors,

  12. Large Scale Functional Brain Networks Underlying Temporal Integration of Audio-Visual Speech Perception: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Vinodh; Halder, Tamesh; Jaiswal, Amit K; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Roy, Dipanjan; Banerjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    Observable lip movements of the speaker influence perception of auditory speech. A classical example of this influence is reported by listeners who perceive an illusory (cross-modal) speech sound (McGurk-effect) when presented with incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli. Recent neuroimaging studies of AV speech perception accentuate the role of frontal, parietal, and the integrative brain sites in the vicinity of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for multisensory speech perception. However, if and how does the network across the whole brain participates during multisensory perception processing remains an open question. We posit that a large-scale functional connectivity among the neural population situated in distributed brain sites may provide valuable insights involved in processing and fusing of AV speech. Varying the psychophysical parameters in tandem with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, we exploited the trial-by-trial perceptual variability of incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli to identify the characteristics of the large-scale cortical network that facilitates multisensory perception during synchronous and asynchronous AV speech. We evaluated the spectral landscape of EEG signals during multisensory speech perception at varying AV lags. Functional connectivity dynamics for all sensor pairs was computed using the time-frequency global coherence, the vector sum of pairwise coherence changes over time. During synchronous AV speech, we observed enhanced global gamma-band coherence and decreased alpha and beta-band coherence underlying cross-modal (illusory) perception compared to unisensory perception around a temporal window of 300-600 ms following onset of stimuli. During asynchronous speech stimuli, a global broadband coherence was observed during cross-modal perception at earlier times along with pre-stimulus decreases of lower frequency power, e.g., alpha rhythms for positive AV lags and theta rhythms for negative AV lags. Thus, our

  13. Large Scale Functional Brain Networks Underlying Temporal Integration of Audio-Visual Speech Perception: An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. Vinodh; Halder, Tamesh; Jaiswal, Amit K.; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Roy, Dipanjan; Banerjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    Observable lip movements of the speaker influence perception of auditory speech. A classical example of this influence is reported by listeners who perceive an illusory (cross-modal) speech sound (McGurk-effect) when presented with incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli. Recent neuroimaging studies of AV speech perception accentuate the role of frontal, parietal, and the integrative brain sites in the vicinity of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for multisensory speech perception. However, if and how does the network across the whole brain participates during multisensory perception processing remains an open question. We posit that a large-scale functional connectivity among the neural population situated in distributed brain sites may provide valuable insights involved in processing and fusing of AV speech. Varying the psychophysical parameters in tandem with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, we exploited the trial-by-trial perceptual variability of incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli to identify the characteristics of the large-scale cortical network that facilitates multisensory perception during synchronous and asynchronous AV speech. We evaluated the spectral landscape of EEG signals during multisensory speech perception at varying AV lags. Functional connectivity dynamics for all sensor pairs was computed using the time-frequency global coherence, the vector sum of pairwise coherence changes over time. During synchronous AV speech, we observed enhanced global gamma-band coherence and decreased alpha and beta-band coherence underlying cross-modal (illusory) perception compared to unisensory perception around a temporal window of 300–600 ms following onset of stimuli. During asynchronous speech stimuli, a global broadband coherence was observed during cross-modal perception at earlier times along with pre-stimulus decreases of lower frequency power, e.g., alpha rhythms for positive AV lags and theta rhythms for negative AV lags. Thus

  14. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Native and Non-Native Listeners' Perception of Second Language Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer A; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Second language speech learning is predicated on learners' ability to notice differences between their own language output and that of their interlocutors. Because many learners interact primarily with other second language users, it is crucial to understand which dimensions underlie the perception of second language speech by learners, compared to native speakers. For this study, 15 non-native and 10 native English speakers rated 30-s language audio-recordings from controlled reading and interview tasks for dissimilarity, using all pairwise combinations of recordings. PROXSCAL multidimensional scaling analyses revealed fluency and aspects of speakers' pronunciation as components underlying listener judgments but showed little agreement across listeners. Results contribute to an understanding of why second language speech learning is difficult and provide implications for language training.

  15. Rhythms of consciousness: binocular rivalry reveals large-scale oscillatory network dynamics mediating visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M Doesburg

    Full Text Available Consciousness has been proposed to emerge from functionally integrated large-scale ensembles of gamma-synchronous neural populations that form and dissolve at a frequency in the theta band. We propose that discrete moments of perceptual experience are implemented by transient gamma-band synchronization of relevant cortical regions, and that disintegration and reintegration of these assemblies is time-locked to ongoing theta oscillations. In support of this hypothesis we provide evidence that (1 perceptual switching during binocular rivalry is time-locked to gamma-band synchronizations which recur at a theta rate, indicating that the onset of new conscious percepts coincides with the emergence of a new gamma-synchronous assembly that is locked to an ongoing theta rhythm; (2 localization of the generators of these gamma rhythms reveals recurrent prefrontal and parietal sources; (3 theta modulation of gamma-band synchronization is observed between and within the activated brain regions. These results suggest that ongoing theta-modulated-gamma mechanisms periodically reintegrate a large-scale prefrontal-parietal network critical for perceptual experience. Moreover, activation and network inclusion of inferior temporal cortex and motor cortex uniquely occurs on the cycle immediately preceding responses signaling perceptual switching. This suggests that the essential prefrontal-parietal oscillatory network is expanded to include additional cortical regions relevant to tasks and perceptions furnishing consciousness at that moment, in this case image processing and response initiation, and that these activations occur within a time frame consistent with the notion that conscious processes directly affect behaviour.

  16. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; Zee, van der Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  17. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hofhuis; K.I. van der Zee; S. Otten

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  18. Deficits of musical timbre perception after unilateral temporal-lobe lesion revealed with multidimensional scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine; Zatorre, Robert J; Ramsay, James O

    2002-03-01

    Thirty patients with unilateral temporal lobe excisions and 15 normal control subjects were tested in a task involving judgements of timbre dissimilarity in single tone and melodic conditions. Perceptual correlates of spectral and temporal parameters resulting from changing the number of harmonics and rise-time duration, respectively, were investigated by using a multidimensional scaling technique. The results of subjects with left temporal lobe lesion suggest that they were able to use the spectral and temporal envelopes of tones independently in making perceptual judgements of single tones. In the melodic condition, their results were significantly different from those of normal control subjects, suggesting that left temporal lesions do affect subtle aspects of timbre perception, despite these patients' preserved ability to make discrimination judgements using traditional paradigms. The major finding of this study concerns perceptual ratings obtained by subjects with right temporal lobe lesion, which revealed a disturbed perceptual space in both conditions. The most distorted results were obtained with single tones, in which the temporal parameter was less prominent. Tones were grouped according to their spectral content, but the results did not reflect a coherent underlying perceptual dimension. In general, the data from both patient groups (left lesions and right lesions) showed that the extraction of temporal cues was easier in the melodic than in the single tone condition, suggesting that the different durations and frequencies heard in a musical phrase enhance the importance of certain physical parameters. The findings of the present study replicate and extend previous results showing that timbre perception depends mainly upon the integrity of right neocortical structures, although a contribution of left temporal regions is also apparent. These data also demonstrate that multidimensional techniques are sensitive to more subtle perceptual disturbances that

  19. Construction and validation of the Scale for the Evaluation of the Perception of Counterproductive Behaviors in Organizations (EPCBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Sulea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for the perception of counterproductive work behaviors. Employees from four independent samples filled in the questionnaire (total N=390. Two studies were conducted. The first study aimed to item construction and exploratory factor analysis, whereas the second aimed to instrument validation and confirmatory factor analysis. The results confirmed a four factor scale (misuse of information, production deviance, absenteeism and withdrawal, as well as interpersonal counterproductive behavior. The scale has 20 items and can be applied to a wide range of organizations. Implications for managers and future research are also discussed.

  20. Capturing Appearance Variation in Active Appearance Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an extension of active appearance models (AAMs) that is better capable of dealing with the large variation in face appearance that is encountered in large multi-person face data sets. Instead of the traditional PCA-based texture model, our extended AAM employs a mixture of probabi

  1. Educability, skills and parental involvement: a factorial analysis of teacher perception scale for families in psychosocial risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Garcés, Carlos; Centro de Investigación CIDCIE de la Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán

    2016-01-01

    Through the scalePerception Teaching for Families Experiencing Psychosocial Risk” applied to 175 teachers in training, conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The AFE, with an explained variance of 43.9%, reveals the existence of four factors or dimensions: Implications Parental Education, features personological Attributive, Parental Participation and Attribution Genealogical. The subsequent descriptive analysis reports that there is a tarnished image by teachers of vulnerable chil...

  2. Development and Validation of the Relationship and Motivation (REMO) Scale to Assess Students' Perceptions of Peers and Teachers as Motivators in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…

  3. Reliability and validity of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion Scale in a sample of Salvadoran secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrivillaga Marcela

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982 completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales. Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001 and illicit drug use (p Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on

  4. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  5. The gray area: exploring attitudes toward infidelity and the development of the Perceptions of Dating Infidelity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karen; Mattingly, Brent A; Clark, Eddie M; Weidler, Daniel J; Bequette, Amanda W

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has distinguished between emotional versus sexual infidelity. Two studies examined the development of the Perceptions of Dating Infidelity Scale (PDIS) to assess attitudes toward specific behaviors that constitute these types of infidelity in romantic relationships. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated three factors to the scale: Ambiguous, Deceptive, and Explicit behaviors. In both studies, there were gender differences on ratings of the behaviors. The construct validity of the scale was assessed with measures of sociosexual orientation, guilt, and coping with unwanted sexual situations. It was found that the Ambiguous behaviors were positively correlated with avoidance of unwanted sexual situations, while the Deceptive and Explicit scales were positively correlated with guilt and avoidance and negatively associated with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation and acting on attractions toward friends.

  6. Determining student teachers' perceptions on using technology via Likert scale, visual association test and metaphors: A mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevhibe Kobak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine senior student teachers’ perceptions on using technology by approaching various points of view. In this study, researchers collected data through Technology Perceptions Scale, Visual Association Activity and Technology Metaphors. The participants of the study were 104 senior student teachers who were enrolled in Balıkesir University Necatibey Faculty of Education. In this descriptive study, researchers interpreted qualitative data in conjunction with quantitative data. Based on the data obtained, even though student teachers’ perceptions on using technology were found positive in the light of Likert scale, there was no significant relation in terms of gender and enrolled undergraduate program. According to the results of visual association test, student teachers ranked smartboard, Internet and computer in the first three, and portable media player, mobile phone and video/camera in the last three. Besides, researchers analyzed and classified student teachers’ metaphors about technology under 9 categories: 1developing-changing technology, 2rapidly progressing technology, 3 limitless-endless technology, 4beneficial technology, 5harmful technology, 6both beneficial and harmful technology, 7indispensible technology, 8technology as a necessity, 9 all-inclusive technology. At the end of the study, those nine categories which were acquired using the content analysis technique are presented in a table which shows the interaction between categories in a holistic view.

  7. Evaluating patients’ perception of service quality at hospitals in nine Chinese cities by use of the ServQual scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; Li; Douglas; Bruce; Lowrie; Cheng-Yu; Huang; Xiang-Chan; Lu; Ying-Chu; Zhu; Xing-Hua; Wu; Mayila; Shayiti; Qiong-Zhen; Tan; Hua-Ling; Yang; Si-Yuan; Chen; Pan; Zhao; Sheng-Hua; He; Xiu-Rong; Wang; Hong-Zhou; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate patients’ perception of service quality at hospitals in nine Chinese cities and propose some measures for improvement. Methods: The ServQ ual scale method was used in a survey involving patients at out-patient and in-patient facilities in Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, Nanning, Guilin and Laibin of Guangxi, Honghezhou of Yunnan, Wulumuqi of Xinjiang and Zhongshan of Guangdong. The data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, factor analyses, reliability analyses, product-moment correlations, independent-sample t-tests, One-way ANOVA and regression analyses. Results: The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value for the factor analysis of the scale was 0.979. The Cronbach’s α for the reliability analysis was 0.978. All the Pearson correlation coei cients were positive and statistically signii cant. Visitors to out-patient facilities reported more positive perception tacilities on tangibles(t = 4.168, P(t = 1.979, P perception thscale, patients in Laibin, Guangxi reported the most positive perceived service quality, followed by patients in Shanghai. On the other hand, patients in Chongqing and Nanning and Guilin of Guangxi reported relatively poor perceptions of service quality. Standardized regression coei cients showed statistically significant(P < 0.001) positive values for all Serv Qual dimensions. Empathy(β = 0.267) and reliability(β uality. = 0.239) most strongly predicted perception of service qConclusions: Chinese patients perceived service quality as satisfactory. Hospitals in various regions of China should enhance their awareness and ability to serve their patients.

  8. Assessing Parent Perceptions of School Fit: The Development and Measurement Qualities of a Survey Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena, Sofía; Schueler, Beth E.; McIntyre, Joseph; Gehlbach, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Students whose school environment fits their developmental needs also typically experience academic success and increased motivation. Most investigations of school fit, which focus on teachers' and students' perceptions, have found a general decline in fit across the transition from elementary to middle school. However, little research has…

  9. Understanding perceptions of potato seed quality among small-scale farmers in Peruvian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrea-Hernandez, C.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    The increased opportunities of smallholder farmers for commercial production of native potato varieties have resulted in an interest to support production and use of quality seed tubers of these varieties by the formal sector. In this context, a study was carried out to explore farmer perception of

  10. On the number of neurons and time scale of integration underlying the formation of percepts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohrer, Adrien; Machens, Christian K

    2015-03-01

    All of our perceptual experiences arise from the activity of neural populations. Here we study the formation of such percepts under the assumption that they emerge from a linear readout, i.e., a weighted sum of the neurons' firing rates. We show that this assumption constrains the trial-to-trial covariance structure of neural activities and animal behavior. The predicted covariance structure depends on the readout parameters, and in particular on the temporal integration window w and typical number of neurons K used in the formation of the percept. Using these predictions, we show how to infer the readout parameters from joint measurements of a subject's behavior and neural activities. We consider three such scenarios: (1) recordings from the complete neural population, (2) recordings of neuronal sub-ensembles whose size exceeds K, and (3) recordings of neuronal sub-ensembles that are smaller than K. Using theoretical arguments and artificially generated data, we show that the first two scenarios allow us to recover the typical spatial and temporal scales of the readout. In the third scenario, we show that the readout parameters can only be recovered by making additional assumptions about the structure of the full population activity. Our work provides the first thorough interpretation of (feed-forward) percept formation from a population of sensory neurons. We discuss applications to experimental recordings in classic sensory decision-making tasks, which will hopefully provide new insights into the nature of perceptual integration.

  11. The moderated relationship of appearance valence on appearance self consciousness: development and testing of new measures of appearance schema components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available This paper describes the creation and psychometric properties of two independent measures of aspects of appearance schematicity--appearance salience and valence, assessed by the CARSAL and CARVAL, and their relation to appearance self-consciousness. Five hundred and ninety two participants provided data in a web based task. The results demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of both scales. This was demonstrated by good item total characteristics, good internal reliability of each scale, and the independence of the two scales shown through principal components analysis. Furthermore, the scales show independent and moderated relationships with valid measures of appearance related psychosocial distress. Negatively valenced appearance information was associated with increased appearance self-consciousness. More crucially, the impact of negative valence on appearance self-consciousness was exacerbated by the moderating effect increased salience of appearance.

  12. The moderated relationship of appearance valence on appearance self consciousness: development and testing of new measures of appearance schema components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy P; Rosser, Benjamin A

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the creation and psychometric properties of two independent measures of aspects of appearance schematicity--appearance salience and valence, assessed by the CARSAL and CARVAL, and their relation to appearance self-consciousness. Five hundred and ninety two participants provided data in a web based task. The results demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of both scales. This was demonstrated by good item total characteristics, good internal reliability of each scale, and the independence of the two scales shown through principal components analysis. Furthermore, the scales show independent and moderated relationships with valid measures of appearance related psychosocial distress. Negatively valenced appearance information was associated with increased appearance self-consciousness. More crucially, the impact of negative valence on appearance self-consciousness was exacerbated by the moderating effect increased salience of appearance.

  13. How reframing a water management issue across scales and levels impacts on perceptions of justice and injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. J.; Syme, G. J.; Horwitz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Social justice is a key outcome of water allocation, management and governance. It is commonly expressed in water policies and strategies in terms of achieving equitable distribution of water resources. In complex multi-level systems just and unjust outcomes can result from the same water allocation decision. In some cases a just outcome at one level may cause an injustice at another level for the same or a different set of stakeholders. The manner in which a water management issue is framed and reframed across different levels within a system influences stakeholder perceptions of whether a water allocation decision is just or unjust, which in turn influences the successful adoption and implementation of such a decision. This paper utilises a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia to illustrate how reframing a water management issue across multiple scales and levels can help understand stakeholders' perceptions of justice and injustice. In this case study two scales are explored, an institutional and an organisational scale; each comprising levels at the federal, basin, state and region. The water management issue of domestic and stock dams was tracked through the various scales and levels and illustrated how reframing an issue at different levels can influence the analysis of just or equitable outcomes. The case study highlights the need to treat justice in water allocation as an ever evolving problem of the behaviour of a social system rather than the meeting of static principles of what is 'right'. This points to the importance of being attentive to the dynamic and dialogical nature of justice when dealing with water allocation issues across scales and levels of water governance.

  14. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing the appearance of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of observations and the modelling of fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the non-trivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical non-steady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately five billion Japanese blogs over a period of six years and analyse some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable non-steady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modelling the behaviour of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuati...

  15. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  16. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  17. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...

  18. Psychometric analysis of the Scale of Teacher´s Perception of School Adjustment (PROF-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Cava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teacher' perception of their students' school adjustment can be an important indicator of psychosocialwell-being and provide useful information for the development of interventions to improve theirpsychosocial adjustment. This is the reason why it is essential within the school adjustment to consider notonly students' academic achievement but also their level of social integration in the classroom, the qualityof their relationship with the teacher, and the level of family involvement in their education. The objectiveof this research is to provide a reliable instrument for measuring a full school adjustment and analyze itsrelationship with two important indicators of psychosocial adjustment, self-concept and attitudes towardauthority. This study involved 87 teachers who assessed the school adjustment of students (N = 2378adolescents using the PROF-A scale. Findings show that this scale consists of four factors, social integration,academic competence, family involvement, and teacher-student relationship, showing significant positivecorrelations with self-concept and positive attitudes toward authority.

  19. Le Chatelier's Principle in Sensation and Perception: Fractal-Like Enfolding at Different Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Norwich

    2010-01-01

    Le Chatelier’s principle asserts that a disturbance, when applied to a resting system may drive the system away from its equilibrium state, but will invoke a countervailing influence that will counteract the effect of the disturbance. When applied to the field of sensation and perception, a generalized stimulus will displace the system from equilibrium, and a generalized adaptation process will serve as the countervailing influence tending to reduce the impact of the stimulus. The princ...

  20. Small-Scale Fishing: Perceptions and Threats to Conserving a Livelihood in the Province of Phang-nga, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Victoria Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited understanding of small-scale fishing communities has hindered appropriate management initiatives in coastal communities which are threatening livelihoods. Informants, stakeholder interviews and questionnaires from local fishermen were used to gain knowledge of fishing factors, perceptions and threat to the small-scale fishing community in a coastal region in the province of Phang-nga, Thailand. Results revealed communities utilizing multi-geared, multi-species fisheries with a preference for marketable species that sell on a local scale. Whilst subsistence and local markets share equally the use of catches, there is a noticeable decline in small-scale fishers being recruited into the industry. This was considered by some to be due to urbanisation and by others to opportunities in tourism but was viewed as a socio-economic shift by government informants towards medium sized operations formed by resilient groups. Current management can be classified as open access, with virtually no management or regulations in place. This has led to fishers listing failing stocks and commercial fleets as the biggest threats to their livelihoods. Management initiatives are needed to focus on protecting and improving coastal stocks by clamping down on illegal activity large-scale from fishers and reviewing fishers access for resource protection.

  1. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by making...

  2. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by making...... to calculate the probability of overlapping for any given set of pairwise comparisons....

  3. Taking a Hands-On Approach: Apparent Grasping Ability Scales the Perception of Object Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenauger, Sally A.; Witt, Jessica K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether the apparent size of an object is scaled to the morphology of the relevant body part with which one intends to act on it. To be specific, we tested if the visually perceived size of graspable objects is scaled to the extent of apparent grasping ability for the individual. Previous research has shown that right-handed…

  4. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker J. Bautista

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This aims of this study were twofold; 1 to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2 to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM] were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81 was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96. This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power.

  5. Wavelet Enhanced Appearance Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren; Cootes, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    Generative segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Models (AAM) establish dense correspondences by modelling variation of shape and pixel intensities. Alas, for 3D and high-resolution 2D images typical in medical imaging, this approach is rendered infeasible due to excessive storage an...

  6. Appearances, Stigma, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the practical aspects of clothing are compared to effective practices in special education. Actual competence is more important than the appearance, or cloak, of competence. It is argued that speaking openly about disability will do more to reduce its stigma than will euphemisms. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille;

    2004-01-01

    . The wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  8. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  9. Staff perceptions of collaboration on a new interprofessional unit using the Assessment of Interprofessional Team Collaboration Scale (AITCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Dawn; Jung, Bonny; Taplay, Karyn; Stobbe, Karl; Hildebrand, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain baseline information on staff attitudes and perceptions of interprofessional collaboration on a newly formed interprofessional education unit. The Assessment of Interprofessional Team Collaboration Scale (AITCS) was administered to 54 interprofessional team members on a 30-bed medical interprofessional education (IPE) unit. We found that the team members respected each other but felt they needed more organisational support to further develop team skills. Additionally, team members noted that they did not have enough time for team reflection or to make changes to the team processes. The results obtained from this study will help to develop and refine educational strategies to assist the staff working on the IPE unit.

  10. Perceptions of doctors and nurses at a Ugandan hospital regarding the introduction and use of the South African Triage Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Mulindwa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: International Hospital Kampala (IHK experienced a challenge with how to standardise the triaging and sorting of patients. There was no triage tool to help to prioritise which patients to attend to first, with very sick patient often being missed.Aim and setting: To explore whether the introduction of the South African Triage Scale (SATS was seen as valuable and sustainable by the IHK’s outpatient department and emergency unit (OPD and EU staff.Methods: The study used qualitative methods to introduce SATS in the OPD and EU at IHK and to obtain the perceptions of doctors and nurses who had used it for 3–6 months on its applicability and sustainability. Specific questions about challenges faced prior to its introduction, strengths and weaknesses of the triage tool, the impact it had on staff practices, and their recommendations on the continued use of the tool were asked. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 doctors and 12 nurses.Results: SATS was found to be necessary, applicable and recommended for use in the IHK setting. It improved the sorting of patients, as well as nurse-patient and nurse-doctor communication.The IHK OPD & EU staff attained new skills, with nurses becoming more involved in-patient care. It is possibly also useful in telephone triaging and planning of hospital staffing.Conclusion: Adequate nurse staffing, a computer application for automated coding of patients, and regular training would encourage consistent use and sustainability of SATS. Setting up a hospital committee to review signs and symptoms would increase acceptability and sustainability. SATS is valuable in the IHK setting because it improved overall efficiency of triaging and care, with significantly more strengths than weaknesses.Keywords: South African Triage Scale; Perceptions

  11. Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries.

  12. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  13. $\\tau$ appearance and CNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, M

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the CERN Council approved the CNGS project to explore neutrino oscillation physics in tau neutrino appearance. Super-KAMIOKANDE result indicate that the most probable solution in atmospheric neutrino disappearance is muon neutrino oscillation into a tau neutrino. CNGS is designed to detect nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillations by a long baseline appearance experiment. CNGS a more is unique project than the other disappearance projects like K2K and NuMI. At least two experiments are in preparation in the CNGS project at LNGS. One is OPERA which was already approved in Feb. 2001 as CNGS1 using emulsion techniques which have proven their tau detection capability in Fermilab E872 DONUT. The other is ICARUS which was approved at LNGS using a liquid argon TPC. Both experiments will detect tau neutrino signal in theCNGS beam. (5 refs).

  14. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  15. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

  16. Development and Validation of the Teacher and Motivation (TEMO) Scale: A Self-Report Measure Assessing Students' Perceptions of Liked and Disliked Teachers as Motivators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents a newly developed measurement: the TEMO (Teacher and Motivation) scale, which assesses adolescent students' perception of liked and disliked teachers and the resulting impact on their academic motivation. A total of 1,088 students from secondary schools in Germany participated in this study. To explore the underlying…

  17. Le Chatelier's principle in sensation and perception: fractal-like enfolding at different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Norwich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Chatelier’s principle asserts that a disturbance, when applied to a resting system may drive the system away from its equilibrium state, but will invoke a countervailing influence that will counteract the effect of the disturbance. When applied to the field of sensation and perception, a generalized stimulus will displace the system from equilibrium, and a generalized adaptation process will serve as the countervailing influence tending to reduce the impact of the stimulus. The principle applies at all levels, from the behavioral to the neural, the larger enfolding the smaller in fractal-like form. Le Chatelier’s principle, so applied, leads to the unification of many concepts in sensory science. Ideas as diverse as sensory adaptation, reflex arcs, and simple deductive logic can be brought under the umbrella of a single orienting principle. Beyond unification, this principle allows us to approach many questions in pathophysiology from a different perspective. For example, we find new direction toward the reduction of phantom limb pain and possibly of vertigo.

  18. Le Chatelier's principle in sensation and perception: fractal-like enfolding at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    Le Chatelier's principle asserts that a disturbance, when applied to a resting system may drive the system away from its equilibrium state, but will invoke a countervailing influence that will counteract the effect of the disturbance. When applied to the field of sensation and perception, a generalized stimulus will displace the system from equilibrium, and a generalized adaptation process will serve as the countervailing influence tending to reduce the impact of the stimulus. The principle applies at all levels, from the behavioral to the neural, the larger enfolding the smaller in fractal-like form. Le Chatelier's principle, so applied, leads to the unification of many concepts in sensory science. Ideas as diverse as sensory adaptation, reflex arcs, and simple deductive logic can be brought under the umbrella of a single orienting principle. Beyond unification, this principle allows us to approach many questions in pathophysiology from a different perspective. For example, we find new direction toward the reduction of phantom-limb pain and possibly of vertigo.

  19. Uterine Leiomyoma: Hysterosalpingographic Appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of genital tract. The etiology of myomasis unknown. Leiomyoma shows a broad spectrum of radiographic appearances depending on thenumber, size, and location of the tumor. The diagnostic method for uterine leiomyomas is basedprimarily on the clinical situation. Despite of the varied diagnostic options such as; transvaginalsonography, sonohysterography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and MRI; hysterosalpingography isstill one of the valuable imaging methods for identification of uterine leiomyoma.The various features of the proved leiomyoma are illustrated in this pictorial review. The incidence,risk factors and clinical features will also be discussed briefly.

  20. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, andpolicy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon)-Vancouver (W...

  1. Posttraumatic pseudolipoma: MRI appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumann, N.; Abdelmoumene, A.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Gailloud, M.C.; Resnick, D. [CHUV, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the MRI characteristics of posttraumatic pseudolipomas. Ten patients with previous history of blunt trauma or local surgery were investigated with MRI at the level of their deformity. The etiology was blunt trauma in eight patients and postoperative trauma in two. For all patients medical documentation, in the form of clinical history and physical examination, confirmed that a visible hematoma was present acutely at the same location following the injury and that the contour deformity subsequently appeared. All patients underwent liposuction. Preoperative bilateral MRI examinations were performed on all patients. The mean clinical follow-up was 17.8 months. MRI examinations were interpreted in consensus by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with attention to fatty extension (subcutaneous fatty thickness and anatomical extension), asymmetry compared with the asymptomatic side, the presence or absence of fibrous septae or nonfatty components, and patterns of contrast enhancement. Ten posttraumatic pseudolipomas were identified. Clinically, they showed as subcutaneous masses with the consistency of normal adipose tissue. Their locations were the abdomen (n=1), hip (n=1), the upper thigh (n=6), the knee (n=1), and the ankle (n=1). On MRI examinations, using the contralateral side as a control, pseudolipomas appeared as focal fatty masses without a capsule or contrast enhancement. Posttraumatic pseudolipomas may develop at a site of blunt trauma or surgical procedures often antedated by a soft tissue hematoma. Characteristic MRI findings are unencapsulated subcutaneous fatty masses without contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  2. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes.

  3. Assessing the validity and reliability of the perceptions of the Consent To Sex Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D

    2014-01-01

    Although sexual assault prevention education tends to focus on consent promotion as a means to reduce rates of sexual assault, little is known about how college students consent to sexual activity. The current study aimed to better understand college students' consent via the systematic development of the Consent to Sex Scale (CSS), utilizing mixed methods via three phases and two waves of data collection. In Phase 1, qualitative data were collected from college students (n = 185) to provide a foundation for item writing. In Phase 2, closed-ended items were written for a quantitative instrument and reviewed by a team of experts. In Phase 3, a quantitative survey, including items written in Phase 2, was administered to college students (n = 685); the measure was assessed for its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis was utilized, resulting in a five-factor solution. The CSS and corresponding factors demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and expected gender differences, supporting the construct validity of the measure. The CSS assesses college students' cues for indicating consent to sex, a construct not addressed by previous measures. The validated scale may be useful in future research to better understand how consent relates to other behaviors or constructs.

  4. The moderated relationship of appearance valence on appearance self consciousness: Development and testing of new measures of appearance schema components

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the creation and psychometric properties of two independent measures of aspects of appearance schematicity – appearance salience and valence, assessed by the CARSAL and CARVAL, and their relation to appearance self-consciousness. Five hundred and ninety two participants provided data in a web based task. The results demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of both scales. This was demonstrated by good item total characteristics, good internal reliability of each scal...

  5. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  6. Customers’ Attitude and Perception about Ethnocentrism-application of Consumer Ethnocentrism Scale (CETSCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Renganathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Liberalized, Privatized and Globalized environment marketers have to understand the importance given by the customers in their purchasing process for domestic and foreign made products. Consumer ethnocentrism is very important in the consumer purchase decision making process. Consumers during the course of their purchase may give importance to whether the products are manufactured domestically or from other country. Objective of this study is to find out the customers opinion about the various features of ethnocentrism. Customers’ perspective about foreign made products and products made in India were also studied. CETSCALE proposed by Terence and Subhash (1987 with some changes was used for primary data collection. Five hundred and forty four customers from Trichy and Thanjavur area were included for this survey. Results showed that reliability of the ‘Consumer Ethnocentrism’ scale was good and significant associations were there between age and place of residence of the customers and their opinion about ethnocentrism. Findings and suggestions of this study will be useful for the marketers to understand about the level of importance given by the customers for Indian made products and foreign products.

  7. A comparative study of aesthetic perceptions of malocclusion among general practice dentists, orthodontists and the public using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the IOTN-AC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Castellote, Gonzalo; Montiel-Company, José-María; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Perception of malocclusion varies among individuals and among patients and practitioners. Although several indices that tend to coincide in many aspects and unify criteria, no single index has been recognised as the most suitable for assessing orthodontic treatment need. Moreover, orthodontists are not always aware of the differences in perception of malocclusion between patients and practitioners. Objetives To examine the perception of dental anaesthetics amongst dentists, orthodontists and the general population, study the relationship between the perception of dental aesthetics and the severity of the malocclusion, using the visual analogue scale and the IOTN-AC, and investigate relationships among the resulting data. Study Design Frontal intraoral photographs of 24 cases were classified by the severity of their malocclusion according to the DAI index. The photographs were examined by 150 individuals (30 orthodontists, 30 general dental practitioners and 90 members of the general population), who assessed them on a visual analogue scale and according to the IOTN-AC. Results The orthodontists gave the lowest scores on the visual analogue scale, although the differences between the three groups were not significant. For DAI grades 1, 3 and 4, significant differences were found in the IOTN-AC assessments. Here too, the orthodontist group was the most critical. Conclusions In general, in all three groups, both the visual analogue scale and IOTN-AC scores increased or decreased in line with the severity of the malocclusion according to the DAI. However, the correlation between these scores was low. The orthodontists scored the malocclusions more critically than the general dentists or the general population with the IOTN-AC, but this difference was not found with the visual analogue scale. Key words:IOTN-AC, DAI, malocclusion. PMID:27957275

  8. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...... to lighting conditions. Results show that localisation accuracy of facial features is considerably increased using this appearance representation under normal and abnormal lighting and at multiple scales....

  9. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...... to lighting conditions. Results show that the localisation accuracy of facial features is considerably increased using this appearance representation under diffuse and directional lighting and at multiple scales....

  10. 熵域流形空间中的目标尺度感知策略%Object Scale Perception Strategy with Embedding Entropy Region Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克伟; 谢昭; 高隽

    2011-01-01

    针对场景中不同目标的尺度感知问题,提出一种基于熵度量的场景目标尺度感知计算模型.通过对熵域空间中流形分布的统计特性分析,描述图像流形空间中的目标分布规律,在四叉树金字塔描述的基础上,依据尺度感知评价函数,形成了多目标尺度感知计算过程.实验结果说明,四叉树空间金字塔近似人类视觉感知的层次结构,基于熵域流形空间的目标描述可以有效实现目标尺度感知.%This paper mainly focuses on the issue of generic object scale perception. A computational model in entropy-domain space is presented for scene object description to pursue the underlying entropy manifold in statistical way. The corresponding algorithm approximately follows perceptual hierarchy in human-vision biologically via quad-tree pyramid structure, which can automatically choose the appropriate scale of various objects via proposed scale evaluation function. The sufficient experiments truly demonstrate the effective scale description in entropy region manifold with proper location, and provide additional priori information for object scale perception.

  11. The Excessive Appearance of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalko, Rod

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages the appearance of disability in contemporary Western culture. Rather than taking disability for granted as a biomedical condition, I interrogate how disability is made to appear in our culture, including its appearance as a biomedical condition. Fundamentally, disability appears to us as a trouble and, as such, cultural…

  12. Influence of Personality Traits in Self-Evaluative Salience, Motivational Salience and Self-Consciousness of Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos da Silva Mendes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to understand the possible influence of personality traits on the importance and significance of perception of body image and self-awareness of appearance in individuals.Method214 online recruited subjects between the ages of 17 and 64 years answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Portuguese version of the instruments NEO-FFI (NEO-Five Factor Inventory, ASI-R (The Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and DAS-24 (Derriford Appearance Scale – short.ResultsIt was found that age, Neuroticism and Agreeableness dimensions significantly influence an individual's investment in body image and self-awareness of appearance. Sexual orientations differed with regard to Self-Evaluative Salience and Self-Consciousness of Appearance.ConclusionThe performed analysis showed that neuroticism and agreeableness are related to Self-Evaluative Salience and Self-Consciousness of Appearance.

  13. Scale construction for measuring adolescent boys' and girls' attitudes, beliefs, perception of control, and intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Matthew S; Kalinski, Michael I

    2002-08-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework, the Attitude to Leisure-time Physical Activity, Expectations of Others, Perceived Control, and Intention of Engage in Leisure-time Physical Activity scales were developed for use among high school students. The study population included 20 boys and 68 girls 13 to 17 years of age (for boys, M = 15.1 yr., SD = 1.0; for girls, M = 15.0 yr., SD = 1.1). Generation of items and the establishment of content validity were performed by professionals in exercise physiology, physical education, and clinical psychology. Each scale item was phrased in a Likert-type format. Both unipolar and bipolar scales with seven response choices were developed. Following the pilot testing and subsequent revisions, 32 items were retained in the Attitude to Leisure-time Physical Activity scale, 10 items were retained in the Expectations of Others scale, 3 items were retained in the Perceived Control Scale, and 24 items were retained in the Intention to Engage in Leisure-time Physical Activity scale. Coefficients indicated adequate stability and internal consistency with alpha ranging from .81 to .96. Studies of validities are underway, after which scales would be made available to those interested in intervention techniques for promoting positive attitudes toward physical fitness, perception of control over engaging in leisure-time physical activities, and good intentions to engage in leisure-time physical activities. The present results are encouraging.

  14. Why do objects appear enlarged under water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Ross

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objects appear enlarged in water by less than the 4/3 angular magnification. They usually appear beyond their optical distance and slightly enlarged in linear size, but not in accordance with size-distance invariance (SDI. We investigated whether misperceptions of angular size could explain the discrepancies. Twenty observers viewed targets of various sizes and distances within transparent tanks 40 cm long containing air or water. They judged distance by hidden reaching, and linear or angular size by adjusting the size of a target in air at a further distance. Matched distance was close to physical distance in air and optical distance in water. All size matches were close to true linear size, and were larger in water than in air. Angular size matches were much too small to explain departures from SDI. Size perception under water is best explained by incomplete adaptation to optical distortion, and by the use of various size cues.

  15. Generic active appearance models revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Alabort-i-Medina, Joan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Active Orientation Models (AOMs) are gen- erative models of facial shape and appearance. Their main dierences with the well-known paradigm of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are (i) they use a dierent statistical model of appearance, (ii) they are accompanied by a robust algorithm for m

  16. Enhancing the Construct and Content Validity of Rating Scales for Clinical Research: Using Qualitative Methods to Develop a Rating Scale to Assess Parental Perceptions of Their Role in Promoting Infant Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen; Lakes, Kimberley D; Vaughan, Jessica; Gravem, Dana; Rich, Julia K; David, Marissa; Nguyen, Heather; Cooper, Dan

    2012-04-01

    With a focus on the early stages of developing new assessment tools, we present an example of how researchers can apply qualitative data to the development of conceptual domains and specific items representing those domains for quantitative instruments. Specifically, our previous research examining mothers' perceptions and experiences of engaging in assisted exercise with their infants provided the foundation for the development of the Perceptions of Pediatric Activity Scale (PPAS). We describe the process we used to develop the PPAS as an exemplar for the process of incorporating qualitative data in instrument development. In addition, we address instrument development for diverse populations, and we provide examples illustrating how we extracted concepts using a concept-indicator model to construct the items in the PPAS. We conclude by noting that we are currently in the process of pilot-testing the PPAS to evaluate its utility and reliability.

  17. The Image in the Mirror and the Number on the Scale: Weight, Weight Perceptions, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Houle, Jason N.; Martin, Molly A.

    2010-01-01

    Double jeopardy and health congruency theories suggest that adolescents' joint experience of their weight and weight perceptions are associated with depressive symptoms, but each theory offers a different prediction about which adolescents are at greatest risk. This study investigates the proposed associations and the applicability of both…

  18. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruvalcaba, Irma; Sánchez-Hernández, Viridiana; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years) with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027) by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. PMID:26719723

  19. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to i

  20. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  1. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  2. Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a “kernel of truth” in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term “task-congruent selection” to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases

  3. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  4. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  5. Seeing Signs : On the appearance of manual movements in gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a series of studies on the appearance of manual movements in gestures. The main goal of this research is to increase our understanding of how humans perceive signs and other gestures. Generated insights from human perception may aid the development of techno

  6. Seeing Signs: On the appearance of manual movements in gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a series of studies on the appearance of manual movements in gestures. The main goal of this research is to increase our understanding of how humans perceive signs and other gestures. Generated insights from human perception may aid the development of techno

  7. Massive Gains in IQ Do Not Appear to Extend to the Elderly: A Note on Adult Australian Inpatient Performance on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1938) and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivison, David

    1990-01-01

    Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale were administered to 400 Australian hospitalized adults without psychiatric or neurological impairment in 4 age groups from 30 to 69 years. Compared to pre-1964 data, the subjects did not show gains in intelligence quotient as did younger age groups. (SLD)

  8. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Ruvalcaba I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irma Pérez-Ruvalcaba,1 Viridiana Sánchez-Hernández,1 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma2,3 1Burn Unit, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 2Health Sciences Department, Centro Universitario de Tonalá, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico; 3Diabetes sin Complicaciones, Zapopan, Mexico Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods: A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results: A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027 by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. Keywords: TENS, burn pain, pain management, electrotherapy

  9. Modelling the appearance of chromatic environment using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomins, S.; Ozolinsh, M.

    2013-11-01

    Color of objects is a spectral composition of incident light source, reflection properties of the object itself, and spectral tuning of the eye. Light sources with different spectral characteristics can produce metameric representation of color; however most variable in this regard is vision. Pigments of color vision are continuously bleached by different stimuli and optical density of the pigment is changed, while continuous conditions provide an adaptation and perception of white. Special cases are color vision deficiencies which cover almost 8 % of male population in Europe. Hyperspectral imaging allows obtaining the spectra of the environment and modelling the performance of the dichromatic, anomalous trichromatic, as also normal trichromatic adapted behavior. First, CRI Nuance hyperspectral imaging system was spectrally calibrated for natural continuous spectral illumination of high color rendering index and narrow band fluorescent light sources. Full-scale images of color deficiency tests were acquired in the range of 420 to 720 nm to evaluate the modelling capacity for dichromatic and anomalous trichromatic vision. Hyperspectral images were turned to cone excitation images according to Stockman and Sharpe (2000) 1. Further, model was extended for anomalous trichromacy conditions. Cone sensitivity spectra were shifted by 4 nm according to each anomaly type. LWS and SWS cone signals were balanced in each condition to provide the appropriate appearance of colors in CIE system.

  10. Comparing the second-order factor structure of the Family Environment Scale across husbands' and wives' perceptions of their family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuer, H M; Villegas, T

    2001-01-01

    The Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1986) is one of the most widely used environmental measures in clinical and family research. Clinicians and researchers often use the FES for comparing spouses' perceptions of their family environment, under the assumption that the underlying structure of the FES is the same for husbands and wives. However, no studies have actually compared the structure of the FES across spouse responses to the FES. Additionally, a review of the literature generally suggests a lack of consensus regarding the factor structure of the FES. Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined whether the second-order factor structures of the FES, as identified in the literature, were consistent across spouses' perceptions of their family environment. Husbands and wives in 130 nonclinical families responded to Form R of the FES. The findings supported the two-factor solution presented by Fowler (1981) and by Boake and Salmon (1983), and did not differ across responses by husbands and wives. In contrast, responses by husbands and wives to the FES could not be modeled using the three-factor solutions presented by Moos and Moos (1986) and by others. The importance of using a measure that is structurally the same across different groups of respondents is discussed.

  11. Evaluating students' perception of their clinical placements - testing the clinical learning environment and supervision and nurse teacher scale (CLES + T scale) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergjan, Manuela; Hertel, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Clinical nursing education in Germany has not received attention in nursing science and practice for a long time, as it often seems to be a more or less "formalized appendix" of nursing education. Several development projects of clinical education taking place are mainly focused on the qualification of clinical preceptors. However, the clinical context and its influence on learning processes have still not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was the testing of a German version of the clinical learning environment and supervision and nurse teacher scale (CLES + T scale). The sample of the pilot study consists of first-, second- and third-year student nurses (n=240) of a university nursing school from January to March 2011. Psychometric testing of the instrument is carried out by selected methods of classical testing theories using SPPS 19. The results show transferability of all subcategories of the CLES + T scale in the non-academic nursing education system of a university hospital in Germany, without the teacher scale. The strongest factor is "supervisory relationship". The German version of the CLES + T scale may help to evaluate and compare traditional and new models in clinical nursing education.

  12. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  13. Duke University's Quality Appearance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Grounds Services Unit at Duke University has implemented a new program that involves a process of self evaluation, which embraces the concept of perpetual and continuous improvement. The Quality Appearance Program (QAP) embellishes and expands upon the Quality Assurance Program concept, but with a twist to grounds management improvement…

  14. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  15. Radiological appearances of sinonasal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Beltagi, A.H.; Sobeih, A.A.; Valvoda, M.; Dahniya, M.H.; Badr, S.S

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this pictorial review is to present a variety of abnormalities of the sinonasal cavities to emphasize the diversity of lesions occurring in this region. These include congenital, neoplastic and granulomatous disorders and some allergic and inflammatory lesions with uncommon radiological appearances, as well as expanding lesions of the facial bones or of dental origin with secondary involvement of the related sinus(es). El-Beltagi, A.H. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology 57, 702-718.

  16. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  17. Multi-scale salient feature extraction on mesh models

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of extracting multi-scale salient features on meshes. It is based on robust estimation of curvature on multiple scales. The coincidence between salient feature and the scale of interest can be established straightforwardly, where detailed feature appears on small scale and feature with more global shape information shows up on large scale. We demonstrate this multi-scale description of features accords with human perception and can be further used for several applications as feature classification and viewpoint selection. Experiments exhibit that our method as a multi-scale analysis tool is very helpful for studying 3D shapes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Students' Perceptions to Use Technology for Learning: Measurement Integrity of the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Murat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to provide the evidence for the reliability of the modified Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (FSMAS), as translated to Turkish language and transformed to the educational technology context, and (2) to investigate high school students' motivation to use technology for learning by a comparative…

  19. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  20. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  1. Atypical Imaging Appearances of Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soltani shirazi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Meningiomas are the commonest primary non-glial intracranial tumors. The diagnosis is usually correctly established on characteristic imaging appearances. Atypical meningiomas may be difficult to diagnose because of their similarity to other brain tumors. This paper presents one case of atypical meningioma, misdiagnosed primarily as glioblastoma multiforms (GBM by radiological techniques. "nCase report: A 15-year-old girl presented with a severe intermittent generalized headache that on occasion localized to retro-orbital and vertex. Other manifestations were blurred vision, photophobia, diplopia, weakness and clumsiness of the right hand. The result of systemic and neurological examinations was normal, except for a positive right hand drift test. MRI showed a large lobulated mass with peripheral edema, central necrosis and a heterogenous enhancement at the central part of the parietal lobe inducing to subfalcian herniation. Glioblastoma multiforms (GBM was misdiagnosed for the patient on the basis of MRI appearance. Pathology evaluation was compatible with meningioma (WHO grade I to II. The patient was operated and discharged with minimal right hand weakness. Physiotherapy was recommended to improve the remaining problems. "nConclusion: Atypical meningiomas may mimic other intracranical brain lesions and may cause misdiagnosis. It is important to be aware of these features in order to avoid misdiagnosis. "n"n  

  2. Exploratory movement generates higher-order information that is sufficient for accurate perception of scaled egocentric distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mantel

    Full Text Available Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants' movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate.

  3. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  4. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...... transformations was carried out using a training set of five images. The tracker was automatically initialised by a described multi-scale initialisation method and achieved a performance in the range of 7-10 frames per second....

  5. Basosquamous carcinoma: appearance and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rakesh L.; Collins, Damian; Chapman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BsC) is a controversial entity and both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. BsC has mixed histopathological characteristics of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC and SCC display characteristic histopathology and behaviour; on the other hand, BsC is a rare tumour, which has variable morphology and displays less predictable behaviour. An early diagnosis of BsC is important due to the particularly aggressive nature of the tumour, the increased likelihood of recurrence and the potential for metastasis. Here, we present a case of BsC presenting as an extensive ulcer on the back. The case highlights the aggressive nature of the tumour and variation in appearance. It is important for all clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis so that the urgency of adequate biopsy in specialist clinics is not underestimated. PMID:28058108

  6. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  7. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  8. Ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ben, R. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Dehghanpisheh, K.; Chatham, W.W.; Alarcon, G.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Lee, D.H.; Oakes, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Surgery

    2006-11-15

    We describe the ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads. Retrospective analysis of imaging in a series of five patients initially referred for evaluation of periarticular soft-tissue swelling of the hands involving the dorsum of the PIP and MP joints. Two patients had associated Dupuytren's contractures. Ultrasound and radiographs of the hands in all patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical history and physical exams. Radiographs in four patients demonstrated dorsal soft-tissue thickening. Ultrasound exams showed increased dorsal subcutaneous thickening, with either diffuse or focal hypoechoic areas corresponding to the areas of soft-tissue fullness identified on physical exam. No erosions or synovial proliferation were identified either by radiographs or ultrasound of the underlying joints. Knuckle pads can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from synovitis on physical examination. Musculoskeletal ultrasound can quickly identify these superficial lesions and exclude underlying synovial proliferation.

  9. Bias in the Perception of Phonetic Detail in Children’s Speech: A Comparison of Categorical and Continuous Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin; Schellinger, Sarah K.; Edwards, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children’s productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgments of children’s productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgments of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgments of a parameter that is relatively less-continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition. One experiment elicited continuous judgments of /s/ and /θ/ productions, while the other elicited categorical judgments. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the influence of acoustic characteristics on continuous judgments of /s/ and /θ/ was stable across biasing conditions. In contrast, the results of Experiment 2 showed that the influence of acoustic characteristics on categorical judgments of /s/ and /θ/ differed systematically across biasing conditions. These results suggest that continuous judgments are psychometrically superior to categorical judgments, as they are more resistant to task-related bias. PMID:27736242

  10. Female Facial Appearance and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Gray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections, on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months. The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  11. Appearences can be deceiving. The portal of weight and embodied meaning portrayal in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompay, van Thomas; Verdenius, Francien; Okken, Vanessa; Pruyn, Ad; Salamanca, Juan; Desmet, Pieter; Burbano, Andrés; Ludden, Geke; Maya, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    First impressions often arise from visual perceptions of product appearance, later to be followed by multisensory impressions involving touch and haptic sensations. These subsequent sensations may sometimes reinforce impressions generated by product apprearance, but lead to disappointment when expec

  12. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...

  13. A comparative study of aesthetic perceptions of malocclusion among general practice dentists, orthodontists and the public using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the IOTN-AC

    OpenAIRE

    Julián-Castellote, Gonzalo; García-Sanz, Verónica; Montiel-Company, José-María; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Perception of malocclusion varies among individuals and among patients and practitioners. Although several indices that tend to coincide in many aspects and unify criteria, no single index has been recognised as the most suitable for assessing orthodontic treatment need. Moreover, orthodontists are not always aware of the differences in perception of malocclusion between patients and practitioners. Objetives To examine the perception of dental anaesthetics amongst dentists, orthodo...

  14. Caregiver evaluation of the quality of end-of-life care (CEQUEL scale: the caregiver's perception of patient care near death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Higgins

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: End-of-life (EOL measures are limited in capturing caregiver assessment of the quality of EOL care. Because none include caregiver perception of patient suffering or prolongation of death, we sought to develop and validate the Caregiver Evaluation of Quality of End-of-Life Care (CEQUEL scale to include these dimensions of caregiver-perceived quality of EOL care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were derived from Coping with Cancer (CwC, a multisite, prospective, longitudinal study of advanced cancer patients and their caregivers (N = 275 dyads. Caregivers were assessed before and after patient deaths. CEQUEL's factor structure was examined; reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's α, and convergent validity by the strength of associations between CEQUEL scores and key EOL outcomes. RESULTS: FACTOR ANALYSIS REVEALED FOUR DISTINCT FACTORS: Prolongation of Death, Perceived Suffering, Shared Decision-Making, and Preparation for the Death. Each item loaded strongly on only a single factor. The 13-item CEQUEL and its subscales showed moderate to acceptable Cronbach's α (range: 0.52-0.78. 53% of caregivers reported patients suffering more than expected. Higher CEQUEL scores were positively associated with therapeutic alliance (ρ = .13; p≤.05 and hospice enrollment (z = -2.09; p≤.05, and negatively associated with bereaved caregiver regret (ρ = -.36, p≤.001 and a diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (z = -2.06; p≤.05. CONCLUSION: CEQUEL is a brief, valid measure of quality of EOL care from the caregiver's perspective. It is the first scale to include perceived suffering and prolongation of death. If validated in future work, it may prove a useful quality indicator for the delivery of EOL care and a risk indicator for poor bereavement adjustment.

  15. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  16. Typically the Best? Perceived Typicality and Aesthetic Appraisal of Product Appearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is investigated how the current knowledge that people possess about a certain product category influences perception and aesthetic appraisal of product appearances within this product category. Through the reoccurring exposure to product appearances in everyday life people f

  17. Hydrography, 24k DLG Streams --This data set represents the streams and rivers in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming that appear on the 1:24,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1989. It is described as '24k...

  18. Railroad Lines, This data set represents the railroads in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1985, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1985. It is described as...

  19. Hydrography, 100K DLG lakes --This data set represents water bodies in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1989, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1989. It is described as '100K...

  20. Road and Street Centerlines, This data set represents the roads and trails in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map eries from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1985, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1985. It is described as 'This data set represents the...

  1. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola K; Wells, Jessie A; Pellier, Anne-Sophie; Ancrenaz, Marc; Gaveau, David L A; Runting, Rebecca K; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2013-01-01

    We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations), on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  2. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations, on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  3. Stigma scale of epilepsy: the perception of epilepsy stigma in different cities in Brazil Percepção do estigma na epilepsia em diferentes cidades do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the perception of epilepsy stigma in different regions of Brazil. METHOD: The Stigma Scale of Epilepsy (SSE questionnaire was applied to people in different Brazilian urban settings. The survey was performed on individual basis; an interviewer read the questions to the subjects and wrote down the answers. The same procedure was applied to all the subjects and took around 10 minutes. RESULTS: 266 questionnaires were completed in four different towns of Brazil (Curitiba=83; São Paulo=47; Vila Velha=79; Ipatinga=57. The overall stigma score was 49.7 (median. Different scores were obtained in each locality. Vila Velha=42; Curitiba=49; São Paulo=52; Ipatinga=54 (ANOVA [2.262]=3.82; p=0.01. CONCLUSION: This study showed differences in the perception of stigma, which may depend on cultural and regional aspects. The concept of stigma has cultural perspectives, depending on the region and the context where each person lives. The understanding of this aspect of epilepsy is important to promote better de-stigmatization campaigns, considering the cultural and social differences.OBJETIVO: Identificar a percepção do estigma na epilepsia em diferentes regiões do Brasil. MÉTODO: A Escala de Estigma na Epilepsia foi aplicada em 266 pessoas de quatro diferentes cidades do Brasil (Curitiba, São Paulo, Vila Velha e Ipatinga. Em todas as situações, as pessoas foram entrevistadas individualmente, sendo que as questões eram lidas para os sujeitos. As condições de aplicação foram as mesmas nas cidades e a aplicação durou aproximadamente 10 minutos. RESULTADOS: Foram aplicados 266 questionários em três diferentes cidades do Brasil (Curitiba=83; São Paulo=47; Vila Velha=79; Ipatinga=57. A média do escore geral da EEE foi 49,7. Na avaliação das quatro cidades separadamente, houve diferença significativa entre elas: Vila Velha=42; Curitiba=49; São Paulo=52 e Ipatinga=54 (ANOVA [2,262]=3,82; p=0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou

  4. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Linford

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. Methods A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'. Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking; 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect; and 'price inelastic' (no change for either. Results Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect the most common outcome (62%. Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30 or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41 were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57% while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P Conclusions Lower pricing increases alcohol consumption, and the alcohol industry's continued focus on discounting sales encourages higher drinking levels. International evidence suggests increasing the price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve

  5. Discrimination of facial appearance stimuli in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich; Adam-Schwebe, Stefanie; Müller, Thomas; Wolter, Manfred

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) propose that information-processing biases--in particular, selective attention to a defect in one's appearance as well as improved aesthetical perception--might contribute to the development or maintenance of the disorder. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that patients with BDD discriminate facial appearance stimuli more accurately than controls. Sixty female patients from a dermatological clinic participated in the study: 21 patients with BDD, 19 patients with disfiguring dermatological conditions, and 20 patients with nondisfiguring dermatological disorders. Participants rated dissimilarities between pictures of neutral faces that had been manipulated with regard to aesthetic characteristics. Manipulation ratings of participants with BDD were significantly more accurate than those of both control groups. Implications of these results for cognitive theories of BDD are discussed.

  6. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  7. Controlling the appearance of specular microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Iman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is the appearance modeling of specular microstructures. We limit our study to microspheres, microcylinders, and a mesh of interwoven microcylinders. These microstructures are involved in the appearance of rainbows, hair, and cloth. There have been many studies on the appearance modeling of these three subjects. However, previous models either fail to reproduce specific appearances or they do so at the cost of time-consuming parameter tweaking. The main goal of t...

  8. Colour appearance descriptors for image browsing and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Aniza; Martinez, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the development of whole-scene colour appearance descriptors for classification to be used in browsing applications. The descriptors can classify a whole-scene image into various categories of semantically-based colour appearance. Colour appearance is an important feature and has been extensively used in image-analysis, retrieval and classification. By using pre-existing global CIELAB colour histograms, firstly, we try to develop metrics for whole-scene colour appearance: "colour strength", "high/low lightness" and "multicoloured". Secondly we propose methods using these metrics either alone or combined to classify whole-scene images into five categories of appearance: strong, pastel, dark, pale and multicoloured. Experiments show positive results and that the global colour histogram is actually useful and can be used for whole-scene colour appearance classification. We have also conducted a small-scale human evaluation test on whole-scene colour appearance. The results show, with suitable threshold settings, the proposed methods can describe the whole-scene colour appearance of images close to human classification. The descriptors were tested on thousands of images from various scenes: paintings, natural scenes, objects, photographs and documents. The colour appearance classifications are being integrated into an image browsing system which allows them to also be used to refine browsing.

  9. Changes in Appearance in the Presence of Major Stress Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Stitz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between experiencing major stress events (MSEs and changes in appearance (CAs was studied in a sample of 128 participants. All participants completed the Major Stress Event and Changes in Appearance Inventory. Results indicated a significant correlation between experiencing MSEs and considered or actual CAs (r = .50 p < .01. Scores on the Changes in Appearance Inventory were significantly higher in groups with moderate to high scores on the Major Stress Event scale. This relationship between MSEs and CAs was affected by age but not gender. These results suggest that stressful life events may prompt body image dissatisfaction and underlie motivations for changes in body appearance to promote self-image. Successive or dramatic appearance changes may be an important signal of stressful experiences.

  10. An item response theory analysis of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children or why strong clinical scales should be distrusted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343) w

  11. Changing Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  12. Biophysics of food perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  13. Philosophies of Human Nature and Perception of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of social perceptions of differential perception of beauty. Men and women (N=62) rated 10 passport pictures on five-point scale from very ugly to very beautiful. Subjects also completed Philosophies of Human Nature Scale. Positive correlations with perception of beauty were obtained for four of the six subscales. (Author)

  14. Automated volumetric breast density derived by shape and appearance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r2 = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  15. Neural scaling laws for an uncertain world

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    The Weber-Fechner law describes the form of psychological space in many behavioral experiments involving perception of one-dimensional physical quantities. If the physical quantity is expressed using multiple neural receptors, then placing receptive fields evenly along a logarithmic scale naturally leads to the psychological Weber-Fechner law. In the visual system, the spacing and width of extrafoveal receptive fields are consistent with logarithmic scaling. Other sets of neural "receptors" appear to show the same qualitative properties, suggesting that this form of neural scaling reflects a solution to a very general problem. This paper argues that these neural scaling laws enable the brain to represent information about the world efficiently without making any assumptions about the statistics of the world. This analysis suggests that the organization of neural scales to represent one-dimensional quantities, including more abstract quantities such as numerosity, time, and allocentric space, should have a uni...

  16. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  17. Stress and Visceral Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M Delvaux

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional bowel disorders are characterized by the presence of a visceral hyperalgesia in most patients. This visceral hyperalgesia is related to an enhanced perception of sensations originating from the gut. Stressful events can dramatically influence the course of functional bowel disorders, and patients suffering from these syndromes appear to be more susceptible to the stressful events of daily life. However, until now, few studies have evaluated the relationship between stress and visceral perception. Some studies of healthy volunteers indicated contradictory results, but the studies used different methodologies. During stress conditions, either physical or mental, thresholds of perception of rectal distension were increased, suggesting a ‘distraction effect’, or were decreased, supporting a sensitizing effect of stress. In most studies, rectal compliance was not affected, but stress has been shown to alter the rectal tone, as measured by a barostat. One study comparing irritable bowel syndrome patients with controls demonstrated the importance of cognitive processes in the modulation of visceral perception by stress. Animal studies have also demonstrated the sensitizing effect of stress on the perception of rectal distension. Mediators involved may be numerous, but corticotropin-releasing factor has been demonstrated to play a major role at the central level. Mast cells and histamine release may play a role at the peripheral level. Stress can thus be included in an integrative model explaining the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders. Advances in the understanding of the relationship between stress and visceral perception may constitute a basis for a therapeutic approach of functional bowel disorders targeted on the central nervous system.

  18. Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162715.html Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial Drug manufacturer says ... Dec. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly effective against the deadly virus in ...

  19. Breast Hemangioma: MR Appearance with Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast hemangioma is a rare tumor and when small, it may be difficult to diagnose using conventional imaging techniques. In this report the MR appearance is described with histopathological correlation.

  20. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrate...... that especially one of the six SNPs are correlated with iris appearance. To perform this analysis we need a method to model the iris appearance, and we suggest an iris characterization based on a bag of visual words, which gives us a similarity measure between images of eyes. We have a dataset of 215 eye images...... are performed supporting that this SNP is very important for eye color expression. With the suggested image characterizations we are able to investigate the correlation between the phenotypic iris appearance and specific SNPs. This has potential for further investigation of the relation between DNA and iris...

  1. Risk perception for paragliding practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Jairo Antônio da; Tucher, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    As an adventure sport, paragliding exposes participants to different levels of life risk. However, the boundary between calculated risk and real risk is a subtle one, depending on the practitioner’s perception. Thus, this study aimed to analyze risk perception of 73 paragliding practitioners. The descriptive-exploratory study method was used. Data was col-lected via a questionnaire validated according to the Delphi technique. Variables were evaluated from a bipolar Likert type scale, ranging ...

  2. Analysis of Handwriting based on Rhythm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio

    Humanity fluctuation was reported in some fields. In handwriting process, fluctuation appears on handwriting-velocity. In this report, we focused attention on human rhythm perception and analyzed fluctuation in handwriting process. As a result, 1/f noise related to rhythm perception and features may caused by Kahneman's capacity model were measured on handwriting process.

  3. Racial Appearance And Income In Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutilio Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, income and European appearance are strongly positively correlated. Racist attitudes, overt preference for the European appearance and high unemployment combine to maintain this racial economic hierarchy. Free market policies could help to reduce the racial economic inequality. These policies, however, go against the economic interests of the wealthy white oligarchy and against the prevailing political ideology of the dark skinned lower classes. Thus, the current racial economic inequality, with its negative economic consequences, is likely to continue.

  4. POEMS syndrome: radiographic appearance with MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Suzanne T. [Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beasley, H.S. [Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Daffner, Richard H. [Allegheny General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal/Trauma Radiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2006-09-15

    POEMS syndrome is a rare disorder in which patients present with the hallmark signs of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes. Many other clinical findings are also often present, most notably osseous lesions. The MRI appearance of the bony lesions in POEMS syndrome has been described in five cases, four of which are in the non-English literature. We report the MRI appearance of the osseous lesions in a patient with POEMS syndrome who presented with sciatic neuropathy. (orig.)

  5. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  6. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to determine the effect of external apple vinegar application on the symptoms and social appearance anxiety of varicosity patients who were suggested conservative treatment. Method. The study was planned as an experimental, randomized, and controlled study. 120 patients were randomly selected and then were randomly allocated to either experimental or control group by simple blind random sampling method. In the collection of research data, a questionnaire questioning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS were used. The patients in the study group were suggested to apply apple vinegar to the area of the leg with varicosity alongside the treatment suggested by the doctor. The patients in the control group received no intervention during the study. Results. The sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of both groups were found to be similar (p>0.05. The patients were evaluated with regard to cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, and weight feelings in the leg, VAS, and SAAS averages in the second evaluation; the control group had a decrease in such symptoms (p>0.05 although the decrease in the application group was higher and statistically meaningful (p<0.05. Conclusion. We determined that the external application of apple vinegar on varicosity patients, which is a very easy application, increased the positive effects of conservative treatment.

  7. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Derya; Atik, Cem; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to determine the effect of external apple vinegar application on the symptoms and social appearance anxiety of varicosity patients who were suggested conservative treatment. Method. The study was planned as an experimental, randomized, and controlled study. 120 patients were randomly selected and then were randomly allocated to either experimental or control group by simple blind random sampling method. In the collection of research data, a questionnaire questioning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) were used. The patients in the study group were suggested to apply apple vinegar to the area of the leg with varicosity alongside the treatment suggested by the doctor. The patients in the control group received no intervention during the study. Results. The sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of both groups were found to be similar (p > 0.05). The patients were evaluated with regard to cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, and weight feelings in the leg, VAS, and SAAS averages in the second evaluation; the control group had a decrease in such symptoms (p > 0.05) although the decrease in the application group was higher and statistically meaningful (p apple vinegar on varicosity patients, which is a very easy application, increased the positive effects of conservative treatment.

  8. "Let's talk about OA pain": a qualitative analysis of the perceptions of people suffering from OA. Towards the development of a specific pain OA-Related questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cedraschi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients' descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. RESULTS: TWO MAIN POINTS EMERGED FROM CONTENT ANALYSES: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one's self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. SUMMARY: In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to

  9. Ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaicker, Jatin; Zajac, Mercedes; Shergill, Ravi; Choudur, Hema N

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to prospectively evaluate the ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc's ligament in 50 patients (100 ft) with no prior or current ligament injury. Fifty normal asymptomatic patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years were assessed. Three key features were recorded: ultrasound appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament. Patients excluded from this study included pediatric patients and those with history of injury or symptoms related to the foot. The mean right- and left-sided ligament (RT) thickness were 0.096 (0.021) and 0.104 (0.023), respectively. The mean right- and left-sided ligament RT length was 0.54 (0.11) and 0.57 (0.11), respectively. The appearance of the ligament was similar in all patients with a central thin band of hypoechogenicity lined by hyperechoic lines on either side. Understanding the normal appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament in a large sample is imperative to diagnose abnormal appearances of this ligament including sprains and tears by ultrasound. Ultrasound, with its easy accessibility, can be used in the emergency department to rapidly exclude injury of the ligament. Increased understanding and awareness of the Lisfranc's ligament on ultrasound can allow for more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Multi-Scale Salient Features for Analyzing 3D Shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Liang Yang; Chao-Hui Shen

    2012-01-01

    Extracting feature regions on mesh models is crucial for shape analysis and understanding.It can be widely used for various 3D content-based applications in graphics and geometry field.In this paper,we present a new algorithm of extracting multi-scale salient features on meshes.This is based on robust estimation of curvature on multiple scales.The coincidence between salient feature and the scale of interest can be established straightforwardly,where detailed feature appears on small scale and feature with more global shape information shows up on large scale.We demonstrate this kind of multi-scale description of features accords with human perception and can be further used for several applications as feature classification and viewpoint selection.Experiments exhibit that our method as a multi-scale analysis tool is very helpful for studying 3D shapes.

  11. Percepção dos pacientes sobre o tratamento em serviços de saúde mental: validação da Escala de Mudança Percebida Patient's perception on the treatment in mental Health services: validating the Perception of Change Scale - patient version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Bittencourt Bandeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de serviços de saúde mental, tem-se destacado as escalas de medida que avaliam os resultados do tratamento relatados pelos próprios pacientes. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi validar a Escala de Mudança Percebida (EMP pelos pacientes. Trezentos pacientes psiquiátricos, atendidos em serviços de saúde mental, participaram de entrevistas individuais estruturadas, com a escala. A escala possui 19 itens que avaliam mudanças percebidas, com alternativas de resposta em escala do tipo Likert de 3 pontos. Análise pelo método dos Componentes Principais resultou em estrutura de 3 fatores: a Ocupação e saúde física; b Aspectos psicológicos e sono; c Relacionamentos e estabilidade emocional. A escala apresentou boa consistência interna (Alfa de Cronbach= 0,85, estabilidade temporal teste-reteste (r=0,93; pThe evaluation of mental health services has stressed the use of patient-reported outcome scales. Thus, this research aimed at validating the Perception of Change Scale - Patient Version (PCS-P. Three hundred psychiatric patients, attending mental health services, participated in individual structured interviews which use the scale. The scale has 19 items which evaluate perceived changes and response alternatives disposed in a three-point Likert-type scale. Analysis using the Principal Components Method revealed a 3-factor structure: (a occupation and physical health; (b psychological aspects and sleeping condition; (c relationships and emotional stability. The scale had good indices of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.85, test-retest temporal stability (r = 0.93; p<0.05 and convergent validity with another scale evaluating the related construct of service satisfaction (r = 0.37; p<0.05.

  12. The appearance culture between friends and adolescent appearance-based rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS) is the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to signs of rejection based on one's appearance, and is associated with a number of psychological and social problems (Park, 2007). This study of 380 adolescents (Mage = 13.84) examined a model linking the appearance culture between friends with appearance-RS in adolescent boys and girls, via internalisation of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. Gender differences were also tested. Consistent with expectations, appearance-focused characteristics of the friendship context were associated with heightened appearance-RS via internalization of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. The appearance-focused friend characteristics that were associated with appearance-RS included exposure to friends' appearance conversations, appearance teasing that caused distress, and perceived pressure to be attractive. Notably, associations rarely differed for boys and girls, with one exception: the association between BMI and body dissatisfaction was stronger in girls than in boys.

  13. Peritoneal mesothelioma; Radiologic appearances correlated with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, P.R.; Yuschok, T.J.; Buck, J.L.; Shekitka, K.M.; Kaude, J.V. (Florida Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Radiology Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States). Depts. of Radiologic Pathology and Gastrointestinal Pathology)

    1991-09-01

    Previous imaging reports of peritoneal mesothelioma have described a variety of radiologic appearances, but have not included its pathologic classification. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of peritoneal mesothelioma representing the following histologic categories: 7 epithelial, 2 sarcomatoid, and one biphasic. By imaging, epithelial mesotheliomas demonstrated diffuse thickening of the peritoneum and mesentery and/or multiple small nodules. The sarcomatoid-type appeared as a mass and the biphasic-type had radiologic and gross pathologic features of both sarcomatoid and epithelial types. We conclude that peritoneal mesothelioma presents with a wide spectrum of radiographic appearances and should therefore be included in the differential diagnoses of diffuse as well as localized peritoneal processes. (orig.).

  14. Interactive Appearance Prediction for Cloudy Beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim;

    2016-01-01

    Juice appearance is important to consumers, so digital juice with a slider that varies a production parameter or changes juice content is useful. It is however challenging to render juice with scattering particles quickly and accurately. As a case study, we create an appearance model that provides...... the optical properties needed for rendering of unfiltered apple juice. This is a scattering medium that requires volume path tracing as the scattering is too much for single scattering techniques and too little for subsurface scattering techniques. We investigate techniques to provide a progressive...... interactive appearance prediction tool for this type of medium. Our renderings are validated by qualitative and quantitative comparison with photographs. Visual comparisons using our interactive tool enable us to estimate the apple particle concentration of a photographed apple juice....

  15. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  16. GROUPING OBJECTS BASED ON THEIR APPEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamirano Robles Luis Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of clustering algorithms for partition to establish a hierarchical structure in a library of object models based on appearance is deployed. The main contribution corresponds to a novel and intuitive algorithm for clustering of models based on their appearance, closer to “human behavior”. This divides the complete set into subclasses. Immediately, divides each of these in a number of predefined groups to complete the levels of hierarchy that the user wants. Whose main purpose is to obtain a competitive classification compared to what a human would perform.

  17. Public Perception of Forestry Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article endeavours to assess public perceptions about the importance of forests for young people in the age group of 21-35 years in Malaysia based on 1,503 reliably answered interviews. Overall patterns show that timber production and environment protection are very important attributes among this age group. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm plantations and political interference appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have on overall negative impact on sustainable forestry in Malaysia. Increasing information accessibility, awareness and experience in the forest of the young people could ultimately result in positive processes.

  18. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  19. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  20. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  1. How consumers perceive product appearance; the identification of three product appearance attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Creusen, M.E.H.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    The appearance attributes of designed products noted in the literature often reflect what designers themselves perceive in a product design. This present research, however, provides knowledge on how consumers perceive product appearance by identifying appearance attributes that consumers use to dist

  2. Crowding, grouping, and object recognition: A matter of appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Sayim, Bilge; Chicherov, Vitaly; Manassi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, the perception of a target strongly deteriorates when neighboring elements are presented. Crowding is usually assumed to have the following characteristics. (a) Crowding is determined only by nearby elements within a restricted region around the target (Bouma's law). (b) Increasing the number of flankers can only deteriorate performance. (c) Target-flanker interference is feature-specific. These characteristics are usually explained by pooling models, which are well in the spirit of classic models of object recognition. In this review, we summarize recent findings showing that crowding is not determined by the above characteristics, thus, challenging most models of crowding. We propose that the spatial configuration across the entire visual field determines crowding. Only when one understands how all elements of a visual scene group with each other, can one determine crowding strength. We put forward the hypothesis that appearance (i.e., how stimuli look) is a good predictor for crowding, because both crowding and appearance reflect the output of recurrent processing rather than interactions during the initial phase of visual processing.

  3. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  4. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, G; Ward, E; Halpenny, D; Snow, A; Torreggiani, W

    2009-01-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  5. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design ...

  6. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  7. Enhanced tau neutrino appearance through invisible decay

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliaroli, Giulia; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The decay of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to a change of the conversion and survival probability of neutrino flavor eigenstates. Remarkably, we find that the neutrino decay provides an enhancement of the expected tau appearance signal with respect to the standard oscillation scenario for the long-baseline OPERA experiment. The increase of the $\

  8. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  9. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  10. Tracking Eyes using Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nielsen, Mads; Hansen, John Paulin

    2002-01-01

    multi-modal interactions based on video tracking systems. Robust methods are needed to track the eyes using web cameras due to the poor image quality. A real-time tracking scheme using a mean-shift color tracker and an Active Appearance Model of the eye is proposed. From this model, it is possible...

  11. Media Contributions to African American Girls' Focus on Beauty and Appearance: Exploring the Consequences of Sexual Objectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maya K.

    2008-01-01

    The media are dominated by images of women as sex objects whose value is based on their appearance. These portrayals can potentially limit girls' self-perceptions and influence their attitudes regarding the importance of appearance. However, relatively little is known about how African American adolescent girls are affected by these images. Using…

  12. Attentional Effects on Phenomenological Appearance: How They Change with Task Instructions and Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that exogenous cues accentuate contrast appearance. The empirical finding is controversial because non-veridical perception challenges the idea that attention prioritizes processing resources to make perception better, and because philosophers have used the finding to challenge representational accounts of mental experience. The present experiments confirm that when evaluated with comparison paradigms exogenous cues increase the apparent contrast. In addition, contrast appearance was also changed by simply changing the purpose of a secondary task. When comparison and discrimination reports were combined in a single experiment there was a behavioral disassociation: contrast enhanced for comparison responses, but did not change for discrimination judgments, even when participants made both types of judgment for a single stimulus. That a single object can have multiple simultaneous appearances leads inescapably to the conclusion that our unitary mental experience is illusory.

  13. Attentional Effects on Phenomenological Appearance: How They Change with Task Instructions and Measurement Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Anderson

    Full Text Available It has been reported that exogenous cues accentuate contrast appearance. The empirical finding is controversial because non-veridical perception challenges the idea that attention prioritizes processing resources to make perception better, and because philosophers have used the finding to challenge representational accounts of mental experience. The present experiments confirm that when evaluated with comparison paradigms exogenous cues increase the apparent contrast. In addition, contrast appearance was also changed by simply changing the purpose of a secondary task. When comparison and discrimination reports were combined in a single experiment there was a behavioral disassociation: contrast enhanced for comparison responses, but did not change for discrimination judgments, even when participants made both types of judgment for a single stimulus. That a single object can have multiple simultaneous appearances leads inescapably to the conclusion that our unitary mental experience is illusory.

  14. The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarimo Edith AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination

  15. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  16. CLASSIFYING MEDICAL IMAGES USING MORPHOLOGICAL APPEARANCE MANIFOLDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Erdem; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2013-12-31

    Input features for medical image classification algorithms are extracted from raw images using a series of pre processing steps. One common preprocessing step in computational neuroanatomy and functional brain mapping is the nonlinear registration of raw images to a common template space. Typically, the registration methods used are parametric and their output varies greatly with changes in parameters. Most results reported previously perform registration using a fixed parameter setting and use the results as input to the subsequent classification step. The variation in registration results due to choice of parameters thus translates to variation of performance of the classifiers that depend on the registration step for input. Analogous issues have been investigated in the computer vision literature, where image appearance varies with pose and illumination, thereby making classification vulnerable to these confounding parameters. The proposed methodology addresses this issue by sampling image appearances as registration parameters vary, and shows that better classification accuracies can be obtained this way, compared to the conventional approach.

  17. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  18. PAPER’S APPEARANCE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article highlights progress in understanding the optical properties of paper. Paper’s appearance can be defined in terms of its opacity, brightness, color, fluorescent properties, gloss, and various quantities related to its uniformity. The phenomena that give rise to paper’s optical properties, especially its ability to scatter and absorb visible light, are highly dependent on paper’s structure and its chemical composition. In an effort to engineer low-cost products having relative high opacity and brightness, it is necessary to optimize the material selection and processing conditions. The dimensions of solid materials and void structures within the paper are key factors for optimizing the optical properties. In addition, additives including bleaching agents, mineral particles, dyes, and fluorescent whitening agents can impact paper’s optical properties Paper’s appearance depends, in subtle ways, on the processes of its manufacture.

  19. Drivers' perception of vulnerable road users: a hazard perception approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Meir, Anat; Parmet, Yisrael

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined how experienced and young-inexperienced drivers (either trained in hazard perception or not) respond to and identify pedestrians when they appear in residential roads within populated neighborhoods and in urban roads located outside neighborhoods and usually less populated. As part of a hazard perception test, participants were connected to an eye tracking system and were asked to observe 58 traffic scene movies and press a response button each time they detected a hazardous situation. Analyzing all pedestrian-related events revealed that, regardless of driving experience or training, drivers detect pedestrians less often when they appear in urban areas and more often when they appear in residential areas. Moreover, experienced drivers processed information more efficiently than young-inexperienced drivers (both trained and untrained) when pedestrians were identified. Visual search patterns in urban and residential traffic environments are discussed.

  20. Haptic categorical perception of shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaißert, Nina; Waterkamp, Steffen; Fleming, Roland W; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Categorization and categorical perception have been extensively studied, mainly in vision and audition. In the haptic domain, our ability to categorize objects has also been demonstrated in earlier studies. Here we show for the first time that categorical perception also occurs in haptic shape perception. We generated a continuum of complex shapes by morphing between two volumetric objects. Using similarity ratings and multidimensional scaling we ensured that participants could haptically discriminate all objects equally. Next, we performed classification and discrimination tasks. After a short training with the two shape categories, both tasks revealed categorical perception effects. Training leads to between-category expansion resulting in higher discriminability of physical differences between pairs of stimuli straddling the category boundary. Thus, even brief training can alter haptic representations of shape. This suggests that the weights attached to various haptic shape features can be changed dynamically in response to top-down information about class membership.

  1. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  2. 借鉴德尔菲法研制住院患者感知护理服务质量评价量表%Study of the evaluation scale of patients' perception on nursing service quality by Delphi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎成美; 赵璧; 潘多

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the evaluation scale of patients' perception on nursing service quality.Methods The 15 valuateator included specialist who were engaged in clinical nursing,nursing administration and quality administration,clinical nurses and hospitalized patients.Their opinions and suggestions on the designing of scale were considered,the scale of content and form wer determined,then pre-test measurement table was formulated.Results After two times of expert consultation,the author constructed the tangiblity,reliability,responsibility rguarantee and care of five dimensions of 33 items.The overall coefficient of authoritative experts was 0.91,Cronbach' s a was 0.96 and the content validity (CVR) was 0.86.Conclusions Delphi method for designing perception of nursing service quality in patients with scale shows high rehabihty,perfect quality management system,and is helpful to guide patients to involve in the management of hospital.%目的 研制住院患者感知护理服务质量评价量表.方法 借鉴德尔菲法,选取15名多年从事临床护理及护理管理和质量管理工作的专家,以及多年从事临床工作的一线护理人员和住院患者作为量表的评价者,听取其对量表设计的意见和建议,确定量表的内容和形式,形成预试量表.结果 经过2轮专家咨询,构建出了包含有形性、可靠性、响应性、保证性和关怀性共5个维度,33个条目的 预试量表,专家总体权威系数0.91,量表总的Cronbach's a系数为0.96,内容效度比CVR为0.86.结论 借鉴德尔菲法设计住院患者感知护理服务质量评价量表,具有较高的可靠性,对完善质量管理体系,引导患者积极地参与到医院的管理中来具有现实意义.

  3. New Zealand High School Students' Perception of Accounting: How and Why Those Perceptions Were Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to change the negative perceptions high school students have of accounting appear to have been unsuccessful. Using the social psychology theory of stereotyping, this study explains why such attempts have been unsuccessful and proposes intervention strategies. Individual perception data were collected through questionnaires and focus…

  4. Cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women: Appearance esteem, weight esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, Jamie L; Schulz, Jessica L; Markey, Charlotte N

    2016-04-25

    Previous research has examined factors thought to influence individuals' interest in cosmetic surgery, yet few studies have examined these issues among midlife women. This study examines predictors of cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women (N = 114; age = 45-65 years; Mage = 53.7) and considers a previously unexplored variable: fear of negative appearance evaluation. Results indicated that lower weight and appearance esteem were associated with more positive cosmetic surgery attitudes and greater fear of negative appearance evaluation. Furthermore, fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship between appearance and weight esteem and cosmetic surgery attitudes. We conclude that fear of negative appearance evaluation is an important factor to consider in examining cosmetic surgery attitudes.

  5. Body Satisfaction and Physical Appearance in Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Haraldsen, Ira R H; Dikmans, Rieky E G; Cerwenka, Susanne C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were included into the study. Data were collected before the start of clinical gender-confirming interventions. Sexual orientation was measured via a semi-structured interview whereas onset age was based on clinician report. Body satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Scale. Congruence of appearance with the experienced gender was measured by means of a clinician rating. Overall, FtMs had a more positive body image than MtFs. Besides genital dissatisfaction, problem areas for MtFs included posture, face, and hair, whereas FtMs were mainly dissatisfied with hip and chest regions. Clinicians evaluated the physical appearance to be more congruent with the experienced gender in FtMs than in MtFs. Within the MtF group, those with early onset GD and an androphilic sexual orientation had appearances more in line with their gender identity. In conclusion, body image problems in GD go beyond sex characteristics only. An incongruent physical appearance may result in more difficult psychological adaptation and in more exposure to discrimination and stigmatization.

  6. [Self-perception in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Catarina; Guardiano, Micaela; Viana, Victor; Almeida, J Paulo; Guimarães, Maria Júlia

    2011-12-01

    The Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder reflected by significant deficits in multiple domains, interfering with the self-perception and self-esteem of children. However, international studies that assess the relationship between ADHD and self-perception have come to contradictory results, and, in Portugal, this is still a little investigated subject. The present work aims to assess the self-perception in different areas (scholastic competence, athletic competence, physical appearance, behaviour and social acceptance) in children with ADHD, comparing them with a control group. This study also tries to analyze whether the subtype of ADHD could interfere differently with the self-perception. We studied 43 children who had a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and 59 children without this diagnosis. Children with ADHD were divided into different subtypes in view of the revised Conners Scales (Portuguese version). The children completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children. From the analysis of averages comparison, it was found that the group of children with ADHD showed lower values in the different domains of self-perception, with a statistically significant difference in scholastic and behaviour self-perceptions. Regarding the different subtypes of ADHD, the results were not statistically significant, but indicated that children perceive themselves differently depending on the subtype. This discrepancy was most evident in scholastic competence where children predominantly inattentive considered themselves less able than the others. In this study, as in the international literature, children with ADHD have an scholastic and behavioural self-perception statistically inferior to other children of the same age, needing every possible support for a healthy emotional development.

  7. Big Sites, Big Questions, Big Data, Big Problems: Scales of Investigation and Changing Perceptions of Archaeological Practice in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Wesson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since at least the 1930s, archaeological investigations in the southeastern United States have placed a priority on expansive, near-complete, excavations of major sites throughout the region. Although there are considerable advantages to such large–scale excavations, projects conducted at this scale are also accompanied by a series of challenges regarding the comparability, integrity, and consistency of data recovery, analysis, and publication. We examine the history of large–scale excavations in the southeast in light of traditional views within the discipline that the region has contributed little to the ‘big questions’ of American archaeology. Recently published analyses of decades old data derived from Southeastern sites reveal both the positive and negative aspects of field research conducted at scales much larger than normally undertaken in archaeology. Furthermore, given the present trend toward the use of big data in the social sciences, we predict an increased use of large pre–existing datasets developed during the New Deal and other earlier periods of archaeological practice throughout the region.

  8. Ready for eHealth. Older Swedes’ Perceptions of eHealth Services: Using the PIADS Scale as a Predictor for Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarianne Wiklund Axelsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Relevant determinants of adoption of eHealth are needed in order to understand future usage. Aim: To investigate the anticipated psychosocial impact of present and future eHealth services and discuss how psychosocial factors can impact the readiness for eHealth services among older Swedes and reflect upon instruments for measuring eHealth acceptance. Method: The Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PIADS measured the psychosocial impact of eHealth services as illustrated in pictures of a set of events of eHealth services that may reasonably occur in the present and the future. The PIADS scale and the scenarios were administered via a randomly selected sample from the Swedish population aged 55–105. Results and Discussion: Older Swedes have, from a psychosocial perspective, positive expectations regarding eHealth services. The PIADS scale could be a useful supplement to acceptance measurements in the context of eHealth. Using animated illustrations to depict eHealth services, together with the PIADS scale, can generate findings that are generalizable across technologies. The dimensions adaptability, competence and self-esteem could be relevant determinants of adoption of eHealth.

  9. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651 or the community (n = 614 provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  10. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy P; Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL) on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL) and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651) or the community (n = 614) provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  11. Cutaneous leismaniasis with unusual appearance: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, is a disease that is transmitted by infected sand flies when they suck the blood of mammals. It is estimated that more than 1.5 million new cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases occur throughout the world every year and the disease is endemic in southern and southeastern Turkey. Cutaneous leishmaniasis presents a spectrum of manifestations both clinically and histologically. As is in our case, histopathology can be more important than clinical examination.The diagnosis is made by clinical examination and histopathology as well as demonstrating the parasites in the smears obtained from the lesion .In this article, we aimed to present of CL cases with atipic appearance.

  12. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  13. Unusual imaging appearance of unicystic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kavitha Nadendla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a mandibular cyst, but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastous epithelium lining part of the cystic cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. It accounts for 5-15% of all intraosseous ameloblastomas. We report a case of UA in a 35-year-old female with an unusual large multilocular (tennis racket appearance on the right body of mandible and illustrate the importance and complexity of differential diagnosis with a brief review of recent literature.

  14. FAME - A Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    applications within medicine and describes a public domain implementation, namely the Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment (FAME). We give guidelines for the use of this research platform, and show that the optimisation techniques used renders it applicable to interactive medical applications. To increase...... performance and make models generalise better, we apply parallel analysis to obtain automatic and objective model truncation. Further, two different AAM training methods are compared along with a reference case study carried out on cross-sectional short-axis cardiac magnetic resonance images and face images...

  15. Magnetic resonace appearance of Gall Bladder Ascariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Prafull

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is a common disease in many developing countries and is a common cause of biliary and pancreatic diseases in endemic areas. Numerous studies have been published on biliary tract ascariasis. All these have documented ultrasonography as the primary imaging modality for biliary tract ascariasis. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP has been the latest entrant for the study of bilary tract. MRCP findings of biliary tract ascariasis have been scarcely documented. MRCP is a unique non-invasive investigation for demonstrating ascariasis in Gall bladder and bilary tract clearly. We present MR appearances of Gall bladder and biliary tract in a proven case of biliary ascariasis.

  16. Structure of Adverse Events Risk Perception Scale and its reliability and validity among clinical nurses%临床护士不良事件风险感知量表的构建及信效度检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秋云; 赵伯莲; 刘春玲; 张伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:构建临床护士不良事件风险感知量表,并进行信效度检验。方法:通过半结构访谈与开放问卷调查形成量表初稿,然后经专家咨询及预调查进行修改。抽取917名泰安市二、三级医院临床护士进行信效度检验,对量表进行修改并形成终稿。结果:总量表全部条目内容效度指数(CVI)为0.91,各条目CVI为0.71~1.00;利用项目分析和探索性因子分析最终确定20个条目、3个维度,分别为患者照护风险、系统流程风险和护士操作风险,累积方差贡献率为60.374%;验证性因子分析拟合总体较理想(χ2/df=2.427、GFI=0.936、AGFI=0.917、RMSEA=0.049、NFI=0.915、CFI=0.948、IFI=0.948);量表总体Cronbach’s α系数为0.939,各维度Cronbach’s α系数均大于0.70;各条目与量表总分的相关系数为0.46~0.77(P<0.01)。结论:临床护士不良事件风险感知量表体现出护理服务自身的特点,量表具有良好的信度和效度,可作为临床护士不良事件风险感知的测评工具。%Objective: To explore the structure of Adverse Events Risk Perception Scale and to test its reliability and validity among clinical nurses. Methods: The draft questionnaire was designed by semi-structure interview and open questionnaire survey, and then revised through Delphi Method and a preliminary test. The reliability and validity of the scale were tested among 917 nurses in Taian city. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 software and AMOS 17.0 software. Results: A scale with three factors and 20 items was identiifed by using item analysis and exploratory factor analysis. These three factors could explain 60.374% of the variance. The overall content Validity Index (CVI) was 0.91, while the CVI for each item was ranged from 0.71 to 1.00. The conifrmatory factor analysis revealed a good ift of the model to the data based on various ift indices (χ2/df=2.427, GFI=0.936, AGFI=0.917, RMSEA=0

  17. Illness perceptions and coping determine quality of life in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemensma J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jitske Tiemensma,1 Erin Gaab,2 Maarten Voorhaar,3,4 Guus Asijee,3,5 Adrian A Kaptein6 1Psychological Sciences, 2Health Sciences Research Institute, University of California, Merced, CA, USA; 3Department of Family Medicine, Maastricht University, Care and Public Health Research Institute School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 4Boehringer Ingelheim, Alkmaar, the Netherlands; 5Boehringer Ingelheim, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Department of Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands Background: A key goal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD care is to improve patients’ quality of life (QoL. For outcomes such as QoL, illness perceptions and coping are important determinants.Aim: The primary aim was to assess the associations between illness perceptions, coping and QoL in COPD patients. A secondary aim was to compare illness perceptions and coping of patients with reference values derived from the literature.Patients and methods: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ, the Utrecht Proactive Coping Competence scale (UPCC, and a QoL item. Correlations and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Student’s t-tests were used to compare patients with COPD with reference values derived from the literature.Results: Patients with better understanding of COPD utilized more proactive coping strategies (P=0.04. A more intense emotional response to COPD was related to less proactive coping (P=0.02. Patients who reported using more proactive coping techniques also reported to have a better QoL (P<0.01. Illness perceptions were also related to QoL: more positive illness perceptions were related to a better QoL (all P<0.05. Patients with COPD reported more negative illness perceptions than people with a common cold or patients with asthma (all P<0.01, but reported similar

  18. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Filip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited.

  19. La percepción social hacia las personas con síndrome de Down: la escala EPSD-1 The social perception of people with Down syndrome: the EPSD-1 scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Molina Saorín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, financiada por varias entidades, hemos diseñado un instrumento que permite conocer la percepción que tienen los estudiantes universitarios de Educación Física sobre las personas con síndrome de Down. Al instrumento lo hemos denominado escala de Pecepción Social hacia las personas con síndrome de Down EPSD-1, y en su diseño se recogen importantes variables psicosociales, al tiempo que se busca dar cuenta de sus propiedades para aplicarla a otros contextos. Tras un análisis factorial, ofrecemos diez grandes factores que abordan temas como la exclusión social de las personas con síndrome de Down, su autonomía e independencia, sus relaciones afectivo-sexuales, su aceptación social y educativa, su integración, la actitud familiar, la formación docente y el proteccionismo social hacia estas personas. La muestra inicial la componen 1.796 participantes y los resultados indican que se trata de un instrumento fiable y válido para su aplicación. Esta escala resulta de gran utilidad en el ámbito de las Ciencias Sociales, ofreciendo una relación latente con respecto a la formación inicial que, desde la universidad, se ofrece a los estudiantes universitarios. Mediante una metodología cuantitativa, los resultados muestran que sus propiedades psicométricas son altamente satisfactorias, motivo por el cual sugerimos realizar nuevos estudios longitudinales y transversales a partir de su uso aplicado a diferentes poblaciones, con objeto de profundizar sobre la percepción social hacia las personas con síndrome de Down, aportando datos sobre la tendencia y evolución al respecto en los últimos años.In this research, which was financed by several institutions, we have designed an instrument that allows us to know the perception that university students of Physical Education have of people with Down syndrome. We have called this instrument the scale of Social Perception of people with Down syndrome EPSD-1, and in its

  20. 48 CFR 6101.5 - Appearances; notice of appearance [Rule 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances; notice of appearance . 6101.5 Section 6101.5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS... by leave of the Board and as otherwise prescribed by paragraph (e) of this section. The Board...

  1. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  2. Task usefulness affects perception of rivalrous images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Adrien; Mamassian, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    In bistable perception, several interpretations of the same physical stimulus are perceived in alternation. If one interpretation appears to help the observer to be successful in an auxiliary task, will that interpretation be seen more often than the other? We addressed this question using rivalrous stimuli. One of the elicited percepts presented an advantage for a separate visual search task that was run in close temporal proximity to the rivalry task. We found that the percept that was useful for the search task became dominant over the alternate percept. Observers were not aware of the manipulation that made one percept more useful, which suggests that usefulness was learned implicitly. The learning influenced only the first percept of each rivalrous presentation, but the bias persisted even when the useful percept was no longer useful. The long-lasting aspect of the effect distinguishes it from other documented attentional effects on bistable perception. Therefore, using implicit learning, we demonstrated that task usefulness can durably change the appearance of a stimulus.

  3. Active Appearance Model Based Hand Gesture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of hand gesture recognition in monocular image sequences using Active Appearance Model (AAM). For this work, the proposed algorithm is conposed of constructing AAMs and fitting the models to the interest region. In training stage, according to the manual labeled feature points, the relative AAM is constructed and the corresponding average feature is obtained. In recognition stage, the interesting hand gesture region is firstly segmented by skin and movement cues.Secondly, the models are fitted to the image that includes the hand gesture, and the relative features are extracted.Thirdly, the classification is done by comparing the extracted features and average features. 30 different gestures of Chinese sign language are applied for testing the effectiveness of the method. The Experimental results are given indicating good performance of the algorithm.

  4. Rethinking Robot Vision - Combining Shape and Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Schlemmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipping autonomous robots with vision sensors provides a multitude of advantages by simultaneously bringing up difficulties with regard to different illumination conditions. Furthermore, especially with service robots, the objects to be handled must somehow be learned for a later manipulation. In this paper we summarise work on combining two different vision sensors, namely a laser range scanner and a monocular colour camera, for shape-capturing, detecting and tracking of objects in cluttered scenes without the need of intermediate user interaction. The use of different sensor types provides the advantage of separating the shape and the appearance of the object and therefore overcome the problem with changing illumination conditions. We describe the framework and its components of visual shape-capturing, fast 3D object detection and robust tracking as well as examples that show the feasibility of this approach.

  5. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life.

  6. Radiological appearances in the near-drowned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.

    1981-10-01

    Three patients who were unconscious when rescued from drowning had radiographic studies of their lungs carried out after several hours, or on the following day. The findings had to be interpreted as pulmonary oedema. The most seriously affected patient showed the picture of massive acute interstitial oedema on the second day. After initial regression, coarse shadows developed, indicating the alveolar form of pulmonary oedema. The sputum contained candida, but there was no evidence of pulmonary candidiasis. In two patients there were transient signs of limited atelectases. Two patients were re-examined after five years. There were no features which could be interpreted as a consequence of the drowning episode. The radiographic appearances showed minor changes which could be due to mild pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Radiologic appearance of chronic parapharyngeal Teflon granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Conneely, Mark F; Hijaz, Tarek A; Leonetti, John P

    2010-01-01

    Although Teflon has been used for almost 5 decades to provide tissue augmentation in various surgical indications, including head and neck surgery, its use has significantly declined in the last 2 decades, primarily because of its implication in granuloma formation. Teflon granulomas have been shown to cause false positives on positron emission tomography imaging and have been reported to have a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. We report a patient with a large chronic Teflon granuloma of the parapharyngeal space that caused significant bony erosion of the atlas vertebra. The lesion's MRI signal characteristics were indistinguishable from those of surrounding tissues, while it showed characteristic hyperdensity on computed tomography due to the presence of fluorine atoms within Teflon. As MRI may supersede or replace computed tomography for a number of indications, and as Teflon has been used in large numbers of patients whose records may not always be available, knowledge of these findings has clinical relevance.

  8. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone.

  9. Chaotic appearance of the AE index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, L.-H.; Hansen, P.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from a stochastic analysis of a 5-day time series of the geomagnetic AE index during an active period. The original data, the power spectrum, and the autocorrelation function are shown, and the steps in the analysis are described in detail. It is found that the autocorrelation time scale is about 50 min, giving a correlation dimension (for the construction of a time series of m-dimensional vectors) of 2.4. This result is consistent with either colored-noise or deterministic-chaos magnetosphere models, indicating the need for further investigation.

  10. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    fundamentally lacking in their physiological development due to possibly altered circadian rhythms, including arhythmy and asynchrony. Time measurement, based on the repetition of discontinuity at regular intervals, involves also a spatial representation. It is our own trajectory through space-time, and thus our own motion, including the physiological process of aging, that affords us a representation of the passing of time, just as the countryside seems to be moving past us when we travel in a vehicle. Chinese and Indian societies actually have circular representations of time, and linear representations of time and its trajectory through space-time are currently a feature of Western societies. Circular time is collective time, and its metaphysical representations go beyond the life of a single individual, referring to the cyclical, or at least nonlinear, nature of time. Linear time is individual time, in that it refers to the scale of a person's lifetime, and it is physically represented by an arrow flying ineluctably from the past to the future. An intermediate concept can be proposed that acknowledges the existence of linear time involving various arrows of time corresponding to different lifespans (human, animal, plant, planet lifespans, etc.). In fact, the very notion of time would depend on the trajectory of each arrow of time, like shooting stars in the sky with different trajectory lengths which would define different time scales. The time scale of these various lifespans are very different (for example, a few decades for humans and a few days or hours for insects). It would not make sense to try to understand the passage of time experienced by an insect which may live only a few hours based on a human time scale. One hour in an insect's life cannot be compared to one experienced by a human. Yet again, it appears that there is a coexistence of different clocks based here on different lifespans. Finally, the evolution of our society focused on the present moment and

  11. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  12. The marihuana perception inventory: stage 3--the parent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, M P; Gabany, S; Eiseman, S

    1989-01-01

    This article reports the third step in the development of a perceptual inventory of factors associated with marihuana use. Identification of those factors, along with an analysis of demographic characteristics is designed to facilitate the formulation of drug education programs. This third phase was an administration of the inventory to sixty-parents who were also members of a community anti-drug group. Their beliefs are strong, as evidenced by their active association with the group. Factors analysis revealed a five-factor solution that utilized all thirty-four items of the inventory. Scales were again labeled Parental Limitations, Societal Issues, Inherent Predispositions, Rebelliousness, and Maturational Difficulties. Since there was a shift between parents and youths in specific items that made up the scales, it appears that drug educators will need to take parents' perceptions into account when designing programs.

  13. Action-specific effects in perception and their potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally; Wickens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Spatial perception is biased by action. Hills appear steeper and distances appear farther to individuals who would have to exert more effort to transverse the space. Objects appear closer, smaller, and faster when they are easier to obtain. Athletes who are playing better than others see their targets as bigger. These phenomena are collectively known as action-specific effects on perception. In this target article, we review evidence for action-specific effects, including evidence that they r...

  14. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do.

  15. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, L. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Murillo, A. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Biurrun, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Garcia-Rostan, G. [Servicio Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Reta, A. [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Dominguez, F. [Servicio Cirugia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients` diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  16. Spontaneous appearance of snakes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Edwards, A.W.; Pasini, D.; Wolfe, S.W. (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking)

    1991-01-01

    Tokamaks exhibit a wide variety of mhd activity on the q=1 surface such as sawteeth and the recently discovered snake which is a surprisingly long lived compact region of high density plasma formed on the q=1 surface following pellet injection. More recently, snakes have been observed to form spontaneously in JET at the onset of the sawtooth and also during neutral beam injection. A typical sawtooth onset case shows that when q becomes 1 in or near the plasma centre mhd oscillations are seen with m=n=1 and a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. Immediately after the first sawtooth these are replaced by a snake, which gradually decays in amplitude, but survives several sawtooth crashes. It is probable that these spontaneous snakes have been previously observed in many other machines but classified as m=1 instabilities. For example, during the 'O' mode of sawtooth onset of DIII, or the mhd activity observed early in PBX discharges. Further, JET discharges from as long ago as 1984 had similar mhd activity at early times which, in retrospect, can also probably be identified as due to snakes. It appears that snakes are a much more general phenomena than originally realized. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  18. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  19. Appearance commentary from romantic partners: evaluation of an adapted measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Lucille J; Kluck, Annette S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS; Herbozo & Thompson, 2006b) after modifying it to capture appearance feedback given by romantic partners (VCOPAS-P). Women participants (N=248) completed the VCOPAS-P, as well as measures of disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction, relationship quality, and socially desirable responding. Exploratory factor analysis identified the best factor structure for the VCOPAS-P, which contained three factors similar to the VCOPAS. Correlations between the VCOPAS-P subscales and measures of disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction, relationship quality, and social desirability responding demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity of the VCOPAS-P. There was a significant positive correlation between the negative comments subscale of the VCOPAS-P and the measures of body dissatisfaction and weight concern (measured by the EDE-Q). Additionally, VCOPAS-P subscales reflecting positive comments about appearance and weight were associated with greater relationship satisfaction.

  20. Barack Obama or Barry Dunham? The appearance of multiracial faces is affected by the names assigned to them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliar, Kirin F; Kemp, Richard I

    2008-01-01

    Does semantic information in the form of stereotypical names influence participants' perceptions of the appearance of multiracial faces? Asian-Australian and European-Australian participants were asked to rate the appearance of Asian-Australian faces given typically Asian names, European-Australian faces given typically European names, multiracial faces given Asian names, and multiracial faces given European names. Participants rated the multiracial faces given European names as looking significantly 'more European' than the same multiracial faces given Asian names. This study demonstrates how socially derived expectations and stereotypes can influence face perception.

  1. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...

  2. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holin, Anna Maria [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which sends a high intensity muon neutrino beam through two functionally identical detectors, a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, 1km from the beam source, and a Far detector, 734km away, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. MINOS may be able to measure the neutrino mixing angle parameter sin213 for the rst time. Detector granularity, however, makes it very hard to distinguish any e appearance signal events characteristic of a non-zero value of θ 13 from background neutral current (NC) and short-track vμ charged current (CC) events. Also, uncertainties in the hadronic shower modeling in the kinematic region characteristic of this analysis are relatively large. A new data-driven background decomposition method designed to address those issues is developed and its results presented. By removing the long muon tracks from vμ-CC events, the Muon Removed Charge Current (MRCC) method creates independent pseudo-NC samples that can be used to correct the MINOS Monte Carlo to agree with the high-statistics Near detector data and to decompose the latter into components so as to predict the expected Far detector background. The MRCC method also provides an important cross-check in the Far detector to test the background in the signal selected region. MINOS finds a 1.0-1.5 σ ve-CC excess above background in the Far detector data, depending on method used, for a total exposure of 3.14 x 1020 protons-on-target. Interpreting this excess as signal, MINOS can set limits on sin213. Using the MRCC method, MINOS sets a limit of sin2 2 θ 13 < 0.265 at the 90% confidence limit for a CP-violating phase δ = 0.

  3. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  4. Participants’ perceptions of a MOOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne Murray

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently limited information available on participants’ perceptions of massive open online courses (MOOCs. This article presents the findings of a study at the University of Edinburgh examining the perceptions of a group of participants registered on a MOOC in equine nutrition, which ran for a period of five weeks and attracted 24,000 students to register. A self-completion survey was designed with a series of Likert scale questions, organized to gather students’ perceptions of participating in the MOOC. Participants on this course rated the learning materials and overall MOOC experience very highly; however, further work is required to elucidate why a much lower percentage of participants held the interactions in less regard.

  5. ERP Measurement with Bottle Pictures for Objective Evaluation of Food Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    The event-related potential (ERP) was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of bottles as an example of food appearance by four-grade scale with the opinion “more favorite”, “favorite”, “like”, and “not like”. In result, the P300 area became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”.

  6. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Pipelines-This data set represents the oil and gas transmission pipelines in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 2001, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  7. Spiders appear to move faster than non-threatening objects regardless of one's ability to block them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K; Sugovic, Mila

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether perception of a threatening object - a spider - was more accurate than of a non-threatening object. An accurate perception could promote better survival than a biased perception. However, if biases encourage faster responses and more appropriate behaviors, then under the right circumstances, perceptual biases could promote better survival. We found that spiders appeared to be moving faster than balls and ladybugs. Furthermore, the perceiver's ability to act on the object also influenced perceived speed: the object looked faster when it was more difficult to block. Both effects--the threat of the object and the perceiver's blocking abilities--acted independently from each other. The results suggest effects of multiple types of affordances on perception of speed.

  8. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  9. The Solar Internetwork. II. Magnetic Flux Appearance and Disappearance Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Gošić, Milan; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Suárez, David Orozco; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale internetwork magnetic fields are important ingredients of the quiet Sun. In this paper we analyze how they appear and disappear on the solar surface. Using high resolution \\textit{Hinode} magnetograms, we follow the evolution of individual magnetic elements in the interior of two supergranular cells at the disk center. From up to 38 hr of continuous measurements, we show that magnetic flux appears in internetwork regions at a rate of $120\\pm3$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.3 \\pm 0.2 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$ over the entire solar surface). Flux disappears from the internetwork at a rate of $125 \\pm 6$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.6\\pm 0.4 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$) through fading of magnetic elements, cancellation between opposite-polarity features, and interactions with network patches, which converts internetwork elements into network features. Most of the flux is lost through fading and interactions with the network, at nearly the same rate of about 50~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$. Our results ...

  10. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  11. Improvement in appearance of colors for elderly persons using lightness transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Chiaki; Azetsu, Tadahiro; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    The color of an object appears to be different for elderly and young persons. This is because human visual features vary with on age. In general, the spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens of an elderly person is lower than that of a young person. The low spectral transmittance decreases the brightness of the visual field. This phenomenon affects the color appearance of an image in human visual perception. In this paper, a lightness transform method is proposed to improve the color appearance of images for elderly persons. In the proposed method, colors that are difficult for an elderly person to see are transformed into colors that are easy to see by adding lightness contrast. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed in experiments using digital images.

  12. Improvement in appearance of colors for elderly persons using lightness transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Chiaki; Azetsu, Tadahiro; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    The color of an object appears to be different for elderly and young persons. This is because human visual features vary with on age. In general, the spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens of an elderly person is lower than that of a young person. The low spectral transmittance decreases the brightness of the visual field. This phenomenon affects the color appearance of an image in human visual perception. In this paper, a lightness transform method is proposed to improve the color appearance of images for elderly persons. In the proposed method, colors that are difficult for an elderly person to see are transformed into colors that are easy to see by adding lightness contrast. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed in experiments using digital images.

  13. The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Joel; Lutze, Margaret; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged under successively dimmer illuminations from 10-0.0003 Lux. Triads of samples were chosen representing each of eight basic color categories; red, pink, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and gray. Samples within each triad varied in lightness. Observers sorted samples into groups that they could categorize with specific color names. Above 0.32 Lux, observers sorted the samples into the originally chosen color groups with few exceptions. For 0.1-0.01 Lux, the red and orange samples were usually correctly identified as either red or orange. The remaining samples tended to be grouped into two categories, associated with the scotopic sample reflectance. The lowest reflectance samples were below threshold and were named black. The higher reflectance group was named predominately as green or blue-green (three observers; the fourth observer used blue or achromatic). At the three dimmest levels (< or = 0.0032 Lux) there continued to be conspicuous color percepts. Color categories were reliably assigned based on relative sample scotopic lightness. Of the samples above threshold, those with lower reflectance were classified as red or orange (all observers) and the higher reflectance samples as green or blue-green (three observers) or achromatic or blue (the fourth observer). Rods and L-cones presumably mediated color percepts at the intermediate light levels used in the study. At the three lowest light levels there were distinct color appearances mediated exclusively by rods. We speculate that at these light levels the visual system estimates probable colors based on prior natural experience.

  14. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  15. 中文修订版疾病不确定感父母量表的信效度检验%Reliability and validity of the chinese version of Parent's Perception Uncertainty Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 王惠连; 马新娟; 王海英

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价中文修订版Mishel疾病不确定感父母量表(Parent's Perception Uncertainty Scale,PPUS)信效度.方法:翻译并形成中文版PPUS,采用方便抽样抽取202例白血病患儿父母,运用SPSS17.0和AMOS17.0进行统计分析其信效度.结果:中文修订版PPUS总的Cronbach α系数为0.929及四个维度的Cronbach α系数为0.602-0.897,分半信度为0.868,各分量表与总分的相关系数为0.499-0.934,分量表间的相关系数为0.499-0.752.经过两次探索性因素分析产生的4个因子共能解释总变异的59.023%.验证性因素四因子模型拟合良好.结论:中文版修订版PPUS量表有较好的信度和效度,作为测量国内患儿父母疾病不确定感的工具是可信和有效的.

  16. Sex and vision II: color appearance of monochromatic lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, we examined the possible sex differences in color appearance of monochromatic lights across the visible spectrum. There is a history of men and women perceiving color differently. However, all of these studies deal with higher cognitive functions which may be culture-biased. We study basic visual functions, such as color appearance, without reference to any objects. We present here a detailed analysis of sex differences in primary chromatic sensations. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision, including spatial and temporal resolution, and stereopsis. Based on standard color-screening and anomaloscope data, we excluded all color-deficient observers. Stimuli were equi-luminant monochromatic lights across the spectrum. They were foveally-viewed flashes presented against a dark background. The elicited sensations were measured using magnitude estimation of hue and saturation. When the only permitted hue terms are red (R yellow (Y, green (G, blue (B, alone or in combination, such hue descriptions are language-independent and the hue and saturation values can be used to derive a wide range of color-discrimination functions. Results There were relatively small but clear and significant, differences between males and females in the hue sensations elicited by almost the entire spectrum. Generally, males required a slightly longer wavelength to experience the same hue as did females. The spectral loci of the unique hues are not correlated with anomaloscope matches; these matches are directly determined by the spectral sensitivities of L- and M-cones (genes for these cones are on the X-chromosomes. Nor are there correlations between loci of pairs of unique hues (R, Y, G, B. Wavelength-discrimination functions derived from the scaling data show that males have a broader range of poorer discrimination in the middle of the spectrum. The

  17. Perceptions of Everyday Interpersonal Discrimination among Young Men of Turkish Background in Cologne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hartmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This small-scale, qualitative study examines how five young male second-generation Turkish immigrants perceive racial discrimination by ethnic Germans and to what extent this perception influences their collective identities. The typology of interactional patterns the interviewees describe as racial discrimination has four elements: a perception of distrust, a distancing gaze, denial of belonging and rule enforcement by members of the German majority. The interviewees, particularly those who are highly educated and socially mobile, identify with a common Ausländer (foreigner identity in response to experiences of discrimination. This identity is regarded a shared identity marker by immigrants of different backgrounds. It appears as a positive and affirmative identity of difference, which creates a unique type of social capital.

  18. THE LANGUAGE, TONE AND PROSODY OF EMOTIONS: NEURAL DYNAMICS OF SPOKEN-WORD VALENCE PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Liebenthal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala – a subcortical center for emotion perception – are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may also function for brief non-verbal vocalizations (e.g., laugh, cry, in which emotional category is conveyed effectively by voice tone and intensity. However, emotional prosody which evolves on longer time scales and is conveyed by fine-grained spectral cues appears to be processed via a slower, indirect cortical route. For verbal emotional content, the bulk of current evidence, indicating predominant left lateralization of the amygdala response and timing of emotional effects attributable to speeded lexical access, appears more consistent with an indirect cortical route to the amygdala. Top-down linguistic modulation may play an important role for prioritized perception of emotions in words. Understanding the neural dynamics and interactions of emotion and language perception is important for selecting potent stimuli and devising effective training and/or treatment approaches for the alleviation of emotional dysfunction across a range of

  19. Patient perceptions of stock footwear design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A E; Nester, C J

    2006-04-01

    Patients with diseases which impact on foot health, for example diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, are known to have some benefit from prescribed stock footwear with regards to clinical outcomes. Achieving this is not just about getting the footwear designed and fitted to meet the clinical needs, but it also requires that the patient wears the shoes. This means meeting the non-clinical needs or criteria of patients. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions of the same footwear between patients with diabetes and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with regard to specific design features. Fifty-four patients with RA and 40 patients with diabetes who required prescription footwear were asked to identify issues of importance, and to assess the features of five different pairs of stock footwear using a Likert scale scoring form. There was a difference between the RA and the diabetes groups with regards their overall requirements from the footwear with comfort being a priority in RA and style a priority for diabetes. Both groups rated the same footwear as overall best from the selection, but the scores suggest that there were features with the 'best' shoe which were not acceptable suggesting that even the 'best' shoe was a compromise This possibly indicates that existing footwear ranges do not meet all the patients' requirements. Patients have different perceptions with regard to what is important to them in terms of footwear with regards to the specific features of the footwear and one of the influences appears to be the underlying systemic disease. Patient-based criteria may be an important consideration in the design of the footwear.

  20. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women.

  1. Initial revision of Chinese version of parents' perception of uncertainty scale%中文版疾病不确定感父母量表的初步修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦嘉轩; 谢婉花; 马春花; 邓叶青; 戴黎黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate Parents' Perception of Uncertainty Scale (PPUS) into Chinese,analyze and selected items,and then test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of PPUS initially.Methods 210 parents of hospitalized children were recruited for the investigation.Frequency analysis,dispersion degree analysis,correlation analysis and so on were applied to analyze and select items.Internal consistency test,Pearson correlation analysis and exploratory factor analysis etc.were applied to test reliability and validity of the scale.Results The final Chinese version of PPUS contained 28 items.The Cronbach α and parity split-half reliability coefficients were 0.844 and 0.835; The Cronbach α coefficient of 4 dimensions ranged from 0.537 to 0.770.The item-total scale correlation coefficient ranged from 0.300 to 0.737.Item-dimension correlation coefficients ranged from 0.376 to 0.762.Item-other dimension correlation coefficients ranged from 0.028 to 0.514.Dimension-total scale correlation coefficients ranged from 0.480 to 0.863 and those between dimensions ranged from 0.226 to 0.536.In the content validity assessed by experts,I-CVI ranged from 0.75 to 1.00,S-CVI/Ave was 0.928.Four-factor model was performed in the principal component analysis and they explained for 41.401% variances.The maximum factor loading of all items were higher than 0.3,and most of items had adequate loadings in related dimensions.Conclusions Chinese version of PPUS had appropriate reliability and validity as an assessment tool for parental uncertainty in illness of hospitalized children' parents.%目的 翻译英文版疾病不确定感父母量表(parents' perception of uncertainty scale,PPUS)并进行条目分析和筛选,初步检验量表修订后的信效度.方法 翻译PPUS,抽取210例住院患儿的父母进行调查.运用频数分析法、离散程度法、相关系数法等多种方法进行条目分析和筛选;用内部一致性检验、Pearson相关分析和探索性

  2. The Perception of Scale in Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    identification experiments. The horizontal axis is log glottal pulse rate in Hz. The vertical axis is log Spectral Envelope Ratio (SER). The...glottal pulse rate in Hz and Spectral Envelope Ratio (SER). The SER values are shown above the glottal pulse rate axis. Smooth curves through the data...is the anatomical basis for the differences in the vowels of men, women and children? To understand this we need to know how the complex tonal sounds

  3. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  4. Tangible display systems: direct interfaces for computer-based studies of surface appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Benjamin A.; Ferwerda, James A.

    2010-02-01

    When evaluating the surface appearance of real objects, observers engage in complex behaviors involving active manipulation and dynamic viewpoint changes that allow them to observe the changing patterns of surface reflections. We are developing a class of tangible display systems to provide these natural modes of interaction in computer-based studies of material perception. A first-generation tangible display was created from an off-the-shelf laptop computer containing an accelerometer and webcam as standard components. Using these devices, custom software estimated the orientation of the display and the user's viewing position. This information was integrated with a 3D rendering module so that rotating the display or moving in front of the screen would produce realistic changes in the appearance of virtual objects. In this paper, we consider the design of a second-generation system to improve the fidelity of the virtual surfaces rendered to the screen. With a high-quality display screen and enhanced tracking and rendering capabilities, a secondgeneration system will be better able to support a range of appearance perception applications.

  5. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  6. Students’ factors affecting undergraduates’ perceptions of their teaching and learning process within ECTS experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eDe La Fuente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of this research was to learn what variables determine satisfaction with the teaching-learning process (TLP, from the perspective of students participating in the ECTS experience (European Credit Transfer System. Method. A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain participated in an evaluation of their class subjects. They completed a protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of Variance were carried out, taking different measures as independent variables, such as student’s grade average, year in school, branch of studies, workload in terms of ECTS credits per subject and the use of e-learning. Perception of TLP was used as the dependent variable.Results. Variables that establish significant differences in the perception of the TL process were determined. Student’s grade average (in favor of high performers, year in school (in favor of earlier years, ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits, and e-learning (in favor of its use establish a sufficiently delimited profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of this process. Discussion and Conclusions. The appearance of significant differences showed that perception of TLP depends on different variables that were assessed. Thus, it is important to take these variables into consideration in giving shape to the European Higher Education Area. We comment on the results and their implications for the large-scale implementation of the ECTS.

  7. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire measuring perceptions of neighborhood food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Barnes, Timothy L; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2013-05-01

    There is a lack of validated and reliable instruments on perception of the food environment, in particular for rural environments. We estimated the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire assessing perceptions of the food environment. A total of 101 primary food shoppers in South Carolina were interviewed by phone to assess their perceptions of the food environment and presence of different food outlet types in their neighborhood. The survey was repeated approximately one month after the initial administration. The intra-class correlation (ICC) and Phi coefficient are reported as measures of reliability. The majority of questions on perceptions of the neighborhood food environment appear highly reliable (ICCs range from 0.55 to 0.71), including the 3-item scale on healthy food availability (ICC 0.71). Compared to participants in rural areas, those in urban areas demonstrated better reliability for questions on opportunities to purchase fast food and perceived presence of a supercenter. More research is needed to evaluate potential rural-urban differences in reliability.

  8. Visual perception of surface wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jintu; Liu, Fu

    2005-12-01

    To study the relationship between visual perception of magnitude of wrinkles and geometrical parameters of surfaces, four potentially relevant parameters of the surface profile were considered: the variance (sigma2), the cutting frequency (Fc), the effective disparity curvature (Dce) of the wrinkled surface over the eyeball distance of the observer, and the frequency component of the disparity curvature (Dcf). Analysis of garment seams with varying amount of pucker showed that, while the logarithm for each of these four parameters has a strong linear relationship with the visually perceived magnitude of wrinkles, following the Fechner Law, the effective disparity curvature (Dce) and the frequency component of the disparity curvature (Dcf) with visual perception appeared stronger. This modeling may be an objective method for measuring magnitude of surface wrinkles.

  9. Analysis of food quality perception processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Termorshuizen (Koos); M.T.G. Meulenberg; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA model of the quality perception process of the consumer with respect to food products has been developed. The model integrates a number of quality-related concepts. An empirical study was carried out to examine the relationships between the concepts. It appears that the various concept

  10. Emotional perception and theory of mind in first episode psychosis: the role of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntouros, Evangelos; Bozikas, Vasilios P; Andreou, Christina; Kourbetis, Dimitris; Lavrentiadis, Grigoris; Garyfallos, George

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms on emotional perception and theory of mind (ToM) in patients with first-episode psychosis. Participants were 65 patients with non-affective first episode psychosis (FEP) and 47 healthy controls. The patient group was divided into two subgroups, those with (FEP+; n=38) and those without obsessive-compulsive symptomatology (FEP-; n=27). Emotion perception and ToM were assessed with the Perception of Social Inference Test. Severity of psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), respectively. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind were confirmed in patients with non-affective first-episode psychosis compared to healthy controls. In patients, comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive symptoms was associated with worse performance on certain aspects of social cognition (ToM 2nd order) compared to FEP- patients. Our findings of impaired emotion perception and ToM in patients with first-episode psychosis support the hypothesis that deficits are already present at illness onset. Presence of OCS appears to have further deleterious effects on social cognition, suggesting that these patients may belong to a schizo-obsessive subtype of schizophrenia characterized by more extensive neurobiological impairment.

  11. Men, appearance, and cosmetic surgery: The role of confidence, self-esteem, and comfort with the body

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Ricciardelli; Kimberley Ann Clow

    2009-01-01

    This paper situates male perceptions of the body within Bourdieu’s theories of human practice. Recent research (Bordo 1999; Featherstone 1991; Giddens 1991; Gill, Henwood, and McLean 2005) has suggested that perceptions of the body are important to men’s sense of confidence and that men see the body as a vehicle for personal improvement. To build on this research, an online survey investigated Canadian men’s perspectives on their appearance and their attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. A two-c...

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Foamy Histiocyte-Like Appearance: A Deceptively Clear Cell Carcinoma Appearing Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Noro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC shows many pathological features, and it varies architecturally and cytologically. There have been many reports and discussions of the morphological features of HCC. A 63-year-old man was found to have a solitary tumor in liver segment 7 that was diagnosed as HCC. A partial resection of liver segment 7 was performed. Microscopically, the tumor lesion showed a moderately differentiated HCC. There was also a lesion with foamy histiocyte-like cells corresponding to the white lesion in the face of the cut tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that they were negative for CD68, S-100, vimentin, and HMB-45. The cytoplasm itself was negative on periodic acid Schiff (PAS and Sudan staining. Without immunohistological analysis, it is difficult to distinguish this HCC variant from clear cell carcinoma or metastases of renal cell carcinoma. It is important to recognize this type as a specific cytological variant of HCC that requires confirmation by immunohistochemistry. This report describes the case of a patient with a morphologically distinctive pattern of HCC with prominent cell cytoplasm that had a foamy histiocyte-like appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this HCC variant.

  13. Gender differences in memory for the appearance of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Terrence G; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hall, Judith A; Carter, Jason D

    2004-02-01

    Five studies investigated gender differences in the accurate recall of the appearance of others. The greater interpersonal orientation and interpersonal sensitivity of women were predicted to give women an advantage over men in appearance accuracy. Under both directed- and incidental-learning conditions, women more accurately recalled information concerning the appearance of their social targets than did men, participants' memory for the appearance of female targets was more accurate than it was for male targets, and neither gender was found to be a relative advantage in recalling the appearance of same-gender targets. The motivational and knowledge-based factors that might underlie a gender difference in appearance accuracy are discussed.

  14. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  15. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  16. Assessing Domestic vs. International Student Perceptions and Attitudes of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…

  17. Relation of Patient Attributes to Perceptions of the Treatment Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Bromet, Evelyn

    1978-01-01

    Social climate of residential alcoholism programs was assessed using Community-Oriented Programs Environment Scale (COPES). COPES perceptions were independent of patient background, psychosocial functioning, and alcohol-related characteristics. In conjunction with previous research, results indicate perceptions of social climate of treatment…

  18. PATIAL SCALE-LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION OF ARCHITECTURAL AND TOWN PLANNING OBJECTS IN THE LIGHT OF THE..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Алексеевна Фаворская

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article formation of large-scale and spatial levels of the organization of architectural town-planning objects, perceptions of three types of scale determined by character is considered: tactile perception (invoice, texture, object perception, visual and fragmentary perception of town-planning object.

  19. Bubble of Real Estate Does Not Appear in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The report newly issued by Citigroup enables the people in Beijing to feel consoling that Beijing does not appear bubble in real estate. But the bubble of real estate has appeared only in Shanghai, Tianjin,Shenyang and Ningbo.

  20. Masculinity, consumerism, and appearance: a look at men's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rosemary

    2011-05-01

    Historically, being concerned about appearance was stereotypically associated with women. Now masculinities too have become embedded in appearance norms. Consequently men too are increasingly concerned about their appearance. Via interviews with 14 Canadian men, the role of hair in self-identification and both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with appearance is examined. Emergent themes suggest that masculinity and appearance are increasingly intertwined, and consumer culture cultivates a climate that encourages men to view their appearance as something worthy of investment. Findings suggest that men are concerned about their appearance-specifically their hair-and that there is a relationship between masculinity, appearance, and self-identification. Findings are discussed within theories of masculinity and consumerism.

  1. Relationships between Client Self-Perceptions of Self-Consciousness Levels and Therapist Awareness of These Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G.; Keyson, Mae

    1978-01-01

    Investigated congruity between clients' self-perceptions and therapists' awareness of these self-perceptions. Neurotic and psychotic clients completed Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS). Therapists completed SCS as they thought their client would respond. Therapists' reports significantly correlated with client self-reports on subscales indicating…

  2. 78 FR 29624 - Rules on Determining Hearing Appearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... evidence at a hearing before an administrative law judge (a) The right to appear and present evidence. Any party to a hearing has a right to appear before the administrative law judge, either in person, or, when... administrative law judge (a) The right to appear and present evidence. Any party to a hearing has a right...

  3. Exploring tiny images: the roles of appearance and contextual information for machine and human object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Devi; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-10-01

    Typically, object recognition is performed based solely on the appearance of the object. However, relevant information also exists in the scene surrounding the object. In this paper, we explore the roles that appearance and contextual information play in object recognition. Through machine experiments and human studies, we show that the importance of contextual information varies with the quality of the appearance information, such as an image's resolution. Our machine experiments explicitly model context between object categories through the use of relative location and relative scale, in addition to co-occurrence. With the use of our context model, our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance on the MSRC and Corel data sets. We perform recognition tests for machines and human subjects on low and high resolution images, which vary significantly in the amount of appearance information present, using just the object appearance information, the combination of appearance and context, as well as just context without object appearance information (blind recognition). We also explore the impact of the different sources of context (co-occurrence, relative-location, and relative-scale). We find that the importance of different types of contextual information varies significantly across data sets such as MSRC and PASCAL.

  4. Appearance of fetal pain could be associated with maturation of the mesodiencephalic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Slobodan; Gebauer-Bukurov, Ksenija; Cvijanovic, Milan; Kopitovic, Aleksandar; Ilic, Djordje; Petrovic, Djordje; Capo, Ivan; Pericin-Starcevic, Ivana; Christ, Oliver; Topalidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Fetal pain remains a controversial subject both in terms of recognizing its existence and the time-frame within which it appears. This article investigates the hypothesis that pain perception during development is not related to any determined structures of the central nervous system (CNS), on the contrary, the process of perception could be made with any structure satisfying conditions that the perception of pain is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. According to this definition, chronic decerebrate and decorticate experimental animals, anencephalic, and hydranencephalic patients demonstrate that the basic, most general, appropriate interaction with the environment can be achieved with a functional mesodiencephalon (brain stem, and diencephalon) as the hierarchically highest structure of the CNS during development. In intact fetuses, this structure shows signs of sufficient maturation starting from the 15th week of gestation. Bearing in mind the dominant role of the reticular formation of the brain stem, which is marked by a wide divergence of afferent information, a sense of pain transmitted through it is diffuse and can dominate the overall perception of the fetus. The threshold for tactile stimuli is lower at earlier stages of gestation. The pain inhibition mechanisms are not sufficiently developed during intrauterine development, which is another factor that leads to increased intensity of pain in the fetus. As a conclusion it could be proposed that the fetus is exposed to rudimentary painful stimuli starting from the 15th gestation week and that it is extremely sensitive to painful stimuli. PMID:27881927

  5. Appearance of fetal pain could be associated with maturation of the mesodiencephalic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Slobodan; Gebauer-Bukurov, Ksenija; Cvijanovic, Milan; Kopitovic, Aleksandar; Ilic, Djordje; Petrovic, Djordje; Capo, Ivan; Pericin-Starcevic, Ivana; Christ, Oliver; Topalidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Fetal pain remains a controversial subject both in terms of recognizing its existence and the time-frame within which it appears. This article investigates the hypothesis that pain perception during development is not related to any determined structures of the central nervous system (CNS), on the contrary, the process of perception could be made with any structure satisfying conditions that the perception of pain is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. According to this definition, chronic decerebrate and decorticate experimental animals, anencephalic, and hydranencephalic patients demonstrate that the basic, most general, appropriate interaction with the environment can be achieved with a functional mesodiencephalon (brain stem, and diencephalon) as the hierarchically highest structure of the CNS during development. In intact fetuses, this structure shows signs of sufficient maturation starting from the 15th week of gestation. Bearing in mind the dominant role of the reticular formation of the brain stem, which is marked by a wide divergence of afferent information, a sense of pain transmitted through it is diffuse and can dominate the overall perception of the fetus. The threshold for tactile stimuli is lower at earlier stages of gestation. The pain inhibition mechanisms are not sufficiently developed during intrauterine development, which is another factor that leads to increased intensity of pain in the fetus. As a conclusion it could be proposed that the fetus is exposed to rudimentary painful stimuli starting from the 15(th) gestation week and that it is extremely sensitive to painful stimuli.

  6. EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THEIR SCHOOLS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Teyyar UĞURLU

    2013-06-01

    obtained from people who are affined with this organization (Cerit, 2006. In this sense, because of image perceptions of teachers obliged to give education service in high schools as thought their perceptions about institution where they serve thinkable as important, organizational image levels of high schools were tried to determine according to teachers’ opinions. Purpose: This study aims to examine the level of organizational image perceived by teachers concerning schools they serve in. Also to test whether there is any relationship between some valuables (gender, age, branch and school type and organizational image level of schools. For this purpose questions below are tried to be answered: What is the level of teachers’ organizational image perceptions concerning their schools? Is there any relationship between teachers’ organizational image perceptions concerning their schools and demographic variables (gender, age, branch and school type? Methodology: Quantitative research method and survey strategy were used in this research. Survey model is an approach aims to determine existence of a current or impermanent condition. Subject of research is tried to describe in conditions of individual or object (Karasar, 2006. In the research, relationships between teachers’ organizational image perceptions concerning their schools and gender, age, branch and school type examined respectively. Workgroup of the research consists of 190 teachers who serve in Anatolian high schools randomly selected from city centre of Sivas in school year 2011/12. Data collection tool was developed by Polat, Abat and Tezyürek (2010 based on survey developed by Kazoleas, Kim and Moffitt (2001 to measure the image of higher education institutions. This 5 point Likert scale consists of five dimensions; organizational image, quality image, program image, background image, social image and appearance image. Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale is .92. Alpha reliability coefficient of

  7. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

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    Tony Vladusich

    Full Text Available When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke. Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  8. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  9. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves.

  10. Measuring Student Self-Perceptions of Writing Skills in Programs of Journalism and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwall, Andrew; Kuehn, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study explored student self-perceptions of writing skills in journalism and mass communication programs at thirteen public state universities in the mid-Atlantic region. Factor analysis revealed seven sets of perceptions among 860 students. A Media Writing Self-Perception Scale was constructed and found to be reliable. The authors propose…

  11. The function of stereotypes in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Greg O

    2003-01-01

    Human vision is a product of both physiological and cultural dispositions. This cultural study investigates the role of cultural dispositions in visual perception. In particular, the study focuses on the role of stereotypes, which are involved in recognition. I propose that stereotypes are essential for basic functions of perception and human perception. However, stereotypes also introduce significant limitations on human experience. The fact that stereotypes are abstract simplifications of realities is not the limiting factor, since scientific and cultural progress continually refines stereotypes. The very principle of the stereotype appears to introduce the limitation, because the process of forming stereotypes requires both temporal and functional fragmentations of the continuum of our perception. This fragmentation can be a cause of sensory overload, a postmodern condition that generates cultural, perceptual and behavioral problems. To address this problem, I propose a cultural modification to our modality of perception. The modification shifts the emphasis of our perception from the recognition of stereotypes to the recognition of flows, processes and durations. References to the work of Henri Bergson and Martin Heidegger provide the philosophical basis for this modification and several empirical and experimental examples illustrate such modifications in practice.

  12. Culture as Self-Perception

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    Kudryavcev V.T.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to operationalize the content of the “culture” concept in cultural-historical psychology. It is demonstrated that within its framework the culture appears to be a “social environment”, a system of social standards, rather than mediator of human freedom, as a way of self-perception of a man, which helps to reveal creative potential. According to the author, culture as self-perception, its genesis in this capacity, which results in the development of free man, is the basic idea of cultural-historical psychology. It is noted that culture, both historically and ontogenically, at least, in current historical settings, is initially created in personal form, only this enables it to acquire social significance. Culture does not only bring people together based on some formal characteristic, and within it people become significant for each other. The role of imagination in the formation of self-perception is discussed. An assumption on the availability of genetic relation between imagination and spontaneity is put forward. At that, special emphasis is placed on “experiments on consciousness”, including in the form of inversion, which are conducted by means of art.

  13. Scales, scales and more scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 Labour Induction with Intravaginal (Minprostin versus Intracervical (Prepidil Administration at Term: Randomized Study of Maternal and Neonatal Outcome and Patient’s Perception Using the Osgood Semantic Differential Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscha Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the efficacy, safety, and patient’s perception of two prostaglandin E2 application methods for induction of labour. Method. Above 36th weeks of gestation, all women, who were admitted to hospital for induction of labour, were prospectively randomised to intravaginal 1 mg or intracervical 0.5 mg irrespective of cervical Bishop score. The main outcome variables were induction-to-delivery interval, number of foetal blood samples, PDA rate, rate of oxytocin augmentation, rate of vaginal delivery, and patient’s perception using semantic differential questionnaire. Results. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups in regard to perceptions of induction. The median induction delivery time using intravaginal versus intracervical administration was 29.9 versus 12.8 hours, respectively (P=0.04. No statistically difference between the groups was detected in regard to parity, gestation age, cervical Bishop score, number of foetal blood samples, PDA rate, rate of oxytocin augmentation, and mode of birth. Summary. Irrespective of the cervical Bishop Score, intracervical gel had a shorter induction delivery time without impingement on the women’s perception of induction.

  15. Perception of Laypeople and Dental Professionals of Smile Esthetics

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    Aida Saffarpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess and compare the perception of laypersons and dental professionals of smile esthetics based on two factors namely gingival display and alignment of teeth.Materials and Methods: A total of 32 females were randomly selected among dental students in the International Campus of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran with no previous history of esthetic dental work. Frontal photographs were obtained and cropped from the subnasal to menton areas of subjects to standardize the size of pictures. Three series of slides were prepared of the pictures using Microsoft PowerPoint software. The first series of slides were shown to familiarize the observers with the images. The second and third series were displayed for the observers and they were then asked to fill out a questionnaire. The group of observers included 10 dental specialists and 10 laypersons. Each observer was given a visual analog scale (VAS chart for scoring (1-10. After completion of the questionnaires, data were transferred to a computer and the differences in judgments of professionals and laypeople were analyzed using the Mann Whitney test.Results: No significant difference was found in the judgments of professionals and laypeople on evaluating overall smile esthetics, gingival display and alignment of teeth except for the slide showing a reverse smile arc.Conclusions: Laypeople and professionals had similar perceptions of smile esthetics. Thus, it appears that clinicians can rely on the judgment of laypersons in esthetic dental treatments.Keywords: Smiling; Perception; Esthetics, Dental

  16. Effects of Perceived Causality on Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…

  17. Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Coevolutionary arms races are a powerful force driving evolution, adaptation, and diversification. They can generate phenotypic polymorphisms that render it harder for a coevolving parasite or predator to exploit any one individual of a given species. In birds, egg polymorphisms should be an effective defense against mimetic brood parasites and are extreme in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) and its parasite, the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). Here we use models of avian visual perception to analyze the appearance of prinia and cuckoo finch eggs from the same location over 40 years. We show that the two interacting populations have experienced rapid changes in egg traits. Egg colors of both species have diversified over time, expanding into avian color space as expected under negative frequency-dependent selection. Egg pattern showed signatures of both frequency-dependent and directional selection in different traits, which appeared to be evolving independently of one another. Host and parasite appear to be closely tracking one another's evolution, since parasites showed closer color mimicry of contemporaneous hosts. This correlational evidence suggests that hosts and parasites are locked in an ongoing arms race in egg appearance, driven by constant change in the selective advantage of different phenotypes, and that coevolutionary arms races can generate remarkably rapid phenotypic change.

  18. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to cie cam02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of cie cam02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating lcd monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of cie cam02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (d50 and also for illuminants d65. Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of cam02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  19. Visualizing Similarity of Appearance by Arrangement of Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Nao; Ihara, Hisayasu; Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a novel method to extract the configuration of the psychological space by directly measuring subjects' similarity rating without computational work. Although multidimensional scaling (MDS) is well-known as a conventional method for extracting the psychological space, the method requires many pairwise evaluations. The times taken for evaluations increase in proportion to the square of the number of objects in MDS. The proposed method asks subjects to arrange cards on a poster sheet according to the degree of similarity of the objects. To compare the performance of the proposed method with the conventional one, we developed similarity maps of typefaces through the proposed method and through non-metric MDS. We calculated the trace correlation coefficient among all combinations of the configuration for both methods to evaluate the degree of similarity in the obtained configurations. The threshold value of trace correlation coefficient for statistically discriminating similar configuration was decided based on random data. The ratio of the trace correlation coefficient exceeding the threshold value was 62.0% so that the configurations of the typefaces obtained by the proposed method closely resembled those obtained by non-metric MDS. The required duration for the proposed method was approximately one third of the non-metric MDS's duration. In addition, all distances between objects in all the data for both methods were calculated. The frequency for the short distance in the proposed method was lower than that of the non-metric MDS so that a relatively small difference was likely to be emphasized among objects in the configuration by the proposed method. The card arrangement method we here propose, thus serves as a easier and time-saving tool to obtain psychological structures in the fields related to similarity of appearance.

  20. Selecting fillers on emotional appearance improves lineup identification accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Klatt, Thimna; Colloff, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    Mock witnesses sometimes report using criminal stereotypes to identify a face from a lineup, a tendency known as criminal face bias. Faces are perceived as criminal-looking if they appear angry. We tested whether matching the emotional appearance of the fillers to an angry suspect can reduce criminal face bias. In Study 1, mock witnesses (n = 226) viewed lineups in which the suspect had an angry, happy, or neutral expression, and we varied whether the fillers matched the expression. An additional group of participants (n = 59) rated the faces on criminal and emotional appearance. As predicted, mock witnesses tended to identify suspects who appeared angrier and more criminal-looking than the fillers. This tendency was reduced when the lineup fillers matched the emotional appearance of the suspect. Study 2 extended the results, testing whether the emotional appearance of the suspect and fillers affects recognition memory. Participants (n = 1,983) studied faces and took a lineup test in which the emotional appearance of the target and fillers was varied between subjects. Discrimination accuracy was enhanced when the fillers matched an angry target's emotional appearance. We conclude that lineup member emotional appearance plays a critical role in the psychology of lineup identification. The fillers should match an angry suspect's emotional appearance to improve lineup identification accuracy.

  1. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Mobbing at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Murat Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether there are mobbing applications at schools and if so, at which level and between whom. The Mobbing Perception Scale is applied, based on Leymann's (1993), "Mobbing Typology," and developed by Yavuz (2007), to 154 teachers at 5 selected schools in Ankara for the purpose of the study. According…

  2. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  3. Spatial Heterogeneity in the Perception of Face and Form Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraz, Arash; Pashkam, Maryam Vaziri; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Summary The identity of an object is a fixed property, independent of where it appears, and an effective visual system should capture this invariance [1–3]. However, we now report that the perceived gender of a face is strongly biased toward male or female at different locations in the visual field. The spatial pattern of these biases was distinctive and stable for each individual. Identical neutral faces looked different when they were presented simultaneously at locations maximally biased to opposite genders. A similar effect was observed for perceived age of faces. We measured the magnitude of this perceptual heterogeneity for four other visual judgments: perceived aspect ratio, orientation discrimination, spatial-frequency discrimination, and color discrimination. The effect was sizeable for the aspect ratio task but substantially smaller for the other three tasks. We also evaluated perceptual heterogeneity for facial gender and orientation tasks at different spatial scales. Strong heterogeneity was observed even for the orientation task when tested at small scales. We suggest that perceptual heterogeneity is a general property of visual perception and results from undersampling of the visual signal at spatial scales that are small relative to the size of the receptive fields associated with each visual attribute. PMID:21109440

  4. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  5. Self-Esteem and Social Appearance Anxiety: An Investigation of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study published in "Elementary Education Online", Dogan (2011) examined the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample after his first adaptation study on undergraduate students in Turkey (Dogan, 2010). He recommended that researchers do further research to investigate the…

  6. Controlled interaction: strategies for using virtual reality to study perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, Frank H; Li, Zhi

    2010-05-01

    Immersive virtual reality systems employing head-mounted displays offer great promise for the investigation of perception and action, but there are well-documented limitations to most virtual reality systems. In the present article, we suggest strategies for studying perception/action interactions that try to depend on both scale-invariant metrics (such as power function exponents) and careful consideration of the requirements of the interactions under investigation. New data concerning the effect of pincushion distortion on the perception of surface orientation are presented, as well as data documenting the perception of dynamic distortions associated with head movements with uncorrected optics. A review of several successful uses of virtual reality to study the interaction of perception and action emphasizes scale-free analysis strategies that can achieve theoretical goals while minimizing assumptions about the accuracy of virtual simulations.

  7. Automated brain structure segmentation based on atlas registration and appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    Accurate automated brain structure segmentation methods facilitate the analysis of large-scale neuroimaging studies. This work describes a novel method for brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images that combines information about a structure’s location and appearance. The spatial...... model is implemented by registering multiple atlas images to the target image and creating a spatial probability map. The structure’s appearance is modeled by a classi¿er based on Gaussian scale-space features. These components are combined with a regularization term in a Bayesian framework...... that is globally optimized using graph cuts. The incorporation of the appearance model enables the method to segment structures with complex intensity distributions and increases its robustness against errors in the spatial model. The method is tested in cross-validation experiments on two datasets acquired...

  8. Angelic appearances in Matthew’s infancy narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP (Francois Viljoen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Angelic appearances function prominently in the birth narratives of Matthew. An angel of the Lord appears to Joseph (Mt. 1:20; 2:12, 13, 19 and 22. Besides these explicit references to the angel, the first Gospel also refers to the guidance by an “unusual” star (Mt. 2:1-2 and 9-10. The appearance of the angel of the Lord to Joseph is investigated within the context of such appearances in New Testament times. Furthermore, the appearance of the star is investigated in the light of the views of stars in that period of time. The goal is to establish the nature of these appearances and the relation between them.

  9. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2...

  10. Appearance of fetal pain could be associated with maturation of the mesodiencephalic structures

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    Sekulic S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Slobodan Sekulic,1 Ksenija Gebauer-Bukurov,1 Milan Cvijanovic,1 Aleksandar Kopitovic,1 Djordje Ilic,2 Djordje Petrovic,2 Ivan Capo,3 Ivana Pericin-Starcevic,4 Oliver Christ,5 Anastasia Topalidou6 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, 3Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, 4Department of Developmental Neurology and Epilepsy, Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina, Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia; 5School of Applied Psychology, Institute Humans in Complex Systems, Olten, Switzerland; 6Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece Abstract: Fetal pain remains a controversial subject both in terms of recognizing its existence and the time-frame within which it appears. This article investigates the hypothesis that pain perception during development is not related to any determined structures of the central nervous system (CNS, on the contrary, the process of perception could be made with any structure satisfying conditions that the perception of pain is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. According to this definition, chronic decerebrate and decorticate experimental animals, anencephalic, and hydranencephalic patients demonstrate that the basic, most general, appropriate interaction with the environment can be achieved with a functional mesodiencephalon (brain stem, and diencephalon as the hierarchically highest structure of the CNS during development. In intact fetuses, this structure shows signs of sufficient maturation starting from the 15th week of gestation. Bearing in mind the dominant role of the reticular

  11. Perceptions of campus climate by sexual minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Patricia A; Fette, Ryan; Meidlinger, Peter C; Hope, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) often have negative experiences on university campuses due to their sexual orientation or gender identity. Direct and indirect experiences contribute to an overall perception of the campus climate. This study used an online survey to assess students' perceptions of campus climate, their experiences confronting bias, support of family members and friends, and whether they had considered leaving campus. Multiple regression analysis indicated that perceptions of poorer campus climate were predicted by greater unfair treatment by instructors, more impact from anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) bias on friends' and families' emotional support, and having hidden one's LGBT identity from other students. Cluster analyses revealed four groups of participants distinguished by openness about their sexual orientation and negative experiences, with one group appearing to be at risk for poor retention. Results are discussed in terms of the needs of LGBTQ students on campus.

  12. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  13. Localized pemphigus foliaceus exclusively involving the follicular infundibulum: a novel peau d'orange appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Chika; Akamatsu, Kana; Imai, Naho; Sumimura, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    Localized pemphigus foliaceus (PF) clinically presents as red plaques with scale and crust due to acantholysis of the epidermis. The follicular infundibulum shows acantholysis, but usually with epidermal acantholysis or at least erosion. Localized PF exclusively involving the follicular infundibulum, which shows a peau d'orange appearance, has never been reported. We describe a patient with a red plaque and peau d'orange appearance on the cheek for 20 years. Dyskeratotic acantholysis in the follicular infundibulum was overlooked when the first biopsy specimen was obtained, and a disseminated lesion developed soon after, which led to the diagnosis. Although a peau d'orange appearance is a rare clinical manifestation of PF, PF should be considered as the differential diagnosis on the basis of this appearance, especially when the lesion persists on the face for long periods.

  14. Dress and Appearance Codes in Public Secondary School Handbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbon, Beth; Workman, Jane E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed and compared dress and appearance codes from 154 secondary school handbooks. Unacceptable dress and appearance was listed more frequently that acceptable or required dress; concerns about health, safety, and modesty were reflected; and 80 percent included a statement that dress should not be disruptive to the educational process.…

  15. Abdominal wall lipoma--CT and MRI appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, R A; Gomori, J M; Fields, S I; Katz, E

    1991-01-01

    Although soft tissue lipomata are common tumours, a large lipoma arising from the deep layers of the abdominal wall would appear to be excessively rare and the site of origin may be difficult to determine. The CT and MRI appearances of such a tumour are described.

  16. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  17. Combining Facial Dynamics With Appearance for Age Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Alnajar, F.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the age of a human from the captured images of his/her face is a challenging problem. In general, the existing approaches to this problem use appearance features only. In this paper, we show that in addition to appearance information, facial dynamics can be leveraged in age estimation. We

  18. Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby

    2015-01-01

    In this positional paper, we discuss the potential benefits of using appearance models in additive manufacturing, metal casting, wind turbine blade production, and 3D content acquisition. Current state of the art in acquisition and rendering of appearance cannot easily be used for quality assurance...

  19. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  20. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  1. Self-esteem, social support perception and seizure controllability perception in adolescents with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália F. Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare the self-esteem of adolescents with epilepsy and adolescents without epilepsy and relate it to social support and seizure controllability perception. METHOD: The study sample consisted: case participants (34 subjects attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital and control participants (30 subjects from public schools in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: identification card with demographic and epilepsy data, a semi-structured interview on aspects of the disease, and a Self-Esteem Multidimensional Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups but majority of adolescents with epilepsy presented higher self esteem rate, have knowledge about epilepsy, presented high levels of social support and seizure controllability perception. There was no significant relationship between social support and seizure controllability perception with self-esteem. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about epilepsy, social support such good controllability seizure perception seem are important contingencies for a better evaluation of self esteem in adolescents with epilepsy.

  2. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Ainley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  3. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  4. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  5. Color appearance of familiar objects: effects of object shape, texture, and illumination changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-05-26

    People perceive roughly constant surface colors despite large changes in illumination. The familiarity of colors of some natural objects might help achieve this feat through direct modulation of the objects' color appearance. Research on memory colors and color appearance has yielded controversial results and due to the employed methods has often confounded perceptual with semantic effects. We studied the effect of memory colors on color appearance by presenting photographs of fruit on a monitor under various simulated illuminations and by asking observers to make either achromatic or typical color settings without placing demands on short-term memory or semantic processing. In a control condition, we presented photographs of 3D fruit shapes without texture and 2D outline shapes. We found that (1) achromatic settings for fruit were systematically biased away from the gray point toward the opposite direction of a fruit's memory color; (2) the strength of the effect depended on the degree of naturalness of the stimuli; and (3) the effect was evident under all tested illuminations, being strongest for illuminations whose chromaticity was closest to the stimulus chromaticity. We conclude that the visual identity of an object has a measurable effect on color perception, and that this effect is robust under illuminant changes, indicating its potential significance as an additional mechanism for color constancy.

  6. A Research Agenda for Appearance Changes Due to Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia K. Markey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in the US. It is estimated that more than 180,000 American women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in 2008. Fortunately, the survival rate is relatively high and continually increasing due to improved detection techniques and treatment methods. However, maintaining quality of life is a factor often under emphasized for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer treatments are invasive and can lead to deformation of the breast. Breast reconstruction is important for restoring the survivor’s appearance. However, more work is needed to develop technologies for quantifying surgical outcomes and understanding women’s perceptions of changes in their appearance. A method for objectively measuring breast anatomy is needed in order to help both the breast cancer survivors and their surgeons take expected changes to the survivor’s appearance into account when considering various treatment options. In the future, augmented reality tools could help surgeons reconstruct a survivor’s breasts to match her preferences as much as possible.

  7. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating app...

  8. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  9. Breaking the circle: Challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seven

  10. Examining the Moderating Effect of Appearance Impression Motivation on the Relationship between Perceived Physical Appearance and Social Physique Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorose, Anthony J.; Hollembeak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the conceptual importance of impression motivation in predicting social anxiety (Leary & Kowalski, 1995; Schlenker & Leary, 1982), no research has tested the link between impression motivation specifically regarding one's physical appearance (appearance impression motivation, or AIM) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this…

  11. Material appearance modeling a data-coherent approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yue; Guo, Baining

    2013-01-01

    A principal aim of computer graphics is to generate images that look as real as photographs. Realistic computer graphics imagery has however proven to be quite challenging to produce, since the appearance of materials arises from complicated physical processes that are difficult to analytically model and simulate, and image-based modeling of real material samples is often impractical due to the high-dimensional space of appearance data that needs to be acquired.This book presents a general framework based on the inherent coherency in the appearance data of materials to make image-based appeara

  12. Language, Perception, Culture & Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the prospect of introducing language, perception, culture and communication. Starting with some definitions of language, perception, culture and communication, the paper argues for the internal connection among them. It pro⁃vides better understanding of these factors in foreign language learning and encourages learners to achieve the better learning re⁃sult to communicate effectively through language, culture etc.

  13. Changes in Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Though not the sole element to determine foreign policies, perception is of vital importance in defining an environment, understanding international relations and analyzing potential policy choices. India's "Look East" policy after the Cold War originates from its perception changes toward ASEAN.

  14. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent t

  15. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the pe

  16. Validation of the Perception of Change Scale - Family Version (EMP-F as a treatment outcome measure in mental health services Validação da Escala de Percepção de Mudanças pelos familiares como medida de resultado do tratamento em serviços de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bandeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to validate the Perception of Change Scale - Family Version, which evaluates the perception of family caregivers in regard to the treatment outcomes of psychiatric patients in mental health services. METHOD: Family caregivers (N = 300 of psychiatric patients attending mental health services completed the Perception of Change Scale - Family Version. The scale has 19 items rated in a three-point Likert scale that evaluate changes perceived in the patient's life as a result of treatment. RESULTS: The factorial analysis revealed a four-factor structure, with the following dimensions: 1 occupation, 2 psychological factors, 3 relationships, and 4 physical health. In the internal consistency analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.85. The test-retest temporal stability analysis yielded a significant intraclass correlation coefficient (r = 0.96; p OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi validar a Escala de Mudança Percebida pelos familiares, que avalia o resultado do tratamento recebido por pacientes psiquiátricos em serviços de saúde mental, baseado na escala canadense Questionnaire of Perceived Changes. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 300 familiares cuidadores de pacientes psiquiátricos, atendidos em serviços de saúde mental. A escala foi aplicada em entrevistas individuais estruturadas. A escala possui 19 itens que avaliam mudanças percebidas na vida dos pacientes em função do tratamento, com alternativas de resposta em escala Likert de três pontos. RESULTADOS: A escala apresentou estrutura fatorial de quatro fatores, avaliando mudanças nas seguintes dimensões: 1 Ocupação, 2 Dimensão psicológica, 3 Relacionamentos e 4 Saúde física. Possui adequadas consistência interna (alfa = 0,85 e estabilidade temporal teste-reteste (r = 0,96; p < 0,05. A análise da validade convergente indicou correlação positiva significativa com a escala de construto relacionado de satisfação dos familiares com os

  17. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  18. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  19. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  20. Appealing to vanity: could potential appearance improvement motivate fruit and vegetable consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ross D; Ozakinci, Gozde; Stephen, Ian D; Perrett, David I

    2012-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate among adults in the United States; this contributes to preventable morbidity and mortality. More effective dietary intervention strategies are needed. Recently, interventions that advertise the consequences of behavior for appearance have been successful in modifying sun-exposure habits and tobacco use. Such an approach might also facilitate dietary improvement. Consumption of carotenoid-rich fruit and vegetables positively affects skin color, which influences perceptions of health and attractiveness, and promoting such an effect may motivate target audiences to increase consumption of this important food group. This approach represents a novel direction for the field and is potentially suitable for cost-effective, population-level dissemination through the visual media.

  1. Weight, Gender Appear to Play Part in Kidney Transplant Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gender Appear to Play Part in Kidney Transplant Success Study found the closer the match between donor ... differences between donors and recipients can affect the success of kidney transplants, a new study says. Researchers ...

  2. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...

  3. Influence of visual appearance on loudspeaker sound quality evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order ...... to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance....

  4. BUILDING ROBUST APPEARANCE MODELS USING ON-LINE FEATURE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PORTER, REID B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LOVELAND, ROHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; ROSTEN, ED [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    In many tracking applications, adapting the target appearance model over time can improve performance. This approach is most popular in high frame rate video applications where latent variables, related to the objects appearance (e.g., orientation and pose), vary slowly from one frame to the next. In these cases the appearance model and the tracking system are tightly integrated, and latent variables are often included as part of the tracking system's dynamic model. In this paper we describe our efforts to track cars in low frame rate data (1 frame/second) acquired from a highly unstable airborne platform. Due to the low frame rate, and poor image quality, the appearance of a particular vehicle varies greatly from one frame to the next. This leads us to a different problem: how can we build the best appearance model from all instances of a vehicle we have seen so far. The best appearance model should maximize the future performance of the tracking system, and maximize the chances of reacquiring the vehicle once it leaves the field of view. We propose an online feature selection approach to this problem and investigate the performance and computational trade-offs with a real-world dataset.

  5. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  6. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  7. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  8. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels.

  9. The structure and validity of directional measures of appearance social comparison among emerging adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the structure and validity of the Upward Appearance Comparison Scale (UPACS) and Downward Appearance Comparison Scale (DACS) (O'Brien et al., 2009) in Chinese samples. In Study 1, principal component analysis on an initial sample (427 women, 123 men) and confirmatory factor analysis on another sample (447 women, 121 men) found that a 15-item, two component model had the best overall fit. Derived components had moderate correlations with most conceptually related measures and low correlations with less conceptually related indices. Study 2 participants (310 women, 201 men) completed the UPACS and DACS as well as measures of disordered eating, fatness concern, and negative affect; they were re-assessed one year later. Baseline UPACS scores predicted changes in disordered eating for women and fatness concerns for men, independent of initial disturbances, but DACS responses were not related to outcomes. Findings highlighted the potential utility of derived UPACS and DACS within a Chinese context.

  10. Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gigante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel explanation for bistable perception, namely, the collective dynamics of multiple neural populations that are individually meta-stable. Distributed representations of sensory input and of perceptual state build gradually through noise-driven transitions in these populations, until the competition between alternative representations is resolved by a threshold mechanism. The perpetual repetition of this collective race to threshold renders perception bistable. This collective dynamics - which is largely uncoupled from the time-scales that govern individual populations or neurons - explains many hitherto puzzling observations about bistable perception: the wide range of mean alternation rates exhibited by bistable phenomena, the consistent variability of successive dominance periods, and the stabilizing effect of past perceptual states. It also predicts a number of previously unsuspected relationships between observable quantities characterizing bistable perception. We conclude that bistable perception reflects the collective nature of neural decision making rather than properties of individual populations or neurons.

  11. Messages about appearance, food, weight and exercise in "tween" television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Courtney C; Kwitowski, Melissa; Boutte, Rachel; Gow, Rachel W; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-12-01

    Tweens (children ages ~8-14years) are a relatively recently defined age group, increasingly targeted by marketers. Individuals in this age group are particularly vulnerable to opinions and behaviors presented in media messages, given their level of cognitive and social development. However, little research has examined messages about appearance, food, weight, and exercise in television specifically targeting tweens, despite the popularity of this media type among this age group. This study used a content analytic approach to explore these messages in the five most popular television shows for tweens on the Disney Channel (as of 2015). Using a multiple-pass approach, relevant content in episodes from the most recently completed seasons of each show was coded. Appearance related incidents occurred in every episode; these most frequently mentioned attractiveness/beauty. Food related incidents were also present in every episode; typically, these situations were appearance and weight neutral. Exercise related incidents occurred in 53.3% of episodes; the majority expressed resistance to exercise. Weight related incidents occurred in 40.0% of the episodes; the majority praised the muscular ideal. Women were more likely to initiate appearance incidents, and men were more likely to initiate exercise incidents. These results suggest that programs specifically marketed to tweens reinforce appearance ideals, including stereotypes about female attractiveness and male athleticism, two constructs linked to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Given the developmental vulnerability of the target group, these findings are concerning, and highlight potential foci for prevention programming, including media literacy, for tweens.

  12. Patients' and physicians' attitudes regarding the physician's professional appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E; Titus, S L

    1987-07-01

    Although physician appearance has been a topic of interest to medical historians for more than two centuries, little objective investigation has been made into patients' and physicians' attitudes toward the physician's appearance. This study analyzed responses from 404 patients, residents, and staff physicians regarding their attitudes toward various aspects of the male and female physician's professional appearance. Positive responses from all participants were associated with traditional items of dress such as the dress, shirt and tie, dress shoes, and nylons, and for physician-identifying items such as a white coat and a name tag. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as blue jeans, scrub suits, athletic shoes, clogs, and sport socks. Negative ratings were also associated with overly feminine items such as prominent ruffles and female dangling earrings and such temporarily fashionable items as long hair on men, male earrings, and patterned hose on women. Overall, patients were less discriminating in their attitude toward physician appearance than physicians. Patients rated traditional items less positively and casual items less negatively. This study confirms the importance of the physician's appearance in physician-patient communication.

  13. Modeling self-occlusions in dynamic shape and appearance tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to track the precise shape of a dynamic object in video. Joint dynamic shape and appearance models, in which a template of the object is propagated to match the object shape and radiance in the next frame, are advantageous over methods employing global image statistics in cases of complex object radiance and cluttered background. In cases of complex 3D object motion and relative viewpoint change, self-occlusions and disocclusions of the object are prominent, and current methods employing joint shape and appearance models are unable to accurately adapt to new shape and appearance information, leading to inaccurate shape detection. In this work, we model self-occlusions and dis-occlusions in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. Experiments on video exhibiting occlusion/dis-occlusion, complex radiance and background show that occlusion/dis-occlusion modeling leads to superior shape accuracy compared to recent methods employing joint shape/appearance models or employing global statistics. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. EDUCATIONAL ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS OF DESIRABLE TRAITS OF TEACHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KERLINGER, FRED; PEDHAZUR, ELAZAR

    TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT PERCEPTIONS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHERS ARE INFLUENCED BY JUDGES' ATTITUDES TOWARD EDUCATION, SEVEN "SUCCESSFUL" ADJECTIVE-CHECKLIST AND AGREE-DISAGREE SCALES (AMONG AN INITIAL 11 SCALES) WERE ADMINISTERED TO EIGHT SAMPLES OF FROM 131 TO 556 TEACHERS AND GRADUATE EDUCATION STUDENTS IN FIVE…

  15. Departmental Differences in Student Perceptions of 'Ideal' Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Brian J.

    Departmental differences in student perceptions of teaching effectiveness were measured using behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). The 495 college students were taking junior and senior level courses in art, business, computer science, French, psychology, and sociology. Each subject completed either the BARS or a simple summated scale, both…

  16. Farey sequence in the appearance of subharmonic Shapiro steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odavić, Jovan; Mali, Petar; Tekić, Jasmina

    2015-05-01

    The largest Lyapunov exponent has been examined in the dynamical-mode locking phenomena of the ac+dc driven dissipative Frenkel-Kontorova model with deformable substrate potential. Due to deformation, large fractional and higher order subharmonic steps appear in the response function of the system. Computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent as a way to verify their presence led to the observation of the Farey sequence. In the standard regime, the appearance of half-integer and other subharmonic steps between the large harmonic steps, and their relative sizes follow the Farey construction. In the nonstandard regime, however, the half-integer steps are larger than harmonic ones, and Farey construction is only present in the appearance of higher order subharmonic steps. The examination of Lyapunov exponents has also shown that regardless of the substrate potential or deformation, there was no chaos in the system.

  17. 3 T MR cholangiopancreatography appearances of biliary ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Z.X., E-mail: hangzhoudzx73@126.co [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Yuan, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Chong, V. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhao, D.J. [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Chen, F.H.; Li, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the 3 T MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) appearances of biliary ascariasis. Materials and methods: Nine patients with a MRCP diagnosis of biliary ascariasis were reviewed. All patients had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or surgical confirmation of the disease. Results: On thin-slab MRCP imaging, Ascaris worms are clearly demarcated within the biliary tree. All the identified worms demonstrated a characteristic three-parallel-lines appearance. The middle high-signal intensity line is sandwiched between two low-signal intensity lines and they are in turn surrounded by high signal bile. On thick-slab MRCP the worms also show the three-line sign but with less clarity. However, thick-slab MRCP has the advantage of providing three-dimensional ERCP-like images of the pancreaticobiliary system. Conclusion: The 'three-line' sign appears to be a characteristic sign of biliary ascariasis on 3 T MRCP.

  18. MRI Appearance of Prostatic Stromal Sarcoma in a Young Adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki; Kozuka, Yuji; Ito, Katsuyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Prostatic stromal sarcoma (PSS) is quite rare. Herein, we describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a PSS identified in a 26-year-old man with dysuria and hematuria. MRI clearly depicted the extent and multinodular appearance of the tumor, which was mainly located in the central zone of the prostate. The tumor appeared as a heterogeneously signal-hyperintense mass with a pseudocapsule on T2-weighted imaging. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed necrotic portions in the gradually enhanced solid mass, and diffusion-weighted imaging permitted the accurate assessment of the local extent of the tumor. Thus, the appearance on MRI was quite different from that of adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  19. Food color and appearance measurement, specification and communication, can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, John; Singleton, Mark; Plater, Keith; Dias, Benjamin

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods of color specification demand a sample that is flat, uniformly colored, diffusely reflecting and opaque. Very many natural, processed and manufactured foods, on the other hand, are three-dimensional, irregularly shaped unevenly colored and translucent. Hence, spectrophotometers and tristimulus colorimeters can only be used for reliable and accurate color measurement in certain cases and under controlled conditions. These techniques are certainly unsuitable for specification of color patterning and other factors of total appearance in which, for example, surface texture and gloss interfere with the surface color. Hence, conventional techniques are more appropriate to food materials than to foods themselves. This paper reports investigations on the application of digital camera and screen technologies to these problems. Results indicated that accuracy sufficient for wide scale use in the food industry is obtainable. Measurement applications include the specification and automatic measurement and classification of total appearance properties of three-dimensional products. This will be applicable to specification and monitoring of fruit and vegetables within the growing, storage and marketing supply chain and to on-line monitoring. Applications to sensory panels include monitoring of color and appearance changes occurring during paneling and the development of physical reference scales based pigment chemistry changes. Digital technology will be extendable to the on-screen judging of real and virtual products as well as to the improvement of appearance archiving and communication.

  20. Perception, illusions and Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Descriptive psychopathology makes a distinction between veridical perception and illusory perception. In both cases a perception is tied to a sensory stimulus, but in illusions the perception is of a false object. This article re-examines this distinction in light of new work in theoretical and computational neurobiology, which views all perception as a form of Bayesian statistical inference that combines sensory signals with prior expectations. Bayesian perceptual inference can solve the 'inverse optics' problem of veridical perception and provides a biologically plausible account of a number of illusory phenomena, suggesting that veridical and illusory perceptions are generated by precisely the same inferential mechanisms.

  1. Does life's rapid appearance imply a Martian origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Paul Charles William

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the rapid appearance of life on Earth justifies the belief that life is widespread in the universe has been investigated statistically by Lineweaver and Davis. However, a rapid appearance could also be interpreted as evidence for a nonterrestrial origin. I attempt to quantify the relative probabilities for a nonindigenous versus an indigenous origin of life on Earth, on the assumption that biogenesis involved one or more highly improbable steps, using a generalization of the well known observer selection argument of Carter. The analysis is specifically applied to a Martian origin of life, with subsequent transfer to Earth within impact ejecta.

  2. A new approach to assess student perceptions of gains from an REU program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, C.; Cahill, A. T.; Lemmons, K.

    2013-12-01

    Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) programs are designed to recruit students to science and engineering research careers by allowing the students to conduct research with faculty mentors. The success of REU programs is commonly assessed based on student perceptions of gains using a simple Likert scale. Because students tend to be positive about all aspects of their research experience, the results of the Likert scale tend to be meaningless. An alternative assessment technique, similar to Q-analysis, is used to assess the perceived outcomes of an international REU program hosted by Texas A&M University. Students were required to sort commonly identified REU outcomes into a normal distribution, from most agree to least agree, based on what they perceive as their personal gains from the program. Factor analysis reveals 3 groups of students who believe that they gained field and analytical skills (Group 1), greater competence in research and self-confidence (Group 2), and an improved understanding of the scientific method (Group 3). Student perceptions appear to depend on whether the student had previous research experience through classes and/or as a research assistant at their home institution. A comparison to a similar sort of REU outcomes by the faculty mentors suggests that there is a slight disconnect in the perceived gains by the students between the student participants and the faculty mentors.

  3. Face configuration affects speech perception: Evidence from a McGurk mismatch negativity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; MacDonald, Ewen; Andersen, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    as demonstrated by the Thatcher illusion in which the orientation of the eyes and mouth with respect to the face is inverted (Thatcherization). This gives the face a grotesque appearance but this is only seen when the face is upright. Thatcherization can likewise disrupt visual speech perception but only when...... the face is upright indicating that facial configuration can be important for visual speech perception. This effect can propagate to auditory speech perception through audiovisual integration so that Thatcherization disrupts the McGurk illusion in which visual speech perception alters perception...... perception due to the McGurk illusion without any change in the acoustic stimulus. We found that Thatcherization disrupted a strong McGurk illusion and a correspondingly strong McGurk-MMN only for upright faces. This confirms that facial configuration can be important for audiovisual speech perception...

  4. Construção e evidências psicométricas de uma escala de avaliação da percepção visual Construction and psychometric evidences of a visual perception scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Marinho Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo construir e conhecer os parâmetros psicométricos de um instrumento para análise da percepção visual de adultos. Para a construção da escala participaram 295 adultos saudáveis, sem déficits cognitivos ou perceptivo-visuais. Nesta etapa foi formulada uma escala tetrafatorial constituída por 20 itens que avaliam quatro dimensões referentes à percepção visual: constância da forma, figura-fundo, posição e relação espacial. Para obter evidências de validade foi utilizada uma amostra de 183 voluntários com boa saúde física e mental e acuidade visual normal ou corrigida. Os dados obtidos relatam a existência de concordância interjuízes, adequação semântica e significância no teste-reteste do instrumento. Os coeficientes de fidedignidade variaram de 0,84 a 0,93. Os quatro fatores esperados foram encontrados, cada um contendo 5 itens, e juntos explicaram 57,52% da variância do constructo. O instrumento apresentou parâmetros psicométricos adequados, o que pode justificar sua utilidade em pesquisas básicas e na prática clínica.The main objective of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric parameters of an instrument used to evaluate adults' visual perception. The basic assumption was that visual perception includes constancy of form, figure-ground, position and spatial relation. A 4-factor solution was expected. Respondents were 183 healthy adults without cognitive or visual perception impairment. In the instrument it was possible to establish the existence of inter-judges agreement, semantic adequacy and test-retest significance. The reliability coefficients ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The four expected factors were found, each one containing 5 items. This solution accounted for 57.52% of the construct variance indicating that the instrument has good psychometric parameters, which suggests its applicability in scientific research and clinical practice.

  5. Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-10-01

    Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning.

  6. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  7. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption.

  8. LSD Flashbacks - The Appearance of New Visual Imagery Not Experienced During Initial Intoxication: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Lerner, Arturo; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    A side effect associated with the use of synthetic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide-(LSD) is the partial or total recurrence of perceptual disturbances which previously appeared during intoxication, despite absence of recent use. These are commonly referred to as "flashbacks" or Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Here we present two cases of patients with a prior history of LSD use who turned to psychiatric consultation following brief episodes of HPPD. Surprisingly, in both cases new visual imagery appeared during episodes of flashbacks which was not experienced during primary LSD use. Both subjects reported the ability to discern between LSD-associated visual disturbances and new visual imagery. This phenomenon did not cause functional impairment and in both cases caused gradual concern due to its persistence. Both patients refused medical treatment and continued psychiatric follow-up. At one year follow-up both patients reported almost complete spontaneous remission. To the best of our knowledge these are the first reported cases of LSD-related benign flashbacks in which new imagery is experienced. Reasons for this reversible and apparently harmless side effect are proposed. Conclusions from case reports should be taken with caution.

  9. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    of these applications, but the use of recycled aluminium compromises this due to the presence of increased levels of impurity and alloying elements. Knowledge on how different alloying elements affect the optical appearance might therefore increase the applicability of recycled aluminium. It was investigated how...

  10. Free Appearance-Editing with Improved Poisson Image Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Bie; Hao-Da Huang; Wen-Cheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we present a new edit tool for the user to conveniently preserve or freely edit the object appearance during seamless image composition.We observe that though Poisson image editing is effective for seamless image composition.Its color bleeding (the color of the target image is propagated into the source image) is not always desired in applications,and it provides no way to allow the user to edit the appearance of the source image.To make it more flexible and practical,we introduce new energy terms to control the appearance change,and integrate them into the Poisson image editing framework.The new energy function could still be realized using efficient sparse linear solvers,and the user can interactively refine the constraints.With the new tool,the user can enjoy not only seamless image composition,but also the flexibility to preserve or manipulate the appearance of the source image at the same time.This provides more potential for creating new images.Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our new edit tool,with similar time cost to the original Poisson image editing.

  11. Video-based facial animation with detailed appearance texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Facial shape transformation described by facial animation parameters (FAPs) involves the dynamic movement or deformation of eyes, brows, mouth, and lips, while detailed facial appearance concerns the facial textures such as creases, wrinkles, etc.Video-based facial animation exhibits not only facial shape transformation but also detailed appearance updates. In this paper, a novel algorithm for effectively extracting FAPs from video is proposed. Our system adopts the ICA-enforced direct appearance model (DAM) to track faces from video sequences; and then, FAPs are extracted from every frame of the video based on an extended model of Wincandidate 3.1. Facial appearance details are transformed from each frame by mapping an expression ratio image to the original image. We adopt wavelet to synthesize expressive details by combining the low-frequency signals of the original face and high-frequency signals of the expressive face from each frame of the video. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is suitable for reproducing realistic, expressive facial animations.

  12. Osseous drill holes to promote granulation tissue: Radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N. (Maryland Univ. Medical System/Hospital, Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology); Goldberg, N.H. (Maryland Univ. Medical System/Hospital, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Plastic Surgery)

    1991-04-01

    Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.).

  13. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  14. Eye Typing using Markov and Active Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    multi-modal interactions based on video tracking systems. Robust methods are needed to track the eyes using web cameras due to the poor image quality. A real-time tracking scheme using a mean-shift color tracker and an Active Appearance Model of the eye is proposed. It is possible from this model...

  15. Endoscopical appearances of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID- enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellus Simadibrata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID have been associated with a sudden and sustained rise in the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcer complications. The aim of the study was to reveal the endoscopical abnormalities found in the duodenum & proximal jejunum due to NSAID. Thirty eight patients taking NSAID for their arthritis or rheumatism were included in this study. Gastro-duodeno-jejunoscopy was done with Olympus PCF-10. The endoscopical appearances of NSAID entero gastropathy were evaluated with a scoring system. The NSAID-entero-gastropathy appearances were endoscopically seen as hyperemia, erosion and ulcer. From all patient recruited, 7.9% complaint of diarrhea and 71.1% complaint of dyspepsia. Endoscopically, in the duodenal bulb we found 79% cases of hyperemia, 39.5% cases of erosion and 7.9% cases of ulcer. In the second part (descending part of the duodenum we found 28.9% cases of hyperemia, 15.8% cases of erosion and 2.6% case of ulcer. In the jejunum, we found 7.9% cases of hyperemia, 2.6% case of erosion and no ulcer. It is concluded that the most frequent abnormal endoscopical appearances in NSAID- enteropathy was hyperemia. The most frequent site of NSAID-enteropathy abnormal findings was in the duodenal bulb. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 225-9Keywords: NSAID-enteropathy, endoscopical appearances.

  16. Dutch primary schoolchildren’s attitudes toward their dental appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Hoogstraten, J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study's purpose was to examine children's attitudes toward dental appearance and compare these with attitudes toward general health, body shape, grades in school, friends, money, and sports. The study also explored whether subjects reporting that they have attractive teeth believed the

  17. Medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance and image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Jaume; Radeva, Petia

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of medical images produced and stored daily in hospitals needs a datrabase management system that organizes them in a meaningful way, without the necessity of time-consuming textual annotations for each image. One of the basic ways to organize medical images in taxonomies consists of clustering them depending of plaque appearance (for example, intravascular ultrasound images). Although lately, there has been a lot of research in the field of Content-Based Image Retrieval systems, mostly these systems are designed for dealing a wide range of images but not medical images. Medical image retrieval by content is still an emerging field, and few works are presented in spite of the obvious applications and the complexity of the images demanding research studies. In this chapter, we overview the work on medical image retrieval and present a general framework of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance. We stress on two basic features of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance: plaque medical images contain complex information requiring not only local and global descriptors but also context determined by image features and their spatial relations. Additionally, given that most objects in medical images usually have high intra- and inter-patient shape variance, retrieval based on plaque should be invariant to a family of transformations predetermined by the application domain. To illustrate the medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance, we consider a specific image modality: intravascular ultrasound images and present extensive results on the retrieval performance.

  18. Abnormal facial appearance and delayed diagnosis of congenital hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysdale, W S

    1978-08-01

    Congenital hearing loss occurs in association with cranio-facial anomalies. Lay people and health professionals as well frequently regard individuals with cranio-facial anomalies as "stupid" or of lower than normal intelligence because of their odd appearance. Two case reports illustrate that this erroneous assumption will result in the delayed detection of significant hearing loss.

  19. On the Local Minima of the Order of Appearance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The order of appearance z(n of the positive integer n is the smallest positive integer k such that n divides Fk, the kth member of the Fibonacci sequence. In this paper, we improve upon some results from (Marques, 2011 concerning local minima of z(n.

  20. Sonographic appearance of renal transplant osseous metaplasia: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, R.; Common, A.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sugar, L. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of pathologically proven osseous metaplasia occurring in renal allograft 7 years after transplantation, appearing as multiple, echogenic, band-like lesions with acoustic shadowing on ultra-sonography (US). To our knowledge, such a case has not yet been described in the literature. (author)

  1. Perceptions of stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Šadl, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author investigates paid domestic work in Slovenia to obtain information on domestic workers' perceptions of their work. Cleaning up after other people is usually considered dirty work with a stigma attached to it. Given this, we draw on indepth interviews with paid domestic workers to examine how they deal with society's negative perceptions and potential individual strategies for coping with a stigmatised social identity. On the basis of previous research on paid domesti...

  2. Consensus Coding as a Tool in Visual Appearance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Simmons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in visual appearance research is how to quantitatively characterise the visual appearance of a region of an image which is categorised by human observers in the same way. An example of this is scarring in medical images (Ayoub et al, 2010, The Cleft-Palate Craniofacial Journal, in press. We have argued that “scarriness” is itself a visual appearance descriptor which summarises the distinctive combination of colour, texture and shape information which allows us to distinguish scarred from non-scarred tissue (Simmons et al, ECVP 2009. Other potential descriptors for other image classes would be “metallic”, “natural”, or “liquid”. Having developed an automatic algorithm to locate scars in medical images, we then tested “ground truth” by asking untrained observers to draw around the region of scarring. The shape and size of the scar on the image was defined by building a contour plot of the agreement between observers' outlines and thresholding at the point above which 50% of the observers agreed: a consensus coding scheme. Based on the variability in the amount of overlap between the scar as defined by the algorithm, and the consensus scar of the observers, we have concluded that the algorithm does not completely capture the putative appearance descriptor “scarriness”. A simultaneous analysis of qualitative descriptions of the scarring by the observers revealed that other image features than those encoded by the algorithm (colour and texture might be important, such as scar boundary shape. This approach to visual appearance research in medical imaging has potential applications in other application areas, such as botany, geology and archaeology.

  3. Next discoveries in neutrino mixing: Electron neutrino appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyang, Hongyue

    The discovery of neutrino oscillation is a clear evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Measurements of electron neutrino (nu e) and electron anti-neutrino (nu e) appearances are the most important channels to complete the neutrino mixing matrix. In a nue/ nue appearance experiment, a near detector (ND) is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure the backgrounds to the signal. Backgrounds to the nue appearance comes from Neutral Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-NC), Charged Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-CC), beam nu e events and outside backgrounds. The background components are then extrapolated to the far detector (FD). By looking for excess of signal nu e/nue-like events in FD, we measure the neutrino mixing angle, neutrino's mass hierarchy and the elusive CP-violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation focuses on the signals and backgrounds in nu e/nue appearance measurements. The first part of the dissertation presents an analysis of nue appearance in a large Water Cherenkov detector such as the one proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The analysis, including scanning thousands of events, aims to distinguish nu e signals from the NC backgrounds. The second part of the dissertation presents measurements of Resonance Neutrino Interactions using the NOMAD data. This process plays a critical role in not only neutrino-nuclear cross section but also in the precision analysis of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments such as NOnuA and LBNE. The last part of the dissertation discusses the method of using low-nu fit method to measure relative neutrino flux and constrain beam nue background.

  4. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  5. Perception, time of perception, perception of the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata, André

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available From a conceptual point of view, time is independent of its experience. That is: it can be given a conceptual description of time without any reference to terms related to the subjective consciousness of time. But concerning a phenomenology of that subjective experience of time, it can it be showed that such experience of time is, in itself, temporal. The very same terms employed in a conceptual description of time – terms like “change” and “duration”– are implied in the phenomenological description of every perception, including perception of time. This authorizes a characterization of subjective time experience as subjective time. At last, based on temporal nature of perception of time, I will suggest an explanation for our common experience of asymmetries subjective time and objective time.Desde un punto de vista conceptual, el tiempo es independiente respecto de la experiencia del tiempo. Es decir: puede darse una descripción conceptual del tiempo sin referencia ninguna a términos relacionados con la conciencia subjetiva del tiempo. Pero en lo concerniente a una fenomenología de esa experiencia subjetiva del tiempo, puede revelarse que tal experiencia de tiempo es, ella en sí misma, temporal? Los mismísimos términos empleados en una descripción conceptual del tiempo, como “cambio” y “duración”, están implicados en la descripción fenomenológica de toda percepción, incluida la percepción del tiempo. Esto autoriza una caracterización de la experiencia subjetiva del tiempo como tiempo subjetivo. Finalmente, sobre la base de la naturaleza temporal de la percepción del tiempo, sugeriré una explicación racional de nuestra experiencia común de asimetrías entre el tiempo subjetivo y el tiempo objetivo.

  6. SOCIAL MEDIA AND CLASSROOM ENGAGEMENT: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Malissa Maria Mahmud; Chandra Reka Ramachandiran; Othman Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the last 15 years or so, social media have shown many facets—from connecting people on a global-scale, to penetrating aspects of lives which otherwise might have remained private or limited to a small audience. In the realm of education, social media have also begun to infiltrate the academic world by influencing and shaping students’ perceptions and influencing learning engagement. With millions of students and teachers simultaneously active on social networks, it is signi...

  7. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  8. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  9. Seeing Minds in Others - Can Agents with Robotic Appearance Have Human-Like Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Molly C; Gonzalez, Christian A; Wiese, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Ascribing mental states to non-human agents has been shown to increase their likeability and lead to better joint-task performance in human-robot interaction (HRI). However, it is currently unclear what physical features non-human agents need to possess in order to trigger mind attribution and whether different aspects of having a mind (e.g., feeling pain, being able to move) need different levels of human-likeness before they are readily ascribed to non-human agents. The current study addresses this issue by modeling how increasing the degree of human-like appearance (on a spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid to human) changes the likelihood by which mind is attributed towards non-human agents. We also test whether different internal states (e.g., being hungry, being alive) need different degrees of humanness before they are ascribed to non-human agents. The results suggest that the relationship between physical appearance and the degree to which mind is attributed to non-human agents is best described as a two-linear model with no change in mind attribution on the spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid robot, but a significant increase in mind attribution as soon as human features are included in the image. There seems to be a qualitative difference in the perception of mindful versus mindless agents given that increasing human-like appearance alone does not increase mind attribution until a certain threshold is reached, that is: agents need to be classified as having a mind first before the addition of more human-like features significantly increases the degree to which mind is attributed to that agent.

  10. Seeing Minds in Others – Can Agents with Robotic Appearance Have Human-Like Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Molly C.; Gonzalez, Christian A.; Wiese, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Ascribing mental states to non-human agents has been shown to increase their likeability and lead to better joint-task performance in human-robot interaction (HRI). However, it is currently unclear what physical features non-human agents need to possess in order to trigger mind attribution and whether different aspects of having a mind (e.g., feeling pain, being able to move) need different levels of human-likeness before they are readily ascribed to non-human agents. The current study addresses this issue by modeling how increasing the degree of human-like appearance (on a spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid to human) changes the likelihood by which mind is attributed towards non-human agents. We also test whether different internal states (e.g., being hungry, being alive) need different degrees of humanness before they are ascribed to non-human agents. The results suggest that the relationship between physical appearance and the degree to which mind is attributed to non-human agents is best described as a two-linear model with no change in mind attribution on the spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid robot, but a significant increase in mind attribution as soon as human features are included in the image. There seems to be a qualitative difference in the perception of mindful versus mindless agents given that increasing human-like appearance alone does not increase mind attribution until a certain threshold is reached, that is: agents need to be classified as having a mind first before the addition of more human-like features significantly increases the degree to which mind is attributed to that agent. PMID:26745500

  11. CONSUMER PREFERENCE IN TYPE OF HOUSE APPEARANCE OFFERED BY HOUSING DEVELOPER IN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alsharef Khlil Khalifah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan tajam antara bisnis properti perusahaan meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya populasi dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan rumah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis preferensi konsumen tentang penampilan rumah yang ditawarkan oleh pengembang perumahan di Semarang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini pengunjung dari pameran perumahan diselenggarakan di beberapa Mall di Semarang. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah persepsi responden tentang preferensi konsumen dalam jenis penampilan rumah dengan analisis deskriptif karena dalam analisis deskriptif akan mencerminkan pendapat sebenarnya dari responden penelitian. Berdasarkan hasil dan analisis, kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah: Jenis rumah yang konsumen paling sukai adalah tipe minimalis dan yang kedua adalah tipe Vernakular. Hal ini karena bentuk Minimalist yang ramping dan menarik di hampir setiap ruang. Tipe Minimalis juga memiliki keunikan yang sangat sederhana dan menarik juga modern. Jenis minimalis sangat populer dan harga yang lebih rendah. Sementara itu, jenis vernakular lebih hampir oleh pengusaha yang berasal dari masyarakat kelas tinggi dan mereka mengatakan jenis vernakular besar dan mewah, juga georgeous. [Title: Consumer Preference in Type of House Appearance Offered by Housing Developer in Semarang] Competition among companies property enhances along with increasing population coupled with the increasing needs of house. The purpose of this study is to analyze the consumer preference in type of house appearance offered by housing developer in Semarang. The method used in this research is qualitative methods because the qualitative methods more better in explaining the phenomena in practices. The analytical method used is depending on respondent perception about consumer preference in type of house appearance with descriptive analysis. The house type that the consumer prefer mostly is minimalist type and the second is Vernacular type. This is because the spare

  12. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda Jesus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.

  13. [The black widow spider--its appearance and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeka, Nediljko; Plenković, Jasminka

    2003-03-01

    Between 1995 and 2002, a massive appearance of black widow (Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, Rossi 1790) was recorded along the Croatia coast. This paper gives a historical review of latrodectism and observations from Istria and Dalmatia, paying particular attention to the spider's habitat. There are several reasons for the black widow to appear in a new habitat such as the introduction of leguminous plants, watermelons and melons where crops were grown earlier. Black widow can also be found near buildings and gardens. Human contacts with the spider are usually without consequences for humans, thanks to education and a relatively good visibility of the spider. The authors describe their experience in fighting black widow and emphasise the importance of education in preventing lactrodectism.

  14. Designing robots for the elderly: appearance issue and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Fassert, Christine; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the results of three focus groups organized in the framework of the ROBADOM project, aiming at designing a service type assistive robot for the elderly with mild cognitive impairment living at home. The main objective of these focus groups was to give some recommendations to engineers in charge of the design of the robot's appearance. Results showed that although many humanoid robots were criticized by most participants, some small creative humanoid robots were appreciated. However, beyond the issue of the robot appearance, many ethical and social issues were raised. These focus groups offered an opportunity for participants to discuss the very idea of an assistive robot and to challenge some implicit preconceptions of the roboticists. Finally, we discuss how assistive robots could be designed considering the social context of the elderly and how to implicate the elderly as future end-users in the design process.

  15. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Illumination conditions have an explicit effect on the performance of face recognition systems. In particular, varying the illumination upon the face imposes such, complex effects that the identification often fails to provide a stable performance level. In this paper, we propose an approach......, integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (A AM) and illumination model of faces are combined in order to obtain an illumination invariant face localization. The proposed method is an integrated...... Active Illumination and Appearance Model (AIA) which combines identity, illumination and shape components in a single model and allows us to control them, separately. One of the major advantage of the proposed AIA model is that efficient model fitting is achieved, whilst maintaining performance against...

  16. Computed tomography appearances in the linear sebaceous naevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, S.; Robinson, R.O.; Aicardi, J.; Hoare, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    The appearance of C.T. of the head in 11 cases of the linear sebaceous naevus syndrome are presented. From these it is argued that the pathology represents a disorder of neuronal migration and organisation rather than differentiation. Since three of the cases had evidence of CNS tumour in addition to two in the literature, it would appear that a further aspect of this disorder is a failure of growth constraint. This is paralleled by a similar tendency in the skin lesion which should be considered premalignant. Normal intelligence is rare in this condition and co-exists only with a normal C.T. scan. The early onset of fits is not necessarily associated with subsequent mental handicap.

  17. Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Bk Charan; Sivapathasundharam, B; Chatterji, Ananjan; Chatterji, B L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents images and histological changes in the dentin of two cases involving posmortem pink teeth. Postmortem pink teeth were noted among two deceased male individuals. Pink teeth were noted during autopsy examination after twelve days in one corpse, and eight days following death in the second case. During the examination decomposition and putrefaction of the body was noted. Cause of death was drowning in one case and haemorrhages and shock in another. A central incisor tooth was obtained from each body. Both teeth exhibited a pink appearance and the intensity was more pronounced in the cervical region. Although pink teeth can be noted in death due to asphyxia, carbon monoxide poisoning and so on, it is necessary to study the exact role behind the appearance of pink teeth and try to incorporate the finding medico legally.

  18. Can My Image Appear on APOD?: How APOD Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, Jerry T.

    2017-01-01

    The Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) makes an effort to present and annotate the best astronomical images of our time. How "best" is defined in practice is debatable and will be discussed. However, if your image appears destined to appear in future astronomy textbooks, there is a good chance it will be highlighted on APOD. Perhaps the most ambitious goal of APOD is to bolster astronomy as a globally unifying medium, highlighting that all of humanity shares the night sky. Perhaps the least ambitious goal is to find enough time to prepare a reasonably interesting and error-free APOD for tomorrow. In practice, APOD has been cited by many teachers of astronomy as making educational images easily available to bolster their lectures and give a background understandable to their students. Feedback from teachers is therefore particularly encouraged.

  19. Appearance analysis of human skin with cosmetic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Rie; Tominaga, Shoji; Hikima, Rie

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method of analyzing the appearance of cosmetic foundation applied to the human face. In particular, we focus on the "oily-shine" appearance, which is caused by sebum. A multi-band camera system with six spectral channels is used for the analysis of the oily-shine appearance. As a basic analysis, we examine the optical features of oily-shine by using two artificial skins looking like make-up skin with oily-shine and without oily-shine. We show that oily-shine can be defined as the standard dichromatic reflection model. On the basis of the above findings, we propose a method for detecting oily-shine area. This method involves (1) the extraction candidate areas, and (2) the evaluation of appearance with oily-shine. First, we capture the CIE XYZ tri-stimulus image of an original make-up face by using the multi-band camera and after a few hours later, capture the same face as a test facial image. Second, the candidate areas with oily-shine are extracted by applying the Laplacian operator to luminance Y component of the test facial image. Third, the principal component analysis is performed on the set of luminance and chromaticity (Y, x, y) of each candidate area. Light reflection of oil-shine is regarded as the specular component of the dichromatic reflection. Finally, we determine the existence of oily-shine by comparing specular clusters between the original image and the test image. The proposed method is tested in experiments with subjective assessment for various real make-up facial images.

  20. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  1. Lightness dependence of achromatic loci in color-appearance coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro eKuriki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shifts in the appearance of color under different illuminant chromaticity are known to be incomplete, and fit nicely with a simple linear transformation of cone responses that aligns the achromatic points under two illuminants. Most chromaticity-transfer functions with von-Kries-like transformations use only one set of values to fit the color shifts from one illuminant to another. However, an achromatic point shifts its chromaticity depending on the lightness of the test stimulus. This lightness dependence of the achromatic-point locus is qualitatively similar to a phenomenon known as the Helson-Judd effect. The present study suggests that the lightness dependency of achromatic points appears to be a general trend, which is supported by the results from deriving the optimal von-Kries coefficients for different lightness levels that best fit the color shifts under different illuminant chromaticities. Further, we report that such a lightness dependence of the achromatic-point loci can be represented simply as a straight line in coordinates defined using color-appearance models such as CIECAM when normalized for daylight.

  2. Appearance of the canine meninges in subtraction magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Christopher R; Lam, Richard; Keenihan, Erin K; Frean, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges. The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique. Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers. Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs. Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain. Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges.

  3. The effects of spatial pattern on color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weijie; Zhao, Dazun

    2006-01-01

    The color appearance of an image is different from that of a uniform color patch because of spatial pattern effects. We have studied how the color appearance of square wave bars varies with stimulus strength and spatial frequency. The asymmetric matching method is used in the experiments, which means the color of uniform patch is adjusted by an observer to match the color appearance of the bars in square wave patterns. The square wave patterns have relatively low spatial frequencies of 1, 2, 4 and 8 cycles per degree (c p d). The area of a square wave pattern box only spreads a 2° field to the observers which means the matching is established mainly in the fovea. We find the matches are not colorimetric matches. The experiment data are analyzed and a conclusion that the cone contrast of the uniform patch is nearly proportional to the square wave stimulus strength is obtained, which reveal the property of color- homogeneity. Therefore the matches would have the basic properties of a linear system. In the article, all analyses are based on the opponent-color system. Precision of the experiments and some reasons about the data diversity are also discussed. The final conclusion suggests that the pattern separable mode could be used to predict the matches.

  4. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in a Muon Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodríguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L J; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2013-01-01

    The T2K experiment has observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam produced 295 km from the Super-Kamiokande detector with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. A total of 28 electron neutrino events were detected with an energy distribution consistent with an appearance signal, corresponding to a significance of 7.3$\\sigma$ when compared to 4.92 $\\pm$ 0.55 expected background events. In the PMNS mixing model, the electron neutrino appearance signal depends on several parameters including three mixing angles $\\theta_{12}$, $\\theta_{23}$, $\\theta_{13}$, a mass difference $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ and a CP violating phase $\\delta_{\\mathrm{CP}}$. In this neutrino oscillation scenario, assuming $|\\Delta m^2_{32}| = 2.4 \\times 10^{-3}$ $\\rm eV^2$, $\\sin^2 \\theta_{23} = 0.5$, $\\delta_{\\mathrm{CP}}=0$, and $\\Delta m^2_{32} >0$ ($\\Delta m^2_{32} <0$), a best-fit value of $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{13}$ = $0.140^{+0.038}_{-0.032}$ ($0.170^{+0.045}_{-0.037}$) is obtained.

  5. Social perception of nursing professional assessed by different scales Percepción social de profesionales de enfermería evaluada mediante diferentes escalas Percepção social de profissionais de enfermagem avaliada por meio de diferentes escalas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to scale the social perception of nurses through the methods of magnitude estimation, category estimation and cross-modality matching (line lengths. The study participants were high school and undergraduate students, active and retired medicine, psychology, nursing and dentistry professionals. Results revealed that: (1 the characteristics neat, responsible, clean, careful and efficacious occupied the first positions in terms of nurses' social perceptions, while useless, shameful, dishonest, irresponsible and hateful occupied the last positions on all scales obtained by the different direct psychophysics methods; (2 the scale of nurses' social perception is valid, stable and consistent and (3 the rankings resulting from the three methods produce highly concordant positions of perception for the different adjectives.La finalidad de este experimento fue la de escalonar la percepción social del enfermero a través de los métodos de estimación de magnitudes y emparejamiento cruzado (a lo largo de líneas. Participaron del estudio estudiantes de 2º grado y universitarios, profesionales actuantes y jubilados de medicina, psicología, enfermería y odontología. Los resultados mostraron: (1 los trazos aseado, responsable, limpio, cuidadoso y eficaz ocupan las primeras posiciones en términos de percepción social del enfermero, mientras los trazos inútil, deshonroso, deshonesto, irresponsable y odioso ocupan las últimas posiciones en todas las escalas obtenidas por los diferentes métodos psicofísicos directos; (2 la escala de percepción social del enfermero es válida, estable y consistente y (3 las ordenaciones resultantes de los métodos producen posiciones de percepción altamente concordantes para los diferentes adjetivos.O objetivo deste experimento foi escalonar a percepção social do enfermeiro pelos métodos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias e de emparelhamento intermodal (comprimento de

  6. Social Support and the Perception of Geographical Slant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2008-09-01

    The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception.

  7. The role of saliva in aroma release and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ployon, Sarah; Morzel, Martine; Canon, Francis

    2017-07-01

    Aroma perception is an important factor driving food acceptance. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the food matrix and then reach the receptors located in the nasal cavity, leading to their perception. These steps are closely dependent on the physicochemical properties of the volatile compounds and the food matrix, but also on human physiology. Among the different physiological parameters involved, the literature reports that saliva has various effects on VOCs and therefore appears as a major actor impacting the perception of aroma. This article reviews how saliva takes part in aroma release, considering both in vitro and in vivo approaches, and how it may affect perception. It describes the direct mechanisms (molecular interactions, enzymatic conversion, salting-out effect, dilution) involving salivary components (salts, proteins including enzymes, microbiota) that can modify the release of aroma compounds. It also considers the indirect impact of saliva, such as changes of aroma diffusion through modification of the physicochemical properties of the food matrix.

  8. Aging and social perception: so far, more similarities than differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2014-09-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of social perception in everyday life, relatively little is known about how the way we see ourselves and other people changes with age. The central questions to consider are if and how the perceiver's age and the perceived person's age affect fundamental processes of social perception. The current collection of 9 articles addresses both questions. Taking Brunswik's lens model of social perception as an overarching theoretical framework, this introduction concludes on the basis of these 9 articles that age as a characteristic of the perceiver does not appear to have a strong effect on social judgments. In contrast, the age of the perceived person or group seems to affect the perceiver's social inferences, interpretation of facial stimuli, or expectations of gains and losses in various domains of functioning. Thus, the articles presented here suggest that, although age is an important social category when perceiving another person, processes of social perception demonstrate more similarities than differences between age groups.

  9. Medical students' perceptions of the educational environment at an Iranian Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Ismaeil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students' perceptions of their educational environment have a significant impact on their behavior and academic progress. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of medical students concerning their educational environment at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were distributed to 210 medical students and 182 were analyzed (response rate = 86.6%; twenty-eight questionnaires were excluded because they were incomplete or unreturned for analysis. Data were collected using a DREEM questionnaire which comprised 50 items based on the Likert scale (scores could range from 0 to 200. There were five domains to the questionnaire including students' perceptions of learning, students' perceptions of teachers, students' academic self-perceptions, students' perceptions of atmosphere and students' social self-perceptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. Results The mean age of the subjects was 21.7 years (SD = 2.7; 38.5% were male and 61.5% were female. Students' perceptions of learning, students' perceptions of teachers, students' academic self-perceptions, students' perceptions of atmosphere, students' social self-perceptions and total DREEM score were 21.2/48, 24.2/44, 15.8/32, 23.8/48, 14.5/28 and 99.6/200, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students in educational environment subscales, but there were significant differences between students enrolled on a basic sciences and pathophysiology course and those enrolled on a clinical course in terms of perceptions of learning, academic self-perceptions, perceptions of atmosphere and overall perceptions of educational environment (p Conclusion Overall, respondents assessed the educational environment as average. Therefore, improvements are required across all five domains of the educational environment.

  10. Keeping up appearances: Experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    We cooperate. To be precise: we help out others at a cost to ourselves, daily and at an astonishing scale; among family, strangers and enemies, whether we are foraging, negotiating or waging war. Why are we willing to reduce our own chances of survival and reproduction to augment those of others? Th

  11. A STUDY OF CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISUAL PERCEPTION IN SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütün Ayhan, Aynur; Aki, Esra; Mutlu, Burcu; Aral, Neriman

    2015-12-01

    Visual perception comprises established responses to visual stimuli. Conceptual development accompanies the development of visual perception skills. Both visual perception and sufficient conceptual development is vital to a child's academic skills and social participation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between conceptual development and visual perceptual skills of six-year-old children. 140 children were administered Bracken's (1998) Basic Concept Scale (BBCS-R) and the Frostig Developmental Visual Perception Test. BBCS-R scores were weakly correlated with FDVPT Discrimination of figure-ground, and had moderate and significant correlations with Constancy of the figures, Perception of position in space, Perception of spatial relation, and the Total score on visual perception. Also, a moderate correlation was found between the total scores of the FDVPT and the total score of the BBCS-R.

  12. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  13. The shifting appearance/disappearance of holographic images and the dynamic ontology of perceptual and cognitive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonnet, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The French philosopher M Merleau-Ponty captured the dynamic of perception with his idea of the intertwining of perceiver and perceived. Light is what links them. In the case of holographic images, not only is spatial and colour perception the pure product of light, but this light information is always in the process of self-construction with our eyes, according to our movements and the point of view adopted. According to the aesthetic reception of a work of art, Holographic images vary greatly from those of cinema, photography and even every kind of digital 3D animation. This particular image's status truly makes perceptually apparent the "co-emergence" of light and our gaze. But holography never misleads us with respect to the precarious nature of our perceptions. We have no illusion as to the limits of our empirical understanding of the perceived reality. Holography, like our knowledge of the visible, thus brings to light the phenomenon of reality's "co-constitution" and contributes to a dynamic ontology of perceptual and cognitive processes. The cognitivist Francico Varela defines this as the paradigm of enaction,i which I will adapt and apply to the appearance/disappearance context of holographic images to bring out their affinities on a metaphorical level.

  14. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  15. Cardiac modeling using active appearance models and morphological operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Bernhard; Hanser, Friedrich; Seger, Michael; Hintermueller, Christoph; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Fischer, Gerald; Muehlthaler, Hannes; Trieb, Thomas; Tilg, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    We present an approach for fast reconstructing of cardiac myocardium and blood masses of a patient's heart from morphological image data, acquired either MRI or CT, in order to estimate numerically the spread of electrical excitation in the patient's atria and ventricles. The approach can be divided into two main steps. During the first step the ventricular and atrial blood masses are extracted employing Active Appearance Models (AAM). The left and right ventricular blood masses are segmented automatically after providing the positions of the apex cordis and the base of the heart. Because of the complex geometry of the atria the segmentation process of the atrial blood masses requires more information as the ventricular blood mass segmentation process of the ventricles. We divided, for this reason, the left and right atrium into three divisions of appearance. This proved sufficient for the 2D AAM model to extract the target blood masses. The base of the heart, the left upper and left lower pulmonary vein from its first up to its last appearance in the image stack, and the right upper and lower pulmonary vein have to be marked. After separating the volume data into these divisions the 2D AAM search procedure extracts the blood masses which are the main input for the second and last step in the myocardium extraction pipeline. This step uses morphologically-based operations in order to extract the ventricular and atrial myocardium either directly by detecting the myocardium in the volume block or by reconstructing the myocardium using mean model information, in case the algorithm fails to detect the myocardium.

  16. An Active Illumination and Appearance (AIA) Model for Face Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, Muhittin; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition systems are typically required to work under highly varying illumination conditions. This leads to complex effects imposed on the acquired face image that pertains little to the actual identity. Consequently, illumination normalization is required to reach acceptable recognition...... rates in face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates the face identity and illumination models under the widely used Active Appearance Model framework as an extension to the texture model in order to obtain illumination-invariant face localization...

  17. Glasgow patients' attitude to doctors' dress and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, S

    1991-11-01

    Three hundred out patients were surveyed by questionnaire to determine their views of doctors' dress and appearance. The majority felt that this was important. Most patients did not mind a male doctor with an earring, a women in trousers or a man without a tie. A majority preferred their doctors to wear a white coat, be free of political badges and for men to have conventional length hair. Older patients are stricter than young patients. Most strict patients would accept more relaxed standards at night and during the weekend.

  18. Computed Tomography Appearances of Various Complications Associated with Pancreatic Pseudocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheol Kim, Hyun; Mo Yang, Dal; Jung Kim, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Dong; Tae Ko, Young; Won Lim, Joo (Dept. of Radiology, East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung-Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea))

    2008-09-15

    Most pancreatic pseudocysts are common complications of acute or chronic pancreatitis. They usually occur within the pancreas or in peripancreatic tissues, and are visualized as round or oval fluid collections with thin or thick walls on computed tomography (CT) scans. However, pancreatic pseudocysts are often combined with various complications, e.g., various organ involvements, infection, hemorrhage with pseudoaneurysm formation, rupture with fistula formation, or gastrointestinal or biliary obstruction, which may necessitate prompt intervention or surgery. This review illustrates the CT appearances of various complications associated with pancreatic pseudocysts

  19. Exploring the Implementation of Complex Appearances on Small Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Knurek, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is the exploration of how autonomous robots could develop a language to communicate visual patterns. The idea is that each robot should be able to change their visual appearance depending on what its neighbors are trying to communicate. Thus, the robots should `talk' about their patterns, trying to influence each other. For this project we used the e-Puck robot, a small mobile robot developed by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique F\\'{e}d\\'{e}rale de Lausanne)...

  20. Radiographic appearances of uncommon paediatric implants and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquia, Arlen; Watson, Tom A.; Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    As childhood survival of chronic illness improves, long-term implanted devices will be encountered more frequently in routine radiology. In our paediatric tertiary referral hospital, we have come across several types of implanted devices that were not confidently recognised or identified by front-line staff and were often only identified by discussion with the patient, family or clinical team. This pictorial review highlights the appearance of nonvascular devices on paediatric radiographs in order to help clinicians identify the most frequent complications and to improve awareness of these important devices. (orig.)

  1. Designing preclinical perceptibility measures to evaluate topical vaginal gel formulations: relating user sensory perceptions and experiences to formulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Fava, Joseph L; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G; Kojic, E Milu; Kiser, Patrick F; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product "perceptibility," the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence.

  2. The Investigation of Participation Physical Activity and Social Appearance Anxiety at The Preservice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar ALEMDAĞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and specify the relationship between the participation of candidate teachers in physical activity and social appearance anxiety according to some variables. 2324 (1483 female, 840 male students participated in this rese arch as an investigation group. “Personal Information Form”, “Variation Stages of Exercise Behaviour Questionnaire” and “Social appearance anxiety scale ” were employed for data collection. The statistical methods used in this research were descriptive sta tistics, the independent group one way ANOVA, the independent group t - Test, Chi – square test and also the correlation analysis for determining the relationship among dependent variables . At the end of the research, it became clear that the students’ parti cipation in physical activity varies depending on gender, department, and n o significant differences were found between class variable . The soscial appearance anxiety have a significant variation in all independent variables. In addition, increasing the level of participation in physical activity , concern for the social appearance anxiety is decreasing . From the results of this prospective teachers , some of the factors that may have become effective in being a qualified teacher , in terms of participation in physical activity is recommended.

  3. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  4. Stereoscopic distance perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

  5. Keeping up appearances: Experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, E.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    We cooperate. To be precise: we help out others at a cost to ourselves, daily and at an astonishing scale; among family, strangers and enemies, whether we are foraging, negotiating or waging war. Why are we willing to reduce our own chances of survival and reproduction to augment those of others? This dissertation addresses such social dilemmas using laboratory experiments. It explores how we incorporate reputational concerns, whether imaginary competition with another group makes us more sel...

  6. Social physique anxiety and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance impact on orthorexia test in fitness participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, L; Baigi, A; Marklund, B; Lindgren, E C

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates how scores on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) relate to Bratman's orthorexia test (BOT) scores with regard to age, sex, and self-reported exercise frequency and duration in a sample of Swedish participants in fitness center activities. A total of 251 participants (166 women and 85 men) completed the SPAS, the SATAQ, and a questionnaire focusing on exercise frequency and duration. The results indicated that the SATAQ subdomain internalization could itself explain the variation in BOT results. In women, the results indicated that exercise frequency, followed by SPAS score and the SATAQ subdomains internalization and awareness, could together explain the variation in BOT results. Fitness centers could make a point of emphasizing that some physical ideals are neither healthy nor realistic, thus strengthening member self-image and preventing social physique anxiety, eating disorders, and negative attitudes toward appearance.

  7. Measurement of electron neutrino appearance with the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Joshua Adam Alpern [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. By measuring the neutrino interactions in a detector near the neutrino source and again 735 km away from the production site, it is possible to probe the parameters governing neutrino oscillation. The majority of the vμ oscillate to vτ but a small fraction may oscillate instead to ve. This thesis presents a measurement of the ve appearance rate in the MINOS far detector using the first two years of exposure. Methods for constraining the far detector backgrounds using the near detector measurements is discussed and a technique for estimating the uncertainty on the background and signal selection are developed. A 1.6σ excess over the expected background rate is found providing a hint of ve appearance.

  8. The MRI appearance of cystic lesions around the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Catherine L.; McNally, Eugene G. [Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, OX3 7LD, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    This review presents a comprehensive illustrated overview of the wide variety of cystic lesions around the knee. The aetiology, clinical presentation, MRI appearances and differential diagnosis are discussed. Bursae include those related to the patella as well as pes anserine, tibial collateral ligament, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, iliotibial and fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris. The anatomical extension, imaging features and clinical significance of meniscal cysts are illustrated. Review of ganglia includes intra-articular, extra-articular, intraosseous and periosteal ganglia, highlighting imaging findings and differential diagnoses. The relationship between proximal tibiofibular joint cysts and intraneural peroneal nerve ganglia is discussed. Intraosseous cystic lesions, including insertional and degenerative cysts, as well as lesions mimicking cysts of the knee are described and illustrated. Knowledge of the location, characteristic appearance and distinguishing features of cystic masses around the knee as well as potential imaging pitfalls such as normal anatomical recesses and atypical cyst contents on MR imaging aids in allowing a specific diagnosis to be made. This will prevent unnecessary additional investigations and determine whether intra-articular surgery or conservative management is appropriate. (orig.)

  9. Spatial augmented reality for product appearance design evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ki Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality based on projection, called “Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR”, is a new technology that can produce immersive contents by overlapping virtuality and real-world environment. It has been paid attention as the next generation digital contents in media art and human–computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, we present a new methodology to evaluate the product appearance design more intuitively by means of SAR technique. The proposed method first projects the high-quality rendered image considering the optical property of materials onto the mock-up of a product. We also conduct a projector-camera calibration to compensate a color distortion according to a projector, a projection surface and environment lighting. The design evaluation methodology we propose offers more flexible and intuitive evaluation environment to a designer and user (evaluator than previous methods that are performed via a digital display. At the end of this research, we have conducted a case study for designing and evaluating appearance design of an automobile.

  10. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-07

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition.

  11. The Unique Macroscopic Appearance of Gouty Arthritis of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittl, Gregory S; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2015-07-01

    Patients with significant gouty arthritis can develop disabling joint pain secondary to monosodium urate (MSU) articular deposition. We report a case of white, chalky MSU crystal deposition covering the articular surfaces of the knee as discovered by total knee arthroplasty. A 65-year-old male with a history of gout presented with bilateral knee pain. His radiographic imaging was negative for gouty tophi, and he elected to undergo left total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperatively a distinct chalky, white paste consistent with MSU deposition was observed covering the articular surfaces of the knee consistent with the diagnosis of gouty arthritis. Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis affecting more than 3 million people in the USA. The inflammation results from the phagocytosis of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and the release of inflammatory cytokines within the joint. Gout progresses from acute to chronic over many years and frequently causes chronic arthropathy. When significant knee pain and disability is associated with gouty arthropathy, total knee arthroplasty is certainly an option. The pathological appearance of gouty joints is characteristic. Macroscopic examination of joints affected by gout reveals a nodular, white, chalky appearance. Polarized microscopy of gout demonstrates negative birefringent needle-shaped MSU crystals. In this case report, we describe the characteristic chalky, white MSU deposit that covers the articular surfaces of a knee joint in a patient with a history of gout undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The investigators have obtained the patient's informed written consent for print and electronic publication of the case report.

  12. Automatic age and gender classification using supervised appearance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, Ali Maina; Ugail, Hassan; Connah, David

    2016-11-01

    Age and gender classification are two important problems that recently gained popularity in the research community, due to their wide range of applications. Research has shown that both age and gender information are encoded in the face shape and texture, hence the active appearance model (AAM), a statistical model that captures shape and texture variations, has been one of the most widely used feature extraction techniques for the aforementioned problems. However, AAM suffers from some drawbacks, especially when used for classification. This is primarily because principal component analysis (PCA), which is at the core of the model, works in an unsupervised manner, i.e., PCA dimensionality reduction does not take into account how the predictor variables relate to the response (class labels). Rather, it explores only the underlying structure of the predictor variables, thus, it is no surprise if PCA discards valuable parts of the data that represent discriminatory features. Toward this end, we propose a supervised appearance model (sAM) that improves on AAM by replacing PCA with partial least-squares regression. This feature extraction technique is then used for the problems of age and gender classification. Our experiments show that sAM has better predictive power than the conventional AAM.

  13. The effect of fabric and stabbing variables on severance appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, E J; Carr, D J; Horsfall, I; Fergusson, S M

    2015-04-01

    During a stabbing, apparel fabrics are usually damaged and may be penetrated. Despite numerous studies considering forces required to penetrate skin and human stabbing performance, none have systematically evaluated which variables affect severance appearance from a textile science perspective using a human stabbing participant assessment. Although the human performance aspects of stabbing attacks have been previously studied, there has been a bias towards male assailants. The effects of fabric elasticity and tension applied have been identified as major factors influencing the severance profile in the fabric resulting from a stab attack. However, previous studies have considered limited fabric types with little emphasis on the physical and mechanical textile properties. The purpose of the current research was to use a human participant study (male n=5; female n=5) to determine the effect of fabric extension (0%, 10%) on the severance profile. Fabric type (single jersey; 100% cotton; 93% cotton/7% elastane), age (not laundered; laundered 60 times) and knife type (carving, bread) were also considered. Severance length was affected by participant sex, fabric type, laundering and knife type. The severances formed in this study were not significantly affected by the amount a fabric was extended when stabbed. Variability was observed in the severance appearance among participants where prior training influenced the angle of impact and knife withdrawal technique.

  14. A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2014-02-01

    Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expressions of six basic emotions. Facial dynamics can be explicitly analyzed by detecting the constituent temporal segments in Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Action Units (AUs)-onset, apex, and offset. In this paper, we present a novel approach to explicit analysis of temporal dynamics of facial actions using the dynamic appearance descriptor Local Phase Quantization from Three Orthogonal Planes (LPQ-TOP). Temporal segments are detected by combining a discriminative classifier for detecting the temporal segments on a frame-by-frame basis with Markov Models that enforce temporal consistency over the whole episode. The system is evaluated in detail over the MMI facial expression database, the UNBC-McMaster pain database, the SAL database, the GEMEP-FERA dataset in database-dependent experiments, in cross-database experiments using the Cohn-Kanade, and the SEMAINE databases. The comparison with other state-of-the-art methods shows that the proposed LPQ-TOP method outperforms the other approaches for the problem of AU temporal segment detection, and that overall AU activation detection benefits from dynamic appearance information.

  15. The Case of the Disappearing (and Re-Appearing) Particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Landau, Ariel; Elitzur, Avshalom C

    2017-04-03

    A novel prediction is derived by the Two-State-Vector-Formalism (TSVF) for a particle superposed over three boxes. Under appropriate pre- and post-selections, and with tunneling enabled between two of the boxes, it is possible to derive not only one, but three predictions for three different times within the intermediate interval. These predictions are moreover contradictory. The particle (when looked for using a projective measurement) seems to disappear from the first box where it would have been previously found with certainty, appearing instead within the third box, to which no tunneling is possible, and later re-appearing within the second. It turns out that local measurement (i.e. opening one of the boxes) fails to indicate the particle's presence, but subtler measurements performed on the two boxes together reveal the particle's nonlocal modular momentum spatially separated from its mass. Another advance of this setting is that, unlike other predictions of the TSVF that rely on weak and/or counterfactual measurements, the present one uses actual projective measurements. This outcome is then corroborated by adding weak measurements and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results strengthen the recently suggested time-symmetric Heisenberg ontology based on nonlocal deterministic operators. They can be also tested using the newly developed quantum router.

  16. Visual Appearance-Based Unmanned Vehicle Sequential Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizationis of vital importance for an unmanned vehicle to drive on the road. Most of the existing algorithms are based on laser range finders, inertial equipment, artificial landmarks, distributing sensors or global positioning system (GPS information. Currently, the problem of localization with vision information is most concerned. However, vision‐based localization techniquesare still unavailable for practical applications. In this paper, we present a vision‐based sequential probability localization method. This method uses the surface information of the roadside to locate the vehicle, especially in the situation where GPS information is unavailable. It is composed of two step, first, in a recording stage, we construct a ground truthmap with the appearance of the roadside environment. Then in an on‐line stage, we use a sequential matching approach to localize the vehicle. In the experiment, we use two independent cameras to observe the environment, one is left‐orientated and the other is right. SIFT features and Daisy features are used to represent for the visual appearance of the environment. The experiment results show that the proposed method could locate the vehicle in a complicated, large environment with high reliability.

  17. Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, D.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground.

  18. Spatial patterns in tactile perception: is there a tactile field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Patrick; Giovagnoli, Giulia

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies of tactile spatial perception focussed either on a single point of stimulation, on local patterns within a single skin region such as the fingertip, on tactile motion, or on active touch. It remains unclear whether we should speak of a tactile field, analogous to the visual field, and supporting spatial relations between stimulus locations. Here we investigate this question by studying perception of large-scale tactile spatial patterns on the hand, arm and back. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between perception of tactile patterns and the identification of subsets of those patterns. The results suggest that perception of tactile spatial patterns is based on representing the spatial relations between locations of individual stimuli. Experiment 2 investigated the spatial and temporal organising principles underlying these relations. Experiment 3 showed that tactile pattern perception makes reference to structural representations of the body, such as body parts separated by joints. Experiment 4 found that precision of pattern perception is poorer for tactile patterns that extend across the midline, compared to unilateral patterns. Overall, the results suggest that the human sense of touch involves a tactile field, analogous to the visual field. The tactile field supports computation of spatial relations between individual stimulus locations, and thus underlies tactile pattern perception.

  19. Perception of parental acceptance in women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, N L; Johnson, W B; Koch, C

    2000-01-01

    The authors contribute to the validating literature for binge eating disorder (BED) by examining perceptions of parents and satisfaction with life among obese women with and without BED. Participants were female patients, recruited through a private medical clinic, who were assigned to groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP; R. L. Spitzer et al., 1992). Groups consisted of (a) obese women with BED (n = 32), (b) obese women who had no eating disorders (n = 51), and (c) nonobese women with no eating disorders (n = 30). All participants completed the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ; R. P. Rohner, 1986), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; J. Fischer & K. Corcoran, 1994), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck & R. A. Steer, 1987). Obese women with BED perceived their fathers as more rejecting than did women in the other groups. Moreover, obese women with BED perceived their fathers as significantly more rejecting than their mothers. The BED group indicated lower satisfaction with life and higher levels of depression than the groups without eating disorders. These findings further validate the diagnostic category of BED. Obese women with BED appear to be a distinct subgroup of the obese population. The results indicate a need for further assessment of the father-daughter relationship in connection to BED and other eating disorders.

  20. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khursheed Alam

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian, with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25. Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI, Malaysian Chinese (MC and Malaysian Malay (MM were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05 but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1% were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5% short and 81 (28.3% long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts.1 Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%; 2 Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3 Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4 All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5 No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.