WorldWideScience

Sample records for appearance perception scale

  1. Multi-scale Material Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongzhi

    Modeling and rendering the appearance of materials is important for a diverse range of applications of computer graphics - from automobile design to movies and cultural heritage. The appearance of materials varies considerably at different scales, posing significant challenges due to the sheer complexity of the data, as well the need to maintain inter-scale consistency constraints. This thesis presents a series of studies around the modeling, rendering and editing of multi-scale material appearance. To efficiently render material appearance at multiple scales, we develop an object-space precomputed adaptive sampling method, which precomputes a hierarchy of view-independent points that preserve multi-level appearance. To support bi-scale material appearance design, we propose a novel reflectance filtering algorithm, which rapidly computes the large-scale appearance from small-scale details, by exploiting the low-rank structures of Bidirectional Visible Normal Distribution Functions and pre-rotated Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions in the matrix formulation of the rendering algorithm. This approach can guide the physical realization of appearance, as well as the modeling of real-world materials using very sparse measurements. Finally, we present a bi-scale-inspired high-quality general representation for material appearance described by Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our representation is at once compact, easily editable, and amenable to efficient rendering.

  2. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones.

  3. Patients' perceptions of their cosmetic appearance more than ten years after radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 47 elderly patients treated by simple radiotherapeutic techniques for basal cell carcinomas, 12 are alive and free of disease more than 10 years after treatment. They were asked to rate their perception of the current cosmetic appearance of their lesions on a scale consisting of: excellent, very good, good, mediocre, and poor. Six of the 12 rated their cosmetic appearance as excellent, three considered it very good, and three called it good. Despite undeniable objective deterioration of the cosmetic appearance of irradiated basal cell carcinomas, patients appear to be pleased with the results. (author)

  4. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  5. Renewable Energy Perception Scale: Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Yakut İpekoğlu, Hilal; İbrahim ÜÇGÜL; YAKUT, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a scale was developed in order to determine university students' perceptions of renewable energy sources. The Renewable Energy Perception scale has prepared Likert type and has involved three sub scales, Renewable Energy Knowledge, Renewable Energy Future Vision and Renewable Energy Tendency. These scales were evaluated by analyzing Exploratory Factor Analysis, Cronbach Alfa and Item Total Correlation for reliability and validity of scales. As a result of these analyses were sp...

  6. Perception of stress level, trunk appearance, body function and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. Methods The study design was comprised of three quest...

  7. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. PMID:26857376

  8. Development and Validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercruysse, Sylke; Vandewaetere, Mieke; Maertens, Marie; ter Vrugte, Judith; Wouters, Pieter; de Jong, Ton; van Oostendorp, Herre; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of perception and considerable impact of perception on the use of ICT for educational purposes, there is a surprising paucity of perception assessment instruments. The present proposal expands on this through the development and initial validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS). Based on perception literature,…

  9. Exogenous attention and color perception: performance and appearance of saturation and hue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-11-01

    Exogenous covert attention is an automatic, transient form of attention that can be triggered by sudden changes in the periphery. Here we test for the effects of attention on color perception. We used the methodology developed by Carrasco, Ling, and Read [Carrasco, M., Ling, S., & Read, S. (2004). Attention alters appearance. Nature Neuroscience, 7 (3) 308-313] to explore the effects of exogenous attention on appearance of saturation (Experiment 1) and of hue (Experiment 2). We also tested orientation discrimination performance for single stimuli defined by saturation or hue (Experiment 3). The results indicate that attention increases apparent saturation, but does not change apparent hue, notwithstanding the fact that it improves orientation discrimination for both saturation and hue stimuli.

  10. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  11. The Taiwanese Derriford Appearance Scale: The translation and validation of a scale to measure individual responses to living with problems of appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy Peter; Lawson, Victoria; Liu, Chiu Ying

    2015-09-01

    The extent of concern about physical appearance is increasingly the subject of scientific study, interventions by health professionals, and media attention. To enable carefully evaluated studies exploring the psychosocial antecedents of appearance distress, and to determine the success of interventions, the Derriford Appearance Scale 24 (DAS24) was developed. This psychometrically sound measure is well used and cited in the appearance psychology field. Outside of a Western context, the extent and impact of appearance distress is less well known. This paper describes the adaptation of the DAS24 for use in Taiwan. A formal translation protocol was followed to adapt the DAS24 into Taiwanese/Cantonese. Two hundred and eight participants from a general population and a visibly different population were recruited in Taipei, Taiwan. These participants completed a test pack administered comprising the translated DAS24, and established measures of anxiety and depression. The scale was analyzed on the basis of classical test theory. A translated DAS Scale comprising 19 items and including three clear factors was the best solution. The scale had good internal consistency, clear convergent validity, and good test-retest reliability. The three factors that emerged were appearance-related social avoidance, social distress, and negative affect. Consistent with expectations, (a) women scored higher than men (greater appearance distress), (b) the cause of appearance difference (burns, cleft lip/palate, etc.) was unrelated to appearance distress, and (c) those with visible differences were more concerned about their appearance than those without. The Taiwanese DAS19 is a user-friendly and psychometrically sound scale that fulfils an important clinical and scientific need. The items that were omitted from the translated version were considered in relation to cultural differences in the experience and expression of shame between Western countries and Taiwan/China, which demands a

  12. Perception of patient appearance following various methods of reconstruction after orbital exenteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Justin J; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Pagedar, Nitin A; Carter, Keith D; Allen, Richard C; Shriver, Erin M

    2016-08-01

    This article compares the perception of health and beauty of patients after exenteration reconstruction with free flap, eyelid-sparing, split-thickness skin graft, or with a prosthesis. Cross-sectional evaluation was performed through a survey sent to all students enrolled at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. The survey included inquiries about observer comfort, perceived patient health, difficulty of social interactions, and which patient appearance was least bothersome. Responses were scored from 0 to 4 for each method of reconstruction and an orbital prosthesis. A Friedman test was used to compare responses among each method of repair and the orbital prosthesis for each of the four questions, and if this was significant, then post-hoc pairwise comparison was performed with p values adjusted using Bonferroni's method. One hundred and thirty two students responded to the survey and 125 completed all four questions. Favorable response for all questions was highest for the orbital prosthesis and lowest for the split-thickness skin graft. Patient appearance with an orbital prosthesis had significantly higher scores compared to patient appearance with each of the other methods for all questions (p value < 0.0001). Second highest scores were for the free flap, which were higher than eyelid-sparing and significantly higher compared to split-thickness skin grafting (p value: Question 1: < 0.0001; Question 2: 0.0005; Question 3: 0.006; and Question 4: 0.019). The orbital prosthesis was the preferred post-operative appearance for the exenterated socket for each question. Free flap was the preferred appearance for reconstruction without an orbital prosthesis. Split-thickness skin graft was least preferred for all questions. PMID:27341072

  13. Development of a Scale for Measuring Physician Perception: Physician Related Health Care Perception Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Heybet1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recently increased incidence of workplace violence in health care highlights the need for investigating the causes of such changes in clinical practice settings. The focus on the changes in attitudes of patients let us wonder whether the physician perception of the patients has changed and what the current perception is. The objective was to build up a scale to measure patients’ perceptions of health care. Methods: For developing a new scale we decided eight factors to be included in the scale; respect, trust, patient-doctor relation, medical practice skills, being knowledgeable about the medicine as a job, the perceptions and reflections of doctors in media, thoughts about violence against physicians and comply to rules of hospital. 77 attitude sentences were created. The draft scale with these attitude sentences were reviewed by two psychiatrists and a family physician who have experience with scale development. According to received feedbacks, the attitude sentences were further revised. Randomly selected 93 patients, who are above 18 years of age and who are willing to participate, were included in the study. We measured sentences by 5 fold Likert scale. We analyzed data by factor and reliability methods in SPSS 13.00 for Windows and evaluated for validity. Principal Component Analysis and Varimax rotation were used. Results: We obtained a scale with 6 factors and 34 attitude sentences. Cronbachalpha value was 0.891 (corrected 0.894. Factors were; respect, trust, patientdoctor relation, being knowledgeable about the medicine as a job, thoughts about violence against physicians and comply to rules of hospital. According to Principal Component Analysis, total variance explained rate 58.8%. Conclusions: There is no scale in the literature to measure patients’ perception of health care, so this scientific scale makes a high contribution to the current literature.

  14. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical

  15. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical

  16. Appearances can be deceiving: instructor fluency increases perceptions of learning without increasing actual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Wilford, Miko M; Kornell, Nate; Mullaney, Kellie M

    2013-12-01

    The present study explored the effects of lecture fluency on students' metacognitive awareness and regulation. Participants watched one of two short videos of an instructor explaining a scientific concept. In the fluent video, the instructor stood upright, maintained eye contact, and spoke fluidly without notes. In the disfluent video, the instructor slumped, looked away, and spoke haltingly with notes. After watching the video, participants in Experiment 1 were asked to predict how much of the content they would later be able to recall, and participants in Experiment 2 were given a text-based script of the video to study. Perceived learning was significantly higher for the fluent instructor than for the disfluent instructor (Experiment 1), although study time was not significantly affected by lecture fluency (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the fluent instructor was rated significantly higher than the disfluent instructor on traditional instructor evaluation questions, such as preparedness and effectiveness. However, in both experiments, lecture fluency did not significantly affect the amount of information learned. Thus, students' perceptions of their own learning and an instructor's effectiveness appear to be based on lecture fluency and not on actual learning. PMID:23645413

  17. The Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: A factorial analysis of validity and reliability for its use on adult Chinese male weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinhong; Jin, Yahong; Zhou, Shi; Li, Xinhao; Yang, Shun-Nan; Yang, Donglin; Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Yao, Jiaxin

    2015-06-01

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is the distorted perception of men's own muscle appearance. The increasing popularity of weightlifting in Chinese men suggests the presence of MD. The study assessed the validity and reliability of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) for its use on adult Chinese males. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of responses from 225 and 592 participants confirmed the same five factors for the 17-item Chinese version as the original MASS (CFI=.931, RMSEA=.052). The internal consistency for all factors were acceptable (Cronbach's α=.636 to .737). Correlation levels of its subscales with converging measurements indicated that the revised MASS is effective in assessing MD in Chinese male weightlifters. Differences in the importance of the factors suggest an influence of Chinese culture in the symptoms of MD and the need of assessing the MASS with populations from distinct demographics in China and from different cultures. PMID:25939132

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale. Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students. The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Life Orientation Test (LOT, Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS, and Body Mass Index (BMI were used for assessment of concurrent validity. The factor structure of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, bivariate correlation coefficients, and one-sample t-test were used in SPSS software for statistical analysis. Effect sizes were also computed in comparisons between the Iranian sample and the American sample on which the scale was developed. Moreover, the reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. Results: All items had adequate psychometric qualities in item analysis. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.97 and one-dimensional. It was positively correlated with BMI and interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Furthermore, PACS-R was inversely associated with optimism and body appreciation. Cross-cultural comparisons suggested that Iranian female participants had lower scores in physical appearance comparison. Conclusion: The Persian version of the PACS-R is a reliable and valid psychometric scale and may be used in clinical and research settings.

  19. Evaluating comparative and equality judgments in contrast perception: Attention alters appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Anton-Erxleben, Katharina; Abrams, Jared; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Covert attention not only improves performance in many visual tasks but also modulates the appearance of several visual features. Studies on attention and appearance have assessed subjective appearance using a task contingent upon a comparative judgment (e.g., M. Carrasco, S. Ling, & S. Read, 2004). Recently, K. A. Schneider and M. Komlos (2008) questioned the validity of those results because they did not find a significant effect of attention on contrast appearance using an equality task. T...

  20. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Michihiro Osumi; Ryota Imai; Kozo Ueta; Satoshi Nobusako; Shu Morioka

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analg...

  1. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Moss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24 is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale. Methods. A large (n = 1,265 sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24. Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979 and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC, was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC. The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body. Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale.

  2. Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette,; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consum...

  3. Evaluating Mediated Perception of Narrative Health Messages: The Perception of Narrative Performance Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Elek, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    Narrative media health messages have proven effective in preventing adolescents’ substance use but as yet few measures exist to assess perceptions of them. Without such a measure it is difficult to evaluate the role these messages play in health promotion or to differentiate them from other message forms. In response to this need, a study was conducted to evaluate the Perception of Narrative Performance Scale that assesses perceptions of narrative health messages. A sample of 1185 fifth grade...

  4. Evaluating comparative and equality judgments in contrast perception: attention alters appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, Katharina; Abrams, Jared; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Covert attention not only improves performance in many visual tasks but also modulates the appearance of several visual features. Studies on attention and appearance have assessed subjective appearance using a task contingent upon a comparative judgment (e.g., M. Carrasco, S. Ling, & S. Read, 2004). Recently, K. A. Schneider and M. Komlos (2008) questioned the validity of those results because they did not find a significant effect of attention on contrast appearance using an equality task. They claim that such equality judgments are bias-free whereas comparative judgments are bias-prone and propose an alternative interpretation of the previous findings based on a decision bias. However, to date there is no empirical support for the superiority of the equality procedure. Here, we compare biases and sensitivity to shifts in perceived contrast of both paradigms. We measured contrast appearance using both a comparative and an equality judgment. Observers judged the contrasts of two simultaneously presented stimuli, while either the contrast of one stimulus was physically incremented (Experiments 1 and 2) or exogenous attention was drawn to it (Experiments 3 and 4). We demonstrate several methodological limitations of the equality paradigm. Nevertheless, both paradigms capture shifts in PSE due to physical and perceived changes in contrast and show that attention enhances apparent contrast. PMID:20884501

  5. Dependence of the appearance-based perception of criminality, suggestibility, and trustworthiness on the level of pixelation of facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmoja, Merle; Eamets, Triin; Härma, Hanne-Loore; Bachmann, Talis

    2012-10-01

    While the dependence of face identification on the level of pixelation-transform of the images of faces has been well studied, similar research on face-based trait perception is underdeveloped. Because depiction formats used for hiding individual identity in visual media and evidential material recorded by surveillance cameras often consist of pixelized images, knowing the effects of pixelation on person perception has practical relevance. Here, the results of two experiments are presented showing the effect of facial image pixelation on the perception of criminality, trustworthiness, and suggestibility. It appears that individuals (N = 46, M age = 21.5 yr., SD = 3.1 for criminality ratings; N = 94, M age = 27.4 yr., SD = 10.1 for other ratings) have the ability to discriminate between facial cues ndicative of these perceived traits from the coarse level of image pixelation (10-12 pixels per face horizontally) and that the discriminability increases with a decrease in the coarseness of pixelation. Perceived criminality and trustworthiness appear to be better carried by the pixelized images than perceived suggestibility.

  6. Effects of reading health and appearance exercise magazine articles on perceptions of attractiveness and reasons for exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Pankratow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of reading exercise-related magazine articles (health, appearance, or control and the moderating effects of exercise self-identity on reasons for exercise and perceptions of attractiveness, among women in first year university. An additional purpose was to use a thought listing technique, the results of which were examined for evidence of internalization of the exercise-related messages. PARTICIPANTS: Female students in their first year of studies between September 2010 and April 2011 (N = 173; mean age = 19.31 years, mean body mass index = 22.01. METHODS: Participants read a health, appearance, or control article, listed thoughts, and completed questionnaires measuring reasons for exercising, physical self-perception, and exercise self-identity. RESULTS: Participants in the health condition rated exercise for health significantly higher than control condition participants. Participants with high exercise self-identity rated attractiveness as a reason for exercising significantly higher than low exercise self-identity participants in both the health and appearance conditions. Participants with higher internalization scores (i.e., accepted societal norms of appearance reported exercising for attractiveness reasons more so than participants with lower internalization scores. CONCLUSIONS: The good news is that health messages may be influential and result in wanting to exercise for health purposes. However, exercising for attractiveness was rated highly by participants with high exercise identity who read either the health or appearance articles. Health and appearance are not necessarily distinct concepts for female undergraduate students and the media may influence cited reasons for exercise.

  7. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  8. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  9. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an “injured rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a “hairy rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a “twisted rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a “normal rubber hand” as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001). The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001). We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity. PMID:25210738

  10. Body image and appearance perceptions from immigrant adolescents in Canada: An interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Jack, Susan M; Couturier, Jennifer; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including eating disorders. However, very few studies have investigated body dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents. Using inductive qualitative inquiry, this study recruited a purposeful sample of immigrant adolescents (N=18, 78% female) with an eating disorder (n=8) and without an eating disorder (n=10). All adolescents were between 16 and 19 years of age (M=16.80, SD=0.89) and were recruited from three municipalities in Ontario. Each adolescent participated in a face-to-face, qualitative interview. Content analysis revealed descriptions of body image that were similar across the sample. The main themes emerging from this work include (a) the "moderately slim" and "moderately muscular" ideal, (b) the "slim and curvy paradox," (c) "ideal" privilege, (d) having an "expected" appearance, and (e) wishful comparisons. Findings have implications for reducing appearance-related dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents in Canada. PMID:26363357

  11. The First Appearance of Symmetry in the Human Lineage: Where Perception Meets Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although symmetry may be important for understanding the selection of form in art over the historical period, this preference may have originally stemmed from certain basic perceptual mechanism that initially arose during prehistory. The first signs of an awareness to symmetry can be found in the archaeological record with the arrival of Acheulean handaxes, especially those dating from 500,000 years ago onwards, which are typified by a prodigious bilateral symmetry. As handaxes represent the earliest material record of an interest in symmetry by the human lineage, they provide a privileged means of understanding why this kind of form came to be valued by later human groups, particularly in relation to “art”. Although still controversial, the preference for symmetry at such an early date has been linked to various aspects of perception relating to enduring evolutionary factors. In this regard, it will be demonstrated how the preference for symmetrical Acheulean tools arose out of long standing perceptual correlates relating to ecological factors that predated the arrival of hominins.

  12. Creation of the physical appearance and the body image rating scale for the Czech context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Šrámková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem and methods: Physical appearance is one of the key components of selfperception from early childhood. An individual’s perceived physical attractiveness is largely conditioned by geographical, cultural and historical factors. Every culture develops its own criteria of attractiveness and any deviations to those are often a cause of ostracism, for example through exclusion or rejection. Still, there are certain universal principles of attractiveness (e.g. a higher waist-hip ratio, facial symmetry, sexually dimorphic features, which exist across cultures and time periods with little variation. To measure a person’s level of satisfaction with his/her physical appearance, psychologists regularly employ figure rating scales. The primary goal of our work was to develop and verify an updated visual body rating scale called the Basic Olomouc Body Rating (BOBR, making sure that it is widely usable, valid and reliable. The scale was created using the method of document analysis of academic papers according body-rating scales and a method of interview with potential probands. In the pilot data gathering phase, a group of respondents was presented with the 3 scales commonly used in the European context, i.e. FDS (Stunkard, Sorensen & Schulsinger, 1983, CDRS (Thompson & Gray, 1995 and BIAS-BD (Gardner, Jappe & Gardner, 2009. The purpose of this was to get feedback on these scales and find out if people are able to use these scales to rate themselves. New schematic figure rating scale for both men and women which would do away with the limitations of the scales used so far was developed. Results: The result is creation of a body-rating scale widely usable in further research and practical consulting. The paper briefly summarizes results of an additional study – the goal definition phase was followed by online research on the subject of body image and the self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Altogether, 5,616 respondents from the Czech Republic

  13. Persistent self-consciousness about facial appearance, measured with the Derriford appearance scale 59, in patients after long-term biochemical remission of acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Wagenmakers, M.A.E.M.; Wessels, J.F.; Sterenborg, R.B.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Netea-Maier, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acromegaly is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL) and causes anatomical disproportions, which may contribute to the decreased QoL after successful treatment. The Derriford appearance scale 59 (DAS59) is a questionnaire measuring psychological distress and disruptions to everyday

  14. Psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Irish and British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Travis A; Morrison, Todd G

    2010-06-01

    The psychometric soundness of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS; Mayville, Williamson, White, Netemeyer, & Drab, 2002), a measure of muscle dysmorphia symptoms, was investigated using two independent online samples of Irish and British men (ns=307 and 306, respectively). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that, compared to the original 5-component solution for the 19-item MASS, a 6-item unidimensional version offered better fit to the data. Findings further upheld the internal consistency reliability, construct validity (e.g., via its associations with internalization of the muscular ideal and physical appearance comparisons), and discriminant validity (e.g., via its nonsignificant relationship with social desirability) of the MASS's scores. The limitations associated with the current research are discussed and directions for future research are articulated. PMID:20378436

  15. Reliability and Validity Analysis of the Multiple Intelligence Perception Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Rustu; Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2010-01-01

    This study mainly aims to develop a scale to determine individual intelligence profiles based on self-perceptions. The study group consists of 925 students studying in various departments of the Faculty of Education at Ahi Evran University. A logical and statistical approach was adopted in scale development. Expert opinion was obtained for the…

  16. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Hungarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, Bernadett; Urbán, Róbert; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Limited studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a measure of muscle dysmorphia, in different cultures and languages. The aims were to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the MASS (MASS-HU), and to investigate its relationship with self-esteem and exercise-related variables. Two independent samples of male weight lifters (ns=289 and 43), and a sample of undergraduates (n=240) completed the MASS, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the MASS only in the weight lifter sample. The MASS-HU had excellent scale score reliability and good test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the MASS-HU was tested with multivariate regression analyses which indicated an inverse relationship between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. The 18-item MASS-HU was found to be a useful measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia among male weight lifters. PMID:21962394

  17. Development of the Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS): perception of delivery and the first postpartum week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijens, Sophie E M; Wijnen, Hennie A; Pommer, Antoinette M; Oei, S Guid; Pop, Victor J M

    2014-10-01

    Some caregivers suggest a more positive experience of childbirth when giving birth at home. Since properly developed instruments that assess women's perception of delivery and the early postpartum are missing, the aim of the current study is to develop a Childbirth Perception Scale (CPS). Three focus groups with caregivers, pregnant women, and women who recently gave birth were conducted. Psychometric properties of 23 candidate items derived from the interviews were tested with explorative factor analysis (EFA) (N = 495). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed in another sample of women (N = 483) and confirmed a 12-item CPS. The EFA in sample I suggested a two-component solution: a subscale 'perception of delivery' (six items) and a subscale 'perception of the first postpartum week' (six items). The CFA in sample II confirmed an adequate model fit and a good internal consistency (α = .82). Multivariate linear regression showed a positive effect of home delivery on perception of delivery in multiparous but not in primiparous women. The 12-item CPS with two dimensions (perception of delivery and perception of first postpartum week) has adequate psychometric properties. In multiparous women, home delivery showed to be independently related to more positive perception of delivery.

  18. Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E; Mack, Diane E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride for use in body and appearance contexts. In Study 1, 41 potential items were developed and assessed for item quality and comprehension. In Study 2, a panel of experts (N=8; M=11, SD=6.5 years of experience) reviewed the scale and items for evidence of content validity. Participants in Study 3 (n=135 males, n=300 females) completed the BASES and various body image, personality, and emotion scales. A separate sample (n=155; 35.5% male) in Study 3 completed the BASES twice using a two-week time interval. The BASES subscale scores demonstrated evidence for internal consistency, item-total correlations, concurrent, convergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, and 2-week test-retest reliability. The 4-factor solution was a good fit in confirmatory factor analysis, reflecting body-related shame, guilt, authentic and hubristic pride subscales of the BASES. The development and validation of the BASES may help advance body image and self-conscious emotion research by providing a foundation to examine the unique antecedents and outcomes of these specific emotional experiences.

  19. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  20. Measuring and Validating a General Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale: An Adaptation of the Revised-IPQ-Genetic Predisposition Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wing Tak Lam

    Full Text Available Illness perceptions are linked to individual help-seeking and preventive behaviors. Previous illness perception studies have identified five dimensions of illness-related experience and behaviour. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R for genetic predisposition (IPQ-R-GP was developed to measure illness perceptions in those genetically-predisposed to blood disease. We adapted the IPQ-R-GP to measure perceptions of generalized cancer predisposition. This paper describes the development and validation of the Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale (CPPS.The draft CPPS scale was first administered to 167 well Hepatitis B carriers and 123 other healthy individuals and the factor structure was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Then the factor structure was confirmed in a second sample comprising 148 healthy controls, 150 smokers and 152 passive smokers using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA.Six-factors comprising 26 items provided optimal fit by eigen and scree-plot methods, accounting for 58.9% of the total variance. CFA indicated good fit of the six-factor model after further excluding three items. The six factors, Emotional representation (5 items, Illness coherence (4 items, Treatment control (3 items, Consequences (5 items, Internal locus of control (2 items and External locus of control (4 items demonstrated adequate-to-good subscale internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.63-0.90. Divergent validity was suggested by low correlations with optimism, self-efficacy, and scales for measuring physical and psychological health symptoms.The CPPS appears to be a valid measure of perceived predisposition to generic cancer risks and can be used to examine cancer-risk-related cognitions in individuals at higher and lower cancer risk.

  1. Self-Perceptions of Sexual Attractiveness: Satisfaction With Physical Appearance is Not of Primary Importance Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita P

    2016-01-01

    Research on self-perceived sexual attractiveness has predominantly focused on the importance of physical appearance, overlooking nonphysical traits that may contribute to these self-perceptions. The present study examined and compared the importance of a variety of traits for self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Self-identified heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men (N = 1,801) and heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women (N = 1,092) completed an online questionnaire examining self-perceived sexual attractiveness, body esteem, sexual esteem, adherence to gender norms, and sexual experience. Body esteem and sexual esteem were significant predictors of self-perceived sexual attractiveness, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Adhering to a masculine gender norm was a significant predictor among all groups (to varying extents) but heterosexual women. Adhering to a feminine gender norm was a significant predictor among heterosexual men and bisexual women. Finally, sexual experience was a significant predictor for all men and bisexual women. Furthermore, while body esteem was a predictor across all groups, for most individuals it did not appear to be of primary importance, with either sexual esteem or masculinity proving to be of greater importance. These findings suggest the need to consider traits related to both physical and nonphysical factors for improving an individual's self-perceived sexual attractiveness. PMID:26132883

  2. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  3. Geographic literacy perception scale (GLPS validity and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Dikmenli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic literacy could be defined as the competence of turning understanding and comprehension of geographical knowledge into a skill because literacy consists of solving problems, reasoning, critical and creative thinking processes. Today, in order to impart literacy skills to individuals, teachers should first have these skills. It is important that teacher candidates should attain these skills before graduation. When these conditions are established, it will be easier for teacher candidates to be aware of their geographic literacy skills, bring these competences to a conscious level and contribute to students’ geographic literacy skills and processes in their professional lives. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude scale in order to specify teacher candidates’ geographic literacy perception levels. The study group of the research consisted of 473 teacher candidates. In order to detect the validity of the scale, exploratory factor analyses, item factor total correlations and item discriminations were conducted. In order to assess the reliability of the scale, the level of internal consistency and stability levels were calculated. The analyses provided evidence that the Geographic Literacy Perception Scale (GLPS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in order to determine geographic literacy levels

  4. Appearance ratio of earthquake surface rupture - About scaling low for Japanese Intraplate Earthquakes -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, N.; Inoue, N.; Irikura, K.

    2013-12-01

    A study on appearance ratio of the surface rupture is considered on using historical earthquake (ex. Takemura, 1998), also Kagawa et al (2004) evaluated the probability based on a numerical simulation of surface displacements. The estimated appearance indicates a sigmoid curve and rise sharply between Mj (Japan Meteorological Agency magnitude) =6.5 and Mj=7.2. However, these historical earthquake record between Mj = 6.5 to 7.2 are very law, therefore some scientist consider that the appearance ratio might be jumped up discontinuity between Mj = 6.5 to 7.2. In this study, we used historical intraplate earthquakes that were occurred around Japan from 1981 Nobi to 2013. Especially, after Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake, many earthquakes around Mj 6.5 to 7.2 were occurred. The result of this study indicate that the appearance ratio increase between Mj = 6.5 to 7.2 not discontinuity but like logistic curve. Youngs et al. (2003), Petersen et al. (2011) and Moss and Ross (2011) are discussed about appearance ratio of the surface rupture using historical earthquake in the world. Their discussion are based on Mw, therefore, we cannot compare each other because we used Mj. Takemura (1990) were proposed a conversion equation that is Mw = 0.78Mj+1.08. However, nowadays Central Disaster Prevention Council in Japan (2005) derive a conversion equation that is Mw = 0.879Mj+0.536 shown in a regression line demanded by a principal component analysis The result of this study, the appearance ratio increase sharply between Mw = 6.3 to 7.0.

  5. Creation of the physical appearance and the body image rating scale for the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Šrámková; Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Problem and methods: Physical appearance is one of the key components of selfperception from early childhood. An individual’s perceived physical attractiveness is largely conditioned by geographical, cultural and historical factors. Every culture develops its own criteria of attractiveness and any deviations to those are often a cause of ostracism, for example through exclusion or rejection. Still, there are certain universal principles of attractiveness (e.g. a higher waist-hip ratio, facial...

  6. Perception of Environmental Risk Factors Scale for the primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Özabacı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to determine the effect of perception of environmental risk factors on primary school students. The participants of this study were 409 students of both low and high socio-economic level from 2 primary schools in Gaziantep. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used for scale development study. As a result of the analysis, it has been determined that the scale has a structure composed of six subscales and 55 items. Subscales of the scale are; perceptions of in school experience, perceptions of oneself, perceptions of family attitudes, perceptions of family interactions, perceptions of problems within the family, perceptions of the nearest living area. Cronbach Alpha for the scale was found to be .85.

  7. Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

  8. Development and Validation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale: Assessing Body Image among Burn-Injured Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John W.; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Roca, Robert; Munster, Andrew; Spence, Robert; Fauerbach, James A.

    1998-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) was administered to 165 burn victims. SWAP showed a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, r(a)=0.87); an 84-subject retest measured reliability (r(tt)=0.59). SWAP is both a reliable and valid measure of body image for a burn-injured population. (Author/MAK)

  9. Large-scale appearance of ultraconserved elements in tetrapod genomes and slowdown of the molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Stuart; Pheasant, Michael; Makunin, Igor V; Mattick, John S

    2008-02-01

    Mammalian genomes contain millions of highly conserved noncoding sequences, many of which are regulatory. The most extreme examples are the 481 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) that are identical over at least 200 bp in human, mouse, and rat and show 96% identity with chicken, which diverged approximately 310 MYA. If the substitution rate in UCEs remained constant, these elements should also be present with a high level of identity in fish (approximately 450 Myr), but this is not the case, suggesting that many appeared in the amniotes or tetrapods or that the molecular clock has slowed down in these lineages, or both. Taking advantage of the availability of multiple genomes, we identified 13,736 UCEs in the human genome that are identical over at least 100 bp in at least 3 of 5 placental mammals, including 2,189 sequences over at least 200 bp, thereby greatly expanding the repertoire of known UCEs, and investigated the evolution of these sequences in opossum, chicken, frog, and fish. We conclude that there was a massive genome-wide acquisition and expansion of UCEs during tetrapod and then amniote evolution, accompanied by a slowdown of the molecular clock, particularly in the amniotes, a process consistent with their functional exaptation in these lineages. The majority of tetrapod-specific UCEs are noncoding and associated with genes involved in regulation of transcription and development. In contrast, fish genomes contain relatively few UCEs, the majority of which are common to all bony vertebrates. These elements are different from other conserved noncoding elements and appear to be important regulatory innovations that became fixed following the emergence of vertebrates from the sea to the land.

  10. The role of spatial scale and the perception of large-scale species-richness patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    scale effects (extent and grain size) can influence our perception of patterns and processes. For example, a hump-shaped altitudinal species-richness pattern is the most typical (c. 50%), with a monotonic decreasing pattern (c. 25%) also frequently reported, but the relative distribution of patterns......Despite two centuries of exploration, our understanding of factors determining the distribution of life on Earth is in many ways still in its infancy. Much of the disagreement about governing processes of variation in species richness may be the result of differences in our perception of species......-richness patterns. Until recently, most studies of large-scale species-richness patterns assumed implicitly that patterns and mechanisms were scale invariant. Illustrated with examples and a quantitative analysis of published data on altitudinal gradients of species richness (n = 204), this review discusses how...

  11. Development and validation of the Game Perceptions Scale (GPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandercruysse, S.; Vandewaetere, M.; Maertens, M.; Vrugte, ter J.; Wouters, P.; Jong, de A.J.M.; Oostendorp, van H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of perception and considerable impact of perception on the use of ICT for educational purposes, there is a surprising paucity of perception assessment instruments. The present proposal expands on this through the development and initial validation of the Game Perception Sca

  12. VARIETY OF GRAY-SCALE SONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF UNTREATED LIVER METASTASES ALI HADIDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI HADIDI

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Encountered wit h b izarre patterns o f l i v e r metas t a s es dec l i ned our accuracy rate s o the humi liation o f mist ake s motivated me to re-assess t he value o f hepatic sonography in patients s u spe c t ed o f having metastatic l i ver neoplasms . 43 pat ients , who had no t recieved any prior the r a phy , had been studied by gray-scale ult r a s ound . The echographic evidence i n accordance with o ur e x p e r ~ e n ce can be categorized as fo l l ows : I l a rge echo g enic or ~c ho poor area , II d iscrete masse s wi t.h high-level e c hoes spreaded t hroughout a lobe o f the l i ve r , III e cho f ree mass with i r regular mar q i.n , r .J d i f f use a lterat ion of the homogeneous e cho pattern of t he liver , V Bull ' s - eye ,VI abscess like,VII sol id echogenic mass vei th a centra l hyperechoic hor izontal l i ne , VIII echogenic mass ".;i t;l two l a t eral hypo e choic marg i n s, rX isodense e chog eni c a r ea bounded by an hypoechoic c i r c l e . The f e at u r e s seen i n l iver ultra sonography of t he entire pat t e r ns , a nd those s e en as new c r i teria are presented ~

  13. Validation of a Spanish version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: escala de satisfacción muscular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martí, Irene; Bustos, Juan Gregorio Fernández; Jordán, Onofre Ricardo Contreras; Mayville, Stephen B

    2012-09-01

    The psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS; Mayville, Williamson, White, Netemeyer, & Drab, 2002) were examined using a sample of five hundred and sixty-one male weightlifters. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the 19-item Spanish version of the MASS called the Escala de Satisfacción Muscular (ESM), was represented by five subscales similar to the original MASS. Internal consistency of the measure was good (α = .86-.95), and various measures of construct validity indicated that the ESM may be a useful measure of Muscle Dysmorphia symptoms among Spanish speaking populations. PMID:22682995

  14. Validation of a Spanish version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: escala de satisfacción muscular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martí, Irene; Bustos, Juan Gregorio Fernández; Jordán, Onofre Ricardo Contreras; Mayville, Stephen B

    2012-09-01

    The psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS; Mayville, Williamson, White, Netemeyer, & Drab, 2002) were examined using a sample of five hundred and sixty-one male weightlifters. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the 19-item Spanish version of the MASS called the Escala de Satisfacción Muscular (ESM), was represented by five subscales similar to the original MASS. Internal consistency of the measure was good (α = .86-.95), and various measures of construct validity indicated that the ESM may be a useful measure of Muscle Dysmorphia symptoms among Spanish speaking populations.

  15. Developing a Scale of Perception of Sexual Abuse in Youth Sports (SPSAYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…

  16. Developing a Scale to Measure Reader Self-Perception for EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunyarittigun, Dumrong

    2015-01-01

    The development of a scale for measuring self-perception for readers of English as a foreign language is discussed in this paper. The scale was developed from the four dimensions of self-efficacy theory proposed by Bandura (1977a): progress, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states. A 36 item scale was developed to…

  17. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…

  18. Development and psychometric evaluation of the FACE-Q satisfaction with appearance scale: a new patient-reported outcome instrument for facial aesthetics patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie M; Cano, Stefan J

    2013-04-01

    Satisfaction with appearance and improved quality of life are key outcomes for patients undergoing facial aesthetic procedures. The FACE-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument encompassing a suite of independently functioning scales designed to measure a range of important outcomes for facial aesthetics patients. FACE-Q scales were developed with strict adherence to international guidelines for PRO instrument development. This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the core FACE-Q scale, the Satisfaction with Facial Appearance scale. Both modern and traditional psychometric methods were used to confirm that this new 10-item scale is a reliable, valid, and responsive measure.

  19. Developing a Scale for Perceptions of Competency in Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasci, Guntay; Atar, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for determining pre-service teachers' perceptions of competency in providing quality teaching. The initial phase of the instrument was consisted of 54 items that were composed based on theory and literature. The initial form was applied to 232 pre-service teachers. An exploratory…

  20. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration percep

  1. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  2. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  3. Development of scales to assess patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rukhsana; Bates, Benjamin R

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development of scales to measure patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions and thus contributes to promoting awareness of physician-patient intercultural interaction processes. Surveys were administrated to a total of 682 participants. Exploratory factor analyses were employed to assess emergent scales and subscales to develop reliable instruments. The first two phases were devoted to formative research and pilot study. The third phase was devoted to scale development, which resulted in a five-factor solution to measure patient perception of physicians' cultural competence for patient satisfaction. PMID:22477717

  4. Development of scales to assess patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rukhsana; Bates, Benjamin R

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development of scales to measure patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions and thus contributes to promoting awareness of physician-patient intercultural interaction processes. Surveys were administrated to a total of 682 participants. Exploratory factor analyses were employed to assess emergent scales and subscales to develop reliable instruments. The first two phases were devoted to formative research and pilot study. The third phase was devoted to scale development, which resulted in a five-factor solution to measure patient perception of physicians' cultural competence for patient satisfaction.

  5. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of The Classroom Assessment Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Alkharusi

    2011-01-01

    Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study reports on the development and datametric properties of a scale measuring students' perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. A total of ...

  6. Examining perceptions of academic stress and its sources among university students: The Perception of Academic Stress Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Bedewy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts (n = 12 participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to (n = 100 students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach’s alpha, there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete.

  7. Presentation of Three Types of The Scale of Self-Perception for Preschool Children (LSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the established methods of measuring child's self-perception. She points out that in creating the instruments for measuring self-perception of younger children, it is necessary to take into account some of their developmental psychological characteristics, such as short attention-span, inconsistency in their answers, tendency to give socially acceptable answers, etc. The author presents the Scale of Self-Perception for Preschool Children (slov.: LSPO which she developed on the basis of her own findings and on the basis of the experience of other authors developing psychological instruments of this type. The scale was tested in a research which involved 214 children attending kindergarten. They were 4 to 5 years old. The article describes the sub-scales of LSPO and their psychometric characteristics and presents descriptive data of the children's self-estimates, their motivation for solving the scale and their understanding of the items, as well as the correspondence between the self-evaluation of the children and the evaluation of the children's self-perception conveyed by the mothers and teachers. The results are presented separately with respect to the three types of LSPO implementation (verbally, with puppets and with drawings. It was established that the psychometric characteristics of the scale are adequate, however, in further research the implementation with drawings or puppets is recommended.

  8. Analysis of haptic perception of materials by multidimensional scaling andphysical measurements of roughness and compressibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, results of a free sorting task of 124 different material samples are analysed using multidimensional scaling. The relevant number of dimensions for haptic perception of materials is estimated to be 4. In addition, the haptic material space is calibrated by means of physical measuremen

  9. Development of Teachers’ Ethical Values Scale According to Student Perception: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel GÜNDÜZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that measure teachers’ ethical values according to students perceptions. The sampling of the research consisted of 617 students attending the elemantary schools 4, 5, 6 and 7th grades in the city of Artvin Center county in academic year of 2010-2011. In order to determine structural validity of scale, explanatory factor analysis procedure is applied by Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Also, in order to determine criteria validity of Teachers’ Ethical Values Scale According to Student Perception, Adjective Check List (ACL test is applied. For calculation of scale reliability Cronbach-alpha internal coherence coefficient and test-retest calculations were made. After the explanatory and corroborant factor analysis, the scale consisted of 30 items and two dimentions. Internal coherence coefficient of the scale is .95 and test-retest correlation coefficient is .88. These values could be considered as an indication that this scale can perform a valid and reliable measurement of teachers’ ethical values.

  10. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  11. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key Points Measurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES. The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocity Regular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads PMID:25177180

  12. Validation of Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS in the Portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José de Sousa Franco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since when midwives are prominent in different socio-cultural contexts of individuals and populations associated with the control of women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum? In Portugal, the level of training of nurses in breastfeeding and obstetric has evolved, is considered the most advanced in the European context, and this would have posed new challenges for these professionals. Methodology: focusing on what the perception of empowerment that have specialized nurses in midwifery and maternal health in Portugal, it was decided to conduct this study, entitled "Validation of the Portuguese population scale - Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS" . We responded to the research question, what are the levels of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal? Objective: To determine the level of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal. In this study we used the quantitative method and descriptive. To accomplish this we proceeded to the implementation of a data collection instrument organized into two distinct parts. The first part allowed us to collect sociodemographic data and professional reviewers. In the second use "Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale" (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, measuring tool we had to validate cross-culturally. The study presented here took samples of 309 Portuguese health nurses maternal obstetrical nurse specialists. Results: 'Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS' (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, presents a framework pentafatorial (effective management and interdisciplinary relationships, sustained and autonomous practice, professional communication and consent, recognition health team, training and education, which together account for 72.9% of the variance of the results. On average, nurses in maternal health nursing and midwifery have a low level of empowerment, the lowest level

  13. Impact of coated windows on visual perception:A pilot study in scale models

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    2003-01-01

    There is at present an architectural trend promoting the use of large glass facades in commercial and office buildings. These facades generate a large cooling and heating demand creating the need for combined solar-protective and low-emissitivity coated windows. This report describes the results of a pilot study that investigated the impact of six coated glazings on daylight conditions in scale models. The study focused primarily on visual perception. Generally, the pilot study indicated that...

  14. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  15. Psychometric analysis of a perception scale on the usefulness of Moodle in the University.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos-Migueláñez, S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acquired relevance of learning management systems in higher education, and the spread of the use of the Moodle platform in many academic institutions, a scale of perceived usefulness of the Moodle in this context is designed, and the psychometric validity of the scale has been tested. The aim is to provide a reliable and valid instrument to measure the students’ perception about the usefulness of Moodle. The study obtained a sample of 754 subjects from the population of university students in fields of Educational Sciences. The results show that the scale evaluates the utility of the platform adequately in five dimensions: content, activities, assessment, interaction and learning. Finally, a discussion is developed about the usefulness of the scale to evaluate the usefulness of Moodle and to implement processes to improve its use in higher education institutions.

  16. A longitudinal study of 340 young people with or without a visible difference: The impact of teasing on self-perceptions of appearance and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2016-03-01

    Previous research in both the general population and in those with a visible facial difference has identified potential associations between teasing, dissatisfaction with appearance and emotional distress. However, most studies are based on cross-sectional and retrospective methodology, restricting the interpretation of findings. The present study explored the longitudinal impact of perceived teasing on satisfaction with appearance and depressive symptoms in young people with and without a visible congenital condition. Routine psychological assessments were conducted at ages 10 and 16 years (N=340). Experiences of teasing after the age of 10 significantly impacted on appearance evaluations and depressive symptoms in adolescent females. The impact of teasing on adolescent males was possibly counteracted by reports of more positive social experiences. Early identification of perceived teasing in all children to prevent the development of emotional problems and dissatisfaction with appearance is of vital importance. PMID:26828822

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES and to perform a cross-cultural validity assessment. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, 554 inpatients in three general hospitals in northern Taiwan were recruited. Principal component analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the measurement model of the Chinese version of the PPES. Results. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the presence of a second-order four-factor model (information, decision, individual, and self-management of the Chinese version of the PPES when used with a Taiwanese inpatient population. The results indicate that the 11-item, second-order, four-factor Chinese version of the PPES provided best goodness-of-fit for the data in this study. Conclusion. The 11-item four-factor Chinese version of the PPES is a self-completion scale. This study demonstrated that the Chinese version of the PPES is a reliable and valid self-report instrument for the assessment of patient perceptions of empowerment in clinical practice. Further adaptation and evaluation of the scale will hopefully stimulate further studies on PPES in the fields of psychometrics in Taiwan.

  18. Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

    2014-01-01

    Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

  19. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  20. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  1. Measuring client perceptions of motivational interviewing: factor analysis of the Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Michael B; Mohn, Richard S; Zuckoff, Allan; Schumacher, Julie A; Kogan, Jane; Hutchison, Shari; Magee, Emily; Stein, Bradley

    2013-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an intervention approach that has solid evidence of efficacy with substance use disorders. Research and training have benefitted from the development of observational measures to assess MI fidelity and competence. However, one untapped area of assessment is the client perception of the clinician use of MI. Client perceptions of MI have been found through qualitative interviews to relate to motivation to change, view of the therapist and safety of therapy. The Client Evaluation of MI (CEMI) scale was developed to assess client perception of clinician MI use. This study further evaluated the CEMI through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 500 individuals with dual diagnosis pre-discharge from an inpatient unit. Participants completed an MI based session prior to completing CEMIs. A two factor (relational and technical) model explained 51.1% of the cumulative variance and was supported through confirmatory factor analysis. Suggestions for revisions are provided as well as potential uses of the CEMI and future directions for research. PMID:22999814

  2. Validation of a Spanish language version of the pain self-perception scale in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pain Self-Perception Scale (PSPS is a 24-item questionnaire used to assess mental defeat in chronic pain patients. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish language version of the PSPS (PSPS-Spanish, to assess the instrument's psychometric properties in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia and to confirm a possible overlapping between mental defeat and pain catastrophizing. Methods The PSPS was translated into Spanish by three bilingual content and linguistic experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered, along with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Results PSPS-Spanish was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90 and the item-total r correlation coefficients ranged between 0.68 and 0.86. Principal components analysis revealed a one-factor structure which explained 61.4% of the variance. The test-retest correlation assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient, over a 1-2 weeks interval, was 0.78. The total PSPS score was significantly correlated with all the questionnaires assessed (HADS, PVAS, PCS, and FIQ. Conclusions The Spanish version of the PSPS appears to be a valid tool in assessing mental defeat in patients with fibromyalgia. In patients with fibromyalgia and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, PSPS-Spanish correlates more intensely with FIQ than in patients without PTSD. Mental defeat seems to be a psychological construct different to pain catastrophizing.

  3. A note of caution with respect to the Low Back Pain Perception Scale in primary care physiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive validity of the Low Back Pain Perception Scale is determined in two studies in general practice and showed sufficient discriminative ability, although the psychometric properties of the scale have never been established until now. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability an

  4. A note of caution with respect to the Low Back Pain Perception Scale in primary care physiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallegraeff, J.M.; Greef, M.H.G. de; Krijnen, W.; Schans, C. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive validity of the Low Back Pain Perception Scale is determined in two studies in general practice and showed sufficient discriminative ability, although the psychometric properties of the scale have never been established until now. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability

  5. Children’s Perceptions of Their Play: Scale Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn A. Barnett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of research has been conducted on children’s play, yet the vast majority has relied on others’ accounts to define, describe, and characterize their play. This study presents a successful effort to generate a scale to measure third through fifth grade children’s perceptions of their play. Items were generated from children’s unrestricted accounts of how they viewed their play, and the reliability (internal consistency, stability, content, and construct (convergent and discriminant validity of the Children’s Perceptions of Their Play (CPTP scale were all high. Across two independent samples, children defined their play in terms of six factors: opportunities to choose what to do and with whom (Child’s Choice, play interactions with friends (Social Play, structured recreation activities in which they chose to participate (Planned Activities, their involvement and absorption in play (Engagement, how physically active they are (Active Play, and freedom from school obligations when they were able to play as they desired (Free Time. No differences between boys and girls, the three grade levels, or children attending public versus private school were found.

  6. Consumer Perception Concerning Apple Fruit Quality, Depending on Cultivars and Hedonic Scale of Evaluation - a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina DAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse fruit quality through consumers’ perceptions and their preferences revealed by two panel questionnaires. Among the most common apple cultivars on the Romanian markets, were chosen the ones existing simultaneously and continuously (over two-years, during January-March: ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Florina’, ‘Idared’. The consumers’ panel for sensory evaluation was represented by students, who completed two types of questionnaires. Both questionnaires refer to foremost traits for dessert apple, such as fruit appearance (size, shape, color and intrinsic peculiarities (pulp consistency, juiciness, taste, flavor. First questionnaire comprised different scales for the traits (1-3, 1-5 or 1-15, while the second one consisted of the hedonic scale (1-9 for all traits. For commercial appearance of the fruits were highlighted ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Braeburn’ and especially ‘Jonagold’. ‘Braeburn’ was distinct by the highest quality taste (average grade 13.9 on the scoring taste scale 1-15 and also for fruit flavor. ‘Granny Smith’, a commercially attractive-looking fruit, received only an average of 6.2 for taste and 2.6 for flavor. ‘Granny Smith’ presented the largest value for the coefficients of variation for taste, this variety being preferred less by female than male tasters. Inconsistency of the market, prices and foreign assortment on Romanian market was illustrated by the lack of statistical correlations between commercial fruit quality and price. The study could provide useful background information for apples breeders, farmers and marketing fruits strategy. The use of different scales for panel evaluation, dependent on the relevance of traits, might be a proper solution for reducing bias. In this case, the 1-15 large scale for apple taste compared with lower ones for other traits

  7. Development of a 15-item scale to measure parental perceptions of their neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Robin; Gray, Andrew; Reeder, Anthony Ivor; Holt, Alec; Waters, Debra L

    2015-02-01

    Socioecological theory suggests that there are a range of influences that affect the physical activity levels of children, including parents' perceptions of the neighborhood. A questionnaire instrument to quantify parental neighborhood perceptions was developed for the Location of Children's Activity in Their Environment study as a potential predictor of children's physical activity. A literature review revealed a lack of appropriate instruments, many containing highly localized items. Following initial instrument development including pretesting, where items showed face and content validity, a two-phase pilot study was undertaken. Pilot testing investigated test-retest reliability (overall intraclass correlation coefficient = .75) and internal consistency (α = .62 and α = .73 for the two phases, respectively), finding that the instrument was acceptable overall although some changes in wording were made to specific items with low reliability and/or internal consistency. Using data from the first year of the Location of Children's Activity in Their Environment study, the instrument showed acceptable internal consistency (overall α = .73) and predictive validity (associated with time living in residence and walking to school) to be used in future studies. The scale was not found to be associated with child physical activity, which may be due to activity displacement. Proposed subscales for the neighborhood infrastructure and social aspects were marginal for internal consistency and a safety subscale was not acceptable in this regard. Given the impact of parental perceptions of the neighborhood, and its potential modifiable nature, a measure of it should be included in studies looking at the intensity and location of children's physical activity. PMID:24990600

  8. Elastic Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Fagertun, Jens; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fusion of the active appearance model (AAM) and the Riemannian elasticity framework which yields a non-linear shape model and a linear texture model – the active elastic appearance model (EAM). The non-linear elasticity shape model is more flexible than the usual linear...... subspace model, and it is therefore able to capture more complex shape variations. Local rotation and translation invariance are the primary explanation for the additional flexibility. In addition, we introduce global scale invariance into the Riemannian elasticity framework which together with the local...

  9. Large Scale Functional Brain Networks Underlying Temporal Integration of Audio-Visual Speech Perception: An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. Vinodh; Halder, Tamesh; Jaiswal, Amit K.; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Roy, Dipanjan; Banerjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    Observable lip movements of the speaker influence perception of auditory speech. A classical example of this influence is reported by listeners who perceive an illusory (cross-modal) speech sound (McGurk-effect) when presented with incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli. Recent neuroimaging studies of AV speech perception accentuate the role of frontal, parietal, and the integrative brain sites in the vicinity of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for multisensory speech perception. However, if and how does the network across the whole brain participates during multisensory perception processing remains an open question. We posit that a large-scale functional connectivity among the neural population situated in distributed brain sites may provide valuable insights involved in processing and fusing of AV speech. Varying the psychophysical parameters in tandem with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, we exploited the trial-by-trial perceptual variability of incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli to identify the characteristics of the large-scale cortical network that facilitates multisensory perception during synchronous and asynchronous AV speech. We evaluated the spectral landscape of EEG signals during multisensory speech perception at varying AV lags. Functional connectivity dynamics for all sensor pairs was computed using the time-frequency global coherence, the vector sum of pairwise coherence changes over time. During synchronous AV speech, we observed enhanced global gamma-band coherence and decreased alpha and beta-band coherence underlying cross-modal (illusory) perception compared to unisensory perception around a temporal window of 300–600 ms following onset of stimuli. During asynchronous speech stimuli, a global broadband coherence was observed during cross-modal perception at earlier times along with pre-stimulus decreases of lower frequency power, e.g., alpha rhythms for positive AV lags and theta rhythms for negative AV lags. Thus

  10. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Native and Non-Native Listeners' Perception of Second Language Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer A; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Second language speech learning is predicated on learners' ability to notice differences between their own language output and that of their interlocutors. Because many learners interact primarily with other second language users, it is crucial to understand which dimensions underlie the perception of second language speech by learners, compared to native speakers. For this study, 15 non-native and 10 native English speakers rated 30-s language audio-recordings from controlled reading and interview tasks for dissimilarity, using all pairwise combinations of recordings. PROXSCAL multidimensional scaling analyses revealed fluency and aspects of speakers' pronunciation as components underlying listener judgments but showed little agreement across listeners. Results contribute to an understanding of why second language speech learning is difficult and provide implications for language training.

  11. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Native and Non-Native Listeners' Perception of Second Language Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer A; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Second language speech learning is predicated on learners' ability to notice differences between their own language output and that of their interlocutors. Because many learners interact primarily with other second language users, it is crucial to understand which dimensions underlie the perception of second language speech by learners, compared to native speakers. For this study, 15 non-native and 10 native English speakers rated 30-s language audio-recordings from controlled reading and interview tasks for dissimilarity, using all pairwise combinations of recordings. PROXSCAL multidimensional scaling analyses revealed fluency and aspects of speakers' pronunciation as components underlying listener judgments but showed little agreement across listeners. Results contribute to an understanding of why second language speech learning is difficult and provide implications for language training. PMID:27166328

  12. An Introduction To Appearance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Richard W.

    1983-11-01

    The appearance of a manufactured product, given that it will fulfill its intended purpose, is its most important attribute. Appearance often determines the acceptability of a product to its seller, and ultimately to the consumer or end-user. The quality of the appearance of a product is psychologically related to its expected performance and useful life. It therefore determines its reception by potential purchasers. This paper describes the interaction of light with objects; reflection, absorption, transmission, or a combination of these phenomena, which result in the perception of the objects, and how measurements that correspond to the way the eye sees color may be made.

  13. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; Zee, van der Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  14. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hofhuis; K.I. van der Zee; S. Otten

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effect

  15. Teaching for Creativity Scales: An Instrument to Examine Teachers' Perceptions of Factors That Allow for the Teaching of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa DaVia; McCoach, D. Betsy; Siegle, Del

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is valuable for individuals and society; it is thus important to understand how creativity can be fostered and encouraged. Teachers have a unique opportunity to promote creativity among their students. Teaching for Creativity Scales analyze constructs that influence teachers' perceptions of teaching for creativity. Approximately 650…

  16. The Influence of Event Appearance Time and Perception Order on Decision Dilemma%事件出现时间和知觉次序对两难决策的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏生

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To probe the influence of the event appearance time and perception order on decision dilemma. Methods: 52 undergraduates attended the experiment, using 2x3 between - group design, and In Experiment 1, the order of event was a between - group factor, the appearance time being a within - group factor; In Experiment 2, the setting was a between - group factor, the order of the events being a within - group factor. Results; (l)In Experiment 1, when the event was presented as " tomorrow" , there was distinctive difference on the decision - making between order 1 and order 3; ②In Experiment 2, there was also significant difference on the decision - making between the e-vents showed previously and later. Conclusion: The event appearance time would significantly impact decision - making when provided the same settings; perception order would have priming effect on decision - making with the same appearance time.%目的:探讨事件出现时间与知觉次序对两难决策的影响.方法:以52名大学生为被试,采用2x3组间设计进行两个实验,实验1中两难事件呈现的两种顺序为组间因素,两难事件出现的三种时间为组内因素;实验2中两类情境为组间因素,内含事件呈现三种顺序为组内因素.结果:①实验1发现,“明天开始报名”排在第一位和第三位之间的决策产生了显著差异;②实验2发现,先前呈现情境的决策与随后呈现情境下的决策有显著差异.结论:当情境内容相同时,事件出现时间对现实两难决策会产生显著影响;当情境出现时间相同时,知觉次序对两难决策会产生启动效应.

  17. Towards a Perceptually–grounded Theory of Microtonality: issues in sonority, scale construction and auditory perception and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This thesis engages with the topic of microtonal music through a discussion of relevant music theories and compositional practice alongside the investigation of theoretical perspectives drawn from psychology. Its aim is to advance a theory of microtonal music which is informed by current models of auditory perception and music cognition. In doing so, it treats a range of microtonal approaches and philosophies ranging from duplex subdivision of tempered scales to the generation ...

  18. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofhuis, J; Zee, van der, P.M.; Otten, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more effectively about diversity, and reduce potential diversity resistance by targeting those employees who feel most threatened by the process of diversification. First, a conceptual framework is establishe...

  19. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian adolescent populations: Construct validation and group discrimination in community and clinical eating disorders samples

    OpenAIRE

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel M.; Zanetti, M. Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety in situations where one’s overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Sc...

  20. Development and Validation of the Relationship and Motivation (REMO) Scale to Assess Students' Perceptions of Peers and Teachers as Motivators in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…

  1. Reliability and validity of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion Scale in a sample of Salvadoran secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrivillaga Marcela

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982 completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales. Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001 and illicit drug use (p Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on

  2. Determining student teachers' perceptions on using technology via Likert scale, visual association test and metaphors: A mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevhibe Kobak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine senior student teachers’ perceptions on using technology by approaching various points of view. In this study, researchers collected data through Technology Perceptions Scale, Visual Association Activity and Technology Metaphors. The participants of the study were 104 senior student teachers who were enrolled in Balıkesir University Necatibey Faculty of Education. In this descriptive study, researchers interpreted qualitative data in conjunction with quantitative data. Based on the data obtained, even though student teachers’ perceptions on using technology were found positive in the light of Likert scale, there was no significant relation in terms of gender and enrolled undergraduate program. According to the results of visual association test, student teachers ranked smartboard, Internet and computer in the first three, and portable media player, mobile phone and video/camera in the last three. Besides, researchers analyzed and classified student teachers’ metaphors about technology under 9 categories: 1developing-changing technology, 2rapidly progressing technology, 3 limitless-endless technology, 4beneficial technology, 5harmful technology, 6both beneficial and harmful technology, 7indispensible technology, 8technology as a necessity, 9 all-inclusive technology. At the end of the study, those nine categories which were acquired using the content analysis technique are presented in a table which shows the interaction between categories in a holistic view.

  3. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  4. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  5. Evaluating patients’ perception of service quality at hospitals in nine Chinese cities by use of the ServQual scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; Li; Douglas; Bruce; Lowrie; Cheng-Yu; Huang; Xiang-Chan; Lu; Ying-Chu; Zhu; Xing-Hua; Wu; Mayila; Shayiti; Qiong-Zhen; Tan; Hua-Ling; Yang; Si-Yuan; Chen; Pan; Zhao; Sheng-Hua; He; Xiu-Rong; Wang; Hong-Zhou; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate patients’ perception of service quality at hospitals in nine Chinese cities and propose some measures for improvement. Methods: The ServQ ual scale method was used in a survey involving patients at out-patient and in-patient facilities in Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, Nanning, Guilin and Laibin of Guangxi, Honghezhou of Yunnan, Wulumuqi of Xinjiang and Zhongshan of Guangdong. The data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, factor analyses, reliability analyses, product-moment correlations, independent-sample t-tests, One-way ANOVA and regression analyses. Results: The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value for the factor analysis of the scale was 0.979. The Cronbach’s α for the reliability analysis was 0.978. All the Pearson correlation coei cients were positive and statistically signii cant. Visitors to out-patient facilities reported more positive perception tacilities on tangibles(t = 4.168, P(t = 1.979, P perception thscale, patients in Laibin, Guangxi reported the most positive perceived service quality, followed by patients in Shanghai. On the other hand, patients in Chongqing and Nanning and Guilin of Guangxi reported relatively poor perceptions of service quality. Standardized regression coei cients showed statistically significant(P < 0.001) positive values for all Serv Qual dimensions. Empathy(β = 0.267) and reliability(β uality. = 0.239) most strongly predicted perception of service qConclusions: Chinese patients perceived service quality as satisfactory. Hospitals in various regions of China should enhance their awareness and ability to serve their patients.

  6. Understanding perceptions of potato seed quality among small-scale farmers in Peruvian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrea-Hernandez, C.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    The increased opportunities of smallholder farmers for commercial production of native potato varieties have resulted in an interest to support production and use of quality seed tubers of these varieties by the formal sector. In this context, a study was carried out to explore farmer perception of

  7. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of the Classroom Assessment Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study…

  8. Assessing Parent Perceptions of School Fit: The Development and Measurement Qualities of a Survey Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena, Sofía; Schueler, Beth E.; McIntyre, Joseph; Gehlbach, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Students whose school environment fits their developmental needs also typically experience academic success and increased motivation. Most investigations of school fit, which focus on teachers' and students' perceptions, have found a general decline in fit across the transition from elementary to middle school. However, little research has…

  9. How reframing a water management issue across scales and levels impacts on perceptions of justice and injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. J.; Syme, G. J.; Horwitz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Social justice is a key outcome of water allocation, management and governance. It is commonly expressed in water policies and strategies in terms of achieving equitable distribution of water resources. In complex multi-level systems just and unjust outcomes can result from the same water allocation decision. In some cases a just outcome at one level may cause an injustice at another level for the same or a different set of stakeholders. The manner in which a water management issue is framed and reframed across different levels within a system influences stakeholder perceptions of whether a water allocation decision is just or unjust, which in turn influences the successful adoption and implementation of such a decision. This paper utilises a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia to illustrate how reframing a water management issue across multiple scales and levels can help understand stakeholders' perceptions of justice and injustice. In this case study two scales are explored, an institutional and an organisational scale; each comprising levels at the federal, basin, state and region. The water management issue of domestic and stock dams was tracked through the various scales and levels and illustrated how reframing an issue at different levels can influence the analysis of just or equitable outcomes. The case study highlights the need to treat justice in water allocation as an ever evolving problem of the behaviour of a social system rather than the meeting of static principles of what is 'right'. This points to the importance of being attentive to the dynamic and dialogical nature of justice when dealing with water allocation issues across scales and levels of water governance.

  10. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane’, an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane’ have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane’ undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  11. Le Chatelier's Principle in Sensation and Perception: Fractal-Like Enfolding at Different Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Norwich

    2010-01-01

    Le Chatelier’s principle asserts that a disturbance, when applied to a resting system may drive the system away from its equilibrium state, but will invoke a countervailing influence that will counteract the effect of the disturbance. When applied to the field of sensation and perception, a generalized stimulus will displace the system from equilibrium, and a generalized adaptation process will serve as the countervailing influence tending to reduce the impact of the stimulus. The princ...

  12. Developing the Sufficiency Perception Scale in the Area of Accompaniment with Piano for Candidate Music Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    PİJİ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    The music teacher’s accompanying the songs by piano in music education at schoolappears to be important regarding the development of melody, rhythm and harmony feelingsof the students. The music teacher candidates receive their knowledge and skill in the areaof piano accompaniment through the Accompaniment lesson within the Music TeachingLicense Program. In this research, with the purpose of defining the perception of sufficiencyregarding the accompaniment levels of music teacher candidates a...

  13. Consumer perceptions of supermarket service quality : scale development, measurement and validation / Manilall Dhurup

    OpenAIRE

    Dhurup, Manilall

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade much research has been done on consumer perceptions in the so-called pure services with scant attention being devoted to the analysis of retail services associated with the marketing of goods. However, in recent years the service quality debate received much attention and closer examination in retailing. It is, therefore, not surprising that many of m s spend substantial resources to measure service quality and manage customer satisfaction. This research was undertaken ...

  14. Psychometric analysis of the Scale of Teacher´s Perception of School Adjustment (PROF-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Cava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teacher' perception of their students' school adjustment can be an important indicator of psychosocialwell-being and provide useful information for the development of interventions to improve theirpsychosocial adjustment. This is the reason why it is essential within the school adjustment to consider notonly students' academic achievement but also their level of social integration in the classroom, the qualityof their relationship with the teacher, and the level of family involvement in their education. The objectiveof this research is to provide a reliable instrument for measuring a full school adjustment and analyze itsrelationship with two important indicators of psychosocial adjustment, self-concept and attitudes towardauthority. This study involved 87 teachers who assessed the school adjustment of students (N = 2378adolescents using the PROF-A scale. Findings show that this scale consists of four factors, social integration,academic competence, family involvement, and teacher-student relationship, showing significant positivecorrelations with self-concept and positive attitudes toward authority.

  15. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing the appearance of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of observations and the modelling of fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the non-trivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical non-steady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately five billion Japanese blogs over a period of six years and analyse some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable non-steady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modelling the behaviour of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuati...

  16. Small-Scale Fishing: Perceptions and Threats to Conserving a Livelihood in the Province of Phang-nga, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Victoria Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited understanding of small-scale fishing communities has hindered appropriate management initiatives in coastal communities which are threatening livelihoods. Informants, stakeholder interviews and questionnaires from local fishermen were used to gain knowledge of fishing factors, perceptions and threat to the small-scale fishing community in a coastal region in the province of Phang-nga, Thailand. Results revealed communities utilizing multi-geared, multi-species fisheries with a preference for marketable species that sell on a local scale. Whilst subsistence and local markets share equally the use of catches, there is a noticeable decline in small-scale fishers being recruited into the industry. This was considered by some to be due to urbanisation and by others to opportunities in tourism but was viewed as a socio-economic shift by government informants towards medium sized operations formed by resilient groups. Current management can be classified as open access, with virtually no management or regulations in place. This has led to fishers listing failing stocks and commercial fleets as the biggest threats to their livelihoods. Management initiatives are needed to focus on protecting and improving coastal stocks by clamping down on illegal activity large-scale from fishers and reviewing fishers access for resource protection.

  17. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  18. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker J. Bautista

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This aims of this study were twofold; 1 to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2 to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM] were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81 was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96. This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power.

  19. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups. PMID:24264145

  20. Fingers phrase music differently: trial-to-trial variability in piano scale playing and auditory perception reveal motor chunking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Tijmen Van Vugt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations, reveal that the two octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb-passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioural evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries.

  1. Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries. PMID:23181040

  2. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by making...... that the embedded uncertainty from the progression factors remains the same. The result is then an interval estimate for each alternative's final scores. This can lead to overlapping intervals of scores which may be interpreted as possible rank reversals. Thus, the decision support approach makes it possible...... use of probability distributions. Herein, the uncertainty both with regard to the scale and the inherent randomness from the parameter is captured by probabilistic input and output distributions. Provided that each alternative and criteria under consideration are independent it is assumed...

  3. Appearances, Stigma, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the practical aspects of clothing are compared to effective practices in special education. Actual competence is more important than the appearance, or cloak, of competence. It is argued that speaking openly about disability will do more to reduce its stigma than will euphemisms. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  4. Development and Application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): Measuring Student Perceptions of Constructivism within the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Shelagh M.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Wang, Yang; Brown, Jessica J.; Rosca, Camelia V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, validation and application of a Rasch-based instrument, the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES), for measuring students' perceptions of constructivist practices within the elementary science classroom. The instrument, designed to complement the Reformed Teaching Observation…

  5. Assessing Young Children's Views of Their Academic, Social, and Emotional Lives: An Evaluation of the Self-Perception Scales of the Berkeley Puppet Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measelle, Jeffrey R.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Cowan, Philip A.; Cowan, Carolyn P.

    1998-01-01

    Examined psychometric properties of self-perception scales of the Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) with children at preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. Found that young children have a multidimensional self-concept that can be reliably measured. The BPI was sensitive to normative change and individual differences. Support for validity was…

  6. Development and Validation of the Teacher and Motivation (TEMO) Scale: A Self-Report Measure Assessing Students' Perceptions of Liked and Disliked Teachers as Motivators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents a newly developed measurement: the TEMO (Teacher and Motivation) scale, which assesses adolescent students' perception of liked and disliked teachers and the resulting impact on their academic motivation. A total of 1,088 students from secondary schools in Germany participated in this study. To explore the underlying…

  7. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, andpolicy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon)-Vancouver (W...

  8. The Program Environment Scale: assessing client perceptions of community-based programs for the severely mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, M R; Duke, A E; Hargreaves, W A

    1998-12-01

    The Program Environment Scale (PES) was developed for use with clients of community-based programs for the severely mentally ill. It is intended to fill the gap in available tools for assessing clients' perceptions of program functioning as it affects their "quality of life" in a program. Formal pretests were conducted with 121 clients at 12 randomly selected programs near Washington, DC. The final field test used a revised form (29 domains; 129 items) with 221 clients in 22 programs selected randomly throughout the U.S., including Clubhouse, day treatment, psychosocial rehabilitation, and social club programs. Twenty-three subscales met at least five of eight psychometric criteria for internal consistency and discriminant validity. A 24th subscale was retained because of its substantive importance. Successful subscales cover program atmosphere and interactions (program cares about me, energy level, friendliness, openness, staff-client and client-client respect, reasonable rules, availability of positive physical contact, protection from bad touch, staff investment in their jobs, and confidentiality), client empowerment/staff-client equality (program and treatment empowerment, egalitarian space use), and service components (support for paid work, work importance, emergency access, family activities, housing, public benefits, community activities, medications, substance abuse, and continuity). Subscale validity is indicated by associations of specific service offerings with scores on scales measuring client perceptions of those services, and by an ability to differentiate among program models (i.e., Clubhouses, day treatment programs, and psychosocial rehabilitation programs look different from each other). Subscale scores were not influenced by client characteristics (gender, race, age, diagnosis, number of hospitalizations, length of time in program). The final scale has 97 items and takes about 25 minutes to complete. The PES succeeds in measuring different

  9. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille;

    2004-01-01

    Statistical region-based segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images based on learning the variation in shape and pixel intensities in a training set. For low resolution 2D images correspondences can be recovered reliably...... in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due to excessive storage and computational requirements. In this paper we propose to reduce the textural components by modelling the coefficients of a wedgelet based regression tree instead of the original pixel intensities. The...... wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  10. $\\tau$ appearance and CNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, M

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the CERN Council approved the CNGS project to explore neutrino oscillation physics in tau neutrino appearance. Super-KAMIOKANDE result indicate that the most probable solution in atmospheric neutrino disappearance is muon neutrino oscillation into a tau neutrino. CNGS is designed to detect nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillations by a long baseline appearance experiment. CNGS a more is unique project than the other disappearance projects like K2K and NuMI. At least two experiments are in preparation in the CNGS project at LNGS. One is OPERA which was already approved in Feb. 2001 as CNGS1 using emulsion techniques which have proven their tau detection capability in Fermilab E872 DONUT. The other is ICARUS which was approved at LNGS using a liquid argon TPC. Both experiments will detect tau neutrino signal in theCNGS beam. (5 refs).

  11. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  12. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes.

  13. Perception of colour scales used in thematic cartography by young people aged 15-17

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Musilová

    2013-01-01

    There are many different types of datasets represented by maps in thematic cartography. It is possible to represent features and phenomenon referencing to area as well as to point. Furthermore, it is possible to represent qualitative data as well as quantitative data. There are many different ways to represent them. One of the most important and most used cartographic symbols of lettering is colour, resp. colour scales, which are chosen according to shown data. This article is focused ...

  14. Uterine Leiomyoma: Hysterosalpingographic Appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of genital tract. The etiology of myomasis unknown. Leiomyoma shows a broad spectrum of radiographic appearances depending on thenumber, size, and location of the tumor. The diagnostic method for uterine leiomyomas is basedprimarily on the clinical situation. Despite of the varied diagnostic options such as; transvaginalsonography, sonohysterography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and MRI; hysterosalpingography isstill one of the valuable imaging methods for identification of uterine leiomyoma.The various features of the proved leiomyoma are illustrated in this pictorial review. The incidence,risk factors and clinical features will also be discussed briefly.

  15. Posttraumatic pseudolipoma: MRI appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to describe the MRI characteristics of posttraumatic pseudolipomas. Ten patients with previous history of blunt trauma or local surgery were investigated with MRI at the level of their deformity. The etiology was blunt trauma in eight patients and postoperative trauma in two. For all patients medical documentation, in the form of clinical history and physical examination, confirmed that a visible hematoma was present acutely at the same location following the injury and that the contour deformity subsequently appeared. All patients underwent liposuction. Preoperative bilateral MRI examinations were performed on all patients. The mean clinical follow-up was 17.8 months. MRI examinations were interpreted in consensus by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with attention to fatty extension (subcutaneous fatty thickness and anatomical extension), asymmetry compared with the asymptomatic side, the presence or absence of fibrous septae or nonfatty components, and patterns of contrast enhancement. Ten posttraumatic pseudolipomas were identified. Clinically, they showed as subcutaneous masses with the consistency of normal adipose tissue. Their locations were the abdomen (n=1), hip (n=1), the upper thigh (n=6), the knee (n=1), and the ankle (n=1). On MRI examinations, using the contralateral side as a control, pseudolipomas appeared as focal fatty masses without a capsule or contrast enhancement. Posttraumatic pseudolipomas may develop at a site of blunt trauma or surgical procedures often antedated by a soft tissue hematoma. Characteristic MRI findings are unencapsulated subcutaneous fatty masses without contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  16. Posttraumatic pseudolipoma: MRI appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumann, N.; Abdelmoumene, A.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Gailloud, M.C.; Resnick, D. [CHUV, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the MRI characteristics of posttraumatic pseudolipomas. Ten patients with previous history of blunt trauma or local surgery were investigated with MRI at the level of their deformity. The etiology was blunt trauma in eight patients and postoperative trauma in two. For all patients medical documentation, in the form of clinical history and physical examination, confirmed that a visible hematoma was present acutely at the same location following the injury and that the contour deformity subsequently appeared. All patients underwent liposuction. Preoperative bilateral MRI examinations were performed on all patients. The mean clinical follow-up was 17.8 months. MRI examinations were interpreted in consensus by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with attention to fatty extension (subcutaneous fatty thickness and anatomical extension), asymmetry compared with the asymptomatic side, the presence or absence of fibrous septae or nonfatty components, and patterns of contrast enhancement. Ten posttraumatic pseudolipomas were identified. Clinically, they showed as subcutaneous masses with the consistency of normal adipose tissue. Their locations were the abdomen (n=1), hip (n=1), the upper thigh (n=6), the knee (n=1), and the ankle (n=1). On MRI examinations, using the contralateral side as a control, pseudolipomas appeared as focal fatty masses without a capsule or contrast enhancement. Posttraumatic pseudolipomas may develop at a site of blunt trauma or surgical procedures often antedated by a soft tissue hematoma. Characteristic MRI findings are unencapsulated subcutaneous fatty masses without contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  17. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune;

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due...... to excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two......-orthogonal CDF 9-7 wavelet yields better results than the Haar wavelet. Further, we show that the inherent frequency separation in wavelets allows for cost-free band-pass filtering, e.g. edge-emphasis, and that this edge enhancement provide better results in terms of segmentation accuracy. Wedgelet...

  18. Understanding Dali's Slave market with the disappearing bust of Voltaire: a case study in the scale information driving perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar, Lizann; Gosselin, Frédéric; Schyns, Philippe G

    2002-01-01

    A generic problem in vision is to know which information drives the perception of a stimulus. We address this problem in a case study that involves the perceptual reversal of an ambiguous image (here, Dali's painting the Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire 1940). In experiment 1, we use 'bubbles' (Gosselin and Schyns, 2001 Vision Research 41 2261-2271) to disambiguate the image and to determine the specific visual information that drives each possible perception (here, the nuns versus the bust of Voltaire). Experiment 2 validates that this information does determine the selective perception of the ambiguous image. We adapted the spatial-frequency channels of observers selectively to the information that mediates one of the two perceptions, to induce the opposite perception of the ambiguous image in a transfer phase. Together, the results suggest a method of revealing the visual information that drives perception. PMID:12092795

  19. Customers’ Attitude and Perception about Ethnocentrism-application of Consumer Ethnocentrism Scale (CETSCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Renganathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Liberalized, Privatized and Globalized environment marketers have to understand the importance given by the customers in their purchasing process for domestic and foreign made products. Consumer ethnocentrism is very important in the consumer purchase decision making process. Consumers during the course of their purchase may give importance to whether the products are manufactured domestically or from other country. Objective of this study is to find out the customers opinion about the various features of ethnocentrism. Customers’ perspective about foreign made products and products made in India were also studied. CETSCALE proposed by Terence and Subhash (1987 with some changes was used for primary data collection. Five hundred and forty four customers from Trichy and Thanjavur area were included for this survey. Results showed that reliability of the ‘Consumer Ethnocentrism’ scale was good and significant associations were there between age and place of residence of the customers and their opinion about ethnocentrism. Findings and suggestions of this study will be useful for the marketers to understand about the level of importance given by the customers for Indian made products and foreign products.

  20. Large-scale imaging of cortical dynamics during sensory perception and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekselblatt, Joseph B; Flister, Erik D; Piscopo, Denise M; Niell, Cristopher M

    2016-06-01

    Sensory-driven behaviors engage a cascade of cortical regions to process sensory input and generate motor output. To investigate the temporal dynamics of neural activity at this global scale, we have improved and integrated tools to perform functional imaging across large areas of cortex using a transgenic mouse expressing the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP6s, together with a head-fixed visual discrimination behavior. This technique allows imaging of activity across the dorsal surface of cortex, with spatial resolution adequate to detect differential activity in local regions at least as small as 100 μm. Imaging during an orientation discrimination task reveals a progression of activity in different cortical regions associated with different phases of the task. After cortex-wide patterns of activity are determined, we demonstrate the ability to select a region that displayed conspicuous responses for two-photon microscopy and find that activity in populations of individual neurons in that region correlates with locomotion in trained mice. We expect that this paradigm will be a useful probe of information flow and network processing in brain-wide circuits involved in many sensory and cognitive processes. PMID:26912600

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A VISUAL MATH LITERACY SELF EFFICACY PERCEPTION SCALE (VMLSEPS FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BEKDEMİR

    2012-03-01

    opportunities for individuals such as supporting them to better understand abstract thoughts by presenting these thoughts in a living and familiar way and bringing the experience to process the same thought in different ways (Feinstein & Hagerty, 1994; İpek, 2003. This close relationship reveals a new concept of literacy, “Visual Math Literacy (VML”. VML can be described as, “the proficiency to perceive, signify, interpret, evaluate, and use the problems encountered in daily life within visual or spatial frameworks; and, to perceive, signify, interpret, evaluate, and use visual or spatial information in mathematical terms”. In Turkey there is no scientific research about VML, which is described as mentioned above, conducted at the elementary school level; hence, this study is very important for being the first to cover VML and integrate types of literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop a valid, reliable, easy to apply and easy to evaluate scale that can measure the self-efficacy of elementary students concerning their visual math literacy. This is a general survey study in which it is aimed to develop a scale. Participants of study are composed of 151 6th grade, 142 7th grade, and 135 8th grade students. Totally 428 students (220 girls and 208 boys were selected randomly from two elementary schools in the Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, and one elementary school from the Black Sea region. For the VMLSEPS first of all, 15 open ended questions were formed with reference to expert opinions, and these questions were asked to 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students (103 students in total from two elementary schools in a large city in Eastern Anatolian region for the first semester of 2009-2010 academic year. Researchers created an item pool composed of 159 items by using students’ answers to these questions and considering the Elementary Education Mathematic Program 2005. With reference to the pool and based on the elementary school students’ successes on

  2. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  3. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...... to lighting conditions. Results show that localisation accuracy of facial features is considerably increased using this appearance representation under normal and abnormal lighting and at multiple scales....

  4. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...... to lighting conditions. Results show that the localisation accuracy of facial features is considerably increased using this appearance representation under diffuse and directional lighting and at multiple scales....

  5. 熵域流形空间中的目标尺度感知策略%Object Scale Perception Strategy with Embedding Entropy Region Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克伟; 谢昭; 高隽

    2011-01-01

    针对场景中不同目标的尺度感知问题,提出一种基于熵度量的场景目标尺度感知计算模型.通过对熵域空间中流形分布的统计特性分析,描述图像流形空间中的目标分布规律,在四叉树金字塔描述的基础上,依据尺度感知评价函数,形成了多目标尺度感知计算过程.实验结果说明,四叉树空间金字塔近似人类视觉感知的层次结构,基于熵域流形空间的目标描述可以有效实现目标尺度感知.%This paper mainly focuses on the issue of generic object scale perception. A computational model in entropy-domain space is presented for scene object description to pursue the underlying entropy manifold in statistical way. The corresponding algorithm approximately follows perceptual hierarchy in human-vision biologically via quad-tree pyramid structure, which can automatically choose the appropriate scale of various objects via proposed scale evaluation function. The sufficient experiments truly demonstrate the effective scale description in entropy region manifold with proper location, and provide additional priori information for object scale perception.

  6. The Excessive Appearance of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalko, Rod

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages the appearance of disability in contemporary Western culture. Rather than taking disability for granted as a biomedical condition, I interrogate how disability is made to appear in our culture, including its appearance as a biomedical condition. Fundamentally, disability appears to us as a trouble and, as such, cultural…

  7. Why do objects appear enlarged under water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Ross

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objects appear enlarged in water by less than the 4/3 angular magnification. They usually appear beyond their optical distance and slightly enlarged in linear size, but not in accordance with size-distance invariance (SDI. We investigated whether misperceptions of angular size could explain the discrepancies. Twenty observers viewed targets of various sizes and distances within transparent tanks 40 cm long containing air or water. They judged distance by hidden reaching, and linear or angular size by adjusting the size of a target in air at a further distance. Matched distance was close to physical distance in air and optical distance in water. All size matches were close to true linear size, and were larger in water than in air. Angular size matches were much too small to explain departures from SDI. Size perception under water is best explained by incomplete adaptation to optical distortion, and by the use of various size cues.

  8. A Small-Scale Study on Student Teachers' Perceptions of Classroom Management and Methods for Dealing with Misbehaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Meral

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify student teachers' perceptions of classroom management and methods for dealing with misbehaviour. In-depth interviews with nine student teachers at Cukurova University (CU) in Turkey have been conducted twice, prior to and at the end of their teaching practice. Instructional management, behaviour management,…

  9. Impacto da cárie e da fluorose dentária na satisfação com a aparência e com a mastigação de crianças de 12 anos de idade Impact of dental caries and dental fluorosis on 12-year-old schoolchildren's self-perception of appearance and chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros psicossociais têm sido recomendados para avaliar o impacto dos problemas bucais na qualidade de vida das pessoas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto da cárie e fluorose dentárias na satisfação com a aparência e com a mastigação em crianças. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com escolares (n = 695 de 12 anos de idade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina, em 1999. Foram examinadas cárie e fluorose dentária e investigados acesso à consulta odontológica e a hábitos de higiene bucal. Para a identificação dos fatores de risco, foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla não condicional. Nenhum dos fatores investigados foram associados à insatisfação com a aparência. Estudar em escola pública, apresentar-se com dentes anteriores e com pelo menos dois dentes posteriores comprometidos pela cárie e ser do sexo feminino foram fatores de risco independentes para a insatisfação com a mastigação. Pode-se concluir que a fluorose dentária não teve impacto sobre a satisfação com a aparência. Quanto maior a severidade da cárie, maior o impacto sobre a insatisfação com a mastigação, isso foi maior em crianças de escolas públicas.It has been suggested that psychosocial dimensions be used to assess the impact of oral health on people's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of dental caries and dental fluorosis on children's self-perception of appearance and mastication. A dental caries and dental fluorosis cross-sectional study was conducted with twelve-year-old schoolchildren (n = 695 in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. A questionnaire to assess dental care and dental habits was applied. Risk factors were identified using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. None of the variables investigated was associated with dissatisfaction in relation to self-perceived appearance. Independent risk factors for dissatisfaction with self

  10. Evaluating the Convergence of Muscle Appearance Attitude Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2004-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the assessment of a muscular appearance. Given the importance of assessing muscle appearance attitudes, the aim of this study was to explore the convergence of the Drive for Muscularity Scale, Somatomorphic Matrix, Contour Drawing Rating Scale, Male Figure Drawings, and the Muscularity Rating Scale. Participants…

  11. Typically the Best? Perceived Typicality and Aesthetic Appraisal of Product Appearances

    OpenAIRE

    Blijlevens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is investigated how the current knowledge that people possess about a certain product category influences perception and aesthetic appraisal of product appearances within this product category. Through the reoccurring exposure to product appearances in everyday life people form Internalized Product Appearances (IPA) of different product categories. The IPA forms the benchmark to which a new product appearance is compared. This comparison process influences perception ...

  12. Local community perception and awareness of flash floods vulnerability at a small catchment scale in the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Balteanu, Dan; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Chendes, Viorel; Grigorescu, Ines; Dragota, Carmen; Dogaru, Diana; Costache, Andra

    2015-04-01

    The study aims to identify local communities perception and awareness in terms of hydro-meteorological extreme events in order to better understand the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to flash floods as well as the mitigation measures undertaken by local authorities to cope with these phenomena. The study-area is located in the Bend Subcarpathians, Romania, a region well known for high tectonic mobility and dynamics of hydro-geomorphic processes (e.g. floods and flash floods, landslides). The study was conducted in the framework of VULMIN project (PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.1-1587), funded by the Ministry of National Education for the period 2012-2016 (http://www.igar-vulmin.ro). The previous analyses conducted in the project showed a high exposure to flash floods of small river catchments (generally below 200 km2 ) located in the study-area (Teleajen-Buzau hydrographic area). Some of the most recent events (2005, 2008, 2010 and 2014) had a high impact on local communities in terms of important losses to their assets and psychological effects. Thus, in the summer 2014, a questionnaire-based survey was addressed to over 50 households (from 5 villages), significantly affected by flash floods and structured interviews were held with local authorities (local municipalities, county Civil Protection Inspectorates). The questionnaire was focused on the perception of human vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events, mainly floods, aiming to outline the personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding. The flash flood events are of major concern for local community, due to their high return period (1-5 years) and magnitude in the recent years. This influences also the population response and adaptive capacity to these events, which is limited to individual measures (e.g. buildings consolidations and relocations). The survey showed a

  13. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  14. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  15. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  16. Radiological appearances of uterine fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are the commonest uterine neoplasms. Although benign, they can be associated with significant morbidity and are the commonest indication for hysterectomy. They are often discovered incidentally when performing imaging for other reasons. Usually first identified with USG, they can be further characterized with MRI. They are usually easily recognizable, but degenerate fibroids can have unusual appearances. In this article, we describe the appearances of typical and atypical uterine fibroids, unusual fibroid variants and fibroid mimics on different imaging modalities. Knowledge of the different appearances of fibroids on imaging is important as it enables prompt diagnosis and thereby guides treatment

  17. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Ruvalcaba I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irma Pérez-Ruvalcaba,1 Viridiana Sánchez-Hernández,1 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma2,3 1Burn Unit, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 2Health Sciences Department, Centro Universitario de Tonalá, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico; 3Diabetes sin Complicaciones, Zapopan, Mexico Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods: A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results: A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027 by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. Keywords: TENS, burn pain, pain management, electrotherapy

  18. Seeing Signs : On the appearance of manual movements in gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a series of studies on the appearance of manual movements in gestures. The main goal of this research is to increase our understanding of how humans perceive signs and other gestures. Generated insights from human perception may aid the development of techno

  19. Seeing Signs: On the appearance of manual movements in gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a series of studies on the appearance of manual movements in gestures. The main goal of this research is to increase our understanding of how humans perceive signs and other gestures. Generated insights from human perception may aid the development of techno

  20. The Self Assessment of Future Events Scale (SAFE): assessing perceptions of risk for future violence in intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas B; Whiting, Jason B; Karakurt, Gunnur; Oka, Megan; Servino, David

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a survey measure, appropriate for use in clinical or research settings, to assess respondent's perceptions that their partner will engage in future physical violence, verbal/psychological violence, or controlling behaviors. Data were collected from adults in intimate relationships. Exploratory factor analysis was used to refine the measure and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for the fit of the final version of the measure. Scores on the measure indicated less safety for participants in distressed relationships and for participants meeting the study criteria for PTSD. Scores on the measure also indicated significantly decreased safety for participants that reported being the victims of physical violence and participants reporting both victimization and perpetration in their current intimate relationships. PMID:25059299

  1. Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking

    OpenAIRE

    van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students’ playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be inter...

  2. Fingers phrase music differently: trial-to-trial variability in piano scale playing and auditory perception reveal motor chunking

    OpenAIRE

    Floris Tijmen Van Vugt; Hans-Christian eJabusch; Eckart eAltenmüller

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be inter...

  3. Face Alignment using Boosted Appeareance Model (Discriminative Appearance Model)

    OpenAIRE

    Muddamsetty, Satya Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores decriminative face alignment using Boosted Appearance Model (BAM). In this method face alignment is done by maximizing the score of the trained two classifier which learns both correct and incorrect alignment and is able to distinguish correct and incorrect alignment so that the correct alignment gets maximum positve score. During the training stage we trained Point Distribution Model (PDM) which acts as shape model and a boosting based classifier based on Haar like Recta...

  4. Multi-scale salient feature extraction on mesh models

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of extracting multi-scale salient features on meshes. It is based on robust estimation of curvature on multiple scales. The coincidence between salient feature and the scale of interest can be established straightforwardly, where detailed feature appears on small scale and feature with more global shape information shows up on large scale. We demonstrate this multi-scale description of features accords with human perception and can be further used for several applications as feature classification and viewpoint selection. Experiments exhibit that our method as a multi-scale analysis tool is very helpful for studying 3D shapes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  6. CT appearances of talc pleurodesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaswamy, S. [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Kamath, S. [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: srikanthmn@yahoo.com; Williams, M. [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To report the computed tomography (CT) appearances of talc pleurodesis in the management of patients with pleural effusions and spontaneous pneumothorax. Materials and methods: The post-pleurodesis CT studies of 16 patients obtained over a 5-year period were reviewed. The mean age was 63 years (range 41-79 years). Ten patients were male. After pleurodesis, nine patients underwent a single chest CT examination and seven patients underwent more than one. Results: The characteristic finding observed in all patients, except one, was the presence of high-density deposits in the posterior basal regions of the pleural space. These were typically linear in seven patients, nodular in two, and a combination of linear and nodular in six. In five patients talc deposits were present on both the visceral and parietal pleura separated by an effusion (a variant of the split pleura sign). Talc deposits extended into an interlobar fissure with associated fissural thickening in five patients. In patients who underwent more than one CT study, the appearances remained stable. Conclusions: The typical finding was the presence of high attenuation areas in the posterior basal regions of the pleural space. Two new appearances were observed: extension of talc deposits into the fissure and the presence of a variant of the split pleura sign. It is important to recognize these CT appearances so as not to confuse them with other conditions such as asbestos exposure.

  7. CT appearances of talc pleurodesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To report the computed tomography (CT) appearances of talc pleurodesis in the management of patients with pleural effusions and spontaneous pneumothorax. Materials and methods: The post-pleurodesis CT studies of 16 patients obtained over a 5-year period were reviewed. The mean age was 63 years (range 41-79 years). Ten patients were male. After pleurodesis, nine patients underwent a single chest CT examination and seven patients underwent more than one. Results: The characteristic finding observed in all patients, except one, was the presence of high-density deposits in the posterior basal regions of the pleural space. These were typically linear in seven patients, nodular in two, and a combination of linear and nodular in six. In five patients talc deposits were present on both the visceral and parietal pleura separated by an effusion (a variant of the split pleura sign). Talc deposits extended into an interlobar fissure with associated fissural thickening in five patients. In patients who underwent more than one CT study, the appearances remained stable. Conclusions: The typical finding was the presence of high attenuation areas in the posterior basal regions of the pleural space. Two new appearances were observed: extension of talc deposits into the fissure and the presence of a variant of the split pleura sign. It is important to recognize these CT appearances so as not to confuse them with other conditions such as asbestos exposure

  8. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...

  9. Students' Perceptions to Use Technology for Learning: Measurement Integrity of the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Murat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to provide the evidence for the reliability of the modified Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (FSMAS), as translated to Turkish language and transformed to the educational technology context, and (2) to investigate high school students' motivation to use technology for learning by a comparative…

  10. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  11. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  12. Radiological appearances of sinonasal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Beltagi, A.H.; Sobeih, A.A.; Valvoda, M.; Dahniya, M.H.; Badr, S.S

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this pictorial review is to present a variety of abnormalities of the sinonasal cavities to emphasize the diversity of lesions occurring in this region. These include congenital, neoplastic and granulomatous disorders and some allergic and inflammatory lesions with uncommon radiological appearances, as well as expanding lesions of the facial bones or of dental origin with secondary involvement of the related sinus(es). El-Beltagi, A.H. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology 57, 702-718.

  13. Youth Discrimination Based on Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Galland

    2006-01-01

    People sometimes feel that their rights have been violated or their dignity attacked in some of their social relationships. This is most often reported by young people. Young people are much more sensitive to different forms of ostracism than adults, and are particularly sensitive to attacks on their self-image: they complain more of humiliation than injustice or rights violation. Young people, particularly large girls and thin boys, believe that their physical appearance is the main reason f...

  14. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  15. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  16. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  17. Exploratory movement generates higher-order information that is sufficient for accurate perception of scaled egocentric distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mantel

    Full Text Available Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants' movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate.

  18. Student Inferences Based on Facial Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Jeanette Morehouse; Mendez, Jesse Perez

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the scope of research that examines the connection between physical attractiveness and student perception through a survey analysis. While other studies concentrate on physical attractiveness alone, we examined not only perceptions of attractiveness but its impact on students' perception of knowledge, approachability and faculty…

  19. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  20. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  1. CT appearances of pleural tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahudeen, H.M. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hmdsal@gmail.com; Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Robertson, R.J.; Darby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging technique of choice for characterizing pleural masses with respect to their location, composition, and extent. CT also provides important information regarding invasion of the chest wall and surrounding structures. A spectrum of tumours can affect the pleura of which metastatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest cause of malignant pleural disease, while malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural tumour. Certain CT features help differentiate benign from malignant processes. This pictorial review highlights the salient CT appearances of a range of tumours that may affect the pleura.

  2. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  3. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  4. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  5. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.;

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...

  6. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  7. Appearences can be deceiving. The portal of weight and embodied meaning portrayal in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompay, van Thomas; Verdenius, Francien; Okken, Vanessa; Pruyn, Ad; Salamanca, Juan; Desmet, Pieter; Burbano, Andrés; Ludden, Geke; Maya, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    First impressions often arise from visual perceptions of product appearance, later to be followed by multisensory impressions involving touch and haptic sensations. These subsequent sensations may sometimes reinforce impressions generated by product apprearance, but lead to disappointment when expec

  8. Caregiver evaluation of the quality of end-of-life care (CEQUEL scale: the caregiver's perception of patient care near death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Higgins

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: End-of-life (EOL measures are limited in capturing caregiver assessment of the quality of EOL care. Because none include caregiver perception of patient suffering or prolongation of death, we sought to develop and validate the Caregiver Evaluation of Quality of End-of-Life Care (CEQUEL scale to include these dimensions of caregiver-perceived quality of EOL care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were derived from Coping with Cancer (CwC, a multisite, prospective, longitudinal study of advanced cancer patients and their caregivers (N = 275 dyads. Caregivers were assessed before and after patient deaths. CEQUEL's factor structure was examined; reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's α, and convergent validity by the strength of associations between CEQUEL scores and key EOL outcomes. RESULTS: FACTOR ANALYSIS REVEALED FOUR DISTINCT FACTORS: Prolongation of Death, Perceived Suffering, Shared Decision-Making, and Preparation for the Death. Each item loaded strongly on only a single factor. The 13-item CEQUEL and its subscales showed moderate to acceptable Cronbach's α (range: 0.52-0.78. 53% of caregivers reported patients suffering more than expected. Higher CEQUEL scores were positively associated with therapeutic alliance (ρ = .13; p≤.05 and hospice enrollment (z = -2.09; p≤.05, and negatively associated with bereaved caregiver regret (ρ = -.36, p≤.001 and a diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (z = -2.06; p≤.05. CONCLUSION: CEQUEL is a brief, valid measure of quality of EOL care from the caregiver's perspective. It is the first scale to include perceived suffering and prolongation of death. If validated in future work, it may prove a useful quality indicator for the delivery of EOL care and a risk indicator for poor bereavement adjustment.

  9. Galaxies appear simpler than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M J; Romano, J D; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-10-23

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology. PMID:18948949

  10. Juvenile xanthogranuloma with lichenoid appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kozo; Demitsu, Toshio; Kubota, Yasuo

    2012-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranulomas are benign histiocytic cell tumors that develop mainly in infancy and early childhood and then spontaneously regress. We report a 2-year-old boy who presented with generalized eruption of a mixture of micronodular and macronodular juvenile xanthogranuloma with a large number of widely distributed lichenoid papules. Light microscopic and immunocytochemical analyses of the lesion were consistent with juvenile xanthogranuloma. Abdominal ultrasonography did not detect any visceral lesions, and brain magnetic resonance imaging did not detect any mass lesions. We decided to observe the course without treatment in this case because there are no internal masses of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Regular follow up has therefore been scheduled. To our knowledge, this is the third report of a case demonstrating juvenile xanthogranuloma with lichenoid appearance. Future analyses of various cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or tumor necrosis factor-α in juvenile xanthogranuloma lesions should be of great help in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:21980990

  11. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  12. Depression: Relationships to Clothing and Appearance Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubler, Mary Lynn Johnson; Gurel, Lois M.

    1984-01-01

    Using a mood scale, a measure of the intensity of depression, and ideal and perceived clothing and appearance self-concept scales, researchers collected data from two groups of women over a 28-day time span. One conclusion was that clothing may be used in an attempt to boost self-concept and mood. (JB)

  13. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015

  14. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations, on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  15. Typically the Best? Perceived Typicality and Aesthetic Appraisal of Product Appearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is investigated how the current knowledge that people possess about a certain product category influences perception and aesthetic appraisal of product appearances within this product category. Through the reoccurring exposure to product appearances in everyday life people f

  16. Impact of coated windows on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    of a pilot study that investigated the impact of six coated glazings on daylight conditions in scale models. The study focused primarily on visual perception. Generally, the pilot study indicated that some types of coated glazings (especially solar protective coatings) significantly affect the perception...... of brightness and colours in a space. Overall, the study shows that coated glazings may moderately affect the perception details, slightly affect the perception of glare from window and do not affect the perception of shadows on and around objects in the room. The results also suggest that the perception...

  17. Hydrography, 24k DLG Streams --This data set represents the streams and rivers in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming that appear on the 1:24,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1989. It is described as '24k...

  18. Railroad Lines, This data set represents the railroads in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1985, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1985. It is described as...

  19. Hydrography, 100K DLG lakes --This data set represents water bodies in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 1989, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1989. It is described as '100K...

  20. ROC analysis for comparing contrast perception in case of inversion of grey scale values of digital X-ray film images. ROC-Analyse zum Vergleich der Kontrastwahrnehmung bei Grauwertinvertierung digitaler Bilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelken, W.; Krahe, T.; Landwehr, P.; Lackner, K. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik); Horwitz, A.E. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Kinderradiologie)

    1991-01-01

    Based on ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis, contrast perception by eight physicians engaged in X-ray diagnostics for different lenghts of time was examined in respect of inversion of grey scale values of digital X-ray film images. The ROC analysis showed a significantly superior contrast perception for imaging by the negative mode (bones white) than by the positive mode (bones black). With r{sup *} = +0,61 a positive correlation was obtained between the period of the physicians' activity in X-ray diagnostics and the difference between the areas below the ROC curves for both imaging modes. Hence, the negative mode is to be preferred for diagnostic work based on digital X-ray film images. (orig.).

  1. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Linford

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. Methods A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'. Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking; 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect; and 'price inelastic' (no change for either. Results Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect the most common outcome (62%. Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30 or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41 were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57% while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P Conclusions Lower pricing increases alcohol consumption, and the alcohol industry's continued focus on discounting sales encourages higher drinking levels. International evidence suggests increasing the price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve

  2. Workplace safety perceptions and perceived organizational support: do supportive perceptions influence safety perceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between organizational safety climate and perceived organizational support. Additionally, it examined the relationship with job satisfaction, worker compliance with safety management policies, and accident frequency. Safety climate and supportive perceptions were assessed with Hayes, Perander, Smecko, et al. 's (1998) and Eisenberger, Fasolo and LaMastro's (1990) scales respectively. Confirmatory factors analysis confirmed the 5-factor structure of Hayes et al. 's WSS scale. Regression analysis and t-tests indicated that workers with positive perspectives regarding supportive perceptions similarly expressed positive perceptions concerning workplace safety. Furthermore, they expressed greater job satisfaction, were more compliant with safety management policies, and registered lower accident rates. The perceived level of support in an organization is apparently closely associated with workplace safety perception and other organizational and social factors which are important for safety. The results are discussed in light of escalating interest in how organizational factors affect employee safety and supportive perceptions. PMID:17599793

  3. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to CIE CAM02 Colour Appearance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Tomić; Dragoljub Novaković, Ivana Tomić

    2010-01-01

    Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In...

  4. A Simplification Algorithm Based On Appearance Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a new simplification algorithm named EQEM which is based on the QEM algorith to simplify geometry model with texture. The algorithm used a new framework to integrate geometry and texture factor into simplification process. In the framework, an error metric descriptor is described in detail. Firstly, Gauss curvature of the vertex should be calculated to assure good geometry similarity. Then, the descriptor take into account the visual importance in the simplification. In this way, we introduce a method of edge detection algorithm in image processing, which use mallat wavelet method to quickly extract the distinct edges from a texture image. Also, we compute the color distance of the vertices which are not belonged to any edges as the supplement of the metric descriptor. Experiment prove the simplification can make the sharp-simplified model keep similar appearance. For the descriptor is extended from the QEM error metric and can also be calculated by matrix multiplication, the algorithm is with high efficiency. After all, for all the parameters in the error metric formula are adjustable, algorithm can fit for different type of the mesh models and simplification scale.

  5. Chemosensory communication of gender information: Masculinity bias in body odor perception and femininity bias introduced by chemosignals during social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana eMutic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes and affective introspection (mood by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in association with both male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication.

  6. Discrimination of facial appearance stimuli in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich; Adam-Schwebe, Stefanie; Müller, Thomas; Wolter, Manfred

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) propose that information-processing biases--in particular, selective attention to a defect in one's appearance as well as improved aesthetical perception--might contribute to the development or maintenance of the disorder. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that patients with BDD discriminate facial appearance stimuli more accurately than controls. Sixty female patients from a dermatological clinic participated in the study: 21 patients with BDD, 19 patients with disfiguring dermatological conditions, and 20 patients with nondisfiguring dermatological disorders. Participants rated dissimilarities between pictures of neutral faces that had been manipulated with regard to aesthetic characteristics. Manipulation ratings of participants with BDD were significantly more accurate than those of both control groups. Implications of these results for cognitive theories of BDD are discussed.

  7. An item response theory analysis of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children or why strong clinical scales should be distrusted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343) w

  8. Colour appearance descriptors for image browsing and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Aniza; Martinez, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the development of whole-scene colour appearance descriptors for classification to be used in browsing applications. The descriptors can classify a whole-scene image into various categories of semantically-based colour appearance. Colour appearance is an important feature and has been extensively used in image-analysis, retrieval and classification. By using pre-existing global CIELAB colour histograms, firstly, we try to develop metrics for whole-scene colour appearance: "colour strength", "high/low lightness" and "multicoloured". Secondly we propose methods using these metrics either alone or combined to classify whole-scene images into five categories of appearance: strong, pastel, dark, pale and multicoloured. Experiments show positive results and that the global colour histogram is actually useful and can be used for whole-scene colour appearance classification. We have also conducted a small-scale human evaluation test on whole-scene colour appearance. The results show, with suitable threshold settings, the proposed methods can describe the whole-scene colour appearance of images close to human classification. The descriptors were tested on thousands of images from various scenes: paintings, natural scenes, objects, photographs and documents. The colour appearance classifications are being integrated into an image browsing system which allows them to also be used to refine browsing.

  9. Changes in Appearance in the Presence of Major Stress Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Stitz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between experiencing major stress events (MSEs and changes in appearance (CAs was studied in a sample of 128 participants. All participants completed the Major Stress Event and Changes in Appearance Inventory. Results indicated a significant correlation between experiencing MSEs and considered or actual CAs (r = .50 p < .01. Scores on the Changes in Appearance Inventory were significantly higher in groups with moderate to high scores on the Major Stress Event scale. This relationship between MSEs and CAs was affected by age but not gender. These results suggest that stressful life events may prompt body image dissatisfaction and underlie motivations for changes in body appearance to promote self-image. Successive or dramatic appearance changes may be an important signal of stressful experiences.

  10. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  11. Illness perceptions and coping determine quality of life in COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Gaab, Erin; Voorhaar, Maarten; Asijee, Guus; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2016-01-01

    Background A key goal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care is to improve patients’ quality of life (QoL). For outcomes such as QoL, illness perceptions and coping are important determinants. Aim The primary aim was to assess the associations between illness perceptions, coping and QoL in COPD patients. A secondary aim was to compare illness perceptions and coping of patients with reference values derived from the literature. Patients and methods A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), the Utrecht Proactive Coping Competence scale (UPCC), and a QoL item. Correlations and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Student’s t-tests were used to compare patients with COPD with reference values derived from the literature. Results Patients with better understanding of COPD utilized more proactive coping strategies (P=0.04). A more intense emotional response to COPD was related to less proactive coping (P=0.02). Patients who reported using more proactive coping techniques also reported to have a better QoL (Ppositive illness perceptions were related to a better QoL (all P<0.05). Patients with COPD reported more negative illness perceptions than people with a common cold or patients with asthma (all P<0.01), but reported similar perceptions compared with patients with diabetes. Conclusion Patients with COPD reported a moderate QoL, but appeared to be proficient in proactive coping. Illness perceptions, coping, and QoL were all associated with each other. Patients reported more strongly affected illness perceptions compared to people with a cold and patients with asthma. We postulate that a self-management intervention targeting patients’ illness perceptions leads to improved QoL. PMID:27601893

  12. Biophysics of food perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  13. Social context effects on pupils' perception of school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.H.; Hofman, W.H.A.; Guldemond, H

    2001-01-01

    In this study we test the effects of three social contexts of learning on the affective outcomes of schooling, in this case pupils' perception of their primary school. The concept of pupils' school perception is measured using a reliable scale. This scale contains items to measure pupils' perception

  14. Neural scaling laws for an uncertain world

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    The Weber-Fechner law describes the form of psychological space in many behavioral experiments involving perception of one-dimensional physical quantities. If the physical quantity is expressed using multiple neural receptors, then placing receptive fields evenly along a logarithmic scale naturally leads to the psychological Weber-Fechner law. In the visual system, the spacing and width of extrafoveal receptive fields are consistent with logarithmic scaling. Other sets of neural "receptors" appear to show the same qualitative properties, suggesting that this form of neural scaling reflects a solution to a very general problem. This paper argues that these neural scaling laws enable the brain to represent information about the world efficiently without making any assumptions about the statistics of the world. This analysis suggests that the organization of neural scales to represent one-dimensional quantities, including more abstract quantities such as numerosity, time, and allocentric space, should have a uni...

  15. Social perception of nursing professional assessed by different scales Percepción social de profesionales de enfermería evaluada mediante diferentes escalas Percepção social de profissionais de enfermagem avaliada por meio de diferentes escalas

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa; Priscilla Hortense

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to scale the social perception of nurses through the methods of magnitude estimation, category estimation and cross-modality matching (line lengths). The study participants were high school and undergraduate students, active and retired medicine, psychology, nursing and dentistry professionals. Results revealed that: (1) the characteristics neat, responsible, clean, careful and efficacious occupied the first positions in terms of nurses' social perceptions, ...

  16. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  17. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  18. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  19. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D

    1977-12-01

    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  20. Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

  1. Brand perception

    OpenAIRE

    NOSKOVÁ, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work was to analyze the perception of selected brands from the customer's perspective and from the perspective of brand founder called Regional Agrarian Chamber of the South Bohemian Region. To determine the attitudes of opinion on brand perception by the customer, I developed a questionnaire survey using semantic differential. First hypothesis, which argues that the selection of food plays an important role in regional mark at least half of the respondents, was refut...

  2. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  3. Measured appearance energies of Cn+ (3 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used mass spectrometric techniques to determine the appearance energies for the formation of small, singly charged Cn+ fragment ions (3 60 under single collision conditions. The measured appearance energies range from 79 eV (C3+) to 91 eV (C10+) and show, within the experimental error bar of ± 5 eV, little variation with the cluster size. This result is distinctly different from the behaviour of the previously measured appearance energies for the large fragment ions C58+ to C44+ and indicates that the small fragment ions are the result of a different fragmentation pathway. (author)

  4. "Let's talk about OA pain": a qualitative analysis of the perceptions of people suffering from OA. Towards the development of a specific pain OA-Related questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cedraschi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients' descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. RESULTS: TWO MAIN POINTS EMERGED FROM CONTENT ANALYSES: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one's self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. SUMMARY: In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to

  5. Breast Hemangioma: MR Appearance with Histopathological Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Ameen; Uday Mandalia; Amanda (Anne) Marr; Paula Mckensie

    2012-01-01

    Breast hemangioma is a rare tumor and when small, it may be difficult to diagnose using conventional imaging techniques. In this report the MR appearance is described with histopathological correlation.

  6. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrate...... that especially one of the six SNPs are correlated with iris appearance. To perform this analysis we need a method to model the iris appearance, and we suggest an iris characterization based on a bag of visual words, which gives us a similarity measure between images of eyes. We have a dataset of 215 eye images...... are performed supporting that this SNP is very important for eye color expression. With the suggested image characterizations we are able to investigate the correlation between the phenotypic iris appearance and specific SNPs. This has potential for further investigation of the relation between DNA and iris...

  7. Racial Appearance And Income In Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutilio Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, income and European appearance are strongly positively correlated. Racist attitudes, overt preference for the European appearance and high unemployment combine to maintain this racial economic hierarchy. Free market policies could help to reduce the racial economic inequality. These policies, however, go against the economic interests of the wealthy white oligarchy and against the prevailing political ideology of the dark skinned lower classes. Thus, the current racial economic inequality, with its negative economic consequences, is likely to continue.

  8. FAME - A Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    Combined modelling of pixel intensities and shape has proven to be a very robust and widely applicable approach to interpret images. As such the Active Appearance Model (AAM) framework has been applied to a wide variety of problems within medical image analysis. This paper summarises AAM applications within medicine and describes a public domain implementation, namely the Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment (FAME). We give guidelines for the use of this research platform, and show that ...

  9. POEMS syndrome: radiographic appearance with MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Suzanne T. [Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beasley, H.S. [Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Daffner, Richard H. [Allegheny General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal/Trauma Radiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2006-09-15

    POEMS syndrome is a rare disorder in which patients present with the hallmark signs of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes. Many other clinical findings are also often present, most notably osseous lesions. The MRI appearance of the bony lesions in POEMS syndrome has been described in five cases, four of which are in the non-English literature. We report the MRI appearance of the osseous lesions in a patient with POEMS syndrome who presented with sciatic neuropathy. (orig.)

  10. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to determine the effect of external apple vinegar application on the symptoms and social appearance anxiety of varicosity patients who were suggested conservative treatment. Method. The study was planned as an experimental, randomized, and controlled study. 120 patients were randomly selected and then were randomly allocated to either experimental or control group by simple blind random sampling method. In the collection of research data, a questionnaire questioning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS were used. The patients in the study group were suggested to apply apple vinegar to the area of the leg with varicosity alongside the treatment suggested by the doctor. The patients in the control group received no intervention during the study. Results. The sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of both groups were found to be similar (p>0.05. The patients were evaluated with regard to cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, and weight feelings in the leg, VAS, and SAAS averages in the second evaluation; the control group had a decrease in such symptoms (p>0.05 although the decrease in the application group was higher and statistically meaningful (p<0.05. Conclusion. We determined that the external application of apple vinegar on varicosity patients, which is a very easy application, increased the positive effects of conservative treatment.

  11. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  12. Public Perception of Forestry Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article endeavours to assess public perceptions about the importance of forests for young people in the age group of 21-35 years in Malaysia based on 1,503 reliably answered interviews. Overall patterns show that timber production and environment protection are very important attributes among this age group. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm plantations and political interference appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have on overall negative impact on sustainable forestry in Malaysia. Increasing information accessibility, awareness and experience in the forest of the young people could ultimately result in positive processes.

  13. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  14. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  15. Attire and appearance of pediatrician: parents'/guardians' opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichur, D V; Deshpande, R V; Chandragouda, D K; Savitha, D

    2001-05-01

    Professional appearance of a pediatrician is an important element affecting the perception of competence of the doctor among patients and their parents/guardians, thus influencing their compliance. As there is no study on this issue addressing the Indian scene, we requested responses to a questionnaire containing 15 questions from the parents/guardians of the children. The purpose of the study was to assess their opinion regarding attire and appearance of pediatricians. Five each of the questions were related to common aspects of appearance and attire of the pediatrician in general and that of the male and the female pediatrician in particular. A total of 210 parents/guardians responded to see the question listed in the questionnaire. Assertive responses to each question were analysed for any association with the following categories--Urban, Rural, Males, Females, Urban Males, Rural Males, Urban Females, Rural Females, age below 40 years and age 40 years or more. Majority of the total assertive respondents preferred a formal/traditional attire and appearance for the pediatrician. Although most of the above categories concurred with this general opinion, some categories showed statistically significant, but practically unimportant, differences in the extent of agreement. The respondents generally favoured a white coat and nameplate on the pediatrician, shoes and a necktie for the male pediatrician and saree for the female pediatrician. They did not approve clothes with bizarre designs, use of perfumes by the pediatrician, long hair, T-shirts and jeans pant for the male pediatrician, chudidar, lipstick and other make-ups, costly jewelery and short hair for the female pediatrician. PMID:11407155

  16. Facial action detection using block-based pyramid appearance descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel F.; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Facial expression is one of the most important non-verbal behavioural cues in social signals. Constructing an effective face representation from images is an essential step for successful facial behaviour analysis. Most existing face descriptors operate on the same scale, and do not leverage coarse v.s. fine methods such as image pyramids. In this work, we propose the sparse appearance descriptors Block-based Pyramid Local Binary Pattern (B-PLBP) and Block-based Pyramid Local Phase Quantisati...

  17. Perceptions of key business and financial risk by large-scale sugarcane farmers in KwaZulu-Natal in a dynamic socio-political environment

    OpenAIRE

    MacNicol, R.; Ortmann, Gerald F.; Ferrer, Stuart R.D.

    2007-01-01

    This study identifies sources of risk that commercial sugarcane farmers in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, presently perceive to pose the greatest threat to the viability of their businesses. Sugarcane contributes approximately 82% of the income from field crops in KZN, with 72% of the crop planted by large-scale growers. Data obtained in 2006 via structured personal interviews of 76 large-scale sugarcane farmers from a stratified random sample of 110 farmers in two separat...

  18. The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarimo Edith AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination

  19. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  20. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; 10.1088/0264-9381/27/21/215017

    2011-01-01

    We study optical phenomena related to appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by the string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by the standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by the string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with descending spin. This behavior differs substantially from appearance of discs orbit...

  1. Interactive Appearance Prediction for Cloudy Beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim;

    2016-01-01

    Juice appearance is important to consumers, so digital juice with a slider that varies a production parameter or changes juice content is useful. It is however challenging to render juice with scattering particles quickly and accurately. As a case study, we create an appearance model that provides...... the optical properties needed for rendering of unfiltered apple juice. This is a scattering medium that requires volume path tracing as the scattering is too much for single scattering techniques and too little for subsurface scattering techniques. We investigate techniques to provide a progressive...... interactive appearance prediction tool for this type of medium. Our renderings are validated by qualitative and quantitative comparison with photographs. Visual comparisons using our interactive tool enable us to estimate the apple particle concentration of a photographed apple juice....

  2. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits. PMID:19762717

  3. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  4. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  5. Young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals: The prospective role of appearance investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Rodgers, Rachel F; Frisén, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Appearance investment has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction. Despite this, few studies have explored men's investment in their appearance. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine appearance investment as a prospective predictor of young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals. A community sample of 187 young men participated in a study at ages 21 and 24. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that appearance investment, as hypothesized, was a prospective predictor of increases in leanness orientation, media-ideal internalization, and muscularity behaviors. However, appearance investment did not predict increases in muscularity dissatisfaction. The present findings highlight the importance of including appearance investment in sociocultural models of the development of men's body image, and suggest that appearance investment may be an important target variable to consider when designing body dissatisfaction prevention and intervention programs tailored to young men. PMID:26523688

  6. GROUPING OBJECTS BASED ON THEIR APPEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamirano Robles Luis Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of clustering algorithms for partition to establish a hierarchical structure in a library of object models based on appearance is deployed. The main contribution corresponds to a novel and intuitive algorithm for clustering of models based on their appearance, closer to “human behavior”. This divides the complete set into subclasses. Immediately, divides each of these in a number of predefined groups to complete the levels of hierarchy that the user wants. Whose main purpose is to obtain a competitive classification compared to what a human would perform.

  7. Drivers' perception of vulnerable road users: a hazard perception approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Meir, Anat; Parmet, Yisrael

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined how experienced and young-inexperienced drivers (either trained in hazard perception or not) respond to and identify pedestrians when they appear in residential roads within populated neighborhoods and in urban roads located outside neighborhoods and usually less populated. As part of a hazard perception test, participants were connected to an eye tracking system and were asked to observe 58 traffic scene movies and press a response button each time they detected a hazardous situation. Analyzing all pedestrian-related events revealed that, regardless of driving experience or training, drivers detect pedestrians less often when they appear in urban areas and more often when they appear in residential areas. Moreover, experienced drivers processed information more efficiently than young-inexperienced drivers (both trained and untrained) when pedestrians were identified. Visual search patterns in urban and residential traffic environments are discussed.

  8. Media Contributions to African American Girls' Focus on Beauty and Appearance: Exploring the Consequences of Sexual Objectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maya K.

    2008-01-01

    The media are dominated by images of women as sex objects whose value is based on their appearance. These portrayals can potentially limit girls' self-perceptions and influence their attitudes regarding the importance of appearance. However, relatively little is known about how African American adolescent girls are affected by these images. Using…

  9. Object knowledge changes visual appearance: semantic effects on color afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    According to predictive coding models of perception, what we see is determined jointly by the current input and the priors established by previous experience, expectations, and other contextual factors. The same input can thus be perceived differently depending on the priors that are brought to bear during viewing. Here, I show that expected (diagnostic) colors are perceived more vividly than arbitrary or unexpected colors, particularly when color input is unreliable. Participants were tested on a version of the 'Spanish Castle Illusion' in which viewing a hue-inverted image renders a subsequently shown achromatic version of the image in vivid color. Adapting to objects with intrinsic colors (e.g., a pumpkin) led to stronger afterimages than adapting to arbitrarily colored objects (e.g., a pumpkin-colored car). Considerably stronger afterimages were also produced by scenes containing intrinsically colored elements (grass, sky) compared to scenes with arbitrarily colored objects (books). The differences between images with diagnostic and arbitrary colors disappeared when the association between the image and color priors was weakened by, e.g., presenting the image upside-down, consistent with the prediction that color appearance is being modulated by color knowledge. Visual inputs that conflict with prior knowledge appear to be phenomenologically discounted, but this discounting is moderated by input certainty, as shown by the final study which uses conventional images rather than afterimages. As input certainty is increased, unexpected colors can become easier to detect than expected ones, a result consistent with predictive-coding models. PMID:26386775

  10. Crowding, grouping, and object recognition: A matter of appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Sayim, Bilge; Chicherov, Vitaly; Manassi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, the perception of a target strongly deteriorates when neighboring elements are presented. Crowding is usually assumed to have the following characteristics. (a) Crowding is determined only by nearby elements within a restricted region around the target (Bouma's law). (b) Increasing the number of flankers can only deteriorate performance. (c) Target-flanker interference is feature-specific. These characteristics are usually explained by pooling models, which are well in the spirit of classic models of object recognition. In this review, we summarize recent findings showing that crowding is not determined by the above characteristics, thus, challenging most models of crowding. We propose that the spatial configuration across the entire visual field determines crowding. Only when one understands how all elements of a visual scene group with each other, can one determine crowding strength. We put forward the hypothesis that appearance (i.e., how stimuli look) is a good predictor for crowding, because both crowding and appearance reflect the output of recurrent processing rather than interactions during the initial phase of visual processing.

  11. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  12. Minority mothers' perceptions of children's body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to investigate African-American and Hispanic mothers' perceptions of their children's body size using a scale with child figure silhouettes and compare those perceptions with their children's actual body mass index. A set of child figure silhouettes was developed depic...

  13. 借鉴德尔菲法研制住院患者感知护理服务质量评价量表%Study of the evaluation scale of patients' perception on nursing service quality by Delphi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎成美; 赵璧; 潘多

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the evaluation scale of patients' perception on nursing service quality.Methods The 15 valuateator included specialist who were engaged in clinical nursing,nursing administration and quality administration,clinical nurses and hospitalized patients.Their opinions and suggestions on the designing of scale were considered,the scale of content and form wer determined,then pre-test measurement table was formulated.Results After two times of expert consultation,the author constructed the tangiblity,reliability,responsibility rguarantee and care of five dimensions of 33 items.The overall coefficient of authoritative experts was 0.91,Cronbach' s a was 0.96 and the content validity (CVR) was 0.86.Conclusions Delphi method for designing perception of nursing service quality in patients with scale shows high rehabihty,perfect quality management system,and is helpful to guide patients to involve in the management of hospital.%目的 研制住院患者感知护理服务质量评价量表.方法 借鉴德尔菲法,选取15名多年从事临床护理及护理管理和质量管理工作的专家,以及多年从事临床工作的一线护理人员和住院患者作为量表的评价者,听取其对量表设计的意见和建议,确定量表的内容和形式,形成预试量表.结果 经过2轮专家咨询,构建出了包含有形性、可靠性、响应性、保证性和关怀性共5个维度,33个条目的 预试量表,专家总体权威系数0.91,量表总的Cronbach's a系数为0.96,内容效度比CVR为0.86.结论 借鉴德尔菲法设计住院患者感知护理服务质量评价量表,具有较高的可靠性,对完善质量管理体系,引导患者积极地参与到医院的管理中来具有现实意义.

  14. Attentional Effects on Phenomenological Appearance: How They Change with Task Instructions and Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that exogenous cues accentuate contrast appearance. The empirical finding is controversial because non-veridical perception challenges the idea that attention prioritizes processing resources to make perception better, and because philosophers have used the finding to challenge representational accounts of mental experience. The present experiments confirm that when evaluated with comparison paradigms exogenous cues increase the apparent contrast. In addition, contrast appearance was also changed by simply changing the purpose of a secondary task. When comparison and discrimination reports were combined in a single experiment there was a behavioral disassociation: contrast enhanced for comparison responses, but did not change for discrimination judgments, even when participants made both types of judgment for a single stimulus. That a single object can have multiple simultaneous appearances leads inescapably to the conclusion that our unitary mental experience is illusory.

  15. Attentional Effects on Phenomenological Appearance: How They Change with Task Instructions and Measurement Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Anderson

    Full Text Available It has been reported that exogenous cues accentuate contrast appearance. The empirical finding is controversial because non-veridical perception challenges the idea that attention prioritizes processing resources to make perception better, and because philosophers have used the finding to challenge representational accounts of mental experience. The present experiments confirm that when evaluated with comparison paradigms exogenous cues increase the apparent contrast. In addition, contrast appearance was also changed by simply changing the purpose of a secondary task. When comparison and discrimination reports were combined in a single experiment there was a behavioral disassociation: contrast enhanced for comparison responses, but did not change for discrimination judgments, even when participants made both types of judgment for a single stimulus. That a single object can have multiple simultaneous appearances leads inescapably to the conclusion that our unitary mental experience is illusory.

  16. MRI pattern recognition in multiple sclerosis normal-appearing brain areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weygandt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Here, we use pattern-classification to investigate diagnostic information for multiple sclerosis (MS; relapsing-remitting type in lesioned areas, areas of normal-appearing grey matter (NAGM, and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM as measured by standard MR techniques. METHODS: A lesion mapping was carried out by an experienced neurologist for Turbo Inversion Recovery Magnitude (TIRM images of individual subjects. Combining this mapping with templates from a neuroanatomic atlas, the TIRM images were segmented into three areas of homogenous tissue types (Lesions, NAGM, and NAWM after spatial standardization. For each area, a linear Support Vector Machine algorithm was used in multiple local classification analyses to determine the diagnostic accuracy in separating MS patients from healthy controls based on voxel tissue intensity patterns extracted from small spherical subregions of these larger areas. To control for covariates, we also excluded group-specific biases in deformation fields as a potential source of information. RESULTS: Among regions containing lesions a posterior parietal WM area was maximally informative about the clinical status (96% accuracy, p<10(-13. Cerebellar regions were maximally informative among NAGM areas (84% accuracy, p<10(-7. A posterior brain region was maximally informative among NAWM areas (91% accuracy, p<10(-10. INTERPRETATION: We identified regions indicating MS in lesioned, but also NAGM, and NAWM areas. This complements the current perception that standard MR techniques mainly capture macroscopic tissue variations due to focal lesion processes. Compared to current diagnostic guidelines for MS that define areas of diagnostic information with moderate spatial specificity, we identified hotspots of MS associated tissue alterations with high specificity defined on a millimeter scale.

  17. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  18. Tracking Eyes using Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nielsen, Mads; Hansen, John Paulin;

    2002-01-01

    multi-modal interactions based on video tracking systems. Robust methods are needed to track the eyes using web cameras due to the poor image quality. A real-time tracking scheme using a mean-shift color tracker and an Active Appearance Model of the eye is proposed. From this model, it is possible...

  19. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design ...

  20. FAME - A Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    applications within medicine and describes a public domain implementation, namely the Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment (FAME). We give guidelines for the use of this research platform, and show that the optimisation techniques used renders it applicable to interactive medical applications. To increase...

  1. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  2. Lit appearance modeling of illumination systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, R. John

    2002-09-01

    In illumination systems the look and feel are often more important than objective criterion, such as uniformity and efficiency. The reason for this is two fold: the lit appearance often sells an item and substantial variation in the illumination distribution (up to 50%) over a broad region is not noticeable to an observer. Therefore, subjective criterion, such as the lit appearance, typically plays a crucial role in the development of an illumination system. Additionally, by using computer models to ascertain the lit appearance before manufacture of the system, it allows the designer to modify the system while not demanding investment to produce prototypes. I discuss methods of determining the lit appearance for illumination systems. This modeling includes the inclusion of material and surface properties, such as surface finish, spectral transmission, and internal scattering; the response of the human eye; and the amount of rays that must be traced. By archiving the ray data, animations as a function of position and angle can be developed. Examples are developed to highlight the utility of this technique. These examples include taillights for the automotive industry and a backlit LCD screen for a laptop. Animations of these models demonstrate their luminance.

  3. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  4. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  5. Enhanced tau neutrino appearance through invisible decay

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliaroli, Giulia; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The decay of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to a change of the conversion and survival probability of neutrino flavor eigenstates. Remarkably, we find that the neutrino decay provides an enhancement of the expected tau appearance signal with respect to the standard oscillation scenario for the long-baseline OPERA experiment. The increase of the $\

  6. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  7. The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Purić Danka; Simić Nataša; Savanović Ljubomir; Kalanj Marko; Jovanović-Dačić Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction research, conducted on a sample of 133 high school seniors, consisted of two phases. In phase one, participants were given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Appearance Satisfaction Scale and Appearance Relevance Scale, and in phase two, one month later, they were exposed to photographs of attractive and unattractive individuals. Two groups of boys and girls each assessed attractive or unatt...

  8. Malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test at the community level in Ghana: consumer perception and practitioners’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Danquah, Daniel A.; Buabeng, Kwame O; Asante, Kwaku P; Mahama, Emmanuel; Bart-Plange, Constance; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Background Ghana has scaled-up malaria control strategies over the past decade. Much as malaria morbidity and mortality seem to have declined with these efforts, there appears to be increased consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study explored the perception and experiences of community members and medicines outlet practitioners on malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) to guide malaria therapy. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using both...

  9. Big Sites, Big Questions, Big Data, Big Problems: Scales of Investigation and Changing Perceptions of Archaeological Practice in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Wesson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since at least the 1930s, archaeological investigations in the southeastern United States have placed a priority on expansive, near-complete, excavations of major sites throughout the region. Although there are considerable advantages to such large–scale excavations, projects conducted at this scale are also accompanied by a series of challenges regarding the comparability, integrity, and consistency of data recovery, analysis, and publication. We examine the history of large–scale excavations in the southeast in light of traditional views within the discipline that the region has contributed little to the ‘big questions’ of American archaeology. Recently published analyses of decades old data derived from Southeastern sites reveal both the positive and negative aspects of field research conducted at scales much larger than normally undertaken in archaeology. Furthermore, given the present trend toward the use of big data in the social sciences, we predict an increased use of large pre–existing datasets developed during the New Deal and other earlier periods of archaeological practice throughout the region.

  10. Illness perceptions and coping determine quality of life in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemensma J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jitske Tiemensma,1 Erin Gaab,2 Maarten Voorhaar,3,4 Guus Asijee,3,5 Adrian A Kaptein6 1Psychological Sciences, 2Health Sciences Research Institute, University of California, Merced, CA, USA; 3Department of Family Medicine, Maastricht University, Care and Public Health Research Institute School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 4Boehringer Ingelheim, Alkmaar, the Netherlands; 5Boehringer Ingelheim, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Department of Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands Background: A key goal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD care is to improve patients’ quality of life (QoL. For outcomes such as QoL, illness perceptions and coping are important determinants.Aim: The primary aim was to assess the associations between illness perceptions, coping and QoL in COPD patients. A secondary aim was to compare illness perceptions and coping of patients with reference values derived from the literature.Patients and methods: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ, the Utrecht Proactive Coping Competence scale (UPCC, and a QoL item. Correlations and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Student’s t-tests were used to compare patients with COPD with reference values derived from the literature.Results: Patients with better understanding of COPD utilized more proactive coping strategies (P=0.04. A more intense emotional response to COPD was related to less proactive coping (P=0.02. Patients who reported using more proactive coping techniques also reported to have a better QoL (P<0.01. Illness perceptions were also related to QoL: more positive illness perceptions were related to a better QoL (all P<0.05. Patients with COPD reported more negative illness perceptions than people with a common cold or patients with asthma (all P<0.01, but reported similar

  11. HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT, especially HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia. Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with histologically proved localized organizing pneumonia were studied retrospectively. Results: The size of the lesions in nine cases varied from 2 to 4 cm (average 2.5 cm). Eight lesions were located in the peripheral lung parenchyma near the pleural surface. The lesions were detected as round in four, anomaly in five. The margin of six lesions had inward bow indentation. Infiltrating lesions in surrounding structures were found in four cases. Conclusion: The CT, especially HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia shows some features that can make most of them to be differentiated from other lesions

  12. PAPER’S APPEARANCE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article highlights progress in understanding the optical properties of paper. Paper’s appearance can be defined in terms of its opacity, brightness, color, fluorescent properties, gloss, and various quantities related to its uniformity. The phenomena that give rise to paper’s optical properties, especially its ability to scatter and absorb visible light, are highly dependent on paper’s structure and its chemical composition. In an effort to engineer low-cost products having relative high opacity and brightness, it is necessary to optimize the material selection and processing conditions. The dimensions of solid materials and void structures within the paper are key factors for optimizing the optical properties. In addition, additives including bleaching agents, mineral particles, dyes, and fluorescent whitening agents can impact paper’s optical properties Paper’s appearance depends, in subtle ways, on the processes of its manufacture.

  13. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  14. Primes Appearing in Prime Tower Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and consider a certain probability question involving elementary number theory and the likelihood that a fixed prime will appear in a certain recursively defined factorization of an integer. We derive several convergent infinite products for this probability, which we are unable to simplify to obtain closed form solutions. However, we are able to implement these formulas in the development of algorithms to obtain arbitrarily close rigorous bounds on the probabilities in question.

  15. Fracture of the orbit: computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main mechanisms of orbital fractures and their clinical symptoms are exposed. The computed tomographic appearance is described and the implication of computed tomography for therapeutic indications is evaluated as a function of clinical symptoms: visual impairment, anomaly of pupillary reaction to light, ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos and associated injuries such as intracranial hematomas. The role of computed tomography for the follow-up of these patients is considered

  16. Unusual imaging appearance of unicystic ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Kavitha Nadendla

    2012-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a mandibular cyst, but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastous epithelium lining part of the cystic cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. It accounts for 5-15% of all intraosseous ameloblastomas. We report a case of UA in a 35-year-old female with an unusual large multilocular (tennis racket) appearance on the right body of mandible and illustr...

  17. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  18. Disability, Appearance, politics. A comment from theology

    OpenAIRE

    Moldenhagen, Dag Helge

    2010-01-01

    Within western political culture an increasing emphasis has been placed on the anesthetization of life. One of the victims to this change is people with disability. People with disability now recognize a shift in political attitude. While change in “look” and “posture” earlier were tolerated as part of a human register of appearance, a shift of lifestyles and fashioned icons of beauty coupled with a logic of how citizens ought to be given status frame disability into a negative ...

  19. Appearance detection device for fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a device for detecting the appearance of fuel assemblies for a power plant, in which the device photographs corners of fuel assemblies by a TV-camera to perform detection with higher reliability. Namely, heretofore, fuel assembly to substantially square pillar shape for a BWR and a PWR has been rotated and one or two faces have been detected from the front by the TV-camera. In the present invention, a TV-camera used exclusively for corners is additionally disposed on or near the diagonal line of the corners. With such a constitution, corners of the fuel assemblies can be photographed simultaneously with the conventional appearance test. As a result, since appearance test for the front and the corners can be conducted at the same time, extremely effective detection can be conducted in terms of detection of a rupture of grids and prevention of dead angle. The corners of assemblies which tend to undergo damages upon charge/discharge of fuels can be detected carefully. Accordingly, a highly reliable detection can be conducted. (I.S.)

  20. La percepción social hacia las personas con síndrome de Down: la escala EPSD-1 The social perception of people with Down syndrome: the EPSD-1 scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Molina Saorín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, financiada por varias entidades, hemos diseñado un instrumento que permite conocer la percepción que tienen los estudiantes universitarios de Educación Física sobre las personas con síndrome de Down. Al instrumento lo hemos denominado escala de Pecepción Social hacia las personas con síndrome de Down EPSD-1, y en su diseño se recogen importantes variables psicosociales, al tiempo que se busca dar cuenta de sus propiedades para aplicarla a otros contextos. Tras un análisis factorial, ofrecemos diez grandes factores que abordan temas como la exclusión social de las personas con síndrome de Down, su autonomía e independencia, sus relaciones afectivo-sexuales, su aceptación social y educativa, su integración, la actitud familiar, la formación docente y el proteccionismo social hacia estas personas. La muestra inicial la componen 1.796 participantes y los resultados indican que se trata de un instrumento fiable y válido para su aplicación. Esta escala resulta de gran utilidad en el ámbito de las Ciencias Sociales, ofreciendo una relación latente con respecto a la formación inicial que, desde la universidad, se ofrece a los estudiantes universitarios. Mediante una metodología cuantitativa, los resultados muestran que sus propiedades psicométricas son altamente satisfactorias, motivo por el cual sugerimos realizar nuevos estudios longitudinales y transversales a partir de su uso aplicado a diferentes poblaciones, con objeto de profundizar sobre la percepción social hacia las personas con síndrome de Down, aportando datos sobre la tendencia y evolución al respecto en los últimos años.In this research, which was financed by several institutions, we have designed an instrument that allows us to know the perception that university students of Physical Education have of people with Down syndrome. We have called this instrument the scale of Social Perception of people with Down syndrome EPSD-1, and in its

  1. Correlates of perceptual distortions in clinical and non-clinical populations using the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS): associations with anxiety and depression and a re-validation using a representative population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vaughan; Halligan, Peter W; Pugh, Katherine; Freeman, Daniel

    2011-10-30

    Although the literature on hallucinations in psychiatric patients shows clear links with anxiety and depression, associations of affect with a wider array of anomalous perceptual experiences have been much less studied. This study investigated patients with psychosis (N=29) and a non-clinical population (N=193) using the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS), a measure of perceptual distortion and associated distress, intrusiveness and frequency; along with measures of depression, anxiety and worry. The study also allowed a re-validation of the CAPS in a more representative sample of the UK population. Moderate, reliable correlations with depression, anxiety and worry were found in the non-clinical population with the association being stronger in psychotic patients. The study re-confirmed that anomalous perceptual experiences are common in the general population and that a significant minority (11.9%) have higher levels than the mean of psychotic patients. Scale reliability and validity were also re-confirmed, and the CAPS score was found to be unrelated to age or gender in either sample. As in the original study, factor analysis produced a three-factor solution, although factor theme was not fully replicated: as before, a cluster of first-rank symptoms emerged, but with equivocal evidence for a temporal lobe factor and no replication of a 'chemosensation' component. PMID:21703692

  2. Task usefulness affects perception of rivalrous images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Adrien; Mamassian, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    In bistable perception, several interpretations of the same physical stimulus are perceived in alternation. If one interpretation appears to help the observer to be successful in an auxiliary task, will that interpretation be seen more often than the other? We addressed this question using rivalrous stimuli. One of the elicited percepts presented an advantage for a separate visual search task that was run in close temporal proximity to the rivalry task. We found that the percept that was useful for the search task became dominant over the alternate percept. Observers were not aware of the manipulation that made one percept more useful, which suggests that usefulness was learned implicitly. The learning influenced only the first percept of each rivalrous presentation, but the bias persisted even when the useful percept was no longer useful. The long-lasting aspect of the effect distinguishes it from other documented attentional effects on bistable perception. Therefore, using implicit learning, we demonstrated that task usefulness can durably change the appearance of a stimulus.

  3. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  4. How far away is that? It depends on you: Perception accounts for the abilities of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Richard A; Weidler, Blaire J

    2015-08-01

    Perception is believed to scale the world to reflect one's own capabilities for action-objects that are more effortful to obtain are perceived as further away. Somewhat surprisingly, perception is also influenced by observing another person attempt an action, even though others cannot directly alter one's own capabilities. It is unknown, however, whether the effects of observation reflect a simulation of one acting as if from the perspective of the actor, or whether they reflect simulation of the potential effects of the actor on the environment, but from the observer's own point of view. In 2 experiments, we had an actor and an observer view a scene from opposing viewpoints. Enhancement of the actor's capabilities to reach a target object caused the target to appear further from the observer. Thus, in addition to indexing one's own capabilities, the perceptual system also scales the world to account for the potential effects of others. PMID:25984589

  5. Body Satisfaction and Physical Appearance in Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Haraldsen, Ira R H; Dikmans, Rieky E G; Cerwenka, Susanne C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were included into the study. Data were collected before the start of clinical gender-confirming interventions. Sexual orientation was measured via a semi-structured interview whereas onset age was based on clinician report. Body satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Scale. Congruence of appearance with the experienced gender was measured by means of a clinician rating. Overall, FtMs had a more positive body image than MtFs. Besides genital dissatisfaction, problem areas for MtFs included posture, face, and hair, whereas FtMs were mainly dissatisfied with hip and chest regions. Clinicians evaluated the physical appearance to be more congruent with the experienced gender in FtMs than in MtFs. Within the MtF group, those with early onset GD and an androphilic sexual orientation had appearances more in line with their gender identity. In conclusion, body image problems in GD go beyond sex characteristics only. An incongruent physical appearance may result in more difficult psychological adaptation and in more exposure to discrimination and stigmatization. PMID:26474976

  6. Body Satisfaction and Physical Appearance in Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Haraldsen, Ira R H; Dikmans, Rieky E G; Cerwenka, Susanne C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were included into the study. Data were collected before the start of clinical gender-confirming interventions. Sexual orientation was measured via a semi-structured interview whereas onset age was based on clinician report. Body satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Scale. Congruence of appearance with the experienced gender was measured by means of a clinician rating. Overall, FtMs had a more positive body image than MtFs. Besides genital dissatisfaction, problem areas for MtFs included posture, face, and hair, whereas FtMs were mainly dissatisfied with hip and chest regions. Clinicians evaluated the physical appearance to be more congruent with the experienced gender in FtMs than in MtFs. Within the MtF group, those with early onset GD and an androphilic sexual orientation had appearances more in line with their gender identity. In conclusion, body image problems in GD go beyond sex characteristics only. An incongruent physical appearance may result in more difficult psychological adaptation and in more exposure to discrimination and stigmatization.

  7. Appearance of catharsis phenomenon in the arabesque genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Mustan Dönmez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was composed to tackle the appearange of catharsis, psychologic and ethic phenomenon, in arabesque music that is emerged after 1960’s in Turkey. At first, catharsis was defined in the context of philosophical and artistic meaning as soul’s pufication from its passion by means of sensation of pathos and fear in tragedy art. After, it was determined that catharsis phenomenon also becomes owing to music and its elements such as melody, ritm, harmony, lyrics provide to become the catharsis phenomenon by means of tension and relaxation circumstance which contain knot and solution. It was determined that not only suburb culture, which is resulted from rapid and unplanned urbanization, but also Middle Eastern’s deep-rooted musical tradition is reason of appearing the arabesque music as a sociological affair; it was also determined that sadness and pain arising from rapid and unplanned urbanization provided cathartic quality to arabesque. Lastly, appearing of catharsis in the two main elements of arabesque music, lyrics and melody, was analysed. This study was constituted by means of the disciplines of musicology, philosophy and sociology. After catharsis phenomenon was analysed etymologicaly and philosophicaly, it was emphasized that its appearance in music. Then, a small-scale sociological debate was initiated about genesis causes of arabesque and its general characteristics. Lastly, the appearance of this phenomenon in arabesque was shown throught the medium of melodic and lyric structural analysing.

  8. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    fundamentally lacking in their physiological development due to possibly altered circadian rhythms, including arhythmy and asynchrony. Time measurement, based on the repetition of discontinuity at regular intervals, involves also a spatial representation. It is our own trajectory through space-time, and thus our own motion, including the physiological process of aging, that affords us a representation of the passing of time, just as the countryside seems to be moving past us when we travel in a vehicle. Chinese and Indian societies actually have circular representations of time, and linear representations of time and its trajectory through space-time are currently a feature of Western societies. Circular time is collective time, and its metaphysical representations go beyond the life of a single individual, referring to the cyclical, or at least nonlinear, nature of time. Linear time is individual time, in that it refers to the scale of a person's lifetime, and it is physically represented by an arrow flying ineluctably from the past to the future. An intermediate concept can be proposed that acknowledges the existence of linear time involving various arrows of time corresponding to different lifespans (human, animal, plant, planet lifespans, etc.). In fact, the very notion of time would depend on the trajectory of each arrow of time, like shooting stars in the sky with different trajectory lengths which would define different time scales. The time scale of these various lifespans are very different (for example, a few decades for humans and a few days or hours for insects). It would not make sense to try to understand the passage of time experienced by an insect which may live only a few hours based on a human time scale. One hour in an insect's life cannot be compared to one experienced by a human. Yet again, it appears that there is a coexistence of different clocks based here on different lifespans. Finally, the evolution of our society focused on the present moment and

  9. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Schee, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.c, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.c [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-07

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a {approx} 1.

  10. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2010-11-01

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a ~ 1.

  11. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  12. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  13. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  14. Unusual imaging appearance of unicystic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kavitha Nadendla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a mandibular cyst, but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastous epithelium lining part of the cystic cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. It accounts for 5-15% of all intraosseous ameloblastomas. We report a case of UA in a 35-year-old female with an unusual large multilocular (tennis racket appearance on the right body of mandible and illustrate the importance and complexity of differential diagnosis with a brief review of recent literature.

  15. Auger electron appearance potential spectrum of Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons are accelerated onto a solid polycrystalline Ni surface. These primary electrons interact with the surface to produce one of two phenomena: x-ray fluorescence, or Auger electron emission. Auger Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy (AEAPS) is a process by which the Auger component of the secondary electron flux is analysed to extract qualitative information about the electronic structure of the empty conduction band states. In AEAPS, the threshold behavior of the Auger transitions is examined by taking the first derivative of the secondary electron current with respect to the incident electron energy using the potential modulation technique. Width of the empty band, degree of localization of the conduction band wave functions, overlapping of the 3d band with the 4s, and satellite phenomena are among the important parameters ascertainable by AEAPS. The present AEAPS measurements of L3 levels of Ni are compared with the reported data from Soft X-ray Appear nce Potential Spectroscopy (SXAPS) of Ni. SXAPS is a complimentary process of AEAPS in that it examines the secondary xray fluorescence from the surface in much the same way as AEAPS examines the total electron yield. AEAPS, used alone, or in conjunction with SXAPS, is considered to be a powerful technique for the systematic investgation of series of metals, such as the transition, or lanthanide series

  16. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Filip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited.

  17. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  18. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions. PMID:22438468

  19. Active Appearance Model Based Hand Gesture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of hand gesture recognition in monocular image sequences using Active Appearance Model (AAM). For this work, the proposed algorithm is conposed of constructing AAMs and fitting the models to the interest region. In training stage, according to the manual labeled feature points, the relative AAM is constructed and the corresponding average feature is obtained. In recognition stage, the interesting hand gesture region is firstly segmented by skin and movement cues.Secondly, the models are fitted to the image that includes the hand gesture, and the relative features are extracted.Thirdly, the classification is done by comparing the extracted features and average features. 30 different gestures of Chinese sign language are applied for testing the effectiveness of the method. The Experimental results are given indicating good performance of the algorithm.

  20. Radiological appearances in the near-drowned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.

    1981-10-01

    Three patients who were unconscious when rescued from drowning had radiographic studies of their lungs carried out after several hours, or on the following day. The findings had to be interpreted as pulmonary oedema. The most seriously affected patient showed the picture of massive acute interstitial oedema on the second day. After initial regression, coarse shadows developed, indicating the alveolar form of pulmonary oedema. The sputum contained candida, but there was no evidence of pulmonary candidiasis. In two patients there were transient signs of limited atelectases. Two patients were re-examined after five years. There were no features which could be interpreted as a consequence of the drowning episode. The radiographic appearances showed minor changes which could be due to mild pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone.

  2. Radiological appearances in the near-drowned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients who were unconscious when rescued from drowning had radiographic studies of their lungs carried out after several hours, or on the following day. The findings had to be interpreted as pulmonary oedema. The most seriously affected patient showed the picture of massive acute interstitial oedema on the second day. After initial regression, coarse shadows developed, indicating the alveolar form of pulmonary oedema. The sputum contained candida, but there was no evidence of pulmonary candidiasis. In two patients there were transient signs of limited atelectases. Two patients were re-examined after five years. There were no features which could be interpreted as a consequence of the drowning episode. The radiographic appearances showed minor changes which could be due to mild pulmonary fibrosis. (orig.)

  3. Rethinking Robot Vision - Combining Shape and Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Schlemmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipping autonomous robots with vision sensors provides a multitude of advantages by simultaneously bringing up difficulties with regard to different illumination conditions. Furthermore, especially with service robots, the objects to be handled must somehow be learned for a later manipulation. In this paper we summarise work on combining two different vision sensors, namely a laser range scanner and a monocular colour camera, for shape-capturing, detecting and tracking of objects in cluttered scenes without the need of intermediate user interaction. The use of different sensor types provides the advantage of separating the shape and the appearance of the object and therefore overcome the problem with changing illumination conditions. We describe the framework and its components of visual shape-capturing, fast 3D object detection and robust tracking as well as examples that show the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol ÇAVUŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales “Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II” and “Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES”. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub-dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position.

  5. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol Çavuş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales “Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II”and “Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES”. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub- dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position

  6. Chaotic appearance of the AE index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, L.-H.; Hansen, P.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from a stochastic analysis of a 5-day time series of the geomagnetic AE index during an active period. The original data, the power spectrum, and the autocorrelation function are shown, and the steps in the analysis are described in detail. It is found that the autocorrelation time scale is about 50 min, giving a correlation dimension (for the construction of a time series of m-dimensional vectors) of 2.4. This result is consistent with either colored-noise or deterministic-chaos magnetosphere models, indicating the need for further investigation.

  7. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  8. Duration channels mediate human time perception

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, James; Aaen-Stockdale, Craig; Hotchkiss, John; Neil W. Roach; Paul V. McGraw; Whitaker, David

    2011-01-01

    The task of deciding how long sensory events seem to last is one that the human nervous system appears to perform rapidly and, for sub-second intervals, seemingly without conscious effort. That these estimates can be performed within and between multiple sensory and motor domains suggest time perception forms one of the core, fundamental processes of our perception of the world around us. Given this significance, the current paucity in our understanding of how this process operates is surpris...

  9. Keeping up appearances: Perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar;

    2008-01-01

    observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic......, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives.......The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult...

  10. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  11. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences

  12. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  13. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, L. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Murillo, A. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Biurrun, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Garcia-Rostan, G. [Servicio Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Reta, A. [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Dominguez, F. [Servicio Cirugia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients` diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  14. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients' diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  15. Delayed appearance of high altitude retinal hemorrhages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barthelmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages have been described as a component of high altitude retinopathy (HAR in association with altitude illness. In this prospective high altitude study, we aimed to gain new insights into the pathophysiology of HAR and explored whether HAR could be a valid early indicator of altitude illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 28 mountaineers were randomly assigned to two ascent profiles during a research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7546 m/24,751 ft. Digital fundus photographs were taken prior to expedition at 490 m (1,607 ft, during expedition at 4497 m (14,750 ft = base camp, 5533 m (18,148 ft, 6265 m (20,549 ft, 6865 m (22,517 ft and 4.5 months thereafter at 490 m. Number, size and time of occurrence of hemorrhages were recorded. Oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and hematocrit were also assessed. 79% of all climbers exhibited retinal hemorrhages during the expedition. Number and area of retinal bleeding increased moderately to medium altitudes (6265 m. Most retinal hemorrhages were detected after return to base camp from a high altitude. No post-expeditional ophthalmic sequelae were detected. Significant negative (SpO₂ Beta: -0.4, p<0.001 and positive (hematocrit Beta: 0.2, p = 0.002, time at altitude Beta: 0.33, p = 0.003 correlations with hemorrhages were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When closely examined, a very large amount of climbers exhibit retinal hemorrhages during exposure to high altitudes. The incidence of retinal hemorrhages may be greater than previously appreciated as a definite time lag was observed between highest altitude reached and development of retinal bleeding. Retinal hemorrhages should not be considered warning signs of impending severe altitude illness due to their delayed appearance.

  16. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holin, Anna Maria [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which sends a high intensity muon neutrino beam through two functionally identical detectors, a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, 1km from the beam source, and a Far detector, 734km away, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. MINOS may be able to measure the neutrino mixing angle parameter sin213 for the rst time. Detector granularity, however, makes it very hard to distinguish any e appearance signal events characteristic of a non-zero value of θ 13 from background neutral current (NC) and short-track vμ charged current (CC) events. Also, uncertainties in the hadronic shower modeling in the kinematic region characteristic of this analysis are relatively large. A new data-driven background decomposition method designed to address those issues is developed and its results presented. By removing the long muon tracks from vμ-CC events, the Muon Removed Charge Current (MRCC) method creates independent pseudo-NC samples that can be used to correct the MINOS Monte Carlo to agree with the high-statistics Near detector data and to decompose the latter into components so as to predict the expected Far detector background. The MRCC method also provides an important cross-check in the Far detector to test the background in the signal selected region. MINOS finds a 1.0-1.5 σ ve-CC excess above background in the Far detector data, depending on method used, for a total exposure of 3.14 x 1020 protons-on-target. Interpreting this excess as signal, MINOS can set limits on sin213. Using the MRCC method, MINOS sets a limit of sin2 2 θ 13 < 0.265 at the 90% confidence limit for a CP-violating phase δ = 0.

  17. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Pipelines-This data set represents the oil and gas transmission pipelines in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 2001, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  18. Perception without awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bánréti-Fuchs, K.M.

    1967-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to re-examine the phenomenon of subliminal perception, c.q. perception without awareness. Subliminal perception, c.q. perception without awareness, was defined in terms of the subjects' ability to respond differentially to the content of stimuli like words o

  19. Neurocomputational models of time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Joachim; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for understanding the neurodynamical and computational mechanisms of cognitive abilities like time perception, and for linking neurophysiology to psychology. In this chapter, we discuss several biophysical models of time perception and how they can be tested against experimental evidence. After a brief overview on the history of computational timing models, we list a number of central psychological and physiological findings that such a model should be able to account for, with a focus on the scaling of the variability of duration estimates with the length of the interval that needs to be estimated. The functional form of this scaling turns out to be predictive of the underlying computational mechanism for time perception. We then present four basic classes of timing models (ramping activity, sequential activation of neuron populations, state space trajectories and neural oscillators) and discuss two specific examples in more detail. Finally, we review to what extent existing theories of time perception adhere to the experimental constraints. PMID:25358705

  20. Kantowska metafizyka percepcji (Kant’s Metaphysics of Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sikora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article treats of an issue of Kant’s the metaphysics of perception as a specific sphere where concept of sense perception within transcendental philosophy seem to be rooted into a wider context of metaphysical presuppositions. The text is an epitome of a few Kant’s aporias which appear when he does not notice a metaphysical background which constitutes basic relation between subject and object in sense perception.

  1. Measuring the Experience and Perception of Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Monin, Joan K.; Czaja, Sara J.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Beach, Scott R.; Martire, Lynn M.; Dodds, Angela; Hebert, Randy S.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Cook, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Assess psychometric properties of scales developed to assess experience and perception of physical, psychological, and existential suffering in older individuals. Design and Methods: Scales were administered to 3 populations of older persons and/or their family caregivers: individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family…

  2. Perception of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perception of risks by people depends on many factors, either characterizing the individuals, or specific to the risk sources. The risk concept, which confuses the issue, is precised first. Second, the perception phenomenon is presented as an interactive process involving the individual, the hazard, and the social context. Third, dimensions of perception are listed and used to describe the perception of radiation risks. Finally, the relation between perception and attitude is clarified. (author) 50 refs

  3. Fundamental dimensions of musical perception

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Sazak

    2008-01-01

    In this study, definition of perception concept has been emphasized.Musical perception concept occurred as a result of relationship between perception and music has been examined.Musical perception process has been developed by utilizing general perception processes.Scientific studies made on musical perception process and types of musical perception have been exhibited.

  4. Fundamental dimensions of musical perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Sazak

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, definition of perception concept has been emphasized.Musical perception concept occurred as a result of relationship between perception and music has been examined.Musical perception process has been developed by utilizing general perception processes.Scientific studies made on musical perception process and types of musical perception have been exhibited.

  5. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  6. Quantum Zeno Features of Bistable Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Atmanspacher, H.; Filk, Th.; Romer, H.

    2003-01-01

    A generalized quantum theoretical framework, not restricted to the validity domain of standard quantum physics, is used to model the dynamics of the bistable perception of ambiguous visual stimuli. The central idea is to treat the perception process in terms of the evolution of an unstable two-state quantum system, yielding a quantum Zeno type of effect. A quantitative relation between the involved time scales is theoretically derived. This relation is found to be satisfied by empirically obt...

  7. 中文修订版疾病不确定感父母量表的信效度检验%Reliability and validity of the chinese version of Parent's Perception Uncertainty Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 王惠连; 马新娟; 王海英

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价中文修订版Mishel疾病不确定感父母量表(Parent's Perception Uncertainty Scale,PPUS)信效度.方法:翻译并形成中文版PPUS,采用方便抽样抽取202例白血病患儿父母,运用SPSS17.0和AMOS17.0进行统计分析其信效度.结果:中文修订版PPUS总的Cronbach α系数为0.929及四个维度的Cronbach α系数为0.602-0.897,分半信度为0.868,各分量表与总分的相关系数为0.499-0.934,分量表间的相关系数为0.499-0.752.经过两次探索性因素分析产生的4个因子共能解释总变异的59.023%.验证性因素四因子模型拟合良好.结论:中文版修订版PPUS量表有较好的信度和效度,作为测量国内患儿父母疾病不确定感的工具是可信和有效的.

  8. Numerosity perception after size adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Fink, Gereon R.

    2016-01-01

    While some researchers propose the existence of a special numerosity sense, others challenge this view and argue that numerosity is derived from low-level features as density information. Here, we used size adaptation to manipulate the apparent area size of an object set without changing its physical density. After size adaptation, two probe patches were shown, each of which contained a specific numerosity of dots. Subjects were required to report, which probe patch contained more dots. Numerosity perception was compared between conditions where probe patches were adapted to appear smaller or larger. Size adaptation affected numerosity perception in a logarithmic fashion, increasing with the numerosity in the probe patch. No changes in density perception were found after size adaptation. Data suggest that size and density information play only a minor role in the estimation of low numerosities. In stark contrast, high numerosities strongly depend on size and density information. The data reinforce recent claims of separate mechanism for the perception of low and high numerosities. PMID:27650296

  9. Numerosity perception after size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    While some researchers propose the existence of a special numerosity sense, others challenge this view and argue that numerosity is derived from low-level features as density information. Here, we used size adaptation to manipulate the apparent area size of an object set without changing its physical density. After size adaptation, two probe patches were shown, each of which contained a specific numerosity of dots. Subjects were required to report, which probe patch contained more dots. Numerosity perception was compared between conditions where probe patches were adapted to appear smaller or larger. Size adaptation affected numerosity perception in a logarithmic fashion, increasing with the numerosity in the probe patch. No changes in density perception were found after size adaptation. Data suggest that size and density information play only a minor role in the estimation of low numerosities. In stark contrast, high numerosities strongly depend on size and density information. The data reinforce recent claims of separate mechanism for the perception of low and high numerosities. PMID:27650296

  10. Perceptions of Everyday Interpersonal Discrimination among Young Men of Turkish Background in Cologne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hartmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This small-scale, qualitative study examines how five young male second-generation Turkish immigrants perceive racial discrimination by ethnic Germans and to what extent this perception influences their collective identities. The typology of interactional patterns the interviewees describe as racial discrimination has four elements: a perception of distrust, a distancing gaze, denial of belonging and rule enforcement by members of the German majority. The interviewees, particularly those who are highly educated and socially mobile, identify with a common Ausländer (foreigner identity in response to experiences of discrimination. This identity is regarded a shared identity marker by immigrants of different backgrounds. It appears as a positive and affirmative identity of difference, which creates a unique type of social capital.

  11. The Solar Internetwork. II. Magnetic Flux Appearance and Disappearance Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Gošić, Milan; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Suárez, David Orozco; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale internetwork magnetic fields are important ingredients of the quiet Sun. In this paper we analyze how they appear and disappear on the solar surface. Using high resolution \\textit{Hinode} magnetograms, we follow the evolution of individual magnetic elements in the interior of two supergranular cells at the disk center. From up to 38 hr of continuous measurements, we show that magnetic flux appears in internetwork regions at a rate of $120\\pm3$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.3 \\pm 0.2 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$ over the entire solar surface). Flux disappears from the internetwork at a rate of $125 \\pm 6$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.6\\pm 0.4 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$) through fading of magnetic elements, cancellation between opposite-polarity features, and interactions with network patches, which converts internetwork elements into network features. Most of the flux is lost through fading and interactions with the network, at nearly the same rate of about 50~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$. Our results ...

  12. Flux appearance and disappearance rates in the solar internetwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosic, Milan; Bellot Rubio, Luis; Del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos; Orozco Suarez, David; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The solar internetwork contains weak and highly dynamic magnetic fields that are essential to understanding the solar magnetism at small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, it is important to determine how these fields are maintained on the solar surface. Using unique Hinode observations, we follow the evolution of individual magnetic elements in the interior of two supergranular cells at the disk center. From up to 38 hr of continuous measurements, we show that magnetic flux appears in internetwork regions at a rate of 120±3 Mx cm-2 day-1 (3.7±0.4 × 1024 Mx day-1 over the entire solar surface). Flux disappears from the internetwork at a rate of 125±6 Mx cm-2 day-1 (3.9±0.5 × 1024 Mx day-1) through fading of magnetic elements, cancellation between opposite-polarity features, and interactions with network patches, which converts internetwork elements into network features. The removal of flux from supergranules occurs mainly through fading and interactions with network, at nearly the same rate of about 50 Mx cm-2 day-1. Our results demonstrate that the sources and sinks of internetwork magnetic flux are well balanced, reflecting the steady-state nature of the quiet Sun. Using the instantaneous flux appearance and disappearance rates, we successfully reproduce, for the first time, the temporal evolution of the total unsigned flux in the interior of supergranular cells.

  13. Patient perceptions of stock footwear design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A E; Nester, C J

    2006-04-01

    Patients with diseases which impact on foot health, for example diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, are known to have some benefit from prescribed stock footwear with regards to clinical outcomes. Achieving this is not just about getting the footwear designed and fitted to meet the clinical needs, but it also requires that the patient wears the shoes. This means meeting the non-clinical needs or criteria of patients. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions of the same footwear between patients with diabetes and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with regard to specific design features. Fifty-four patients with RA and 40 patients with diabetes who required prescription footwear were asked to identify issues of importance, and to assess the features of five different pairs of stock footwear using a Likert scale scoring form. There was a difference between the RA and the diabetes groups with regards their overall requirements from the footwear with comfort being a priority in RA and style a priority for diabetes. Both groups rated the same footwear as overall best from the selection, but the scores suggest that there were features with the 'best' shoe which were not acceptable suggesting that even the 'best' shoe was a compromise This possibly indicates that existing footwear ranges do not meet all the patients' requirements. Patients have different perceptions with regard to what is important to them in terms of footwear with regards to the specific features of the footwear and one of the influences appears to be the underlying systemic disease. Patient-based criteria may be an important consideration in the design of the footwear.

  14. Improvement in appearance of colors for elderly persons using lightness transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Chiaki; Azetsu, Tadahiro; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    The color of an object appears to be different for elderly and young persons. This is because human visual features vary with on age. In general, the spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens of an elderly person is lower than that of a young person. The low spectral transmittance decreases the brightness of the visual field. This phenomenon affects the color appearance of an image in human visual perception. In this paper, a lightness transform method is proposed to improve the color appearance of images for elderly persons. In the proposed method, colors that are difficult for an elderly person to see are transformed into colors that are easy to see by adding lightness contrast. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed in experiments using digital images.

  15. Initial revision of Chinese version of parents' perception of uncertainty scale%中文版疾病不确定感父母量表的初步修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦嘉轩; 谢婉花; 马春花; 邓叶青; 戴黎黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate Parents' Perception of Uncertainty Scale (PPUS) into Chinese,analyze and selected items,and then test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of PPUS initially.Methods 210 parents of hospitalized children were recruited for the investigation.Frequency analysis,dispersion degree analysis,correlation analysis and so on were applied to analyze and select items.Internal consistency test,Pearson correlation analysis and exploratory factor analysis etc.were applied to test reliability and validity of the scale.Results The final Chinese version of PPUS contained 28 items.The Cronbach α and parity split-half reliability coefficients were 0.844 and 0.835; The Cronbach α coefficient of 4 dimensions ranged from 0.537 to 0.770.The item-total scale correlation coefficient ranged from 0.300 to 0.737.Item-dimension correlation coefficients ranged from 0.376 to 0.762.Item-other dimension correlation coefficients ranged from 0.028 to 0.514.Dimension-total scale correlation coefficients ranged from 0.480 to 0.863 and those between dimensions ranged from 0.226 to 0.536.In the content validity assessed by experts,I-CVI ranged from 0.75 to 1.00,S-CVI/Ave was 0.928.Four-factor model was performed in the principal component analysis and they explained for 41.401% variances.The maximum factor loading of all items were higher than 0.3,and most of items had adequate loadings in related dimensions.Conclusions Chinese version of PPUS had appropriate reliability and validity as an assessment tool for parental uncertainty in illness of hospitalized children' parents.%目的 翻译英文版疾病不确定感父母量表(parents' perception of uncertainty scale,PPUS)并进行条目分析和筛选,初步检验量表修订后的信效度.方法 翻译PPUS,抽取210例住院患儿的父母进行调查.运用频数分析法、离散程度法、相关系数法等多种方法进行条目分析和筛选;用内部一致性检验、Pearson相关分析和探索性

  16. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  17. Students’ factors affecting undergraduates’ perceptions of their teaching and learning process within ECTS experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eDe La Fuente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of this research was to learn what variables determine satisfaction with the teaching-learning process (TLP, from the perspective of students participating in the ECTS experience (European Credit Transfer System. Method. A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain participated in an evaluation of their class subjects. They completed a protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of Variance were carried out, taking different measures as independent variables, such as student’s grade average, year in school, branch of studies, workload in terms of ECTS credits per subject and the use of e-learning. Perception of TLP was used as the dependent variable.Results. Variables that establish significant differences in the perception of the TL process were determined. Student’s grade average (in favor of high performers, year in school (in favor of earlier years, ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits, and e-learning (in favor of its use establish a sufficiently delimited profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of this process. Discussion and Conclusions. The appearance of significant differences showed that perception of TLP depends on different variables that were assessed. Thus, it is important to take these variables into consideration in giving shape to the European Higher Education Area. We comment on the results and their implications for the large-scale implementation of the ECTS.

  18. Sex and vision II: color appearance of monochromatic lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, we examined the possible sex differences in color appearance of monochromatic lights across the visible spectrum. There is a history of men and women perceiving color differently. However, all of these studies deal with higher cognitive functions which may be culture-biased. We study basic visual functions, such as color appearance, without reference to any objects. We present here a detailed analysis of sex differences in primary chromatic sensations. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision, including spatial and temporal resolution, and stereopsis. Based on standard color-screening and anomaloscope data, we excluded all color-deficient observers. Stimuli were equi-luminant monochromatic lights across the spectrum. They were foveally-viewed flashes presented against a dark background. The elicited sensations were measured using magnitude estimation of hue and saturation. When the only permitted hue terms are red (R yellow (Y, green (G, blue (B, alone or in combination, such hue descriptions are language-independent and the hue and saturation values can be used to derive a wide range of color-discrimination functions. Results There were relatively small but clear and significant, differences between males and females in the hue sensations elicited by almost the entire spectrum. Generally, males required a slightly longer wavelength to experience the same hue as did females. The spectral loci of the unique hues are not correlated with anomaloscope matches; these matches are directly determined by the spectral sensitivities of L- and M-cones (genes for these cones are on the X-chromosomes. Nor are there correlations between loci of pairs of unique hues (R, Y, G, B. Wavelength-discrimination functions derived from the scaling data show that males have a broader range of poorer discrimination in the middle of the spectrum. The

  19. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  20. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  1. Analysis of food quality perception processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Termorshuizen (Koos); M.T.G. Meulenberg; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA model of the quality perception process of the consumer with respect to food products has been developed. The model integrates a number of quality-related concepts. An empirical study was carried out to examine the relationships between the concepts. It appears that the various concept

  2. The Perception of School Administrators towards Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    BAKİOĞLU, Ayşen; AKKAYA, İlhan

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate on what degree the perception of school administrators towards social responsibility is and to see whether these perceptions showstatistical differences according to gender, administrative seniority, duty, graduation and the number of students in their schools, under the framework of “the perception of school administrators in government primary and secondary schools based”. Firstly the literature on social responsibility was examined. “A Scale of...

  3. Tangible display systems: direct interfaces for computer-based studies of surface appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Benjamin A.; Ferwerda, James A.

    2010-02-01

    When evaluating the surface appearance of real objects, observers engage in complex behaviors involving active manipulation and dynamic viewpoint changes that allow them to observe the changing patterns of surface reflections. We are developing a class of tangible display systems to provide these natural modes of interaction in computer-based studies of material perception. A first-generation tangible display was created from an off-the-shelf laptop computer containing an accelerometer and webcam as standard components. Using these devices, custom software estimated the orientation of the display and the user's viewing position. This information was integrated with a 3D rendering module so that rotating the display or moving in front of the screen would produce realistic changes in the appearance of virtual objects. In this paper, we consider the design of a second-generation system to improve the fidelity of the virtual surfaces rendered to the screen. With a high-quality display screen and enhanced tracking and rendering capabilities, a secondgeneration system will be better able to support a range of appearance perception applications.

  4. Men, appearance, and cosmetic surgery: The role of confidence, self-esteem, and comfort with the body

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Ricciardelli; Kimberley Ann Clow

    2009-01-01

    This paper situates male perceptions of the body within Bourdieu’s theories of human practice. Recent research (Bordo 1999; Featherstone 1991; Giddens 1991; Gill, Henwood, and McLean 2005) has suggested that perceptions of the body are important to men’s sense of confidence and that men see the body as a vehicle for personal improvement. To build on this research, an online survey investigated Canadian men’s perspectives on their appearance and their attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. A two-c...

  5. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  6. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  7. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively. PMID:23951954

  8. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  9. Relation of Patient Attributes to Perceptions of the Treatment Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Bromet, Evelyn

    1978-01-01

    Social climate of residential alcoholism programs was assessed using Community-Oriented Programs Environment Scale (COPES). COPES perceptions were independent of patient background, psychosocial functioning, and alcohol-related characteristics. In conjunction with previous research, results indicate perceptions of social climate of treatment…

  10. Assessing Domestic vs. International Student Perceptions and Attitudes of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…

  11. Validity of body image scales for Brazilian older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to translate the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ for older adults into Brazilian Portuguese, and evaluate the psychometric properties of these instruments. A sample of 606 participants aged 60 to 98 years were recruited from hospitals, rest homes, physical activity centers, leisure centers, churches/religious institutions and from the general community. All participants were personally invited and voluntarily accepted to participate in the research. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original APQ model and to a new bidimensional model for BAS after excluding some items. We also observed satisfactory evidence of internal consistency, convergent, discriminant, concurrent and divergent validity. Regarding validity, significant variation of scores from the two scales in both, physically active and sedentary participants was herein highlighted. In conclusion, the BAS and APQ appear to be valid and reliable scales for Brazilian researchers to study older adults.

  12. EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THEIR SCHOOLS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Teyyar UĞURLU

    2013-06-01

    obtained from people who are affined with this organization (Cerit, 2006. In this sense, because of image perceptions of teachers obliged to give education service in high schools as thought their perceptions about institution where they serve thinkable as important, organizational image levels of high schools were tried to determine according to teachers’ opinions. Purpose: This study aims to examine the level of organizational image perceived by teachers concerning schools they serve in. Also to test whether there is any relationship between some valuables (gender, age, branch and school type and organizational image level of schools. For this purpose questions below are tried to be answered: What is the level of teachers’ organizational image perceptions concerning their schools? Is there any relationship between teachers’ organizational image perceptions concerning their schools and demographic variables (gender, age, branch and school type? Methodology: Quantitative research method and survey strategy were used in this research. Survey model is an approach aims to determine existence of a current or impermanent condition. Subject of research is tried to describe in conditions of individual or object (Karasar, 2006. In the research, relationships between teachers’ organizational image perceptions concerning their schools and gender, age, branch and school type examined respectively. Workgroup of the research consists of 190 teachers who serve in Anatolian high schools randomly selected from city centre of Sivas in school year 2011/12. Data collection tool was developed by Polat, Abat and Tezyürek (2010 based on survey developed by Kazoleas, Kim and Moffitt (2001 to measure the image of higher education institutions. This 5 point Likert scale consists of five dimensions; organizational image, quality image, program image, background image, social image and appearance image. Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale is .92. Alpha reliability coefficient of

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Foamy Histiocyte-Like Appearance: A Deceptively Clear Cell Carcinoma Appearing Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Noro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC shows many pathological features, and it varies architecturally and cytologically. There have been many reports and discussions of the morphological features of HCC. A 63-year-old man was found to have a solitary tumor in liver segment 7 that was diagnosed as HCC. A partial resection of liver segment 7 was performed. Microscopically, the tumor lesion showed a moderately differentiated HCC. There was also a lesion with foamy histiocyte-like cells corresponding to the white lesion in the face of the cut tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that they were negative for CD68, S-100, vimentin, and HMB-45. The cytoplasm itself was negative on periodic acid Schiff (PAS and Sudan staining. Without immunohistological analysis, it is difficult to distinguish this HCC variant from clear cell carcinoma or metastases of renal cell carcinoma. It is important to recognize this type as a specific cytological variant of HCC that requires confirmation by immunohistochemistry. This report describes the case of a patient with a morphologically distinctive pattern of HCC with prominent cell cytoplasm that had a foamy histiocyte-like appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this HCC variant.

  14. Gender differences in memory for the appearance of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Terrence G; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hall, Judith A; Carter, Jason D

    2004-02-01

    Five studies investigated gender differences in the accurate recall of the appearance of others. The greater interpersonal orientation and interpersonal sensitivity of women were predicted to give women an advantage over men in appearance accuracy. Under both directed- and incidental-learning conditions, women more accurately recalled information concerning the appearance of their social targets than did men, participants' memory for the appearance of female targets was more accurate than it was for male targets, and neither gender was found to be a relative advantage in recalling the appearance of same-gender targets. The motivational and knowledge-based factors that might underlie a gender difference in appearance accuracy are discussed.

  15. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  16. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves.

  17. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. PMID:26971117

  18. Measuring Student Self-Perceptions of Writing Skills in Programs of Journalism and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwall, Andrew; Kuehn, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study explored student self-perceptions of writing skills in journalism and mass communication programs at thirteen public state universities in the mid-Atlantic region. Factor analysis revealed seven sets of perceptions among 860 students. A Media Writing Self-Perception Scale was constructed and found to be reliable. The authors propose…

  19. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  20. Bubble of Real Estate Does Not Appear in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The report newly issued by Citigroup enables the people in Beijing to feel consoling that Beijing does not appear bubble in real estate. But the bubble of real estate has appeared only in Shanghai, Tianjin,Shenyang and Ningbo.

  1. Masculinity, consumerism, and appearance: a look at men's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rosemary

    2011-05-01

    Historically, being concerned about appearance was stereotypically associated with women. Now masculinities too have become embedded in appearance norms. Consequently men too are increasingly concerned about their appearance. Via interviews with 14 Canadian men, the role of hair in self-identification and both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with appearance is examined. Emergent themes suggest that masculinity and appearance are increasingly intertwined, and consumer culture cultivates a climate that encourages men to view their appearance as something worthy of investment. Findings suggest that men are concerned about their appearance-specifically their hair-and that there is a relationship between masculinity, appearance, and self-identification. Findings are discussed within theories of masculinity and consumerism.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 Labour Induction with Intravaginal (Minprostin versus Intracervical (Prepidil Administration at Term: Randomized Study of Maternal and Neonatal Outcome and Patient’s Perception Using the Osgood Semantic Differential Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscha Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the efficacy, safety, and patient’s perception of two prostaglandin E2 application methods for induction of labour. Method. Above 36th weeks of gestation, all women, who were admitted to hospital for induction of labour, were prospectively randomised to intravaginal 1 mg or intracervical 0.5 mg irrespective of cervical Bishop score. The main outcome variables were induction-to-delivery interval, number of foetal blood samples, PDA rate, rate of oxytocin augmentation, rate of vaginal delivery, and patient’s perception using semantic differential questionnaire. Results. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups in regard to perceptions of induction. The median induction delivery time using intravaginal versus intracervical administration was 29.9 versus 12.8 hours, respectively (P=0.04. No statistically difference between the groups was detected in regard to parity, gestation age, cervical Bishop score, number of foetal blood samples, PDA rate, rate of oxytocin augmentation, and mode of birth. Summary. Irrespective of the cervical Bishop Score, intracervical gel had a shorter induction delivery time without impingement on the women’s perception of induction.

  3. Temporal Dynamic Appearance Modeling for Online Multi-Person Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, MIN; Jia, Yunde

    2015-01-01

    Robust online multi-person tracking requires the correct associations of online detection responses with existing trajectories. We address this problem by developing a novel appearance modeling approach to provide accurate appearance affinities to guide data association. In contrast to most existing algorithms that only consider the spatial structure of human appearances, we exploit the temporal dynamic characteristics within temporal appearance sequences to discriminate different persons. Th...

  4. Effects of Perceived Causality on Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…

  5. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Mobbing at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Murat Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether there are mobbing applications at schools and if so, at which level and between whom. The Mobbing Perception Scale is applied, based on Leymann's (1993), "Mobbing Typology," and developed by Yavuz (2007), to 154 teachers at 5 selected schools in Ankara for the purpose of the study. According…

  6. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement.

  7. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  8. Spatial Heterogeneity in the Perception of Face and Form Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraz, Arash; Pashkam, Maryam Vaziri; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Summary The identity of an object is a fixed property, independent of where it appears, and an effective visual system should capture this invariance [1–3]. However, we now report that the perceived gender of a face is strongly biased toward male or female at different locations in the visual field. The spatial pattern of these biases was distinctive and stable for each individual. Identical neutral faces looked different when they were presented simultaneously at locations maximally biased to opposite genders. A similar effect was observed for perceived age of faces. We measured the magnitude of this perceptual heterogeneity for four other visual judgments: perceived aspect ratio, orientation discrimination, spatial-frequency discrimination, and color discrimination. The effect was sizeable for the aspect ratio task but substantially smaller for the other three tasks. We also evaluated perceptual heterogeneity for facial gender and orientation tasks at different spatial scales. Strong heterogeneity was observed even for the orientation task when tested at small scales. We suggest that perceptual heterogeneity is a general property of visual perception and results from undersampling of the visual signal at spatial scales that are small relative to the size of the receptive fields associated with each visual attribute. PMID:21109440

  9. Keeping up appearances : service environments as symbolic communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Joost Wilhelmus Martinus

    2010-01-01

    “All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players” (Shakespeare, 1599) Like actors in a play, service providers play their parts in front of an audience. Spectators base their perceptions and evaluations on a wide variety of cues that include the performance of the actors, costume

  10. Appearance comparison in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Martin; Veale, David; Miles, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Research investigating appearance comparison in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) remains very limited, despite the fact that this is one of the most commonly observed behaviors in individuals with the disorder. The present study investigated the self-reported extent and nature of appearance comparison in 35 BDD participants relative to 45 controls using a newly devised and a standardized appearance comparison measure. The results showed that BDD participants reported significantly higher levels of appearance comparison than controls. Individuals with BDD also reported greater levels of comparing in terms of the specific feature(s) of their appearance they were most concerned about as compared to overall appearance, whilst controls showed the opposite pattern. Levels of comparing in BDD participants increased as targets increased in terms of attractiveness, and individuals with BDD rated themselves as being markedly less attractive than targets, and feeling markedly less satisfied with their appearance after comparing. Cognitive-behavioral treatment implications are discussed. PMID:26379252

  11. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to cie cam02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of cie cam02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating lcd monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of cie cam02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (d50 and also for illuminants d65. Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of cam02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  12. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  13. Searle on Perception

    OpenAIRE

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    In the course of his discussion of perception, Searle criticizes representative theories in general. In this paper I will argue that, even though his criticisms may be adequate regarding a certain form of these theories, perhaps the most frequently defended by philosophers of perception, a version I will outline here escapes to them. A second issue I raise concerns Searle's claim that his theory of perception is a form of direct realism. I will raise difficulties for Searle's attempt to maint...

  14. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  15. Visualizing Similarity of Appearance by Arrangement of Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Nao; Ihara, Hisayasu; Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a novel method to extract the configuration of the psychological space by directly measuring subjects' similarity rating without computational work. Although multidimensional scaling (MDS) is well-known as a conventional method for extracting the psychological space, the method requires many pairwise evaluations. The times taken for evaluations increase in proportion to the square of the number of objects in MDS. The proposed method asks subjects to arrange cards on a poster sheet according to the degree of similarity of the objects. To compare the performance of the proposed method with the conventional one, we developed similarity maps of typefaces through the proposed method and through non-metric MDS. We calculated the trace correlation coefficient among all combinations of the configuration for both methods to evaluate the degree of similarity in the obtained configurations. The threshold value of trace correlation coefficient for statistically discriminating similar configuration was decided based on random data. The ratio of the trace correlation coefficient exceeding the threshold value was 62.0% so that the configurations of the typefaces obtained by the proposed method closely resembled those obtained by non-metric MDS. The required duration for the proposed method was approximately one third of the non-metric MDS's duration. In addition, all distances between objects in all the data for both methods were calculated. The frequency for the short distance in the proposed method was lower than that of the non-metric MDS so that a relatively small difference was likely to be emphasized among objects in the configuration by the proposed method. The card arrangement method we here propose, thus serves as a easier and time-saving tool to obtain psychological structures in the fields related to similarity of appearance.

  16. Selecting fillers on emotional appearance improves lineup identification accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Klatt, Thimna; Colloff, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    Mock witnesses sometimes report using criminal stereotypes to identify a face from a lineup, a tendency known as criminal face bias. Faces are perceived as criminal-looking if they appear angry. We tested whether matching the emotional appearance of the fillers to an angry suspect can reduce criminal face bias. In Study 1, mock witnesses (n = 226) viewed lineups in which the suspect had an angry, happy, or neutral expression, and we varied whether the fillers matched the expression. An additional group of participants (n = 59) rated the faces on criminal and emotional appearance. As predicted, mock witnesses tended to identify suspects who appeared angrier and more criminal-looking than the fillers. This tendency was reduced when the lineup fillers matched the emotional appearance of the suspect. Study 2 extended the results, testing whether the emotional appearance of the suspect and fillers affects recognition memory. Participants (n = 1,983) studied faces and took a lineup test in which the emotional appearance of the target and fillers was varied between subjects. Discrimination accuracy was enhanced when the fillers matched an angry target's emotional appearance. We conclude that lineup member emotional appearance plays a critical role in the psychology of lineup identification. The fillers should match an angry suspect's emotional appearance to improve lineup identification accuracy.

  17. Self-Esteem and Social Appearance Anxiety: An Investigation of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study published in "Elementary Education Online", Dogan (2011) examined the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample after his first adaptation study on undergraduate students in Turkey (Dogan, 2010). He recommended that researchers do further research to investigate the…

  18. Predicting interest in cosmetic surgery: interactive effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity and negative appearance comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Calogero, Rachel M; Harwin, Melissa J; DiRaddo, Ann Marie

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) - the dispositional tendency to anxiously expect rejection based on one's appearance - in a sample of 133 American college students. Participants were randomly assigned to write an essay about either a negative or positive appearance comment they had received in the past. Compared to participants with lower Appearance-RS, those with higher Appearance-RS felt more rejected and expressed greater interest in cosmetic surgery after recalling a negative versus positive appearance comment. Content analysis of the essays revealed that negative appearance comments were most often made in reference to one's body weight/shape/size; positive appearance comments were most often made in reference to one's overall appearance. Peers/friends/romantic partners were the most frequently cited source of both positive and negative appearance comments. Overall, this research suggests that the interaction between the person and the situation is important to consider when predicting cosmetic surgery interest. PMID:19409866

  19. Automated Brain Structure Segmentation Based on Atlas Registration and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    Accurate automated brain structure segmentation methods facilitate the analysis of large-scale neuroimaging studies. This work describes a novel method for brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images that combines information about a structure’s location and appearance. The spatial...... model is implemented by registering multiple atlas images to the target image and creating a spatial probability map. The structure’s appearance is modeled by a classi¿er based on Gaussian scale-space features. These components are combined with a regularization term in a Bayesian framework...... that is globally optimized using graph cuts. The incorporation of the appearance model enables the method to segment structures with complex intensity distributions and increases its robustness against errors in the spatial model. The method is tested in cross-validation experiments on two datasets acquired...

  20. Self-esteem, social support perception and seizure controllability perception in adolescents with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália F. Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare the self-esteem of adolescents with epilepsy and adolescents without epilepsy and relate it to social support and seizure controllability perception. METHOD: The study sample consisted: case participants (34 subjects attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital and control participants (30 subjects from public schools in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: identification card with demographic and epilepsy data, a semi-structured interview on aspects of the disease, and a Self-Esteem Multidimensional Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups but majority of adolescents with epilepsy presented higher self esteem rate, have knowledge about epilepsy, presented high levels of social support and seizure controllability perception. There was no significant relationship between social support and seizure controllability perception with self-esteem. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about epilepsy, social support such good controllability seizure perception seem are important contingencies for a better evaluation of self esteem in adolescents with epilepsy.

  1. Appearance related concerns across the general and clinical populations

    OpenAIRE

    Liossi, C.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores appearance related concerns across the general and clinical populations. Section A briefly describes the different parts comprising this thesis and discusses the common themes emerged. In Section B, a survey of 300 young adults is reported which was conducted with an aim to identify the nature, extent and correlates of appearance dissatisfaction in this population. It was found that a surprisingly large percent of men and women were dissatisfied with their appearance and ...

  2. Spring Wheat Leaf Appearance and Temperature: Extending the Paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, Gregory S.; WILHELM, W. W.; PALIC, D. B.; Porter, John R.; Jamieson, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive research shows temperature to be the primary environmental factor controlling the phyllochron, or rate of leaf appearance, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experimental results suggest that soil temperature at crown depth, rather than air temperature above the canopy, would better predict wheat leaf appearance rates. To test this hypothesis, leaf appearance in spring wheat (‘Nordic’) was measured in a 2‐year field experiment (Nunn clay loam soil; fine, smectitic, mesic Aridic, Argiu...

  3. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Floraine; Degond, Pierre; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. ...

  4. Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby;

    2015-01-01

    in these areas. The common denominator is the need for descriptive and parsimonious appearance models. By ‘parsimonious’ we mean with few parameters so that a model is useful both for fast acquisition, robust fitting, and fast rendering of appearance. The word ‘descriptive’ refers to the fact that a model should...... represent the main features of the acquired appearance data. The solution we propose is to reduce the degrees of freedom by greater use of multivariate statistics....

  5. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  6. Consumers' price perceptions as a segmentation criteria: An emerging market case

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtuluş, Kemal; Okumus, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explain price perception heterogeneity in terms of behavioral and psychological variables related to price. The second purpose is to attempt to determine the segments of customers based on their price perceptions. In order to measure price perception, a multi item scale is developed from various existing scales and through focus group interviews. Data are collected from a sample of 600 supermarket customers. Structural equation modeling, cluster analy...

  7. Effects of thienodiazepine derivatives, etizolam and clotiazepam on the appearance of Fm theta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Mukasa, H

    1992-12-01

    The effects of new thienodiazepine anxiolytics, etizolam and clotiazepam, on the appearance of frontal midline theta activity (Fm theta) were studied by the double-blind crossover method. The results were as follows; 1) Both clotiazepam and placebo tended to increase the Fm theta appearance in all subjects, but etizolam showed no such tendency. 2) Clotiazepam significantly increased the Fm theta appearance as compared with placebo in subjects with a high neurotic tendency (N-scale of MPI above 19). 3) Clotiazepam tended to increase the Fm theta appearance as compared with placebo and etizolam in subjects with a high anxiety level (MAS score above 14). 4) Apparently more subjects complained of drowsiness after the administration of etizolam than after clotiazepam or placebo. PMID:1363923

  8. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Ainley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  9. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. PMID:26460730

  10. Attitude Towards Civil Service of Pakistan: A Perception Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem Jehangir Khan; Musleh ud Din

    2008-01-01

    Amid growing concerns on the popularity of the civil service among the students, the study reports the findings of a perception survey of enrolled university students. Contrary to common perceptions, the results suggest that the civil service still retains its allure among the potential entrants. Those who prefer the civil service as a career are more concerned with job security than those who prefer a job in the private sector. The Foreign Service of Pakistan appears to be the most favourite...

  11. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent t

  12. Language, Perception, Culture & Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the prospect of introducing language, perception, culture and communication. Starting with some definitions of language, perception, culture and communication, the paper argues for the internal connection among them. It pro⁃vides better understanding of these factors in foreign language learning and encourages learners to achieve the better learning re⁃sult to communicate effectively through language, culture etc.

  13. Changes in Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Though not the sole element to determine foreign policies, perception is of vital importance in defining an environment, understanding international relations and analyzing potential policy choices. India's "Look East" policy after the Cold War originates from its perception changes toward ASEAN.

  14. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the pe

  15. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  16. Appearance Investment and Everyday Interpersonal Functioning: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; German, Ramaris E.; Wenze, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that body satisfaction affects interpersonal functioning. However, few have studied the specific interpersonal correlates of another important body image dimension, appearance investment--that is, the importance a woman places on appearance. We used an experience sampling design with PDA (personal digital assistant)…

  17. 32 CFR 516.6 - Appearance as counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearance as counsel. 516.6 Section 516.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.6 Appearance as counsel. (a) General. Military personnel...

  18. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  19. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  20. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm. (orig.)

  1. Validation of the Perception of Change Scale - Family Version (EMP-F as a treatment outcome measure in mental health services Validação da Escala de Percepção de Mudanças pelos familiares como medida de resultado do tratamento em serviços de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bandeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to validate the Perception of Change Scale - Family Version, which evaluates the perception of family caregivers in regard to the treatment outcomes of psychiatric patients in mental health services. METHOD: Family caregivers (N = 300 of psychiatric patients attending mental health services completed the Perception of Change Scale - Family Version. The scale has 19 items rated in a three-point Likert scale that evaluate changes perceived in the patient's life as a result of treatment. RESULTS: The factorial analysis revealed a four-factor structure, with the following dimensions: 1 occupation, 2 psychological factors, 3 relationships, and 4 physical health. In the internal consistency analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.85. The test-retest temporal stability analysis yielded a significant intraclass correlation coefficient (r = 0.96; p OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi validar a Escala de Mudança Percebida pelos familiares, que avalia o resultado do tratamento recebido por pacientes psiquiátricos em serviços de saúde mental, baseado na escala canadense Questionnaire of Perceived Changes. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 300 familiares cuidadores de pacientes psiquiátricos, atendidos em serviços de saúde mental. A escala foi aplicada em entrevistas individuais estruturadas. A escala possui 19 itens que avaliam mudanças percebidas na vida dos pacientes em função do tratamento, com alternativas de resposta em escala Likert de três pontos. RESULTADOS: A escala apresentou estrutura fatorial de quatro fatores, avaliando mudanças nas seguintes dimensões: 1 Ocupação, 2 Dimensão psicológica, 3 Relacionamentos e 4 Saúde física. Possui adequadas consistência interna (alfa = 0,85 e estabilidade temporal teste-reteste (r = 0,96; p < 0,05. A análise da validade convergente indicou correlação positiva significativa com a escala de construto relacionado de satisfação dos familiares com os

  2. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  3. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone;

    2001-01-01

    is rapidly becoming a reality. On the other hand, still many consumers are in favour of local production, resulting in fierce competition between the multinational suppliers and the local producers of food. Under these market conditions, the importance of skills relating to hoe to study consumers' perception...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish....

  4. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE...... and learning than the Panorama. The results also suggest that knowledge gained in physical contexts is more readily transferred to its virtual simulation, while that gained in virtual experience is not reliably transferred to its equivalent physical context. The paper discusses implications for spatial ability...

  5. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  6. A Research Agenda for Appearance Changes Due to Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia K. Markey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in the US. It is estimated that more than 180,000 American women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in 2008. Fortunately, the survival rate is relatively high and continually increasing due to improved detection techniques and treatment methods. However, maintaining quality of life is a factor often under emphasized for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer treatments are invasive and can lead to deformation of the breast. Breast reconstruction is important for restoring the survivor’s appearance. However, more work is needed to develop technologies for quantifying surgical outcomes and understanding women’s perceptions of changes in their appearance. A method for objectively measuring breast anatomy is needed in order to help both the breast cancer survivors and their surgeons take expected changes to the survivor’s appearance into account when considering various treatment options. In the future, augmented reality tools could help surgeons reconstruct a survivor’s breasts to match her preferences as much as possible.

  7. Appearance and self-presentation research in gay consumer cultures: issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, N A

    1996-01-01

    Individuals present themselves to others through a variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Appearance represents a non-verbal behavior which consumes a significant amount of our time, effort, and thought. We create and monitor our appearances in relation to cultural standards of attractiveness, relying on a wide range of appearance products and services to do so. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of appearance and self-presentation among gay consumers, to discuss issues relating to conducting gay consumer research, to discuss implications for marketing strategies, and to suggest recommendations for further research on specific aspects of appearance management as they may affect marketing to gay consumers. Two studies are reported herein. The first study examines differences in perception among homosexual men when viewing a stimulus person dressed in six distinctly different modes of expression. Social impressions of the stimulus person were different on 15 pairs of characteristics, with certain modes of dress resulting in greater consistency of response and others resulting in greater variability of response. The second study explores differences in aesthetic responses between homosexual and heterosexual men with respect to 14 apparel style categories and 3 fragrance categories. It was found that homosexual men had significantly different responses to innovative, trendy variations in 6 categories of dress, while both homosexual and heterosexual men had similar responses for classic, traditional variations in style categories that might constitute a basic college campus wardrobe (jeans, casual shirts, casual pants, underwear, and coats). Scent preferences also differed between the two groups of respondents. Homosexual men preferred floral, sweet fragrance categories and oriental, spicy categories, while heterosexual men preferred woody, green fragrance categories. These studies suggest that different appearance aesthetics may operate for

  8. Breaking the circle: Challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seven

  9. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  10. 20 CFR 802.202 - Appearances by attorneys and other authorized persons; denial or authority to appear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... officer of any corporate party or a member of any partnership or joint venture which is a party may... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearances by attorneys and other authorized persons; denial or authority to appear. 802.202 Section 802.202 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW...

  11. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  12. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  13. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  14. Material appearance modeling a data-coherent approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yue; Guo, Baining

    2013-01-01

    A principal aim of computer graphics is to generate images that look as real as photographs. Realistic computer graphics imagery has however proven to be quite challenging to produce, since the appearance of materials arises from complicated physical processes that are difficult to analytically model and simulate, and image-based modeling of real material samples is often impractical due to the high-dimensional space of appearance data that needs to be acquired.This book presents a general framework based on the inherent coherency in the appearance data of materials to make image-based appeara

  15. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Çetin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of  body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and  then are controlled in a way which fit suitable for organizations’ missions and visions will be discussed.

  16. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Çetin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and then are controlled in a way which fit suitable for organizations’ missions and visions will be discussed.

  17. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Ebru

    2009-01-01

     Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of  body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and  ...

  18. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  19. Appealing to vanity: could potential appearance improvement motivate fruit and vegetable consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ross D; Ozakinci, Gozde; Stephen, Ian D; Perrett, David I

    2012-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate among adults in the United States; this contributes to preventable morbidity and mortality. More effective dietary intervention strategies are needed. Recently, interventions that advertise the consequences of behavior for appearance have been successful in modifying sun-exposure habits and tobacco use. Such an approach might also facilitate dietary improvement. Consumption of carotenoid-rich fruit and vegetables positively affects skin color, which influences perceptions of health and attractiveness, and promoting such an effect may motivate target audiences to increase consumption of this important food group. This approach represents a novel direction for the field and is potentially suitable for cost-effective, population-level dissemination through the visual media.

  20. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels.

  1. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. PMID:25500807

  2. Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gigante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel explanation for bistable perception, namely, the collective dynamics of multiple neural populations that are individually meta-stable. Distributed representations of sensory input and of perceptual state build gradually through noise-driven transitions in these populations, until the competition between alternative representations is resolved by a threshold mechanism. The perpetual repetition of this collective race to threshold renders perception bistable. This collective dynamics - which is largely uncoupled from the time-scales that govern individual populations or neurons - explains many hitherto puzzling observations about bistable perception: the wide range of mean alternation rates exhibited by bistable phenomena, the consistent variability of successive dominance periods, and the stabilizing effect of past perceptual states. It also predicts a number of previously unsuspected relationships between observable quantities characterizing bistable perception. We conclude that bistable perception reflects the collective nature of neural decision making rather than properties of individual populations or neurons.

  3. Theoretical aspects of appearing of bubbles in economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronoza Pavlo V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of appearing of bubbles in economy. It analyses vies of scientists regarding the essence of this phenomenon and, with the help of content analysis, specifies the essence of the bubble notion in economy. It considers main stages of appearance of such bubbles. It offers classification of their types. It analyses pre-requisites of appearance of bubbles in economy and their features. It considers main existing approaches to detection and modelling appearance of bubbles. It proves that bubbles negatively influence economy of the countries, that is why, the problem of their detection and prevention is one of the central problems in the process of development of policy of state regulation of economy.

  4. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...

  5. The Center for Human Appearance: a multi-specialty concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Linton A

    2003-02-01

    At the time of its founding in 1988, The Edwin and Fannie Gray Hall Center for Human Appearance at the University of Pennsylvania was the first such center in a major academic setting dedicated to the multispecialty serious study of problems of appearance. The concept was for five key specialties, originally, and now six, with primary interests in appearance, to meet regularly to present ideas and problems, and to approach the study and treatment of appearance in a comprehensive, scholarly, and multidisciplinary manner. The group has been cohesive, which has depended on frequent and regular personal interactions, as well as an adequate and supportive financial structure. With these factors in place, and a dedication to making it work, there have been publications, new ideas, and teamwork that has made it possible for competing specialties to effectively function together. PMID:12739177

  6. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: An atypical sonographic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Pan, Chin-Chen; Shen, Shu-Huei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yung-Hui; Wang, Jane; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2016-09-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare. They represent the most common benign tumor of the testis. The sonographic appearances of testicular epidermoid cysts usually include avascular, mostly lamellated, heterogeneous internal echotexture, with hypoechoic and hyperechoic concentric rings, accounting for the typical onion-ring appearance. On MRI, epidermoid cysts show a low-signal-intensity center, with internal concentric rings of alternating high- and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which correlates with the onion-ring appearance. We report a patient with testicular epidermoid cyst with atypical ultrasound and MRI appearances that led to the erroneous initial diagnosis of "burned-out" tumor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:448-451, 2016. PMID:27028726

  7. Analysis of the Appearance Diameter of Yarns in Worsted Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-biao; WANG Fu-mei

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimeasional Rotational Microscopy was used to take the photos of the fabrics.Three cateries of yarn appearance diameters in the worsted fabrics were discussed.The fabrics were grouped into two to explore the relationships between yarn appearance diameters at the interlacing points,opening points,and the calculated yarn diameters.The correlations bgtween the appearance diameters and fabric parameters were given,and the results showed that the calculated yarn diameter and warp cover factor had a very big influence on yarn appearace diameter.The equations expressing the relationship between yarn appearance diameters and fabric parameters are established using step-regression method.The validation of the equations for one type of fabrics shows a good accuracy with the average error below9%except the weft filaments exceeding22%.

  8. Risk perception and benefits perception. Survey results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the risks deriving from different activities involving the same radiation exposure are seen very differently by a single population is a highly significant one. Exactly identical risks are considered oppositely, depending on the origin of radiation (whether produced by medical applications or by nuclear power plants, resulting from natural radiation or from artificial radiation). It appears as if there was good radiation and bad radiation..! One of the purposes of the paper is the discussion of causes. The acceptance of a given risk by a certain section of the population is closely related to the benefits that the group expects to receive-either consciously or unconsciously-from the activity producing the risk. Consequently, an analysis of the factors influencing the eventual rejection of a practice should explore not only fears, but also hopes...! On the basis of a risk-perception survey carried out in a population sector attending hospitals-including both patients and physicians-, a prior objective analysis of the results obtained was performed and, later on, the various statements by those surveyed were studied. The design of the survey allowed for a comparative assessment of the perception of different risks depending on the people's educational and social level. An epistemological study was made on the validity involved in the use of the data resulting from the survey, so as to reach different conclusions. The population's opinion about the capacity for response, the qualification and the mitigation means available to the State authorities in order to face an eventual radiological emergency plays a leading role in risk perception. In an analysis of the relevant factors involved in risk and benefits perception by the population (in the real world), attention must be paid to the existence of organized opinion groups representing the interest of a given sector. Of course, the population's confidence in the experts providing the information is a key

  9. MRI Appearance of Prostatic Stromal Sarcoma in a Young Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki; Kozuka, Yuji; Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Prostatic stromal sarcoma (PSS) is quite rare. Herein, we describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a PSS identified in a 26-year-old man with dysuria and hematuria. MRI clearly depicted the extent and multinodular appearance of the tumor, which was mainly located in the central zone of the prostate. The tumor appeared as a heterogeneously signal-hyperintense mass with a pseudocapsule on T2-weighted imaging. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed necrotic portions in the gradual...

  10. Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region

    OpenAIRE

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characte...

  11. Does life's rapid appearance imply a Martian origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, P.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the rapid appearance of life on Earth justifies the belief that life is widespread in the universe has been investigated statistically by Lineweaver and Davis. However, a rapid appearance could also be interpreted as evidence for a nonterrestrial origin. I attempt to quantify the relative probabilities for a nonindigenous versus an indigenous origin of life on Earth, on the assumption that biogenesis involved one or more highly improbable steps, using a generalization of t...

  12. BUILDING ROBUST APPEARANCE MODELS USING ON-LINE FEATURE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PORTER, REID B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LOVELAND, ROHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; ROSTEN, ED [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    In many tracking applications, adapting the target appearance model over time can improve performance. This approach is most popular in high frame rate video applications where latent variables, related to the objects appearance (e.g., orientation and pose), vary slowly from one frame to the next. In these cases the appearance model and the tracking system are tightly integrated, and latent variables are often included as part of the tracking system's dynamic model. In this paper we describe our efforts to track cars in low frame rate data (1 frame/second) acquired from a highly unstable airborne platform. Due to the low frame rate, and poor image quality, the appearance of a particular vehicle varies greatly from one frame to the next. This leads us to a different problem: how can we build the best appearance model from all instances of a vehicle we have seen so far. The best appearance model should maximize the future performance of the tracking system, and maximize the chances of reacquiring the vehicle once it leaves the field of view. We propose an online feature selection approach to this problem and investigate the performance and computational trade-offs with a real-world dataset.

  13. Perception, illusions and Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Descriptive psychopathology makes a distinction between veridical perception and illusory perception. In both cases a perception is tied to a sensory stimulus, but in illusions the perception is of a false object. This article re-examines this distinction in light of new work in theoretical and computational neurobiology, which views all perception as a form of Bayesian statistical inference that combines sensory signals with prior expectations. Bayesian perceptual inference can solve the 'inverse optics' problem of veridical perception and provides a biologically plausible account of a number of illusory phenomena, suggesting that veridical and illusory perceptions are generated by precisely the same inferential mechanisms.

  14. A new approach to assess student perceptions of gains from an REU program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, C.; Cahill, A. T.; Lemmons, K.

    2013-12-01

    Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) programs are designed to recruit students to science and engineering research careers by allowing the students to conduct research with faculty mentors. The success of REU programs is commonly assessed based on student perceptions of gains using a simple Likert scale. Because students tend to be positive about all aspects of their research experience, the results of the Likert scale tend to be meaningless. An alternative assessment technique, similar to Q-analysis, is used to assess the perceived outcomes of an international REU program hosted by Texas A&M University. Students were required to sort commonly identified REU outcomes into a normal distribution, from most agree to least agree, based on what they perceive as their personal gains from the program. Factor analysis reveals 3 groups of students who believe that they gained field and analytical skills (Group 1), greater competence in research and self-confidence (Group 2), and an improved understanding of the scientific method (Group 3). Student perceptions appear to depend on whether the student had previous research experience through classes and/or as a research assistant at their home institution. A comparison to a similar sort of REU outcomes by the faculty mentors suggests that there is a slight disconnect in the perceived gains by the students between the student participants and the faculty mentors.

  15. Construção e evidências psicométricas de uma escala de avaliação da percepção visual Construction and psychometric evidences of a visual perception scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Marinho Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo construir e conhecer os parâmetros psicométricos de um instrumento para análise da percepção visual de adultos. Para a construção da escala participaram 295 adultos saudáveis, sem déficits cognitivos ou perceptivo-visuais. Nesta etapa foi formulada uma escala tetrafatorial constituída por 20 itens que avaliam quatro dimensões referentes à percepção visual: constância da forma, figura-fundo, posição e relação espacial. Para obter evidências de validade foi utilizada uma amostra de 183 voluntários com boa saúde física e mental e acuidade visual normal ou corrigida. Os dados obtidos relatam a existência de concordância interjuízes, adequação semântica e significância no teste-reteste do instrumento. Os coeficientes de fidedignidade variaram de 0,84 a 0,93. Os quatro fatores esperados foram encontrados, cada um contendo 5 itens, e juntos explicaram 57,52% da variância do constructo. O instrumento apresentou parâmetros psicométricos adequados, o que pode justificar sua utilidade em pesquisas básicas e na prática clínica.The main objective of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric parameters of an instrument used to evaluate adults' visual perception. The basic assumption was that visual perception includes constancy of form, figure-ground, position and spatial relation. A 4-factor solution was expected. Respondents were 183 healthy adults without cognitive or visual perception impairment. In the instrument it was possible to establish the existence of inter-judges agreement, semantic adequacy and test-retest significance. The reliability coefficients ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The four expected factors were found, each one containing 5 items. This solution accounted for 57.52% of the construct variance indicating that the instrument has good psychometric parameters, which suggests its applicability in scientific research and clinical practice.

  16. Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-10-01

    Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning.

  17. Perception and information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Consumer researchers are interested in the responses of people to commercial stimuli. Usually, these stimuli are products and services, including all attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Perception is the first bottleneck in this process...... information and to characterise the operations they perform. To avoid confusion, it should be stressed that the term "perception" is often used in a colloquial sense in consumer research. In concepts like perceived quality, perceived value, or perceived risk, the modifier "perceived" simply highlights...... the subjective nature of these phenomena. However, many of these phenomena are the result of rather complex evaluative judgments and should therefore be regarded as attitudes, not as perceptions in a narrow sense. In this chapter, the term perception will be used in its narrow sense, referring to the selection...

  18. GABA Predicts Time Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Terhune, D.B.; S. Russo(Lugano); Near, J; Stagg, C.J.; Cohen Kadosh, R.

    2014-01-01

    Our perception of time constrains our experience of the world and exerts a pivotal influence over a myriad array of cognitive and motor functions. There is emerging evidence that the perceived duration of subsecond intervals is driven by sensory-specific neural activity in human and nonhuman animals, but the mechanisms underlying individual differences in time perception remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that elevated visual cortex GABA impairs the coding of particular visual stimuli, ...

  19. Canine Sensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Homolková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Senses are physiological capacities of an individual that provide the individual with data for perception of the outside world. Perception is a subjective reflection of an objective reality in our brain through our sensory receptors. The way we perceive the actual stimulus depends in some way on our experiences and on the way the stimulus is interpreted by our memory. This thesis describes the mechanisms of transport of the stimuli about the outside world to the central nervous system and the...

  20. Risk perception, motives and behaviours in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J.; Waked, M; Barbour, B.; Zeidan, N.; Baldi, I

    2014-01-01

    Risky behaviours among young people are relatively frequent, with several motives and attitudes lying behind. Our objective was to evaluate the role of risk perception, attractiveness and motives for risk behaviour taking among university students in Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in public and private universities. Items of risk intake and perception scale, attractiveness of risky behaviours, and motives for risky be...

  1. Tax perception, welfare and labour supply: The spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Arrazola Vacas, María; Hevia Payá, José de; Sanz Sanz, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the tax perception of the married Spanish man in the economic context in which he takes labour supply decisions. In order to obtain the marginal tax rate perceived by the worker, we estimate simultaneously and by means of non-linear-methods a labour supply function together with a perceived tax scale. The results suggest the existence of prominent divergencies between subjective perception and formal income tax rules. In addition, the effects of this gap on public po...

  2. Patients' and physicians' attitudes regarding the physician's professional appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E; Titus, S L

    1987-07-01

    Although physician appearance has been a topic of interest to medical historians for more than two centuries, little objective investigation has been made into patients' and physicians' attitudes toward the physician's appearance. This study analyzed responses from 404 patients, residents, and staff physicians regarding their attitudes toward various aspects of the male and female physician's professional appearance. Positive responses from all participants were associated with traditional items of dress such as the dress, shirt and tie, dress shoes, and nylons, and for physician-identifying items such as a white coat and a name tag. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as blue jeans, scrub suits, athletic shoes, clogs, and sport socks. Negative ratings were also associated with overly feminine items such as prominent ruffles and female dangling earrings and such temporarily fashionable items as long hair on men, male earrings, and patterned hose on women. Overall, patients were less discriminating in their attitude toward physician appearance than physicians. Patients rated traditional items less positively and casual items less negatively. This study confirms the importance of the physician's appearance in physician-patient communication.

  3. Modeling self-occlusions in dynamic shape and appearance tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to track the precise shape of a dynamic object in video. Joint dynamic shape and appearance models, in which a template of the object is propagated to match the object shape and radiance in the next frame, are advantageous over methods employing global image statistics in cases of complex object radiance and cluttered background. In cases of complex 3D object motion and relative viewpoint change, self-occlusions and disocclusions of the object are prominent, and current methods employing joint shape and appearance models are unable to accurately adapt to new shape and appearance information, leading to inaccurate shape detection. In this work, we model self-occlusions and dis-occlusions in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. Experiments on video exhibiting occlusion/dis-occlusion, complex radiance and background show that occlusion/dis-occlusion modeling leads to superior shape accuracy compared to recent methods employing joint shape/appearance models or employing global statistics. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  5. Perception, time of perception, perception of the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata, André

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available From a conceptual point of view, time is independent of its experience. That is: it can be given a conceptual description of time without any reference to terms related to the subjective consciousness of time. But concerning a phenomenology of that subjective experience of time, it can it be showed that such experience of time is, in itself, temporal. The very same terms employed in a conceptual description of time – terms like “change” and “duration”– are implied in the phenomenological description of every perception, including perception of time. This authorizes a characterization of subjective time experience as subjective time. At last, based on temporal nature of perception of time, I will suggest an explanation for our common experience of asymmetries subjective time and objective time.Desde un punto de vista conceptual, el tiempo es independiente respecto de la experiencia del tiempo. Es decir: puede darse una descripción conceptual del tiempo sin referencia ninguna a términos relacionados con la conciencia subjetiva del tiempo. Pero en lo concerniente a una fenomenología de esa experiencia subjetiva del tiempo, puede revelarse que tal experiencia de tiempo es, ella en sí misma, temporal? Los mismísimos términos empleados en una descripción conceptual del tiempo, como “cambio” y “duración”, están implicados en la descripción fenomenológica de toda percepción, incluida la percepción del tiempo. Esto autoriza una caracterización de la experiencia subjetiva del tiempo como tiempo subjetivo. Finalmente, sobre la base de la naturaleza temporal de la percepción del tiempo, sugeriré una explicación racional de nuestra experiencia común de asimetrías entre el tiempo subjetivo y el tiempo objetivo.

  6. Food color and appearance measurement, specification and communication, can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, John; Singleton, Mark; Plater, Keith; Dias, Benjamin

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods of color specification demand a sample that is flat, uniformly colored, diffusely reflecting and opaque. Very many natural, processed and manufactured foods, on the other hand, are three-dimensional, irregularly shaped unevenly colored and translucent. Hence, spectrophotometers and tristimulus colorimeters can only be used for reliable and accurate color measurement in certain cases and under controlled conditions. These techniques are certainly unsuitable for specification of color patterning and other factors of total appearance in which, for example, surface texture and gloss interfere with the surface color. Hence, conventional techniques are more appropriate to food materials than to foods themselves. This paper reports investigations on the application of digital camera and screen technologies to these problems. Results indicated that accuracy sufficient for wide scale use in the food industry is obtainable. Measurement applications include the specification and automatic measurement and classification of total appearance properties of three-dimensional products. This will be applicable to specification and monitoring of fruit and vegetables within the growing, storage and marketing supply chain and to on-line monitoring. Applications to sensory panels include monitoring of color and appearance changes occurring during paneling and the development of physical reference scales based pigment chemistry changes. Digital technology will be extendable to the on-screen judging of real and virtual products as well as to the improvement of appearance archiving and communication.

  7. Age-related changes in color appearance depend on unique-hue components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Katsunori; Tsuchiya, Nao; Yamashita, Kazuyuki

    2002-06-01

    In order to compare color appearance as seen by elderly and young people, we conducted an experiment where the subjects responded to the color appearance of 75 color chips using a categorical color naming method and an elemental color scaling method. The results show that categorical color naming between elderly and young subjects is almost identical for most color chips, but there were significant differences in the elemental color scaling between the two age groups depending on unique-hue components. The differences in yellow and blue components between elderly and young subjects suggest that the neural mechanism of color vision in elderly people may over perform on constancy of color appearance so as to compensate for the age-related change of the human crystalline lens. In addition, the chromatic components in elderly subjects indicate higher values than those in young subjects for low saturation color chips, whereas the chromatic components in elderly subjects indicate lower values than those in young subjects when viewing high saturation color chips. These results show that the age-related changes of unique hue components strongly depend on saturation of colors, and suggest that the practical range of color appearance in elderly people is small in comparison with young people.

  8. 3 T MR cholangiopancreatography appearances of biliary ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Z.X., E-mail: hangzhoudzx73@126.co [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Yuan, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Chong, V. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhao, D.J. [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Chen, F.H.; Li, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the 3 T MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) appearances of biliary ascariasis. Materials and methods: Nine patients with a MRCP diagnosis of biliary ascariasis were reviewed. All patients had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or surgical confirmation of the disease. Results: On thin-slab MRCP imaging, Ascaris worms are clearly demarcated within the biliary tree. All the identified worms demonstrated a characteristic three-parallel-lines appearance. The middle high-signal intensity line is sandwiched between two low-signal intensity lines and they are in turn surrounded by high signal bile. On thick-slab MRCP the worms also show the three-line sign but with less clarity. However, thick-slab MRCP has the advantage of providing three-dimensional ERCP-like images of the pancreaticobiliary system. Conclusion: The 'three-line' sign appears to be a characteristic sign of biliary ascariasis on 3 T MRCP.

  9. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Malini; Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hopkins, Kenneth P. [Department of Surgery, Division of Dentistry, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  10. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig,, I.; NW, Hart; HJ, Hofer

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer, H. J., Blaschke, J., Patolia, J., & Koenig, D. E. (2012). Fixation light hue bias revisited: Implications for ...

  11. Perceptions of interethnic dating among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, Elisaida

    2013-01-01

    This study intended to examine the demographic variables of gender, ethnicity, income, and the perception of success in interethnic/interracial couples. The Interethnic Couples Resource Questionnaire (ICREQ) was created and administered to 153 college students in a predominantly White campus. Other measures administered were the Modern Racism Scale and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. A pilot with Latino/a- White couples on the ICREQ revealed ethnicity not as a variable of interest amo...

  12. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  13. Breast appearance and function after breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1978 and 1985, 247 breast cancer patients were treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy. One hundred and twenty of these patients form the basis of this report, having replied to an 11-point structured questionnaire evaluating breast appearance and breast, shoulder and arm function. Good to perfect cosmetic, functional and overall scores are shown to be in the range 61-89%. The extent of primary surgery and axillary irradiation are the major factors affecting the cosmetic appearance. Other problems with cosmetic and functional assessment from subjective and objective view points are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Body Satisfaction and Physical Appearance in Gender Dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    van de Grift, Tim C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Steensma, Thomas D.; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Haraldsen, Ira R. H.; Dikmans, Rieky E. G.; Cerwenka, Susanne C.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were in...

  15. Combining appearance and geometric features for facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for facial expression recognition combining appearance and geometric facial features. The proposed framework consistently combines multiple facial representations at both global and local levels. First, covariance descriptors are computed to represent regional features combining various feature information with a low dimensionality. Then geometric features are detected to provide a general facial movement description of the facial expression. These appearance and geometric features are combined to form a vector representation of the facial expression. The proposed method is tested on the CK+ database and shows encouraging performance.

  16. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption. PMID:23170947

  17. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption.

  18. Endoscopical appearances of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID- enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellus Simadibrata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID have been associated with a sudden and sustained rise in the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcer complications. The aim of the study was to reveal the endoscopical abnormalities found in the duodenum & proximal jejunum due to NSAID. Thirty eight patients taking NSAID for their arthritis or rheumatism were included in this study. Gastro-duodeno-jejunoscopy was done with Olympus PCF-10. The endoscopical appearances of NSAID entero gastropathy were evaluated with a scoring system. The NSAID-entero-gastropathy appearances were endoscopically seen as hyperemia, erosion and ulcer. From all patient recruited, 7.9% complaint of diarrhea and 71.1% complaint of dyspepsia. Endoscopically, in the duodenal bulb we found 79% cases of hyperemia, 39.5% cases of erosion and 7.9% cases of ulcer. In the second part (descending part of the duodenum we found 28.9% cases of hyperemia, 15.8% cases of erosion and 2.6% case of ulcer. In the jejunum, we found 7.9% cases of hyperemia, 2.6% case of erosion and no ulcer. It is concluded that the most frequent abnormal endoscopical appearances in NSAID- enteropathy was hyperemia. The most frequent site of NSAID-enteropathy abnormal findings was in the duodenal bulb. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 225-9Keywords: NSAID-enteropathy, endoscopical appearances.

  19. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune;

    2010-01-01

    Active Illumination and Appearance Model (AIA) which combines identity, illumination and shape components in a single model and allows us to control them, separately. One of the major advantage of the proposed AIA model is that efficient model fitting is achieved, whilst maintaining performance against...

  20. The CT appearance of ''reversible'' cerebral pseudoatrophy in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT appearance of ''reversible'' cerebral pseudoatrophy resulting from anorexia nervosa was demonstrated. The CT studies were performed in 3 young women with typical clinical course of anorexia nervosa. In all of them computed tomography revealed dilatation of the subarachnoid fluid space. After 5 months of therapy the follow-up scans have reverted to normal in all cases. (author)

  1. Eye Typing using Markov and Active Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin; Nielsen, Mads;

    2002-01-01

    multi-modal interactions based on video tracking systems. Robust methods are needed to track the eyes using web cameras due to the poor image quality. A real-time tracking scheme using a mean-shift color tracker and an Active Appearance Model of the eye is proposed. It is possible from this model...

  2. Free Appearance-Editing with Improved Poisson Image Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Bie; Hao-Da Huang; Wen-Cheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we present a new edit tool for the user to conveniently preserve or freely edit the object appearance during seamless image composition.We observe that though Poisson image editing is effective for seamless image composition.Its color bleeding (the color of the target image is propagated into the source image) is not always desired in applications,and it provides no way to allow the user to edit the appearance of the source image.To make it more flexible and practical,we introduce new energy terms to control the appearance change,and integrate them into the Poisson image editing framework.The new energy function could still be realized using efficient sparse linear solvers,and the user can interactively refine the constraints.With the new tool,the user can enjoy not only seamless image composition,but also the flexibility to preserve or manipulate the appearance of the source image at the same time.This provides more potential for creating new images.Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our new edit tool,with similar time cost to the original Poisson image editing.

  3. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  4. Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points...

  5. Colour Appearance Modelling for Self-luminous Colours

    OpenAIRE

    Withouck, Martijn; Ryckaert, Wouter; Smet, Kevin; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    An experimental setup and procedure for the evaluation of self- luminous colours viewed against both dark and luminous backgrounds is presented. Physical and visual data of self-luminous colours is gathered in order to develop a Colour Appearance Model for self-luminous colours under different viewing conditions. This model is needed for the evaluation of light sources.

  6. Primary mucocele of the petrous apex: MR appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T L; Wong, M L

    1992-01-01

    Mucoceles of the petrous apex are rare. Their MR appearance varies depending on the degree of hydration or inspissation of the contents. Concise preoperative diagnosis is helpful, since mucoceles are better drained to the mastoids via an infralabyrinthine approach rather than the more risky middle cranial fossa approach used for cholesteatomas. PMID:1595444

  7. 14 CFR 77.69 - Limitations on appearance and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... representation. 77.69 Section 77.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Subpart D § 77.69 Limitations on appearance and representation. (a) A former officer or employee of the... personally consider the matter concerned or gain particular knowledge of it while he was an officer...

  8. Sonographic appearance of renal transplant osseous metaplasia: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, R.; Common, A.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sugar, L. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of pathologically proven osseous metaplasia occurring in renal allograft 7 years after transplantation, appearing as multiple, echogenic, band-like lesions with acoustic shadowing on ultra-sonography (US). To our knowledge, such a case has not yet been described in the literature. (author)

  9. On the Local Minima of the Order of Appearance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The order of appearance z(n of the positive integer n is the smallest positive integer k such that n divides Fk, the kth member of the Fibonacci sequence. In this paper, we improve upon some results from (Marques, 2011 concerning local minima of z(n.

  10. Appearance of neutronization peak and decaying supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonradiative neutrino decay, which is not satisfactorily constrained, possibly and significantly changes the detected neutrino signal from galactic supernova explosions. We focus on the appearance of a sharp peak due to a neutronization burst in the time profile; this phenomenon would occur if the original \

  11. Video-based facial animation with detailed appearance texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Facial shape transformation described by facial animation parameters (FAPs) involves the dynamic movement or deformation of eyes, brows, mouth, and lips, while detailed facial appearance concerns the facial textures such as creases, wrinkles, etc.Video-based facial animation exhibits not only facial shape transformation but also detailed appearance updates. In this paper, a novel algorithm for effectively extracting FAPs from video is proposed. Our system adopts the ICA-enforced direct appearance model (DAM) to track faces from video sequences; and then, FAPs are extracted from every frame of the video based on an extended model of Wincandidate 3.1. Facial appearance details are transformed from each frame by mapping an expression ratio image to the original image. We adopt wavelet to synthesize expressive details by combining the low-frequency signals of the original face and high-frequency signals of the expressive face from each frame of the video. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is suitable for reproducing realistic, expressive facial animations.

  12. Sociodemographic Variables in Relation to Social Appearance Anxiety in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gender, age, grade level, and the educational level of the mother and father on social appearance anxiety in Turkish adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which a simple random sampling method was used. Participants were 2,219 adolescents (1089 boys, 1130 girls) with a mean age of 12.76 years old (SD =…

  13. Social Support and the Perception of Geographical Slant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2008-09-01

    The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception. PMID:22389520

  14. Social Support and the Perception of Geographical Slant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2008-09-01

    The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception.

  15. Social perception of nursing professional assessed by different scales Percepción social de profesionales de enfermería evaluada mediante diferentes escalas Percepção social de profissionais de enfermagem avaliada por meio de diferentes escalas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to scale the social perception of nurses through the methods of magnitude estimation, category estimation and cross-modality matching (line lengths. The study participants were high school and undergraduate students, active and retired medicine, psychology, nursing and dentistry professionals. Results revealed that: (1 the characteristics neat, responsible, clean, careful and efficacious occupied the first positions in terms of nurses' social perceptions, while useless, shameful, dishonest, irresponsible and hateful occupied the last positions on all scales obtained by the different direct psychophysics methods; (2 the scale of nurses' social perception is valid, stable and consistent and (3 the rankings resulting from the three methods produce highly concordant positions of perception for the different adjectives.La finalidad de este experimento fue la de escalonar la percepción social del enfermero a través de los métodos de estimación de magnitudes y emparejamiento cruzado (a lo largo de líneas. Participaron del estudio estudiantes de 2º grado y universitarios, profesionales actuantes y jubilados de medicina, psicología, enfermería y odontología. Los resultados mostraron: (1 los trazos aseado, responsable, limpio, cuidadoso y eficaz ocupan las primeras posiciones en términos de percepción social del enfermero, mientras los trazos inútil, deshonroso, deshonesto, irresponsable y odioso ocupan las últimas posiciones en todas las escalas obtenidas por los diferentes métodos psicofísicos directos; (2 la escala de percepción social del enfermero es válida, estable y consistente y (3 las ordenaciones resultantes de los métodos producen posiciones de percepción altamente concordantes para los diferentes adjetivos.O objetivo deste experimento foi escalonar a percepção social do enfermeiro pelos métodos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias e de emparelhamento intermodal (comprimento de

  16. Consensus Coding as a Tool in Visual Appearance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Simmons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in visual appearance research is how to quantitatively characterise the visual appearance of a region of an image which is categorised by human observers in the same way. An example of this is scarring in medical images (Ayoub et al, 2010, The Cleft-Palate Craniofacial Journal, in press. We have argued that “scarriness” is itself a visual appearance descriptor which summarises the distinctive combination of colour, texture and shape information which allows us to distinguish scarred from non-scarred tissue (Simmons et al, ECVP 2009. Other potential descriptors for other image classes would be “metallic”, “natural”, or “liquid”. Having developed an automatic algorithm to locate scars in medical images, we then tested “ground truth” by asking untrained observers to draw around the region of scarring. The shape and size of the scar on the image was defined by building a contour plot of the agreement between observers' outlines and thresholding at the point above which 50% of the observers agreed: a consensus coding scheme. Based on the variability in the amount of overlap between the scar as defined by the algorithm, and the consensus scar of the observers, we have concluded that the algorithm does not completely capture the putative appearance descriptor “scarriness”. A simultaneous analysis of qualitative descriptions of the scarring by the observers revealed that other image features than those encoded by the algorithm (colour and texture might be important, such as scar boundary shape. This approach to visual appearance research in medical imaging has potential applications in other application areas, such as botany, geology and archaeology.

  17. Next discoveries in neutrino mixing: Electron neutrino appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyang, Hongyue

    The discovery of neutrino oscillation is a clear evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Measurements of electron neutrino (nu e) and electron anti-neutrino (nu e) appearances are the most important channels to complete the neutrino mixing matrix. In a nue/ nue appearance experiment, a near detector (ND) is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure the backgrounds to the signal. Backgrounds to the nue appearance comes from Neutral Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-NC), Charged Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-CC), beam nu e events and outside backgrounds. The background components are then extrapolated to the far detector (FD). By looking for excess of signal nu e/nue-like events in FD, we measure the neutrino mixing angle, neutrino's mass hierarchy and the elusive CP-violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation focuses on the signals and backgrounds in nu e/nue appearance measurements. The first part of the dissertation presents an analysis of nue appearance in a large Water Cherenkov detector such as the one proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The analysis, including scanning thousands of events, aims to distinguish nu e signals from the NC backgrounds. The second part of the dissertation presents measurements of Resonance Neutrino Interactions using the NOMAD data. This process plays a critical role in not only neutrino-nuclear cross section but also in the precision analysis of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments such as NOnuA and LBNE. The last part of the dissertation discusses the method of using low-nu fit method to measure relative neutrino flux and constrain beam nue background.

  18. [Relationships among self concept, perception of aging and physical aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M S; Choi, Y H

    1988-12-01

    Although everyone grows old, perception about the aging process and aging as measured physiologically vary widely. Perceptions of aging have psychologically influence on physical aging. This study was to examine the relationships between, self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging in the elderly and to contribute to the theory development which may direct nursing intervention to promote well-being of the aged. Subjects were 70 women residents of a nursing home for the elderly in Seoul. Data collection was done from May 15 to June 15, 1988 using interview schedules and mechanical instruments. The instruments were selected items from the Health Self Concept Scale developed by Jacox and Stewart for self concept, and Secord and Jourad's Body Cathexis Scale and Osgood's Semantic Differential Scale for perception of aging. Physical aging was measured by mechanical instruments, inspection, questions, and palpation. The data were analysed for mean, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient using an S.P.S.S computerized program. The results of the analysis were as follows. 1. The mean level of self concept for the subject group was 16.97 (SD = +/- 6.17) in a range from 6-30. The mean level of perception of aging was 39.6. (SD = +/- 6.51) in a range from 13-65. The mean level of physical aging was 14.09 (SD = +/- 2.05) in a range from 8-40. 2. Relationships among self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging. 1) There was a positive relationship between self-concept and perception of aging (r = 0.4461, p = 0.000). 2) There was a negative relationship between physical aging and perception of aging (r = -0.2975, p = 0.006). 3) There was a tendency toward a negative relationship between physical aging and self-concept, but not a significant relationship (r = -0.1033, p = 0.197). 3. 1) No general characteristic variables were related to self concept. 2) The general characteristic variable related to the level of perception of aging was religion (t = 4

  19. Do African and European energy stakeholders agree on key energy drivers in Africa? Using Q methodology to understand perceptions on energy access debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses Q methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on how best to address energy issues in Africa. We sampled a group of stakeholders involved in various energy sub-sectors to uncover perspectives on how to achieve and promote access to modern energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy in Africa, whether the perceptions could be correlated to educational or geographical background and implications such patterns could have on policies and current dialogues. We found that all stakeholders agree on the need to prioritise sustainability but had different views on how to achieve sustainable energy for all in Africa, depending on the relevance given to each energy driver. Stakeholders could be categorised into four groups: (I) preference of large-scale high-impact projects; (II) supporters of targeted sectoral solutions with preference for small-scale technology and microfinance; (III) supporters of centralised solutions with preference for grid extension, and (IV) supporters of local entrepreneurship with scepticism about centralised solutions. The results show that differences in stakeholders’ perceptions can be associated with respondents’ educational but not geographical background. This implies that dialogues on energy in Africa should focus on inter-disciplinary understanding while further examining the trans-continent consensus that appears to have been established. - Highlights: • We use Q-methodology to reveal stakeholder perceptions on energy issues in Africa. • We assess whether background results in different perceptions among stakeholders. • We identify four main factor groups and only one group supports grid extension. • Results challenge assumptions that African and European viewpoints differ. • More interdisciplinary dialogue is needed while supporting geographic consensus

  20. A STUDY OF CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISUAL PERCEPTION IN SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütün Ayhan, Aynur; Aki, Esra; Mutlu, Burcu; Aral, Neriman

    2015-12-01

    Visual perception comprises established responses to visual stimuli. Conceptual development accompanies the development of visual perception skills. Both visual perception and sufficient conceptual development is vital to a child's academic skills and social participation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between conceptual development and visual perceptual skills of six-year-old children. 140 children were administered Bracken's (1998) Basic Concept Scale (BBCS-R) and the Frostig Developmental Visual Perception Test. BBCS-R scores were weakly correlated with FDVPT Discrimination of figure-ground, and had moderate and significant correlations with Constancy of the figures, Perception of position in space, Perception of spatial relation, and the Total score on visual perception. Also, a moderate correlation was found between the total scores of the FDVPT and the total score of the BBCS-R.

  1. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette;

    2009-01-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver...... of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind...... in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain...

  2. Seeing Minds in Others – Can Agents with Robotic Appearance Have Human-Like Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Molly C.; Gonzalez, Christian A.; Wiese, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Ascribing mental states to non-human agents has been shown to increase their likeability and lead to better joint-task performance in human-robot interaction (HRI). However, it is currently unclear what physical features non-human agents need to possess in order to trigger mind attribution and whether different aspects of having a mind (e.g., feeling pain, being able to move) need different levels of human-likeness before they are readily ascribed to non-human agents. The current study addresses this issue by modeling how increasing the degree of human-like appearance (on a spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid to human) changes the likelihood by which mind is attributed towards non-human agents. We also test whether different internal states (e.g., being hungry, being alive) need different degrees of humanness before they are ascribed to non-human agents. The results suggest that the relationship between physical appearance and the degree to which mind is attributed to non-human agents is best described as a two-linear model with no change in mind attribution on the spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid robot, but a significant increase in mind attribution as soon as human features are included in the image. There seems to be a qualitative difference in the perception of mindful versus mindless agents given that increasing human-like appearance alone does not increase mind attribution until a certain threshold is reached, that is: agents need to be classified as having a mind first before the addition of more human-like features significantly increases the degree to which mind is attributed to that agent. PMID:26745500

  3. Seeing Minds in Others - Can Agents with Robotic Appearance Have Human-Like Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Molly C; Gonzalez, Christian A; Wiese, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Ascribing mental states to non-human agents has been shown to increase their likeability and lead to better joint-task performance in human-robot interaction (HRI). However, it is currently unclear what physical features non-human agents need to possess in order to trigger mind attribution and whether different aspects of having a mind (e.g., feeling pain, being able to move) need different levels of human-likeness before they are readily ascribed to non-human agents. The current study addresses this issue by modeling how increasing the degree of human-like appearance (on a spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid to human) changes the likelihood by which mind is attributed towards non-human agents. We also test whether different internal states (e.g., being hungry, being alive) need different degrees of humanness before they are ascribed to non-human agents. The results suggest that the relationship between physical appearance and the degree to which mind is attributed to non-human agents is best described as a two-linear model with no change in mind attribution on the spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid robot, but a significant increase in mind attribution as soon as human features are included in the image. There seems to be a qualitative difference in the perception of mindful versus mindless agents given that increasing human-like appearance alone does not increase mind attribution until a certain threshold is reached, that is: agents need to be classified as having a mind first before the addition of more human-like features significantly increases the degree to which mind is attributed to that agent. PMID:26745500

  4. Seeing Minds in Others - Can Agents with Robotic Appearance Have Human-Like Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Molly C; Gonzalez, Christian A; Wiese, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Ascribing mental states to non-human agents has been shown to increase their likeability and lead to better joint-task performance in human-robot interaction (HRI). However, it is currently unclear what physical features non-human agents need to possess in order to trigger mind attribution and whether different aspects of having a mind (e.g., feeling pain, being able to move) need different levels of human-likeness before they are readily ascribed to non-human agents. The current study addresses this issue by modeling how increasing the degree of human-like appearance (on a spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid to human) changes the likelihood by which mind is attributed towards non-human agents. We also test whether different internal states (e.g., being hungry, being alive) need different degrees of humanness before they are ascribed to non-human agents. The results suggest that the relationship between physical appearance and the degree to which mind is attributed to non-human agents is best described as a two-linear model with no change in mind attribution on the spectrum from mechanistic to humanoid robot, but a significant increase in mind attribution as soon as human features are included in the image. There seems to be a qualitative difference in the perception of mindful versus mindless agents given that increasing human-like appearance alone does not increase mind attribution until a certain threshold is reached, that is: agents need to be classified as having a mind first before the addition of more human-like features significantly increases the degree to which mind is attributed to that agent.

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda Jesus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.

  6. Perception of Gender Equality on Television and in Social Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemach, Tamar; Cohen, Akiba A.

    1986-01-01

    This study examined differential perceptions of men and women as they appear on television (symbolic reality) and in real life (social reality). The marked tendency of television viewers to regard symbolic reality as more stereotypic than social reality for most traits, roles, and occupations was especially true for heavier viewers. (Author/MBR)

  7. Saturday Morning Cartoons and Children's Perceptions of Social Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen

    This paper examines the effects of Saturday morning cartoons on children's perceptions of social reality. The study consisted of an analysis of programs appearing between 8 and 11 o'clock in the morning on September 15, 1990, and June 9, 1992, focusing on the ethnicity, gender, and age of characters, the positive or negative portrayal of…

  8. Interocular induction of illusory size perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzkopf D Samuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceived size of objects not only depends on their physical size but also on the surroundings in which they appear. For example, an object surrounded by small items looks larger than a physically identical object surrounded by big items (Ebbinghaus illusion, and a physically identical but distant object looks larger than an object that appears closer in space (Ponzo illusion. Activity in human primary visual cortex (V1 reflects the perceived rather than the physical size of objects, indicating an involvement of V1 in illusory size perception. Here we investigate the role of eye-specific signals in two common size illusions in order to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying illusory size perception. Results We devised stimuli so that an object and its spatial context associated with illusory size perception could be presented together to one eye or separately to two eyes. We found that the Ponzo illusion had an equivalent magnitude whether the objects and contexts were presented to the same or different eyes, indicating that it may be largely mediated by binocular neurons. In contrast, the Ebbinghaus illusion became much weaker when objects and their contexts were presented to different eyes, indicating important contributions to the illusion from monocular neurons early in the visual pathway. Conclusions Our findings show that two well-known size illusions - the Ponzo illusion and the Ebbinghaus illusion - are mediated by different neuronal populations, and suggest that the underlying neural mechanisms associated with illusory size perception differ and can be dependent on monocular channels in the early visual pathway.

  9. Commentary: profiling by appearance and assumption: beyond race and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapién, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    In this issue, Acquaviva and Mintz highlight issues regarding racial profiling in medicine and how it is perpetuated through medical education: Physicians are taught to make subjective determinations of race and/or ethnicity in case presentations, and such assumptions may affect patient care. The author of this commentary believes that the discussion should be broadened to include profiling on the basis of general appearance. The author reports personal experiences as someone who has profiled and been profiled by appearance-sometimes by skin color, sometimes by other physical attributes. In the two cases detailed here, patient care could have been affected had the author not become aware of his practices in such situations. The author advocates raising awareness of profiling in the broader sense through training. PMID:20354369

  10. Designing robots for the elderly: appearance issue and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Fassert, Christine; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the results of three focus groups organized in the framework of the ROBADOM project, aiming at designing a service type assistive robot for the elderly with mild cognitive impairment living at home. The main objective of these focus groups was to give some recommendations to engineers in charge of the design of the robot's appearance. Results showed that although many humanoid robots were criticized by most participants, some small creative humanoid robots were appreciated. However, beyond the issue of the robot appearance, many ethical and social issues were raised. These focus groups offered an opportunity for participants to discuss the very idea of an assistive robot and to challenge some implicit preconceptions of the roboticists. Finally, we discuss how assistive robots could be designed considering the social context of the elderly and how to implicate the elderly as future end-users in the design process.

  11. Graceful Labeling Based Active Appearance Model for Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiamoorthy G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for reading face images and image sequences using Graceful Labeling Active Appearance Model (GLAAM. The GLAAM contains a statistical, photo-realistic model of the chassis and grey-level appearance of faces. This paper demonstrates the use of the GLAAM’s efficient iterative matching scheme for image interpretation. We use the GLAAM as a basis for face identification, obtain good results for difficult images. We show how the GLAAM framework allows identity information to be decoupled from other variation, allowing evidence of identity to be integrated over a sequence. The GLAAM approach makes optimal use of the evidence from either a single image or image sequence. Since we derive a complete description of a given image our method can be used as the basis for a range of face image interpretation tasks.

  12. SELF-PERCEPTION IN ADOLESCENTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lebedina-Manzoni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore different aspects of adolescents’ self-perception in Croatia. Secondary objectives were to examine differences in self-perception domains according to gender, age and type of high school. It was applied Susan’s Harter Self – Perception Profile for Adolescents (1988, which contains nine subscales. Eight of them examine specific domains of self-perception and the last one examines global self-worth. The sample in this study consisted of 940 participants. In the sample were included 7th and 8th grade primary school students and 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade secondary school students. Generally, results have shown that adolescents have positive self-perception, especially in domains of close relationship and social acceptance. According to gender, adolescents have shown differences in six domains: male score higher results in athletic competence, physical appearance, romantic appeal as well as in general self worth, while female score higher results in a domain of close relationships and behavioural conduct. The main effect of age proved to be significant for the subscales of scholastic competence and romantic appeal, although only the oldest age group compared to the youngest showed lower scholastic competence and higher romantic appeal. According to school differences among secondary school students the results have shown that high school students have higher scholastic competence in comparison to students from vocational schools. In addition, male high school student have shown higher scholastic competence and global self-worth than female high school students.

  13. Does service employees’ appearance affect the healthiness of food choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Huneke, Tabea; Benoit, Sabine; Shams, Poja; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Derived from previous research on social influence on food consumption and social comparison theory, this article examines the effect of service employees’ appearance on consumers’ food choice using an experimental study, involving a video manipulation and eye-tracking technique. The video shows a menu being proffered by a waitress whose degree of apparent healthiness varies (healthy, overweight, unhealthy lifestyle). The menu contains both healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives. The analysi...

  14. Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points. This makes sure the model is able to capture the subtle details of a face. The model can be used for face segmentation and fully automated face registration.

  15. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    OpenAIRE

    KAHRAMAN, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; DARKNER, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Illumination conditions have an explicit effect on the performance of face recognition systems. In particular, varying the illumination upon the face imposes such, complex effects that the identification often fails to provide a stable performance level. In this paper, we propose an approach, integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (A AM) and illumination model of faces are comb...

  16. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    OpenAIRE

    KAHRAMAN, Fatih; , Muhittin GÖKMEN; DARKNER, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Illumination conditions have an explicit effect on the performance of face recognition systems. In particular, varying the illumination upon the face imposes such complex effects that the identification often fails to provide a stable performance level. In this paper, we propose an approach integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (AAM) and illumination model of faces a...

  17. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  18. Female appearance: facial and bodily attractiveness as shape

    OpenAIRE

    KATRIN SCHAEFER; BERNHARD FINK; KARL GRAMMER; PHILIPP MITTEROECKER; PHILIPP GUNZ; Bookstein, Fred L.

    2006-01-01

    Human physical attractiveness is supposed to reflect developmental stability (i.e. the ability of individuals to maintain stable development of their morphology under a given environmental condition) and physiological status. Hence, evolutionary psychologists have suggested that appearance may not only reveal so called ‘honest signals’ but even comprise a single ornament of mate value. However, it is still a matter of debate which physical features affect the ratings of female beauty, and whe...

  19. On the Rationality of the Appearance of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Daneng

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to reveal the rationality of the appearance of consciousness in the evolution of the universe. Difficulties in understanding consciousness can be boiled down to two problems: the possibility of causality breaking and the origination of truth. By virtue of structural information from the neural networks, this paper gives a causality breaking description of the nervous system and promoted that the biological feelings can be abstracted as a mapping from the nervous system to the...

  20. Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Michael A.; Halen, Kimberley; Meyers, Andrew J.; Winkler, Patricia; Werner, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The spectral sensitivity of the visual system varies markedly between the fovea and surrounding periphery owing in part to the rapid fall in macular pigment density with eccentricity. We examined how colour appearance changes between the fovea and near periphery (8°) by measuring achromatic loci and the loci of unique and binary hues. Chosen colours remained much more similar at the two locations than predicted by the change in spectral sensitivity. Compensation for white may reflect long-ter...