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Sample records for apparently healthy nigerian

  1. alpha-1-antitrypsin in breast milk of healthy Nigerian mothers.

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    Omeme, J A; Lantos, J D; Ihongbe, J C

    1981-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitryspin (x-1-AT) may play a possible role as effector of immunological stasis. This study examines the levels of this glycoprotein in 73 breast milk samples from 60 healthy Nigerian mothers. Levels of x-1-AT were measured by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini. Serum protein was measured by Lowry's method, albumin by Doumas' method. Highest mean levels of x-1-AT were found in colostrum (25 mg/dl). The level was significantly higher compared to transitional milk (14.2 mg/dl) or mature milk (165 mg/dl) (p0.001). Breast milk contains substantial amounts of x-1-AT which is not destroyed by pasturization at 56 degrees Centigrade. The immunological protective properties of breast milk are ideal for newborn babies, particularly those who are low birthweight and are thus most susceptible to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

  2. Fibrinolytic activity in Nigerian diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Adediran, I; Ikem, R; Borisade, M

    2004-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activity, using euglobulin lysis time (ELT), was assessed in 46 Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus to study the effect of the disease on fibrinolytic component of haemostasis. There were 20 females and 26 males. Fifty age matched non-diabetics and apparently healthy Nigerians were similarly studied as controls; there were 24 females and 26 males. In the patients, the mean (SD) age of the females was 56.7 (12.0) years and mean (SD) ELT was 276.4 (62.2) min; the mean age of th...

  3. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of t

  4. Effect of Casilan® on 13 C-caffeine metabolism in overnight-fasted healthy Nigerian children

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    Kazeem A Oshikoya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Casilan® on 13 C-caffeine metabolism in healthy Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy Nigerian children (male: six, female: six aged 3-8 years were studied on three occasions. After an overnight fast, the children were studied after ingesting Casilan® only (Week 1. They were restudied after ingesting 3 mg/kg of labeled caffeine only (Week 2, and further re-studied after ingesting both Casilan® and labeled caffeine (Week 3. Breath samples were collected by blowing via a straw into an exentainer bottle. The cumulative percentage of 13 C-caffeine exhaled as 13 CO 2 was measured over 2 h. Results: The time courses of 13 C-enrichments in exhaled CO 2 for all the children, after they had ingested labeled caffeine only and after they had ingested both Casilan® and labeled caffeine, were identical. There was a gradual rise and peak of the enrichments at about 60-75 min, followed by a gradual fall (II or a plateau (III. Contrarily, the time course of 13 C-enrichments for all the children was consistently low and stable after they had ingested Casilan® only (I. The mean values of cumulative percent 13 C-doses recovered in the CO 2 exhaled over a 2-h period, after ingesting labeled caffeine only (8.59 ± 1.10 δ%/mg and after ingesting both Casilan® and labeled caffeine (8.58 ± 1.33 δ%/mg, were identical, with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.972. This suggests that Casilan® did not affect the CYP1A2 metabolic pathway. Conclusions: Casilan® is a safe, reliable and quantitative food supplement for overnight-fasted children undergoing caffeine breath test.

  5. Nutrients can modulate the adiponectin concentrations in apparently healthy young adults

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    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived peptide, has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, and improves insulin sensitivity. However, little is known about dietary predictors and their interactions with lifestyle on adiponectin concentrations, in apparently healthy young adults. Objective: To evaluate the associations between plasma concentrations of adiponectin with dietary components and lifestyle in apparently healthy young adults. Methods: Anthropometric and body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diet and lifestyle data of 157 healthy young adults, aged 18 and 35, were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 12 hours to determine adiponectin concentrations. Dietary and anthropometric indexes were calculated and analyzed. Results: Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher for women compared to men; and there was an indirect and significant correlation between adiponectin concentrations with BMI. There was a significant association between adiponectin concentrations with the healthy eating index, calories, lipids, proteins, fibers, riboflavin, and phosphorus, among others; and a tendency with carbohydrates and niacin. In multiple linear regression analysis, fiber and riboflavin (r² = 0.0928; p = 0.0013 and carbohydrates and phosphorus were associated with the concentrations of adiponectin. The association with carbohydrates and phosphorus suffered interaction with gender (r²= 0.2400; p < 0.0001, as well as the association with phosphorus also suffered interaction with physical activity (r²= 0.1275; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, in healthy young adults, seem to be modulated by components of diet depending on gender and physical activity.

  6. Effect of oral versus intramuscular Vitamin D replacement in apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Gupta; Khalid J Farooqui; Chandar M Batra; Raman K Marwaha; Ambrish Mithal

    2017-01-01

    Context: A number of controversies exist regarding appropriate treatment strategy for Vitamin D deficiency. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of equivalent doses of oral cholecalciferol (60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks) versus intramuscular (IM) cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) in correcting Vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy volunteers working in a hospital. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized open-label single institution study. Subjects and Methods: This ...

  7. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and dual HBV-hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in apparently healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehar-Cioflec, D; Claici, C; Roşiu, N; Negrea, D A; Moldovan, R; Coşniţă, M

    1998-01-01

    The main aims of the present study were to evaluate the transfusional risk concerning HBV and HBV-HDV infections and the prevalence of viral serum markers in apparently healthy persons. Our study included 226 apparently healthy persons in whom we performed tests for HBV (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb) and HDV (Delta Ab) serum markers, using the enzyme immunoassay. In 45 (19.9%) subjects we detected serum HBsAg. In the 181 HBsAg-negative apparently healthy persons, our tests detected HBsAb (31 subjects) and HBcAb (49 subjects). Thus, 125 (55.3%) of the 226 apparently healthy persons had serologic evidence of past HBV infections. Delta Ab were detected in 3 (1.3%) of our subjects. We must state that one of the three Delta Ab-positive apparently healthy persons tested negative for both HBsAg and HBcAb.

  8. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (pimmunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  9. Occurrence of haemolytic Mannheimia spp. in apparently healthy sheep in Norway

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    Poulsen Louise L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of Mannheimia species in healthy sheep has only been investigated to a very limited extend since the genus and its five named species were established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of haemolytic Mannheimia species in apparently healthy sheep originating from four sheep flocks in South-Western Norway. Methods Typical β-haemolytic Pasteurellaceae were isolated from nasal swabs and subsequently subjected to bacteriological examination. A total of 57 Mannheimia isolates were obtained in pure culture. All isolates were genotyped by amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP analysis and compared to six reference strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of two isolates were also determined. Results β-haemolytic Mannheimia species were isolated from 24% to 64% of the sheep in the four flocks. A total of 26 haemolytic M. ruminalis-like strains were isolated among which, a considerable genetic diversity was found. Eighteen M. glucosida isolates were obtained from three flocks, whereas M. haemolytica was only isolated from two flocks, 16 of them being from only one of the flocks. Conclusion We demonstrate that a relatively high number of apparently healthy sheep in Norway seem to carry the potentially pathogenic M. haemolytica and M. glucosida in the upper respiratory tract. An unexpectedly high number of haemolytic M. ruminalis-like organisms were also obtained in all four flocks. The usually non-haemolytic M. ruminalis are typically isolated from healthy ruminants. The significance of β-haemolytic M. ruminalis-like organisms is unknown and should be investigated in a future study.

  10. Distribution of Aspergillus species among apparently healthy birds in poultry farms in Kaduna state, Nigeria

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    Clara N Kwanashie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wasconducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Aspergilllus species among apparently healthy birds in poultryfarms. Trachea swabs from 1500 birds in 52 commercial (10% of birds in eachpoultry farm visited poultry farms were collected for this study. Six speciesof Aspergillus were isolated wasisolated from 718 (47.87% of the birds viz: A. fumigatus made up 52.37% (376 of the Aspergillus isolates followed by A. flavus 21.87% (157, A.niger 11.42% (82, A. terreus8.64% (62, A. restrictus 2.79% (20and A. ochraceous 2.92% (21. Aspergillus species was found to occurthroughout the year in the farms though with a higher incidence during therainy season compared to the dry season.

  11. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 15 MONTHS

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    Fysal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to lack of iron is the most important hematological disorder of infancy and childhood. According to India’s third National Family Health Survey ( NFHS - 3 of 2005 - 6 , 70 % of children between 6 months and 59 months are anemic. So it is very important to screen children for anemia early. The first 2 years of life is a critical window of opportunity to intervene in children since anemia can impair psychomotor development. A cross sectional study involving 260 apparently healthy children between 6 months and 15 months of age , showed the prevalence of anemia to be 60.7%. Only 9.2% of them were having Protein Energy Malnutrition. Introduction of animal milk at an early age and the amount of animal milk consumed were found to be the two important risk factors significantly associated with anemia. KEY WORDS: Hemoglobin , Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM , Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia , Exclusive Breast Feeding ( EBF

  12. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

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    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  13. Depression of platelet counts in apparently healthy children with asymptomatic malaria infection in a Nigerian metropolitan city.

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    Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Uko, Emmanuel Kufre

    2007-09-01

    Asymptomatic malaria infection is a common feature of malaria endemic regions in the tropics. In this prospective cross sectional survey, involving 240 children aged 1 to 8 years (Boys = 117, Girls = 123; Ratio 1:1.05), the median platelet count was 115 x 10(9)/L (IQR 97.5-190). Thirty-three out of 240 (13.75%) of the children had thrombocytopenia (platelet count platelet count. This reduction was more pronounced in children under 5 years and also at higher parasite counts. An inverse relationship was established between parasite density and platelet count (y = -0.017x + 96.2, r = -0.2). Thrombocytopenia is not only a feature of acute malaria infection but also that of asymptomatic malaria infection in the tropics and might be a useful indicator of malaria in children.

  14. Anthropometric study of male external genitalia of 320 healthy Nigerian adults.

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    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1985-06-01

    Five basic measurements of the male external genitalia were studied in 320 healthy male medical students belonging to the various parts of Nigeria (West Africa). Their ages range from 17 to 23 years. The measurements were as follows: average length of the penis (81.6 +/- 0.94 mm); circumference of the penis (88.3 +/- 0.02 mm); circumference of the scrotum (212.6 +/- 2.48 mm); length of right testis (46.8 +/- 0.54 mm); width of right testis (32.4 +/- 0.37 mm); length of left testis (46.0 +/- 0.53 mm); and width of left testis (31.4 +/- 0.36 mm). The size of the genitalia increases with the increase in age in younger year groups. The adult stages of genitalia development are reached at the age of 21 years in 89.0% of the individuals. The growth of the genitalia is continued with the increasing height and weight, but this growth slows down after attaining a definite height and weight.

  15. Widespread of H5N1 infections in apparently healthy backyard poultry.

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    Abozaid, Khaled G A; Aly, Mona M; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-08-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 represents a threat to the poultry industry and human health worldwide. Inapparently infected birds are suspected to play an essential role in the spread of avian influenza virus. In the current study, a total of 25,646 samples (16,185 chicken, 4696 ducks, 1633 geese and 3132 turkeys) from apparently healthy birds were screened for the presence of positive samples for H5N1 during 2009-2014. The samples were examined by reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for M, H5 and N1 genes of avian influenza viruses. The results revealed that the HPAI H5N1 existed in an inapparent manner in ducks (4.68 %), geese (4.10 %), chickens (2.48 %) and turkeys (2.29 %). The current finding highlights the serious impact of such type on birds in the epidemiology of H5N1 in birds, animals and humans. It also highlights the existence of another reason other than vaccination that contributes to the widespread of inapparent infection of H5N1 in Egypt.

  16. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in apparently healthy schoolchildren in Aliero, Kebbi state, Nigeria

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    Rupashree Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In malaria endemic areas, continuous exposure to Plasmodium parasites leads to asymptomatic carriers that provide a reservoir, contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission. Thus, a study of the degree of prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemias will help in assessing the level of reservoir of infection. Methods: All the consented participants without any signs and symptoms, suggestive of malaria were interviewed and thick blood smears were made to detect malaria parasites. The children presenting with malaria or any other severe illness, and those declining to give consent were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 118 (59.6% children out of 198 apparently healthy children were positive for malaria parasites while 80 (40.4% children were negative for malaria parasites. Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was higher in males 75 (63.6% compared to females 43 (36.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Incidence of asymptomatic malaria was highest with 76.1% in the children aged 6– 10 yr. There was statistically significant association of the use of bednet on prevalence of asymptomatic malaria. Interpretation & conclusion: High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria detected in this study is a big challenge and can be a threat to the present malaria control programme. Thus, it should be considered in assessing and reorganising more effective malaria elimination strategies to achieve the desired goal of malaria control.

  17. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

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    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The mod ified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods.

  18. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

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    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  19. Detection of Yersinia spp and Salmonella spp. in apparently healthy cats and dogs in Tehran, Iran

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    shabnam hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Companion animals, such as cat and dog, are potential sources of transmissible diseases to humans, especially children. They harbor zoonotic agents in gastrointestinal tracts as carriers which are capable of infecting their owners. Salmonella and Yersinia bacteria are considered as frequent causes of illness in children. This study was aimed at finding out the prevalence rate of infection in apparently healthy dogs and cats in Tehran, Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 100 rectal swabs from dogs and cats were analyzed by a multiplex PCR method with specific primers for detection of Yersinia and Salmonella species. Results: Fifteen samples (4 cats and 11 dogs were positive for Yersinia and 20 samples (9 cats and 11 dogs were positive for Salmonella. So the prevalence rate of Yersinia was 8% in cats and 22% in dogs and the prevalence rates of Salmonella were 18 and 22% in cats and dogs respectively. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, Yersinia and Salmonella were detected in 8- 22% of pet animals without any clinical signs. The contaminated animal foods may be the main source of infection. These results may be useful in planning control and preventive programs. 

  20. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

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    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  1. Associations of amylin with inflammatory markers and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Xinwei Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular and animal studies implicate multiple roles of amylin in regulating insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolisms. However, the role of amylin in obesity related metabolic disorders has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of circulating amylin and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS and explore if this association is influenced by obesity, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1,011 Chinese men and women aged 35-54 years was employed to measure plasma amylin, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], insulin, glucose and lipid profiles. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Plasma amylin concentrations were higher in overweight/obese participants than normal-weight counterparts (P<0.001 without sex difference. Circulating amylin was positively associated with CRP, IL-6, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, amylin/insulin ratio, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (all P<0.001. After multiple adjustments, the risk of MetS was significantly higher (odds ratio 3.71; 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 5.46 comparing the highest with the lowest amylin quartile. The association remained significant even further controlling for BMI, inflammatory markers, insulin or HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that amylin is strongly associated with inflammatory markers and MetS. The amylin-MetS association is independent of established risk factors of MetS, including obesity, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. The causal role of hyperamylinemia in the development of MetS needs to be confirmed prospectively.

  2. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

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    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  3. Establishment of reference interval for liver specific biochemical parameters in apparently healthy north Indian population.

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    Yadav, Dharamveer; Mishra, Sandhya; Gupta, Monika; John, P J; Sharma, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Reference intervals (RI) are the most common decision support tool used for interpretation of numerical laboratory reports. The quality of the RI can play as large a role in result interpretation as the quality of the result itself. As such there is hardly any study examining RI for liver specific biochemical parameters in Indian population especially north Indians having drastically different food habits as compared to rest of the India. So there is a need to establish the RI for north Indian population. Present study was conducted on 2,021 apparently healthy individuals of north Indian origin ranging in age from 15-60 years, were selected randomly using defined criteria. Lipemic, hemolysed, icteric and stored samples were also excluded adopting preanalytical criteria for rejection of sample. Non parametric methodology for determination of RI was adopted as most of the biochemical parameters included revealed non Gaussian distribution. Data were analyzed for middle 95 percentile (2.5th-97.5th percentile), median and 95 % confidence interval using SPSS software package version 10.0. The upper and the lower limit of RI (reported Vs observed) for bilirubin (0-1.2 Vs 0.30-1.30 mg/dL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT) (0-41 Vs 13-52.80 IU/L), serum glutamate pyruvate transferase (SGPT) (0-50 Vs 10-68 IU/L) showed wide variation as compared to reported standard RI however Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) (0-50 Vs 5.00-50.60 IU/L) remained within the reported standard RI. Further gender wise evaluation revealed higher cutoff in males (AST 14-55, ALT 11-70.35, GGT 6.76-51.09 in IU/L, bilirubin (0.40-1.34 mg/dL) as compared to females (SGOT 13-50.43, SGPT 9-63.43, GGT 3.92-48.70 in IU/L, Bilirubin 0.30-1.20 mg/dL) for both enzymatic and non enzymatic biochemical parameters. The variations may be attributed to dietary pattern smoking and alcoholism.

  4. A circulating complex between ASAT and IgG in serum in an apparently healthy woman.

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    Fex, G; Berntorp, K

    1987-04-15

    An elevated level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) activity in a subjectively healthy woman was shown to be due to circulating ASAT:IgG complexes. The complexes were demonstrated by taking advantage of the specific interaction between protein A and IgG. Thus, greater than 90% of the patient's ASAT activity in serum could be bound to protein A-Sepharose demonstrating that nearly all the patient's serum ASAT was complexed to IgG. The ASAT-binding capacity of patient serum was calculated as approximately 850 micrograms ASAT/l which corresponds to about 0.01% of patient's IgG.

  5. The effects of atrial repolarization on exercise-induced ST-segment depression in apparently healthy females

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    Brown, Rhonda K

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the PQ-segment slope on ST-segment depression during vigorous exercise was examined in 26 apparently healthy females between 18 and 26 years of age. Each subject performed 2 submaximal cycle ergometer exercise tolerance tests (trial A and trial B) on nonconsecutive days wherein the following variables, as delta scores, were measured; P-wave amplitude (microvolts), PQ-segment slope (uV!sec), and J-point at 0 and 60 msec (uV). Each variable was measured by both visual a...

  6. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

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    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  7. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

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    Roxanne M. Vogel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermogenic (TRM supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective: To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design: Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9 or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14 for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results: Significant (p<0.05 group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05 within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG, creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL, eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73, globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL, A/G (+0.27±0.23, and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL, and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion: Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05 intragroup

  8. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely.

  9. Exposure to and fear of terror as predictors of self-rated health among apparently healthy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Melamed, Samuel

    2008-05-01

    The effects of exposure to terror on physical health were investigated by relating objective exposure to terror and fear of terror to self-rated health (SRH), a proxy measure of health status. Our respondents were apparently healthy (N=4,877, 38% women) adults who completed self-report questionnaires. Objective exposure was assessed by the number of terrorist attacks and their casualties in a respondent's urban area prior to her/his completion of the questionnaire. Using several alternative assessments, objective exposure to terror did not predict SRH for both the genders. As hypothesized, fear of terror negatively predicted SRH for both females and males (beta=-0.04, -0.05, respectively). The effects of subjective and objective exposure were not found to be more pronounced among women relative to men, thus disconfirming our hypotheses in this regard. Our findings suggest that living under continuous fear of terror may adversely influence physical health irrespective of objective exposure.

  10. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

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    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  11. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

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    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  12. Prevalence of factor V G1691A (Leiden) and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms among apparently healthy Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusier, Mohamad K; Radaideh, Abdelrahman M; Ababneh, Nida'a A; Qaqish, Bara'ah M; Alzoubi, Renad; Khader, Yousef; Mersa, Janet Y; Irshaid, Nidal M; El-Khateeb, Mohammed

    2007-10-01

    Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are related genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Analysis for both mutations is increasingly being performed on patients exhibiting hypercoagulability. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin-G20210A (PT-G20210A) polymorphisms and their coexistence among apparently healthy Jordanians. One thousand apparently healthy individuals from representative regions of Jordan with no previous history of VTE participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 28.5+/-6.4 years (age range 18-45 years). Two hundred and eighteen subjects were APC resistant with an APC-R mean of 85.52+/-15.35 seconds; the non-resistant subjects had an APC-R mean of 159.90+/-26.96 seconds. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the simultaneous detection of FVL and prothrombin G20210A was used to analyze the 218 DNA samples that were APC-R resistant. Both mutations generate HindIII RFLPs and the prothrombin amplicon contains an invariant HindIII recognition sites. The multiplex PCR-RFLP of Factor V for those 218-samples was: 41 wild-type, 169 heterozygous mutant, and eight homozygous mutant individuals. For prothrombin G20210A, the multiplex PCR-RFLP identified 215 wild-type and three heterozygous mutant individuals. Factor V positive individuals (n=50) had a mean F-V activity of 78.04%+/-25.81. F-V activity among wild type (n=41), F-V Leiden heterozygous (n=169) and F-V Leiden homozygous (n=8) were 92.93%+/-16.17, 87.02%+/-15.21 and 96.14%+/-12.32, respectively. Factor II positive subjects (n=47) had a mean factor II activity of 127.96%+/-21.37. F-II activity among carriers (heterozygous, n=3) and non-carriers (normal, n=215) of PT-G20210A mutation were 107.67%+/-9.29 and 105.00%+/-17.79, respectively. The prevalence of FVL was 21.8% and there is a little likelihood of the co-inheritance of the FVL and PT-G20210A among

  13. Association of depression and anxiety status with 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults: The ATTICA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Kollia, Natasa; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsigos, Constantine; Randeva, Harpal S; Yannakoulia, Mary; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic stress frequently manifests with anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and may have detrimental cardiometabolic effects over time. As such, recognising the potential links between stress-related psychological disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular epidemiology research. The primary aim of this study was to explore prospectively potential associations between clinically relevant depressive symptomatology and anxiety levels and the 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults. Design A population-based, health and nutrition prospective survey. Methods In the context of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012), 853 adult participants without previous CVD history (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent psychological evaluations through validated, self-reporting depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results After adjustment for multiple established CVD risk factors, both reported depression and anxiety levels were positively and independently associated with the 10-year CVD incidence, with depression markedly increasing the CVD risk by approximately fourfold (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (1.3, 11) for depression status; 1.03 (1.0, 1.1) for anxiety levels). Conclusions Our findings indicate that standardised psychological assessments focusing on depression and anxiety should be considered as an additional and distinct aspect in the context of CVD preventive strategies that are designed and implemented by health authorities at the general population level.

  14. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PULMONARY PARAMETERS IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AND NON DIABETES MELLITUS APPARENTLY HEALTHY VOLUNTEER AS CONTROL

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    Qazi Rais Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The best early evidence of a description of the symptoms of diabetes in the world's literature is recorded in the Ebers Papyrus that Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism result in from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both which affect the respiratory system also. So we decided to study the effects of diabetes mellitus on pulmonary parameters. In this study a group of 50 apparently healthy control subject of both gender and 50 Diabetic patients of both gender were randomly selected with age ranging from 19-68 years. The Diabetic patients were matched with control group in terms of age, height, weight and BSA and BMI. Spirometry was performed on an electronic spirometer (spiro exel according to American Thoracic Society and results were compared by a student t-test (2-tailed. Diabetic patients showed a significant decrement in the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC % and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR % relative to their matched controls. However, there were no significant difference in the Forced Expiratory Volume in one Second (FEV1% and Forced Expiratory Ratio (FEV1 / FVC % between the groups We conclude that pulmonary parameters in diabetic patients there is decrement in FVC% and PEFR%, as compared to controls. which indicate restrictive pattern of lung function impairment.

  15. High-density cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI as modifiers of plasma fibrin clot properties in apparently healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Hońdo, Łukasz; Krzek, Marzena; Undas, Anetta

    2013-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases cardiovascular risk, whereas its high levels protect against atherosclerosis via multiple beneficial effects. Dense and poorly lysable fibrin clot formation is observed in cardiovascular disease. We sought to investigate whether HDL-C and its major component apolipoprotein A (Apo A)-I affect fibrin clot properties. In 136 apparently healthy individuals (99 men, 37 women, aged 49-69 years) we determined plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks coefficient) and lysis time (t50%) together with Apo A-I and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels. The median HDL-C level was 1.33  mmol/l (range from 0.77 to 2.19  mmol/l). HDL-C was positively associated with Apo A-I (r = 0.62, P Ks (r = 0.52, P Ks and t50% were associated with Lp(a) (r = -0.42, P Ks (P = 0.00016) and 17% shorter t50% (P = 0.0012) than the remainder. After adjustment for age, fibrinogen, and Lp(a), HDL-C was the independent predictor of Ks (β = 0.7, P < 0.00001) and t50% (β = -0.62, P < 0.00001). This study shows that elevated HDL-C levels are associated with improved fibrin clot permeability and lysis, indicating a novel antithrombotic mechanism underlying the postulated beneficial effects of therapy targeted at HDL-C.

  16. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  17. Hematologic, biochemical, and cytologic findings from apparently healthy atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Juli D; Reese, Eric; Reif, John S; Varela, René A; McCulloch, Stephen D; Defran, R H; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Hansen, Larry

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish reference baseline data for hematologic, biochemical, and cytologic findings in apparently healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Sixty-two dolphins were captured, examined, and released during June 2003 and June 2004. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated for each parameter, and values for which published data were available, were close to or within the ranges previously reported for free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. No pathologic abnormalities were found in fecal and blowhole cytologic specimens. However, 24% (7/29) of the dolphins examined in 2003 had evidence of gastritis, which was graded as severe in 14% (4/29) of the cases. In 2004, only 4% (1/24) of dolphins sampled had evidence of mild or moderate gastritis; no severe inflammation was present. Dolphins with evidence of gastritis were 8 yr of age or older and predominantly male. Several statistically significant differences were found between males and females, between pregnant and nonpregnant animals, and between juveniles ( or =6 yr). However, the values remained within the established ranges for this species, and the differences were not likely to be of clinical significance.

  18. Molecular detection of Salmonella spp. isolated from apparently healthy pigeon in Mymensingh, Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaled Saifullah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55

  19. Latent association between low urine pH and low body weight in an apparently healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kei; Oda, Eiji; Kanda, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Low urine pH, a plausible predictor for chronic kidney disease and metabolic disorders, is often observed in obese individuals. However, the association between low urine pH and low body weight is equivocal. We examined clinical parameters including urine pH and body mass index (BMI) in a cross-sectional study of 3629 apparently healthy Japanese adults aged 25-80 years who underwent a health-screening check-up. Urine pH was lower and the prevalence of proteinuria was significantly higher in subjects with BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) compared with those with BMI of 21.0-22.9 kg/m(2). By contrast, hematuria was more prevalent in subjects with BMI of ≤ 20.9 kg/m(2). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with low urine pH (≤ 5.5), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant confounders including age, sex, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine density, hematuria, smoking status, and daily alcohol drinking. However, the association disappeared after further adjustment for serum uric acid. In contrast, the association between low urine pH and BMI of ≤ 19.0 kg/m(2) was significant after adjustment for age and sex and rather strengthened by the further adjustment for serum uric acid. In conclusion, low urine pH may be independently associated with low BMI. However, the underlying mechanisms of low urine pH in low body weight may differ from those in high body weight.

  20. Subjective lactose intolerance in apparently healthy adults in southern Iran: Is it related to irritable bowel syndrome?

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    Saberi-Firoozi M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : The main symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, abdominal cramps, increased flatus and loose watery stools. These symptoms are similar to those of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, which is a prevalent entity in the community. Objective : As there was no data available on the prevalence of LI and the correlated factors, this study aimed to determine these correlations and their relation to IBS symptoms in an apparently healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods : A survey among 1,978 individuals older than 35 years was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran, using a questionnaire that consisted of items regarding demographic data, life style, subjective gastrointestinal symptoms of LI and IBS symptoms according to ROME II criteria. Results : A total of 562 subjects reported LI (28.41%. The prevalence was significantly higher in females, in subjects taking NSAIDs or acetaminophen and in cases reporting IBS symptoms. Subjects with LI avoided certain foods and drinks; and in order to relieve their symptoms, they used OTC drugs, herbal medicine or visited a physician. On the other hand, no relation was found between LI and age, smoking or the number of meals per day. Conclusions : Although we found that individuals with IBS had significantly more subjective LI than those without IBS, in the absence of documented lactose malabsorption, it is hard to tell whether the reported symptoms indeed are those of LI or simply those of IBS. So, a period of dairy product avoidance and/ or requesting a test for lactose malabsorption may be beneficial in this area.

  1. Hyperpolarized 3He apparent diffusion coefficient MRI of the lung: reproducibility and volume dependency in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.; Casselbrant, I.; Piitulainen, E.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas using diffusion weighted MRI in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema and examine the reproducibility and volume dependency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eight healthy volunteers and 16...... days was good in both healthy volunteers and patients (SD range of 0.003-0.013 cm(2)/second and 0.001-0.009 cm(2)/second at 6% and 15% of TLC for healthy volunteers, and a SD range of 0.001-0.041 cm(2)/second and 0.001-0.011 cm(2)/second, respectively, for patients). A minor but significant increase...... in mean ADC with increased inhaled gas volume was observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: Mean ADC and SD of HP (3)He MRI is reproducible and discriminates well between healthy controls and patients with emphysema at the higher gas volume. This method is robust and may be useful to gain new insights...

  2. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

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    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  3. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, A.N.; Ovesen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -year-olds. Methods: Participants in this epidemiological health survey cohort were 358 subjects (171 men) 80 years of age. A dietary survey was performed in 232 subjects. Blood samples included Hb, red cell indices, serum ferritin, serum C-reactive protein, renal and hepatic function tests. Normality...... criteria for Hb were: 1) values in all participants; 2) values in apparently healthy subjects; 3) values in 10-year survivors. Hb was compared with muscle strength, physical performance and diet. Results: In the entire series, median Hb was 140 g/L, 5-95 percentile 116-160 g/L in men, and 131 g/L, 5......-95 percentile 114-147 g/L in women (pmen and 17% in women. Apparently healthy iron-replete men (n=129) and women (n=141) had median Hb of 141 g/L and 131 g/L. Median Hb levels were higher in 10-year surviving...

  4. Impact of Yoga and Meditation on Cellular Aging in Apparently Healthy Individuals: A Prospective, Open-Label Single-Arm Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolahunase, Madhuri; Sagar, Rajesh; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on cellular aging in apparently healthy individuals. During this 12-week prospective, open-label, single arm exploratory study, 96 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled to receive YMLI. The primary endpoints were assessment of the change in levels of cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging in blood from baseline to week 12, which included DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH2dG), oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and telomere attrition markers telomere length and telomerase activity. The secondary endpoints were assessment of metabotrophic blood biomarkers associated with cellular aging, which included cortisol, β-endorphin, IL-6, BDNF, and sirtuin-1. After 12 weeks of YMLI, there were significant improvements in both the cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging and the metabotrophic biomarkers influencing cellular aging compared to baseline values. The mean levels of 8-OH2dG, ROS, cortisol, and IL-6 were significantly lower and mean levels of TAC, telomerase activity, β-endorphin, BDNF, and sirtuin-1 were significantly increased (all values p < 0.05) post-YMLI. The mean level of telomere length was increased but the finding was not significant (p = 0.069). YMLI significantly reduced the rate of cellular aging in apparently healthy population.

  5. Impact of Yoga and Meditation on Cellular Aging in Apparently Healthy Individuals: A Prospective, Open-Label Single-Arm Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolahunase, Madhuri; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on cellular aging in apparently healthy individuals. During this 12-week prospective, open-label, single arm exploratory study, 96 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled to receive YMLI. The primary endpoints were assessment of the change in levels of cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging in blood from baseline to week 12, which included DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OH2dG), oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and telomere attrition markers telomere length and telomerase activity. The secondary endpoints were assessment of metabotrophic blood biomarkers associated with cellular aging, which included cortisol, β-endorphin, IL-6, BDNF, and sirtuin-1. After 12 weeks of YMLI, there were significant improvements in both the cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging and the metabotrophic biomarkers influencing cellular aging compared to baseline values. The mean levels of 8-OH2dG, ROS, cortisol, and IL-6 were significantly lower and mean levels of TAC, telomerase activity, β-endorphin, BDNF, and sirtuin-1 were significantly increased (all values p < 0.05) post-YMLI. The mean level of telomere length was increased but the finding was not significant (p = 0.069). YMLI significantly reduced the rate of cellular aging in apparently healthy population. PMID:28191278

  6. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay

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    Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25% of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1, CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32, enterovirus 71 (EV71, EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed.

  7. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Coker, Bamidele Atinuke; Nudamajo, Felix Yasha; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25%) of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1), CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32), enterovirus 71 (EV71), EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed. PMID:27087810

  8. Role of C-peptide in Altered Lipid Profile among Apparently Healthy Adults of Vijayapura City, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas M.Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-peptide is produced in equimolar concentration during insulin production as inactive molecule by beta islet cells of Langerhans. C-peptide is most useful biomarker of endogenous insulin production. Aim and Objectives: To predict metabolic syndrome in advance by estimation of C-peptide and lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: Serum C-peptide, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of 128 healthy individuals were estimated. Adults in the age group of 18 to 60 years of both sexes were included in study. Results: C-peptide levels were increased in 27%, Serum cholesterol in 30%, LDL Cholesterol in 55% and triglyceride levels in 21% of healthy individuals. Significant correlation was observed between C peptide, age, serum cholesterol, LDL and cholesterol LDL ratio in male subjects only. In our study group most of the subjects (both males and females fell in overweight group. Conclusion: Cpeptide level and lipid profile may be considered as useful biomarkers to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in advance, possibly due to insulin resistance.

  9. Influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals and plant origin on inflammatory biomarkers among apparently-healthy adults in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianou, Natalia G; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Bonou, Maria S; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D; Barbetseas, John D; Avgerinos, Peter C; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-12-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46 +/- 16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research.

  10. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

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    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  11. Histogram-based characterization of healthy and ischemic brain tissues using multiparametric MR imaging including apparent diffusion coefficient maps and relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernarding, J; Braun, J; Hohmann, J; Mansmann, U; Hoehn-Berlage, M; Stapf, C; Wolf, K J; Tolxdorff, T

    2000-01-01

    Decreased, renormalized, or increased values of the calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are observed in stroke models. A quantitative description of corresponding tissue states using ADC values may be extended to include true relaxation times. A histogram-based segmentation is well suited for characterizing tissues according to specific parameter combinations irrespective of the heterogeneity found for human healthy and ischemic brain tissues. In a new approach, navigated diffusion-weighted images and ADC maps were incorporated into voxel-based parameter sets of relaxation times (T1, T2), and T1- or T2-weighted images, followed by a supervised histogram-based analysis. Healthy tissues were segmented by incorporating T1 relaxation into the data set, ischemic regions by combining T2- or diffusion-weighted images with ADC maps. Mean values of healthy and pathologic tissues were determined, spatial distributions of the parameter vectors were visualized using color-encoded overlays. One to six days after stroke, ischemic regions exhibited reduced relative mean ADC values.

  12. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  13. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -year-olds. Methods: Participants in this epidemiological health survey cohort were 358 subjects (171 men) 80 years of age. A dietary survey was performed in 232 subjects. Blood samples included Hb, red cell indices, serum ferritin, serum C-reactive protein, renal and hepatic function tests. Normality...... criteria for Hb were: 1) values in all participants; 2) values in apparently healthy subjects; 3) values in 10-year survivors. Hb was compared with muscle strength, physical performance and diet. Results: In the entire series, median Hb was 140 g/L, 5-95 percentile 116-160 g/L in men, and 131 g/L, 5......-95 percentile 114-147 g/L in women (p= 20 had a lower frequency of anemia. There was no correlation between Hb and dietary or supplemental iron intake. In men, Hb was correlated to meat consumption. Conclusions: WHO decision limits for anemia should not be lowered in 80-year-old subjects. "Optimal" Hb...

  14. Comparative evaluation of effect of complete denture wears on the flow rate of saliva in both medicated and apparently healthy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthalia, Abhay; Chandrasekaran, Arun P.; Mhaske, Sheetal P.; Lau, Mayank; Joshy, V. R.; Attokaran, George

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: In the denture wearing people, saliva is necessary to create adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension that ultimately leads to the increased retention of the denture. Medications have some influence on the flow rate of saliva and denture retention. The present study evaluates the effect of complete denture wear on the flow rate of saliva in both medicated and apparently healthy patients. Materials and Methods: The participants were 42 edentulous individuals aged 35–70 years requiring complete denture prostheses. The participants were divided into two groups of medicated and unmedicated. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected at 24 h and 3 months after the insertion of new complete dentures in both the groups. The data obtained were analyzed using Student's paired t-test and unpaired t-test. Intergroup changes were compared with unpaired t-test. Intragroup changes were compared with paired t-test using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 22.0. Results: In the unmedicated group, the mean salivary flow rate was high at 24 h after denture insertion when compared to before denture insertion (P = 0.001 VHS). In the medicated group, the observation was highly significant (P = 0.007 HS) 24 h after denture insertion and after 3 months (P = 0.02 S) when compared to before denture insertion. Conclusion: No significant difference in the salivary flow rate was found 3 months after denture insertion when compared to before denture insertion for both the medicated and unmedicated groups. PMID:27382537

  15. Music in Nigerian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a brief history of music education in Nigerian educational institutions along with the goals and objectives. States music educators are traditional master musicians or Western educated professionals. Claims the focus of music education is on Western music. Makes recommendations for a radical revision of the curriculum and changes in…

  16. Triglossia in Nigerian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, C. M. B.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how triglossia in Nigerian education lies in the complementary distribution of languages by functions, with the languages of home, community, and school corresponding roughly to the affective, conative, and cognitive psychological categories. Provides a triglottic model which describes actual function of language in education in Nigeria.…

  17. Attitude Regarding Nigerian Pidgin English among Nigerian Students in Malaysia

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    Jamila AbdulAzeez Buba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is quite interesting to note that Pidgin which essentially began as a demanded language between the white importers, who later turned colonial masters, and their black traders has now become a campus language-spoken of the majority of the population among the Nigerian students in advanced institutions of learning. Nigerian Pidgin English evolved as a result of language contact with the British colonialists. This study seeks to assess the use, and also determine the recognition of Pidgin English among Nigerian postgraduate students in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Questionnaires were administered on selected students in the university in an attempt to elicit the attitude and usage of the informants to Nigerian Pidgin English. The results were calculated in percentages. It was found that the attitude of Nigerian students regarding the Nigerian Pidgin English in UPM is positive. To conclude, in the next few years, Nigerians are expected to use Nigerian Pidgin English in all situations when they communicate.              Keywords: Pidgin, Nigerian Pidgin English, language contact

  18. Hematological and nutritional parameters in apparently healthy elderly individuals Parâmetros hematológicos e nutricionais em idosos aparentemente saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza D'Agord Schaan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-probabilistic study in an elderly free living community was performed. The first analysis was cross-sectional in design and the additional analysis, a case-control design. In the first analysis, 745 subjects were enrolled. Additional analyses, made in 46 apparently healthy elderly subjects (AHE and 33 young adults (YA included: clinical, hematological and biochemical analyses, 24-hours nutritional recall and diet frequency questionnaire. The AHE were selected using the Senieur test protocol. To avoid selection bias in the AHE sample, additional analysis comparing cultural, socioeconomic, and health variables were compared between AHE and non-selected elderly with same dysfunction or morbidity (DE. The prevalence of AHE was 6.17% (n=46 among whom 4.3% were anemic. There were no statistically differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes and vitamin B12 levels between AHE and YA groups. Mean values of MCV, RDW, eosinophils, folate and ferritin were higher in the AHE than the YA group. On the other hand, platelets were higher in the YA group. No statistically significant difference occurred between the AHE and DE groups when nutritional indicators were compared. The comparison between nutritional indicators of anemic and non-anemic apparently healthy elderly people showed statistically significant differences in vitamin B12 and protein intake, which were lower in the anemic elderly. The results suggest independent biological differences between hematological parameters of elderly and young individuals.Foi realizado um estudo não probabilístico em idosos que vivem na comunidade. A primeira análise teve um delineamento transversal e análises adicionais um delineamento caso-controle. Na primeira análise foram incluídos 745 indivíduos. Análises adicionais foram feitas em 46 idosos saudáveis (HE e em 33 adultos jovens (YA incluindo: análises clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas, recordatório nutricional de 24 horas e question

  19. High prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A and E viruses and viremia of hepatitis B, C, and D viruses among apparently healthy populations in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Gotanda, Yuhko; Tsuda, Fumio; Komatsu, Fumio; Kawabata, Terue; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Altankhuu, Murdorjyn; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen; Narantuya, Luvsanbasaryn; Hoshino, Hiromi; Hino, Kunihiko; Kagawa, Yasuo; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV), HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV was evaluated in 249 apparently healthy individuals, including 122 inhabitants in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, and 127 age- and sex-matched members of nomadic tribes who lived around the capital city. Overall, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in 24 subjects (10%), of whom 22 (92%) had detectable HBV DNA. Surprisingly, HDV RNA was detectable in 20 (83%) of the 24 HBsAg-positive subjects. HCV-associated antibodies were detected in 41 (16%) and HCV RNA was detected in 36 (14%) subjects, none of whom was coinfected with HBV, indicating that HBV/HCV carriers account for one-fourth of this population. Antibodies to HAV and HEV were detected in 249 (100%) and 28 (11%) subjects, respectively. Of 22 HBV DNA-positive subjects, genotype D was detected in 21 subjects and genotype F was detected in 1 subject. All 20 HDV isolates recovered from HDV RNA-positive subjects segregated into genotype I, but these differed by 2.1 to 11.4% from each other in the 522- to 526-nucleotide sequence. Of 36 HCV RNA-positive samples, 35 (97%) were genotype 1b and 1 was genotype 2a. Reflecting an extremely high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections, there were no appreciable differences in the prevalence of hepatitis virus markers between the two studied populations with distinct living place and lifestyle. A nationwide epidemiological survey of hepatitis viruses should be conducted in an effort to prevent de novo infection with hepatitis viruses in Mongolia.

  20. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ebnoof, Syda Omer M Ali; Hussein, Mohmmed Omer M; Gbreel, Afra Yousif A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate cytological atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, hot meals, and peppers using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou methods. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated, of which 60 were smokers, 34 were alcohol users, 52 were habitual peppers and hot meal (exposed) consumers, 24 were non-exposed, and 10 were patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), as an internal control. Cytological materials were obtained by brushing of buccal mucosa, on the border of the tongue and on the floor of the mouth, and participants underwent the Papanicolaou test for cytological changes and AgNOR staining for evaluation of the mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus. SPSS program was used to perform the Pearson chi-square test. The 95% confidence level, Odds Ratio (OR), and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used. The features of cytological atypia were verified among 10 individuals, including 5 smokers, 2 alcohol users, 2 hot meals and peppers consumers, and one non-exposed. For atypia among tobacco smokers, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% CI were found to be 2 (0.246-16.24). Increased keratinization was detected among 27 (45%) of the smokers (P cytological atypia were identified with 6 +/- 2 AgNOR mean count. The increase of the variables suggests that the evaluation of epithelial atypical changes in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful screening tool. While hot meals and peppers did not seem to be a risk for oral mucosal proliferation, they increased the potency of keratinization and infection.

  1. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  2. Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the Mount Cameroon area: cross sectional survey.

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    Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative importance of living in an urban versus rural setting and malaria in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anaemia (MA and anaemia respectively in apparently healthy primary school children.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 727 school children aged between four and 15 years living in an urban (302 and rural (425 settings in the Mount Cameroon area. Blood sample collected from each child was used for the preparation of blood films for detection of malaria parasites and assessment of malaria parasite density as well as full blood count determination using an automated haematology analyzer. Based on haemoglobin (Hb measurements, children with malaria parasitaemia were stratified into MA (Hb<11 g/dL; mild MA (Hb of 8-10.9 g/dL; moderate MA (Hb of 6.1-7.9 g/dL and severe MA (Hb≤6 g/dL. Evaluation of potential determinants of MA and anaemia was performed by multinomial logistic-regression analysis and odds ratios used to evaluate risk factors.Out of the 727 children examined, 72 (9.9% had MA. The prevalence of MA and anaemia were significantly higher (χ2 = 36.5, P <0.001; χ2 = 16.19, P <0.001 respectively in children in the urban (17.9%; 26.8% respectively than in the rural area (4.2%; 14.8% respectively. Majority of the MA cases were mild (88.9%, with moderate (5.6% and severe MA (5.6% occurring in the urban area only. The age group ≤6 years was significantly (P <0.05 associated with both MA and anaemia. In addition, low parasite density was associated with MA while malaria parasite negative and microcytosis were associated with anaemia.Malarial anaemia and anaemia display heterogeneity and complexity that differ with the type of settlement. The presence of severe MA and the contributions of the age group ≤6 years, low parasite density and microcytosis to the public health problem of MA and anaemia are noteworthy.

  3. Towards prevention of hypertension in Nigeria: a study of prehypertension and its associations among apparently healthy adults in Umuahia, South-East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuonu, Chimezie Godswill; Ngoka, Stanley Chidozie; Chimezie, Oluchi Justina; Eze, Tochukwu Hycinth; Uwanurochi, Kelechukwu; Mbanaso, Augustus Ugwunna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of hypertension is on the increase in Nigeria. Prehypertension is considered a precursor of hypertension and a predictor of excessive cardiovascular risk. Identifying individuals with prehypertension and initiating effective measures will aid in reducing the incidence and prevalence of hypertension in our environment. The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of prehypertension and determine its associations among adults in a representative semi-urban Nigerian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study which was carried out in a semi-urban setting in Southeast Nigeria. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using the standard methods. A cardiovascular risk factor screening based on physical characteristics, individual medical, and family history of participants was done. Results: There were a total of 389 participants comprising 223 (57.3%) males and 116 (42.7%) females; male:female ratio been 1.9:1. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 45.5% and 37.8%, respectively. Males were significantly more likely to have prehypertension than females (61% vs. 39% respectively; OR = 1.32, P = 0.03). There was a weak positive significant correlation between age and both systolic (r = 0.16, P < 0.01) and diastolic (r = 0.12, P = 0.02) blood pressures. Up to 72.6% of individuals with prehypertension have abnormal body mass index (BMI). While up to 8.5% of the participants had a family history of cardiovascular disease, 20.3%, and 17.3% had a history of significant intake of alcohol and smoking, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of prehypertension in the community was high. It was associated with increasing age, male gender, and increasing BMI. Interventions at this stage may aid in stemming the rising prevalence of hypertension in our environment. PMID:26288705

  4. Detection of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in apparently healthy sheep by real-time TaqMan PCR in comparison with histopathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahari Aliasghar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to use TaqMan real-time PCR technique to investigate Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV proviral DNA in whole blood samples of sheep, and compare the results to those of histopathological examinations. Material and Methods: Eighty blood samples from clinically healthy sheep were randomly collected before the animals were slaughtered. Ten tissue samples from each lung and associated caudal mediastinal lymph node were taken. Results: Fifteen (18.75% blood samples were found to contain proviral DNA, and 11 (13.75% corresponding lung samples showed microscopic changes consistent with ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma. None of the samples displayed metastases to the caudal mediastinal lymph nodes. The prominent pattern of neoplastic nodules consisted of acinar (alveolar form. Conclusion: The results indicated the higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to histopathological examinations in detection of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  5. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of wheat aleurone-rich foods on markers of antioxidant status, inflammation and endothelial function in apparently healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Hamill, Lesley L; Keaveney, Edel M; Strain, J J; Parker, Michael J; Welch, Robert W

    2012-11-14

    Observational data show an inverse association between the consumption of whole-grain foods, and inflammation and related diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, whole grains, and in particular the aleurone layer, contain a wide range of components with putative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the effects of a diet high in wheat aleurone on plasma antioxidants status, markers of inflammation and endothelial function. In this parallel, participant-blinded intervention, seventy-nine healthy, older, overweight participants (45-65 years, BMI>25 kg/m²) incorporated either aleurone-rich cereal products (27 g aleurone/d), or control products balanced for fibre and macronutrients, into their habitual diets for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and on day 29. Results showed that, compared to control, consumption of aleurone-rich products provided substantial amounts of micronutrients and phytochemicals which may function as antioxidants. Additionally, incorporating these products into a habitual diet resulted in significantly lower plasma concentrations of the inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (P = 0·035), which is an independent risk factor for CVD. However, no changes were observed in other markers of inflammation, antioxidant status or endothelial function. These results provide a possible mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of longer-term whole-grain intake. However, it is unclear whether this effect is owing to a specific component, or a combination of components in wheat aleurone.

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum PADA FESES INDIVIDU DEWASA SEHAT YANG MENGONSUMSI Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 DARI DADIH [Lactobacillus plantarum in Stool of Apparently Healthy Adults Consuming Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 from Dadih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmier Adib*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A placebo double blind pre-post human study was conducted in apparently healthy adults. There were two treatment groups consisting of Group A and B representing probiotic and placebo group, respectively. Twenty four participants were randomly assigned, each supplemented with either placebo or probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506. The micro encapsulated powder was given at a dose of 2.6x1010 CFU/day for 21 consecutive days. Stool samples were collected before and after the supplementation. The fresh stool samples were analyzed for the viability of Lactobacillus sp. by conventional plate count method in MRS agar. Some stool samples were kept frozen to be analyzed by using real time PCR to trace back the availability of Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primer. The Lactobacillus sp. in stools of healthy adults given microencapsulated probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 powder was significantly more than those who consumed microencapsulated placebo powder. Molecular detection by qPCR confirmed the availability of Lactobacillus plantarum in fecal samples of the probiotic group after given the supplementation for 21 days. The molecular detection validation confirmed that probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was available in the fecal samples of the probiotic group of healthy adults. However, the availability and viability of Lactobacillus plantarum were not consistently found in the intestinal tract.

  8. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  9. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying

  10. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jögi J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Jögi,1 Hanna Markstad,2 Ellen Tufvesson,3 Leif Bjermer,3 Marika Bajc1 1Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Skåne University Hospital and Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Ventilation/perfusion (V/P single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT, may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I–IV and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD

  11. Keratinophilic fungi from Nigerian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, C I; Pugh, G J

    1987-08-01

    During a survey of keratinophilic fungi in Nigerian soil samples, twelve species of fungi were isolated. These included Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, Curvularia lunata, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis, M. fulvum, M. gypseum, M. vanbreuseghemii, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense and T. yaoundei. These keratinophilic fungi had a higher incidence by occurrence of individual species during the rainy season (May-October) than the dry season (November-April).

  12. Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    access to safe drinking water and Nigeria currently ranks 156 of 187 on the Human Development Index that measures overall 9 standards of living such...should also encourage the agricultural growth by providing free access to credit for Nigerian farmers, and the Nigerian population should be energized in

  13. Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome: A Case Report in an Adolescent Nigerian Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Asanye Ikpeme

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This is to report a case of Klippel Trenauay Weber syndrome in a fifteen year old Nigerian boy. This is a rare syndrome and it is the first case to be reported in UCTH Calabar. CASE PRESENTATION: Product of a full term uneventful pregnancy, delivered to non-consanguineous apparently healthy parents. At birth was noted to gradually develop swelling on the right leg, worse at the right foot. There was crossed hemi-hypertrophy with right leg bigger than the left. As child grew symptoms worsened, parents separated and eventually he was abandoned to the streets. He presented at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for medical care at the age of fifteen years with lymphatic obstruction, persistent foul smelling drainage, lipodermatosclerosis of right foot as well psycho-social and financial constraints. The diagnosis was made with x-rays and Doppler studies of the lower limb vessels. He is currently being managed conservatively with compression dressings on the affected limbs, Antibiotics for the infection and analgesics. De-bulking surgery is being anticipated at this time. CONCLUSION: This is a case of KTWS presenting in adolescence and due to its rarity in Nigeria, this report is to increase awareness.

  14. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  15. The Social and Functional Power of Nigerian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiro, Edmund O.

    1991-01-01

    Employs the frameworks of sociolinguistics and social psychology to explore the social and functional power of Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE) as it is featured in the novels of two prominent Nigerian authors. It is demonstrated how NPE has elevated its social and functional power as an interpreter of the Nigerian social structure. (24 references)…

  16. Copper and zinc concentrations in Nigerian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, G O

    2011-01-01

    Trace elements are accepted to be involved directly or indirectly in the process of cancer formation. In this study, serum selenium, copper and zinc were measured in three groups of patients using atomic absorption spectrometer. A total of 29 Nigerian women were included: group I consisted of nine age-matched healthy controls without breast problems; group 2 included nine women with benign breast disease; and group 3 was comprised of women with breast cancer. The serum concentration of copper (Cu) was significantly higher in patients with cancer when compared to the control group (1.43 +/- 0.31 microg/ml vs 0.91 +/- 0.18 microg/ul/0.94 +/- 0.10 microg/ml). The zinc (Zn) concentration was significantly lower in the breast cancer group than in the other two groups (0.74 +/- 0.21 microg/ml vs 1.14 +/- 0.31 ug/ml/1.11 +/- 0.29 microg/ml; p copper and zinc in serum of patients with breast cancer, which may indicate abnormal copper and zinc metabolism in Nigerian females with breast cancer.

  17. Leadership and the Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Dike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy is largely oil-based. Some people would rather say it is a mono-product economy. The economy has been in dire straits over the years, because of a combination of the neglect of education, especially technical and vocational education and science-based technology education, poor leadership and governance, corruption, as well as poor monetary and fiscal policies. All these have made a review of the poor investment in human capital development and infrastructure and institutions that drive the Nigerian economy and national development rather compelling. The political leaders have always raised the people’s hope by painting glowing pictures of their development plans and how they would stimulate the economy and improve the people’s living conditions. Thus, they swore that they would give priority attention to human capital development and national development, and empower the citizens, particularly the poorly educated, unskilled, and unemployed youths, with relevant human skills capital and entrepreneurial skills to enable them to contribute profoundly to national development. Yet the political leaders have, over the years, failed to adequately fund education and strengthen the infrastructure and institutions that would drive the economy and create employment for the teeming population. Both the new-breed politicians, like the old politicians before them, are promising to transform the nation into an industrialized society and the people cannot hold their expectations. The reality though is that Nigeria cannot become an industrialized society without investing abundantly in human capital development (education and health, leadership, and technological capabilities, which means investing in the future development of the nation.

  18. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Carol Ewing; Blissmer, Bryan; Deschenes, Michael R; Franklin, Barry A; Lamonte, Michael J; Lee, I-Min; Nieman, David C; Swain, David P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit

  19. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex......In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  20. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebaek, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-10-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  1. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timzing Miri-Dashe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4% males, 125 (32.6% non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2% with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC, Hemoglobin (HB and Hematocrit (HCT had significant gender difference (p = 0.000 but not for total white blood count (p>0.05 which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000. Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001 but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001 with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05 but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  2. Nigerian Criminal Networks; A comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkholt, Aimar

    2010-01-01

    Why is an African federation the home to one of the more dominating criminal networks operating globally? Nigeria is not well known for its high level of Internet-infrastructure. Still, it is in a class of its own when it comes to e-fraud or 419 spam mails. It is also prominent within the drug trade and the African-European trafficking network. By comparatively analysing other forms of Organized Crime against the Nigerian Brand, the thesis has tried to find the particulars of Nigerian Crimina...

  3. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  4. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  5. Vitamin B nutrition in the Nigerian tropical ataxic neuropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Assessment of nutritional status of vitamin B components by plasma or blood levels indicated riboflavin deficiency and possibly thiamine deficiency in Nigerian patients who suffered from tropical ataxic neuropathy and neurologically normal Nigerians who subsisted on predominant cassava diet. Serum levels of folate, niacin, pyridoxine and panthothenic acid were normal. Vitamin deficiencies probably are minor factors, if any, in the pathogenesis of tropical ataxic neuropathy in Nigerians.

  6. Death patterns among Nigerian leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A.‎ Nzegwu ‎

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to establish the patterns of death amongst Nigerian leaders since independence, thus providing a feasible avenue to avoid their recurrence if possible especially amongst the political elite who currently hold power. METHODS: Using available unclassified authentic public information, all leaders who had ruled Nigeria since her independence on 1 October, 1960 until her 45th birthday on 1 October 2005, irrespective of whether they are dead or alive were included. Data was extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: On 1 October 2005, Nigeria celebrated 45 years as a sovereign nation. Within this period, the country has had eleven leaders, all of whom were men. Only three (27.3% were civilians, while eight (72.7% were army generals. Of the eleven leaders, four (36.4% had died before Nigeria reached its 45th birthday and all of these four (100% died while still in office. Three of the dead leaders (75% were assassinated, while one (25% died suddenly in mysterious circumstances, believed to be the result of poisoning by unknown external powerful interest groups. Three of the deaths (75% occurred during violent periods of Nigeria’s checkered history (1966-1970 and 1993-1999, showing that periods of national and international strife appeared to be the weakest link in chains of events that led to their death while in office. Autopsies were neither requested nor performed on any of the dead leaders, signifying an entrenched culture of nonchalance, a lack of a coordinated national coroner’s law and contempt for accurate and detailed death records. Worse still, no valid tenable death certificate has ever been issued. In other words, no attempt has been made to determine the cause of death of four of the nation’s former leaders. Only hurried national burials were accorded two (50% of them while the other two (50%, who died in the coup and revenge coup of 1966, were completely neglected, and not even given a decent national

  7. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sowemimo, A; Venter, M.; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum panic...

  8. Waardenburg's syndrome: case reports in two Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoni, S S; Abdurrahman, M B

    1979-01-01

    We saw two cases of Waardenburg's syndrome in Nigerian children. A 9-year-old girl had congenital deaf-mutism, high-arched palate, complete heterochromia iridis with pigment mottling in the posterior pole of the eye with the hypochromic iris, dyspigmented frontal scalp hair, a history of vitiligo, but with no dystopia canthorum. An 11-year-old boy had a harelip with cleft palate, heterochromia iridis, blonde fundus on the eye with blue iris, and dystopia canthorum.

  9. Statistical Method of Estimating Nigerian Hydrocarbon Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey O. Oseh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon reserves are basic to planning and investment decisions in Petroleum Industry. Therefore its proper estimation is of considerable importance in oil and gas production. The estimation of hydrocarbon reserves in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been very popular, and very successful, in the Nigerian oil and gas industry for the past 50 years. In order to fully estimate the hydrocarbon potentials in Nigerian Niger Delta Region, a clear understanding of the reserve geology and production history should be acknowledged. Reserves estimation of most fields is often performed through Material Balance and Volumetric methods. Alternatively a simple Estimation Model and Least Squares Regression may be useful or appropriate. This model is based on extrapolation of additional reserve due to exploratory drilling trend and the additional reserve factor which is due to revision of the existing fields. This Estimation model used alongside with Linear Regression Analysis in this study gives improved estimates of the fields considered, hence can be used in other Nigerian Fields with recent production history

  10. The role of trefoil factor family in apparently healthy subjects administrated gastroprotective agents for the primary prevention of gastrointestinal injuries from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takagi, Yu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Yamagishi, Tetsuya; Goto, Shinya

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.

  11. 成年健康个体肾小球滤过率正常范围的研究%The normal range of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Chinese apparently healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马迎春; 左力; 陈亮; 宿志梅; 孟申; 张春丽; 王海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨成年健康个体肾小球滤过率(GFR)的正常范围.方法 收集不同地域的成年健康个体,以双血浆法锝-二乙三胺五乙酸(Tc-DTPA)血浆清除率为GFR参考值(rGFR).结果 入选健康个体301名.50岁之前rGFR保持恒定;50岁之后rGFR平均每10年下降12.2 ml/min.50岁之前女性的rGFR高于男性;>50岁之后,女性的rGFR均低于男性,但差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 50岁以后,成年健康个体GFR真实值随着年龄的增加逐渐下降;50岁之前,女性GFR平均值高于男性.%Objectives Studies show that Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR) decrease with the increase of age, but the normal reference range of GFR by age groups in healthy Chinese adults is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the normal GFR reference range by age groups in healthy Chinese adults,and to explore sex and age- related differences in GFR. Methods Three hundred and one Chinese healthy adults were enrolled. All eligible subjects were: ( 1 ) no positive finding by physical examination; (2)without any kinds of chronic disease; (3)fasting plasma glucose was normal and urinary dipstick test and sediments examination were negative. Reference GFR(rGFR) was measured using dual plasma sampling method of plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. Results The normal reference of GFR kept constant with age up to 50 years, and showed a decline after the age of 50 years with the increase of age in healthy Chinese adults,the decreased average value of rGFR after the age of 50 years was 12.2 ml/min/l0 years(P<0.001 compared with those of age up to 50 years). In the age of 18to 49 years old,the mean GFR values of females was higher than those of males ( P < 0. 05 in the age 18 to 29, without significant difference in the age 30 to49) ;after the age of 50,the mean GFR values of female was lower than those of male,but without significant difference. Conclusions We firstly report of the reference GFR range and sex- and age- related

  12. Empowering Nigerian Pidgin: A Challenge for Status Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboanusi, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Nigerian Pidgin (NP) is probably the language with the highest population of users in Nigeria, it does not enjoy official recognition and is excluded from the education system. It lacks prestige because it is seen by many Nigerians as a "bad" form of English and associated with a socially deprived set of people. This…

  13. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  14. Managing Language Testing in Nigerian Large Classes: Processes and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Taiwo

    2010-01-01

    The demand for literacy in a developing country like Nigeria has multiple results such as the expansion, by leaps and bounds, of the average Nigerian classroom. This paper highlights the reasons for large classes in Nigerian secondary schools, the educational and psychological dimensions of language testing in large classes, the challenges of such…

  15. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  16. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  17. The apparent Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binétruy, P.; Helou, A.

    2015-10-01

    We exploit the parallel between dynamical black holes and cosmological spacetimes to describe the evolution of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes from the point of view of an observer in terms of the dynamics of the apparent horizon. Using the Hayward-Kodama formalism of dynamical black holes, we clarify the role of the Clausius relation to derive the Friedmann equations for a Universe, in the spirit of Jacobson’s work on the thermodynamics of spacetime. We also show how dynamics at the horizon naturally leads to the quantum-mechanical process of Hawking radiation. We comment on the connection of this work with recent ideas to consider our observable Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate and on the corresponding role of vacuum energy.

  18. Webometric analysis of Nigerian university websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pechnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a web space built on a set of the university websites of Africa's most populous nation -- Nigeria. The investigation conducted reveals a weak connectivity in the set of official websites of Nigerian universities. However, the connectivity becomes stronger when all the university websites are taken into account. It increases significantly with the addition of the only found web communicator to the university websites -- National Universities Commission -- the sole body that approves the establishment of higher educational institutions in Nigeria and all academic programmes run by them.

  19. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  20. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Leadership Styles in Nigerian Work Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osarumwense Iguisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project investigated four managerial leadership styles in Nigerian organizations. The research question that the research tries to address is: to what extent are the leadership styles expressed in modern management theories consistent with Nigerian Traditional values? The findings do confirm that the perceived leadership style in the organizations by the managers is autocratic, the preferred style is the paternalistic and the rejected is the autocratic. For about one in five Nigerian managers, the democratic style is the most often rejected. The study challenges the validity of dominant Western universal perspectives in managerial leadership in traditional African organizations. The study suggests that elements of traditional values pose serious challenge to Nigerian managers’ ability to adopt traditional and modern management practice that can improve the effectiveness of leadership in their organizations

  1. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Leadership Styles in Nigerian Work Organisations

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    Osarumwense Iguisi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research project investigated four managerial leadership styles in Nigerian organizations. The research question that the research tries to address is: to what extent are the leadership styles expressed in modern management theories consistent with Nigerian Traditional values? The findings do confirm that the perceived leadership style in the organizations by the managers is autocratic, the preferred style is the paternalistic and the rejected is the autocratic. For about one in five Nigerian managers, the democratic style is the most often rejected. The study challenges the validity of dominant Western universal perspectives in managerial leadership in traditional African organizations. The study suggests that elements of traditional values pose serious challenge to Nigerian managers’ ability to adopt traditional and modern management practice that can improve the effectiveness of leadership in their organizations

  2. Some Problems in Nigerian Library Development Since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynter, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Support by the government, sources of foreign financial aid, school libraries, the development of bookselling and the publishing industry, problems with duplicate resources, and professional librarian training are discussed in relation to Nigerian library development since 1960. (MBR)

  3. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

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    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination.Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism.Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education.Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region.Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting

  4. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  5. Comparing between spiritual well being of patients from the cardiovascular nursing program with individuals who are apparently healthy Comparación entre el bienestar espiritual de pacientes del Programa de Enfermería Cardiovascular y el de personas aparentemente sanas

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    SÁNCHEZ HERRERA BEATRIZ

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the study describes and compares the levels of spiritual well-being of the group of patients from the cardiovascular nursing program with those of the group of people with similar socio-demographic characteristics and who are apparently healthy. Methods: a quantitative approached was used of the des-criptive comparative type to measure the spiritual well-being which included the 43 people of the cardiovascular nursing program for the prevention of risk factors and 43 people with similar characteristics and who are apparently healthy. Results: they include the description of spiritual well-being of each one of the groups (people who attend the cardiovascular nursing program and individuals who are apparently healthy and the comparison between them. An average level of spiritual well-being among the cardiovascular nursing program individuals was found, and it was more committed in the existential dimension than in the religious one. In people who are apparently healthy, the general spiritual well-being level was high, with better results in the religious dimension than in the existential one. When comparing the levels of spiritual well-being in general and by the components, a significant difference was found between the groups with higher levels of spiritual well-being in general and by the components in the group of individuals who are apparently healthy. Discussion: The findings confirm the existence of a link between spirituality and cardiovascular health. The importance of an integral evaluation is emphasized and that should enable the understanding of the dynamics between the different life aspects of people with cardiovascular risk during the cardiovascular nursing program. The importance of including information on spiritual belief and practices is highlighted as a possible protecting factor in the cardiovascular health of people and a debate is open on the strategies to address the dimension of spiritual care and go

  6. Comparación entre el bienestar espiritual de pacientes del Programa de Enfermería Cardiovascular y el de personas aparentemente sanas Comparing between spiritual well being of patients from the cardiovascular nursing program with individuals who are apparently healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ SÁNCHEZ HERRERA

    2008-07-01

    trascender de la teoría a los hechos en lo referente a la integralidad en un cuidado que se base en la salud como conciencia expandida.Objective: the study describes and compares the levels of spiritual well-being of the group of patients from the cardiovascular nursing program with those of the group of people with similar socio-demographic characteristics and who are apparently healthy. Methods: a quantitative approached was used of the des-criptive comparative type to measure the spiritual well-being which included the 43 people of the cardiovascular nursing program for the prevention of risk factors and 43 people with similar characteristics and who are apparently healthy. Results: they include the description of spiritual well-being of each one of the groups (people who attend the cardiovascular nursing program and individuals who are apparently healthy and the comparison between them. An average level of spiritual well-being among the cardiovascular nursing program individuals was found, and it was more committed in the existential dimension than in the religious one. In people who are apparently healthy, the general spiritual well-being level was high, with better results in the religious dimension than in the existential one. When comparing the levels of spiritual well-being in general and by the components, a significant difference was found between the groups with higher levels of spiritual well-being in general and by the components in the group of individuals who are apparently healthy. Discussion: The findings confirm the existence of a link between spirituality and cardiovascular health. The importance of an integral evaluation is emphasized and that should enable the understanding of the dynamics between the different life aspects of people with cardiovascular risk during the cardiovascular nursing program. The importance of including information on spiritual belief and practices is highlighted as a possible protecting factor in the cardiovascular health of

  7. Prevalencia de dislipidemias en una población de sujetos en apariencia sanos y su relación con la resistencia a la insulina Dyslipidemia prevalence and its relationship with insulin resistance on a population of apparently healthy subjects

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    Catarina Munguía-Miranda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia de las dislipidemias en una población de sujetos en apariencia sanos y su relación con la resistencia a la insulina (RI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este es un estudio transversal que incluyó a 1 179 individuos, donadores voluntarios de 35 a 65 años. Se obtuvo el historial clínico y se realizaron examen físico, determinación del perfil de lípidos, glucemia y niveles de insulina en ayuno. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio fue de 44 ± 7 años; 836 (71% correspondían al género masculino. La prevalencia de hipertrigliceridemia fue de 57.3%, hipoalfalipoproteinemia de 52.4% e hipercolesterolemia de 48.7 por ciento. De los sujetos con obesidad (perímetro de cintura aumentado, 36.8% tenía hipertrigliceridemia/hipoalfalipoproteinemia, 35.2% dislipidemia mixta y 33.4% hipertrigliceridemia. La prevalencia de los patrones de dislipidemias fue mayor en sujetos con RI. CONCLUSIONES: La hipertrigliceridemia e hipoalfalipoproteinemia, vinculadas con RI, son comunes en la población mexicana; empero, una considerable proporción de casos carece de diagnóstico.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with insulin resistance in a cohort of apparently healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1 179 donors ages 35 to 65 years. The sample population was comprised of 71% men, with an average age of 44 ± 7. Clinical records, anthropometric data, lipid profile, fasting glycaemia, and insulin levels were obtained. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 57.3%, C-HDL under normal limits was 52.4%, and hypercholesterolemia was 48.7%. In addition, 36.8% of the obese individuals (as measured by waist perimeter had hypertriglyceridemia/hypoalphalipoproteinemia, 35.2% had mixed dyslipidemia, and 33.4% had hypertriglyceridemia. Patterns of dyslipidemia were higher in subjects diagnosed with insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance associated with

  8. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  9. Speaking denunciation: satire as confrontation language in contemporary Nigerian poetry

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    Akingbe, Niyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Nigerian poets have had to contend with the social and political problems besetting Nigeria’s landscape by using satire as a suitable medium, to distil the presentation and portrayal of these social malaises in their linguistic disposition. Arguably, contemporary Nigerian poets, in an attempt to criticize social ills, have unobtrusively evinced a mastery of language patterns that have made their poetry not only inviting but easy to read. This epochal approach in the crafting of poetry has significantly evoked an inimitable sense of humour which endears these poems to the readers. In this regard, the selected poems in this paper are crowded with anecdotes, the effusive use of humour, suspense and curiosity. The over-arching argument of the paper is that satire is grounded in the poetics of contemporary Nigerian poetry in order to criticize certain aspects of the social ills plaguing Nigerian society. The paper will further examine how satire articulates social issues in the works of contemporary Nigerian poets, including Niyi Osundare, Tanure Ojaide, Chinweizu, Femi Fatoba, Odia Ofeimun, Ezenwa Ohaeto, Obiora Udechukwu and Ogaga Ifowodo. Viewed in the light of artistic commitment, the paper will demonstrate how satire accentuates the role of these poets as the synthesizers/conduits of social and cultural concerns of Nigerian society for which they claim to speak. As representatively exemplified in the selected poems, the paper will essentially focus on the mediation of satire for the impassioned criticism of social and moral vices, militating against Nigeria’s socio-political development.

  10. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  11. Reviewing Ethnolinguistic Vitality: The Case of Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Using Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin as an illustration, this article demonstrates that there may be a need to broaden the scope of ethnolinguistic vitality to take cognizance of languages such as Pidgins and Creoles that may not be categorizable as ethnic languages or languages of any particular social group. (Author/VWL)

  12. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

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    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  13. Cocaine Hoppers : The Nigerian Involvement in the Global Cocaine Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oboh, Jude Roys

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, Nigerian criminal drug ‘barons’ and ‘gangs’ have come to dominate international cocaine trafficking via West Africa to destination countries globally, a trend that presents a serious security threat to Africa and the world. This work provides empirical evidence to define and expla

  14. Nigerian Folktales and Children's Stories by Chinua Achebe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, F. Odun

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three folktales and a children's novella, "Chike and the River," by the Nigerian author and compares them to his adult short stories. Observes that, aside from differences in scale or degree, the style of his children's stories is basically the same as that of his adult works. (FMW)

  15. Communist Theory in the Nigerian Trade Union Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Waterman (Peter)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractThe subject of this paper is the Nigerian Trade Union Congress (NTUC), the Communist trade union organisation in Nigeria. More specifically, it is about the central leadership of the NTUC, since the organisation is in origin and structure a central, national and Lagos-based federation of

  16. Alternative Model of Funding for Academic Research in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2010-01-01

    Funding of academic research in Nigerian universities by Government (5 per cent recurrent grants) is a policy dictated by the National Universities Commission (NUC) as the central body for allocating research funds. This research fund, little as it is, is irregular and inadequate and to make it worse is difficult to access. These aforementioned…

  17. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  18. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  19. Suggested Spelling Reform in Educated Nigerian English (ENE

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    Steve Bode Omowumi Ekundayo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Written English is one area in which Nigerian linguists and grammarians do not accommodate variations of spelling for any sociolinguistic reason, even though they at times misspell or forget the spelling of some confusing words. Most people agree that English spelling system is problematic and therefore needs urgent reform, but who bells the cat? This article examines the English spelling system against the backdrop of Educated Nigerian English and the concept of nativization, stressing the need for reform or nativized spelling in Nigerian English. Questionnaires, library research, and the Internet were used to gather data for this study. The qualitative approach has been adopted in the main for the interpretation of data. The educated Nigerians studied admit that the English spelling system is in part so confusing that they misspell words at times. Therefore, they support the reform or nativization of English spelling. Consequently, this article presents and illustrates proposed reformed spelling by deleting redundant letters, unnecessary clusters of letters, dropping useless silent letters, regularizing digraph, and spelling compound words in one form only. These changes will enhance spelling skills, teaching, reading, and writing in English as a Second Language.

  20. Demonstrating Functional Interactive Language Teaching in the Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Rachael O.; Oni-Buraimoh, Olawunmi O.

    2014-01-01

    Applied linguistics affords Linguists the opportunity of solving language related problems using various methods. In this paper, we x-ray the Nigerian University classroom situation in the teaching of the English language viz-a-viz the use of functional interactive method. Following Littlewood (1981) and Krashen (1982), we posit that the teaching…

  1. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  2. Future Nigerian-U.S. Linkages in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; And Others

    Nigeria is the most populous African country and the one most critical for U.S. relations with black peoples everywhere. It has a revitalized National Universities Commission (NUC), an ambitious new educational policy, and six old and seven new universities. The challenge is to find effective means of Nigerian access to the appropriate and…

  3. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  4. Responsiveness of Nigerian Students to Pictorial Depth Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. S.; Seddon, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Three groups of Nigerian high school and college students were tested for response to four pictorial depth cues. Students had more difficulty with cues concerning the relative size of objects and the foreshortening of straight lines than with cues involving overlap of lines and distortion of the angles between lines. (Author/JEG)

  5. Web 2.0 and Nigerian Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunmisi, Sowemimo Ronke; Odunewu, Abiodun Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications to library services are aimed at enhancing the provision of relevant and cost-effective information resources for quality education and research. Despite the richness of these web applications and their enormous impact on library and information services as recorded in the developed world, Nigerian academic libraries are yet…

  6. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuja Emmanuel Ike

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (an essential trace element and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443 aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs, consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061. Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432, Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009. It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

  7. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

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    Abdulraheem Olarongbe Mahmoud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8% and over a third (37.5% had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%. They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4% and change (4% in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  8. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

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    Akogun Oladele B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next" as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them.

  9. Apparent Clustering and Apparent Background Earthquakes Biased by Undetected Seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    2005-01-01

    In models of triggered seismicity and in their inversion with empirical data, the detection threshold m_d is commonly equated to the magnitude m_0 of the smallest triggering earthquake. This unjustified assumption neglects the possibility of shocks below the detection threshold triggering observable events. We introduce a formalism that distinguishes between the detection threshold m_d and the minimum triggering earthquake m_0 < m_d. By considering the branching structure of one complete cascade of triggered events, we derive the apparent branching ratio n_a (which is the apparent fraction of aftershocks in a given catalog) and the apparent background source S_a that are observed when only the structure above the detection threshold m_d is known due to the presence of smaller undetected events that are capable of triggering larger events. If earthquake triggering is controlled in large part by the smallest magnitudes as several recent analyses have shown, this implies that previous estimates of the cluster...

  10. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  11. Aspects of Connected Speech Processes in Nigerian English

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    Rotimi Olanrele Oladipupo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian English (NigE, like other new Englishes, possesses its unique features at various domains of phonology. This article examined aspects of connected speech processes (CSPs, the phenomena that account for sound modifications and simplifications in speech, with a view to establishing features that characterize Standard NigE connected speech. Natural phonology (NP, which provides explanations for substitutions, alternations, and variations in the speech of second language speakers, was adopted as theoretical framework. The subjects of the study were 360 educated NigE speakers, accidentally sampled from different language groups in Nigeria. The CSPs found in their semi-spontaneous speeches were transcribed perceptually and analyzed statistically, by allotting marks to instances of occurrence and converting such to percentages. Three categories of CSPs were identified in the data: dominant, minor, and idiosyncratic processes. The study affirms that only the dominant CSPs, typical of NigE speakers, are acceptable as Standard Nigerian spoken English.

  12. Service Delivery and Customer Satisfaction in Nigerian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    FARAYIBI, Adesoji

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the impact of the quality of service delivery on customer satisfaction in the Nigerian banks using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) methodology. The study established a relationship between better banks performance in service delivery and customer satisfaction through effective customer relationship management (CRM). Findings revealed that increase in the number of working days and number of bank branches led to better levels of customer satisfaction. Empirical evidence also rev...

  13. Due Process Mechanism and Fraudulent Practices in Nigerian Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel ATAGBORO

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically examined whether due process mechanism serve as an antidote for fraudulent practices in the Nigerian public sector. Using 875 subjects in the public sector, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation statistical tool was employed in order to establish whether due process mechanism is an antidote for fraudulent practices and also to see if due process ensures transparency in the public sector. The study found that due process ensures transparency and is an antido...

  14. Understanding asthma and the metabolic syndrome - a Nigerian report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria is a developing country that is currently witnessing an upsurge in diabetes mellitus and obesity with its antecedent consequences. There is also a fairly high prevalence of asthma affecting an estimated 10.7% of the population. There is no data presently on the possible presence of metabolic syndrome in Nigerian living with asthma. The study was conceived to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among a population of asthmatics seen in our practice. We also attem...

  15. Shaping the Nigerian Economy: The Role of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe Regina Pokoyeuzu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thrust of this paper is to see how changing gender identities and roles can impact and influence positive changes in Nigerian economy. There is every need to empower Nigerian women particularly in the present global economy which recognizes the need for individuals to develop their potentials and contribute to the overall development of the nation. The equity aspect implies that labour market participation of women will improve their relative economic position. It will also increase overall economic efficiency and improve development potentials of the country. Researchers world over observed that Should majority of the world’s population remain vulnerable to economic, political, legal and social marginalization, the hope of advancing democracy and prosperity will be jeopardized. This study analyzed the gender matrix in economic activities using secondary data obtained from CBN statistical Bulletin. The total percentage of women workers (participants engaged in one form of activity or the other in the economy is 43.1% as opposed to men’s 56.9%.This picture though appears nice statistically, is quite misleading. Key leading sectors in the economy by way of income yield or reward have not been favorable to women in terms of participation. Poverty will be reduced to the barest minimum if the government will take appropriate measures toimplement and enforce laws and policies directed towards enabling women have the same rights as Nigerian men.

  16. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

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    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (Pinfertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (Pseminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (Phormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (Pinfertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  17. Computerized tomographic study of normal Evans index in adult Nigerians

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    Ahmed Umdagas Hamidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of degree of ventricular enlargement should be based on established indices rather than on personal experience as this is highly subjective. Our aim was to establish normal values for Evans index in a Nigerian adult population as none has been found in the Nigerian medical literature. Materials and Methods: Axial computerized tomographic brain scans of 488 normal subjects were reviewed retrospectively. Of them, 319 (65.36% of the patients were males and 169 (34.63% were females; their ages ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean age of 37.26 years. The images were acquired using a multi-slice GE Sigma excite scanner. Evans index was measured as the linear ratio of the total width of the frontal horns of the cerebral lateral ventricles to the maximum intracranial diameter. Results: The mean value for Evans index for the studied population was 0.252 ± 0.04. The EI increased with age and it was slightly higher among males. The difference in Evans value in males and females was not statistically significant. Individuals above 60 years old had the highest Evans values in both sexes. Conclusion: This study has established ranges of normal value for Evans index in a Nigerian population. It agrees with the diagnostic cut-off value of > 0.3 for hydrocephalus and it compares well with that of the Caucasians.

  18. Digit preference in Nigerian censuses data of 1991 and 2006

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    Tukur Dahiru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: censuses in developing countries are prone to errors of age misreporting due to ignorance, low literacy levels and other social, economic and cultural factors. Ages are commonly rounded with great affinity for 0 or 5. This tendency to digit preference and/or avoidance results in age heaping or concentration of ages at certain digits. This study examined the extent of digit preference in the Nigerian census data of 1991 and 2006.Methods: this study utilized age data from the 1991 and 2006 Nigerian censuses reported in single years. The Whipple and Myers indices were used to determine the extent of digit preference.Results: both the 1991 and 2006 census data showed the expected pattern of errors, with Whipple and Myers indices being beyond acceptable levels. The Whipple index for 1991 and 2006 was 293 and 251 respectively, while the Myers index was 62.3 and 67.1 respectively. There was a strong preference for terminal digits 0 and 5, followed by 8 whereas terminal digits 1 and 9 were strongly avoided.Conclusions: the quality of age data in Nigerian census data is poor as a result of misreporting and no significant improvement or difference was observed between 1991 and 2006 censuses.

  19. Financial Intermediaries and Economic Growth: The Nigerian Evidence

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    Oba Efayena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the role of financial intermediaries and to find out whether financial intermediaries impact on economic growth in Nigeria. The study adopts the Harrod-Domar growth model which states that economic growth will proceed at the rate which society can mobilize domestic savings resources coupled with the productivity of the investment. The study employed the use of secondary data for the period 1981 to 2011 which were sourced from the CBN statistical bulletin. Nigerian banks being the dominant financial intermediaries, loans credits and advances from banks were used as proxy for the independent variable. Gross domestic product (GDP was used as proxy for economic growth. Using the technique of correlation analysis in determining the association between loan credits and advances, and the GDP, the study reveals a relatively high positive correlation between financial intermediaries and economic growth in the Nigerian economy. The study recommends that Nigerian banks should lend higher proportion of their loanable funds to small and medium enterprises (SMEs and should invest in information technology and human capital.

  20. Global Digital Revolution and Africa: Transforming Nigerian Universities to World Class Institutions

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    Isah, Emmanuel Aileonokhuoya; Ayeni, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the global digital revolution and the transformation of Nigerian universities. The study overviewed university developments world wide in line with what obtains in Nigeria. The study highlighted the several challenges that face Nigerian universities inclusive of poor funding, poor personnel and the poor exposure to global…

  1. Attitude of Nigerian Secondary School Teachers to Peer Evaluation of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…

  2. Drug prescription pattern for asthma among nigerian doctors in general practice: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ademola E Fawibe

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The poor anti-asthma prescribing behavior among these doctors is associated with a low level of participation at update training on asthma management and poor awareness of asthma guidelines. The Nigerian Medical Association and the Nigerian Thoracic Society should urgently address these problems.

  3. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Kolo, Philip Manman; Ogunmodede, James Ayodele; Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Salami, Kazeem Alakija

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  4. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian

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    Ademola Emmanuel Fawibe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  5. Psychological complications of childhood chronic physical illness in Nigerian children and their mothers: the implication for developing pediatric liaison services

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    Meremikwu Martin M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric liaison services attending to the psychological health needs of children with chronic physical illness are limited or virtually non-existent in Nigeria and most sub-Saharan African countries, and psychological problems complicate chronic physical illness in these children and their mothers. There exist needs to bring into focus the public health importance of developing liaison services to meet the psychological health needs of children who suffer from chronic physical illness in this environment. Sickle cell disease (SCD and juvenile diabetes mellitus (JDM are among the most common chronic physical health conditions in Nigerian children. This study compared the prevalence and pattern of emotional disorders and suicidal behavior among Nigerian children with SCD, JDM and a group of healthy children. Psychological distress in the mothers of these children that suffer chronic physical illness was also compared with psychological distress in mothers of healthy control children. Methods Forty-five children aged 9 to 17 years were selected for each group of SCD, JDM and controls. The SCD and JDM groups were selected by consecutive clinic attendance and the healthy children who met the inclusion criteria were selected from neighboring schools. The Youth version of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version IV (C- DISC- IV was used to assess for diagnosis of emotional disorders in these children. Twelve-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ – 12 was used to assess for psychological distress in mothers of these children and healthy control children. Results Children with JDM were significantly more likely to experience DSM – IV emotional disorders than children with SCD and the healthy group (p = 0.005, while children with JDM and SCD were more likely to have 'intermediate diagnoses' of emotional disorders (p = 0.0024. Children with SCD and JDM had higher rates of suicidal ideation when

  6. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Policy Opportunities to create and support a healthy school environment. More Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child A collaborative approach to learning and health Healthy Schools School Nutrition Environment Childhood Nutrition Facts Energy Drinks Obesity Prevention Youth ...

  7. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

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    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  8. Apparent Bicarbonate Space in Children

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    Horacio A. Repetto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount needed to change the concentration of a solute requires the knowledge of its volume of distribution in the solution. Electrolytes that do not participate in active metabolic reactions have a fixed volume of distribution that corresponds to the volume of water in which they solubilize. Bicarbonate infusion is used to correct hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Its volume of distribution (bicarbonate space changes with its participation in the blood buffer systems. In other words, it is not a fixed physical volume, like that of other solutes. In this paper, we shall review experimental studies that supported evidence for this knowledge and analyze the basic hypothesis to explain the phenomena. Since we have not found clinical studies in children, we shall report our experience in a group of patients with metabolic acidosis treated with bicarbonate infusion in whom apparent bicarbonate space was measured and compared with data in adults from the literature. Guidelines for amount of bicarbonate needed to increase its concentration according to baseline bicarbonate concentration will be suggested.

  9. 中山地区表面健康中老年人血清25羟维生素D水平及其与骨密度的关系%Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and its correlation with bone mineral density in apparently healthy middle-aged and elderly people in Zhongshan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官燕飞; 彭建明; 袁斌; 黄绍芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the levels of serum 25‐hydroxy(25OH) vitamin D and bone mineral density(BMD) in appar‐ently healthy middle‐aged and elderly people in Zhongshan area and investigate the correlation between each other .Methods The BMD of 200 participants was measured by ultrasound BMD detector ,the participants were divided into 3 groups according BMD re‐sults .Simultaneously ,their serum 25OH vitamin D levels were measured by ECLIA .Results Among 200 participants ,the preva‐lence of vitamin D severe deficiency ,deficiency ,insufficiency and sufficiency w ere 7 cases (3 .5% ) ,35 cases (17 .5% ) ,102 cases (51 .0% )and 56 cases(28 .0% ) ,respectively .There was no significant difference in the BMD values among subgroups of different vitamin D levels(P>0 .05) .The prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis were 60 cases(30% ) and 10 cases(5% ) ,the levels of ser‐um 25OH vitamin D in normal BMD ,low BMD and osteoporosis group were (67 .31 ± 18 .28) ,(65 .62 ± 15 .41) and (64 .95 ± 19 .86)nmol/L ,respectively .There was no significant difference in the levels of serum 25OH vitamin D among BMD subgroups (P>0 .05) .Serum 25OH vitamin D levels were not directly correlated with BMD(P>0 .05) .Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are quite serious problems in apparently healthy adults in Zhongshan area .There is no evidence that the status of ser‐um 25OH vitamin D is correlate with BMD ,for laboratory diagnosis of osteoporosis ,more sensitive laboratory markers are needed .%目的:观察中山地区中老年人血清25羟维生素D水平及骨密度,评价中山地区中老年人血清25羟维生素D与骨密度的关系。方法采用超声骨密度检测仪对200例纳入研究的表面健康中老年人进行桡骨骨密度测定,根据骨密度结果将其分为骨密度正常组、骨密度降低组以及骨质疏松组。同时采用电化学发光法测定其血清25羟维生素D水平。结果在200例纳入研究者中,25

  10. Acceptance and perception of Nigerian patients to medical photography.

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    Adeyemo, W L; Mofikoya, B O; Akadiri, O A; James, O; Fashina, A A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the acceptance and perception of Nigerian patients to medical photography. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among Nigerian patients attending oral and maxillofacial surgery and plastic surgery clinics of 3 tertiary health institutions. Information requested included patients' opinion about consent process, capturing equipment, distribution and accessibility of medical photographs. The use of non-identifiable medical photographs was more acceptable than identifiable to respondents for all purposes (P = 0.003). Most respondents were favourably disposed to photographs being taken for inclusion in the case note, but opposed to identifiable photographs being used for other purposes most especially in medical websites and medical journals. Female respondents preferred non-identifiable medical photographs to identifiable ones (P = 0.001). Most respondents (78%) indicated that their consent be sought for each of the outline needs for medical photography. Half of the respondents indicated that identifiable photographs may have a negative effect on their persons; and the most commonly mentioned effects were social stigmatization, bad publicity and emotional/psychological effects. Most of the respondents preferred the use of hospital-owned camera to personal camera/personal camera-phone for their medical photographs. Most respondents (67.8%) indicated that they would like to be informed about the use of their photographs on every occasion, and 74% indicated that they would like to be informed of the specific journal in which their medical photographs are to be published. In conclusion, non-identifiable rather than identifiable medical photography is acceptable to most patients in the studied Nigerian environment. The use of personal camera/personal camera-phone should be discouraged as its acceptance by respondents is very low. Judicious use of medical photography is therefore advocated to avoid breach of principle of

  11. Some Nigerian Anti-Tuberculosis Ethnomedicines: A Preliminary Efficacy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Nneka N.; Nvau, John B.; Oladosu, Peters O.; Usman, Auwal M.; Ibrahim, Kolo; Boshoff, Helena I.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Orisadipe, Abayomi T.; Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju; Adesomoju, Akinbo A.; Barry, Clifton E.; Okogun, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological significance Nigerian herbalists possess indigenous ethnomedicinal recipes for the management of tuberculosis and related ailments. Aim of the study To carry out a collaborative preliminary modern scientific evaluation of the efficacy of some Nigerian ethnomedicines used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in the management of tuberculosis and related ailments Materials and methods Ethnomedicinal recipes (ETMs) were collected from TMPs from locations in various ecological zones of Nigeria under a collaborative understanding. The aqueous methanolic extracts of the ETMs were screened against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strain H37Rv using the broth microdilution method. Results Extracts of ETMs screened against BCG showed 69% activity against the organism. The activities varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 33μg /mL 64% of the extracts were active against M. tb. The activities of the extracts against M.tb. varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 128μg/mL. There was 77% agreement in results obtained using BCG or M. tb. as test organisms Conclusion The results show clear evidence for the efficacy of the majority of indigenous Nigerian herbal recipes in the ethnomedicinal management of tuberculosis and related ailments. BCG may be effectively used, to a great extent, as the organism for screening for potential anti-M. tb. agents. A set of prioritization criteria for the selection of plants for initial further studies for the purpose of antituberculsis drug discovery research is proposed. PMID:24911338

  12. Contemporary Nigerian Popular music: A Menace to National Development

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    Ogunrinade D O A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no gainsaying that most of the recent forms of contemporary popular music produced, packaged, made available for public consumption constitute grave danger and serious threat to moral uprightness in Nigerian society. This has exposed the Nigerian society to a wide variety of insecurity and violence. This is evident as seen from series of moral decadence and dissipation that infiltrated the lives of the citizenry - especially the youths (the leaders of tomorrow ranging from, sexual abuse, money mongering, indiscipline, examination malpractice and indecent dressing to mention but a few. Music is a powerful tool and a force for mobilization which brings about either reformation or deformation of character due to the type of rhythm, melody, harmony and principally the lyrics of the songs. This paper examines the new trend of contemporary popular music in Nigeria with a view to assess its negative and pessimistic impacts on the character molding of the citizenry in Nigerian society. Live performances of contemporary popular music were observed and audio and video tape materials relating to the said music were also analyzed based on their educational  and moral values of such songs. It was  discovered that contemporary popular music as we have it today in Nigeria communicates vulgarity and coarseness to the listeners and this poses a lot of negative effects on the attitude of the youths. Musicians employ indecent words to attract the youth thus creating negative influence on the character of the leaders of tomorrow (the youth to engage in various   debauchery.  The paper therefore, suggested that relevant agencies should be put in place to ensure that apart from entertainment, music should convey positive character building messages rather than music that egg on and motivate illicit acts. Likewise, musicians should compose songs in the spirit of societal reformation so as to impact moral virtues on the younger generation  thus

  13. Content analysis of agricultural training advertisements in Nigerian newspapers

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    A. Oloruntoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that the use of newspapers is one of the ways through which literate farmers could access agriculture-related information and are acquainted with innovations in agriculture. This study investigated the content of agricultural training advertisements in three Nigerian newspapers: The Guardian, Nigerian Tribune and Daily Times. Using multistage sampling techniques, 240 editions of these newspapers containing 609 advertisements for five years (2001–2005 were selected. In terms of agricultural subsectoral coverage, 30.3% were on veterinary services while forestry services recorded the least advertisement (4.0 %. The Nigerian Tribune newspaper has the highest coverage of agricultural training advertisements 40.7% compared to the 34.7% and 12.2% for Daily Times and Guardian newspapers, respectively. The result also showed that majority of agricultural training advertisements (81.10% were placed on the non-prominent pages of the selected newspapers. Chi-Square analysis of association between the categories of agricultural training advertisements in the focal newspapers showed that there is significant relationship in the rate at which the sampled newspapers advertise different category of agricultural training advertisements in the newspapers (p<0.05. Chi square analysis also indicated that there is significant association between the placements of agricultural training advertisements and type of newspapers (p<0.05. This implies that advertisement placement on prominent pages of newspapers is determined by the policy of print media organization which also varies with cost of advertisement. It is therefore recommended that agricultural news items should be given more prominence as a panacea for increased information source to new entrants, especially the literate farmers to encourage farming.

  14. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

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    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.

  15. Congenital Subgaleal Cysts over the Anterior Fontanelle in Nigerians

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    Adeloye, Adelola; Odeku, E. Latunde

    1971-01-01

    Eighteen cases of a congenital cystic swelling located over the anterior fontanelle are described in Nigerian patients who were otherwise clinically normal, There was a female: male ratio of 2: 1. Radiologically and at operation, the cysts showed no evidence of intracranial connexion. Excision was curative. Of 14 cases which were histologically verified, all were dermoid cysts except one in which nerve tissue was present suggesting an encephalocele. Air cystography was the most useful diagnostic procedure. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:5555494

  16. Implementing total productive maintenance in Nigerian manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eti, M.C. [Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2004-12-01

    Remarkable improvements have occurred recently in the maintenance management of physical assets and productive systems, so that less wastages of energy and resources occur. The requirement for optimal preventive maintenance, using, for instance, just-in-time (JIT) and total quality-management (TQM) techniques, has given rise to what has been called the total productive-maintenance (TPM) approach. This study explores the ways in which Nigerian manufacturing industries can implement TPM as a strategy and culture for improving its performance and suggests self-auditing and bench-marking as desirable prerequisites before TPM implementation. (author)

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands

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    Sara Reis Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12, aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females; and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20, aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results: Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05. Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  19. Entity, Ownership, Educational Subsidies and Funding of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

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    Idialu Jeremiah Uwaifo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study is the need to save the Nigerian public tertiary institutions from going into extinction from under-funding. Funding of the institutions is currently on the basis of ownership. There is currently conflict of citizens’ right to education at whatever level at reduced cost or no cost at all and government’s inability to meet the cost of education. Government end up giving what it thinks it can afford and not what the institutions need to operate effectively. On the other hand the institutions are not given the free hand to determine what the beneficiaries of their services should pay. This study recommends that the institutions should be seen as separate entities from government and therefore be allowed to determine the price for their services. Citizens’ right should be met through educational subsidies from all levels of government. The balance fees should be picked by the beneficiaries of the services of the institutions. This is the surest way to the survival of tertiary institutions in the Nigerian environment.

  20. Due Process Mechanism and Fraudulent Practices in Nigerian Public Sector

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    Emmanuel ATAGBORO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examined whether due process mechanism serve as an antidote for fraudulent practices in the Nigerian public sector. Using 875 subjects in the public sector, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation statistical tool was employed in order to establish whether due process mechanism is an antidote for fraudulent practices and also to see if due process ensures transparency in the public sector. The study found that due process ensures transparency and is an antidote for fraudulent practices. Another interesting finding from extant literature was that weak internal control system encourages fraudulent practices in the public sector. Thus, the need to re-embark upon moral, religious, ethical and social re-orientation in the public sector on the path of economic progress and development and not for political advantages is eminent as well as rigorous campaigns to awaken the conscious and re-orientate public servants and the general society on the need to refrain from fraud or abetting it. The internal control system operating in the public sector needs to be strengthened. Also, there is need for institutionalizing, internalizing and building ownership for the multitude of reforms within the public sector so as to ensure that it sustains the changes in the anti-corruption campaign in Nigeria. These trends need to continue for the dividends of due process to be fully realized in the Nigerian public sector.

  1. The Prevalence of Obesity in a Nigerian Military Population

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    Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo Obashina Ayodele Ogunbiyi Ishiaku Baba Abdulkareem Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Worldwide, obesity is increasing in prevalence, nearing epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Also, there are reports of rising prevalence in Africa. Obesity is an important aetiological factor for many non-communicable diseases. Recent anecdotal reports indicate that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma is increasing among Nigerian military personnel; however, the rate of possible aetiological factors such as obesity is not known. Obesity can be evaluated using the body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist to height ratio (WHR. However, for epidemiological convenience and study within populations, the BMI is satisfactory. Methodology: A cross sectional study. Data of Nigerian military personnel�s annual medical examination conducted between January and March 2010 were retrieved to compute body mass index using World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Results: 39.6% of personnel were overweight or obese. Most of these were aged between 30 and 39 years. While there were differences in the BMI of males and females, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: To manage weight problems, focused health education, increased physical activity and nutritional advice are necessary. Modalities such as waist circumference should be added to annual medical examination of military personnel to improve the predictive value of the examination. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 313-318

  2. Attitudinal Disposition of Nigerian University Students toward Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Alhaji Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Internet has consolidated into a cohesive entity and amalgamated itself as a very powerful platform that has changed the way people do things. Social Networking Sites (SNSs cannot be underestimated or jettison because no other communication medium which has given an international and globalized audience and dimension to the world like it. Facebook, Myspace, YouTube etc each of these and many other SNSs play a vital role on interaction and communication. The access to the internet for SNSs browsing is everywhere now. It is clearly established that even politicians, influential people, corporate managers, security agencies, lecturers, school administrators, and children are using SNSs thus students as well. Most SNSs are similar to each other there is commonality in their technical features. The study seeks to find out the level of students’ attitude towards SNSs usage in the selected northern Nigerian universities. Quantitatively it was found that Nigerian students have positive attitude towards the SNSs; and that there is no significant difference in terms of gender. However, differences were found significant in terms of faculties in the extent of students’ attitudes toward the SNSs usage.

  3. Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector

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    Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.

  4. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

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    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  5. Boko Haram and the Nigerian State: a Different Perspective

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    Osaretin Idahosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There exist several religions in Nigeria. Many of them are exploited for political gains. As Samuel Huntington has predicted, given the collapse of communism, the main contention and controversy in the world would revolve around religion. The religious tension in present day Nigerian tends to fulfill the logic of the above stated position. This phenomenon has a long history in the country. Within the last couple of decades, Nigeria has witnessed a rise in the numbers of radical Islamic sects notably among them, Maitasine, Darul Islam, and Boko Haram. These sects have resorted to the use of violence in a bid to realizing their ambitions of a wider Islamization of the Nigerian Population. Three of the most prominent perspectives shared on the rise of these radical movements are: poor socio-economic infrastructures and poor governance, poverty as a major catalyst to the rapid increase in the membership of these groups and the increase and aiding of religious extremist by politicians for their selfish ambition. This study reveals that while it is true that socio-economic factors may drive the radicalization and politicization of religious sects in the country, the fear of domination and indeed the fight for supremacy is at the heart of the current insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.

  6. The Effects of Bank Distress on the Nigerian Economy

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    Ademola Felix Adeyefa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bank distress poses threats to financial intermediation process with serious detrimental effect on the economy. Despite all attempts made by the supervisory authorities, the problem appears to defy already established approach and the menace still continues to resurface. Hence, the need to investigate the effects of bank distress on the Nigerian economy. The cointegration and error correction mechanism were used to test the data which covers a period of thirty-one  (31 years from 1982 to 2012. The research findings revealed that the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans, and total loans and advances have significant negative effect on economic growth with p-values of 0.0240 and 0.0445 respectively. Also, total bank deposit and cash reserve ratio have significant positive effect on economic growth with p-values of 0.0020 and 0.0374 respectively. The implication of this result is that the Nigerian economy is significantly affected by bank distress. The paper suggests that careful evaluation of loan proposals should always be carried out by banks to determine the viability of the projects and the repayment of the principal sum and its interest ensured to prevent weak asset quality. 

  7. From conquest to independence: the nigerian colonial experience

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    Tunde Oduwobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento es un análisis panorámico de la imposición y el carácter de la administración colonial británica en Nigeria. Comienza por examinar los factores y circunstancias que facilitó la intrusión de los británicos en el área de nigeriano. El evento más importante en este desarrollo fue la conquista de los Lagos en 1851 y su incorporación formal como una colonia diez años más tarde en 1861. Simultáneamente, influencia británica propagación en el interior de Lagos y de la parte inferior del Níger. Tal, sin embargo, fue el personaje de la penetración británica que cuando en 1900 control político fue formalmente establecido sobre el área de nigeriano tomó forma tripartita de tres administraciones autónomas. Estos tres posteriormente se convirtió en amalgamados en 1914 para formar el estado de Nigeria; Sin embargo, no se borraron las tradiciones administrativas tripartitas y permanecieron como fuerzas latentes modificar el desarrollo histórico del país. Así, en el ocaso de la época colonial, nacionalismo nigeriano, desarrollando como lo fue terminar el colonialismo británico, se convirtió en adulterado negativamente por el nacionalismo étnico en los fuertes pilares de las tradiciones tripartitas fomentadas por el gobierno colonial británico. Por lo tanto el estado nigeriano surgió del colonialismo con el problema de forjar la unidad política.Palabras clave: Nigeria, colonialismo, independencia___________________________Abstract:This paper is a panoramic discussion of the imposition and character of colonial British administration in Nigeria. It begins by examining the factors and circumstances which facilitated the intrusion of the British in the Nigerian area. The most important event in this development was the conquest of the Lagos in 1851 and its formal incorporation as a colony ten years later in 1861. Concomitantly, British influence spread into the hinterland from Lagos and from the lower reaches of the

  8. The General Unenforceability of Collective Agreements under Nigerian Labour Jurisprudence: The Paradox of Agreement without Agreement

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    Vincent Iwunze

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the status of collective agreements under Nigerian labour law, examining the extent of their enforceability under the extant laws. It considers the emerging trends in some more advanced jurisdictions of the world in that regard and comparatively portrays the anachronisms of the Nigerian law on the point. It takes the position that the current legal climate as regards the legal status of collective agreements under Nigerian law is potentially disruptive of industrial peace and harmony and is bound to occasion serious hardship on employees. The work suggests among others a jurisprudential shift in paradigm if the Nigerian labour jurisprudence must meet and be reflective of modern socio-economic realities.

  9. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  10. Variation in CAG and GGN repeat lengths and CAG/GGN haplotype in androgen receptor gene polymorphism and prostate carcinoma in Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, O; Gromoll, J; Simoni, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer has become the most common cancer in Nigerian men. The growth of the prostate gland depends on circulating androgens and intracellular steroid signalling pathways. The effects of androgens are mediated through the androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear transcription factor encoded by the AR gene. The common polymorphisms, CAG and GGN repeats, in exon 1 of this gene have been implicated as possible risk factors. Thus far, existing supporting data are scanty and none are from sub-Saharan African populations. Therefore, this study investigates the possible association between AR polymorphism repeat length (CAG and GGN) and prostate cancer in Nigerians. A total of 261 subjects (70 with prostate cancer, 68 with benign prostate hyperplasia [BPH], 123 age-matched apparently normal subjects as controls) were studied. CAG and GGN repeats length were determined by fragment length analysis using GeneScan. The CAG repeat length in prostate cancer and in BPH compared to the controls was significantly different (P CAG repeats showing a significant odds ratio (OR) in both cases. However, this was not observed in GGN repeat length, which showed no significant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05). CAG and GGN haplotype variation showed no significant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05), except that the haplotypes CAG > or =21 and GGN CAG repeat length is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and also suggests an association with BPH.

  11. Distribution of apparent stress in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠良; 黄静; 林碧苍

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of apparent stress in Chinese mainland and its surrounding regions was presented using the NEIC broadband radiated energy catalogue and the Harvard CMT catalogue from January 1987 to December 1998. Due to the limitation on the number of samples, reliable results are only for the western China. It is observed that the average apparent stress in Chinese mainland is 0.8 MPa; The maximum apparent stress to the east of the Tibetan plateau is 2.6 MPa; And the average apparent stress in the north-south seismic belt is more than one time higher than its adjacent regions. Distribution pattern of apparent stress seems to have a large-scale correlation with the cumulative energy release level in the 20th century.

  12. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  13. Globalization and African Political Economy: The Nigerian Experience

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    Aderonke Majekodunmi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a trend that impacts everyone more and more each day. For centuries, globalization has progressively knitted together the world and created unity out of great diversity. This is a discourse on political economy of globalization and its implication for Africa with particular reference to Nigeria. This study investigates the political economy of globalization in the development process in Nigeria. It examines the impact of globalization on industrialization and the attendant problems of globalization on the Nigerian economy. In light of our findings, we recommend that Nigeria should adopt appropriate policies and strategies similar to other developed countries to compete in the international capitalist system in which we are now an integrated part.

  14. The effect of remittances on the Nigerian economy

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    O.R. Iheke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of remittances on the Nigerian economy. The study employed secondary data covering the period 1980-2008. Data sources included official publications of the World Bank, Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics, Journals and other relevant publications. Data collected were analyzed using trend and regression analysis. Results of data analysis revealed that remittance inflow has been on the increase over the past two decades. Also, remittances, per capita income, investment and time were the positive and significant factors influencing output while consumer price index significantly influenced output negatively. It was recommended that remittance receiving countries should provide a friendly economic environment through sound macro-economic policies, including stable exchange rates, basic physical infrastructure, improved market integration, reliable financial and other institutions, transparent legal system and good governance – in essence, conditions that can prime the economy for development and equip it adequately to benefit from this external stimulus.

  15. Organisational Culture and Performance: Empirical Investigation of Nigerian Insurance Companies

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    Olu Ojo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work examines the impact of organizational culture on performance usingNigerian insurance companies as case study. The study investigates the importance of the relationship betweenorganizational culture and performance and stresses the necessity of a strong employee-responsiveculture. Data were collected through the use of questionnaires, and the chi-square method was used totest our research hypotheses. It was discovered that there was indeed a relationship between organizationculture and performance and also a strong employee-responsive culture can lead to effective performance.While carrying out the study it was also discovered that the values and beliefs of the companies were notcompatible with that of few employees. It was therefore recommended that to solve this problem appropriatemachinery should be put in place to drive compatibility, thereby ensuring unity of purpose.

  16. Synthesis And Characterization of Biodiesel From Nigerian Palm Kernel oil.

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    IGBOKWE, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced from Nigerian Palm kernel oil through direct base- catalyzed transesterification process using methanol and sodium hydroxide as alcohol and catalyst respectively. The transesterification process involved 1 liter of Palm kernel oil, 200ml of methanol, 1.0% NaOH, reaction temperature of 65 degree Celsius and reaction time of 90mins and an average biodiesel yield of 87.67% was obtained. The produced biodiesel was blended with diesel fuel at a ratio of 20% biodiesel to 80% diesel fuel (by volume. The neat biodiesel and its blend were characterized using the ASTM methods. The results showed that the properties of the neat palm kernel oil biodiesel and its blend fall within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for Biodiesel fuels hence confirming their suitability as alternative fuels for modern diesel engines.

  17. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds.

  18. Customers Perception of Service Quality in the Nigerian Telecommunication Sector

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    Kehinde Osotimehin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the customers’ perception of service quality in the Nigerian telecommunication sector. Data for the study was generated through questionnaire administered on a random sample of 250 undergraduate students spread across two public owned state Universities in Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics. One Sample Test statistic was employed in testing hypothesis. The results of the study revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between service quality and both, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, and also service quality is considered as a major factor in choosing telecommunication service provider in Nigeria. Further, the study revealed that the quality of service customers received from their service providers in terms of prompt service delivery, reliability, improved service, availability of effective and efficient customer care to assist customers help in assessing their rate of satisfaction.

  19. Non-rachitic deformities of the knees in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemade, G A

    1977-10-01

    Non-rachitic lesions of the knee are a common condition found in Nigerian children, the aetiology of which is unknown. 67 patients were studied, 24 had genu valgum, 28 genu varum and 15 with varo-valgum. Possible aetiology has been discussed and the following hypotheses have been put forward. The early weight bearing of the immature bones of the lower limbs has uneven pressure effects on the growth plate and also the laxity of the knee ligaments produces abnormal posture. The abnormal posture during growth and pressure effect of a tight band around the knee when the child is carried on the back predisposes to genu varum and valgum. Dietetic abnormalities may also be one of the factors but these have not been elucidated. Lastly, the tendency of the condition to occur in the African race raises the possibility of genetic factors.

  20. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) variants circulating in Nigerian dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaa, T. T.; Daly, J. M.; Tarlinton, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious viral disease with three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) currently circulating in dogs worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalent CPV-2 variant in faecal samples from 53 dogs presenting with acute gastroenteritis suspected to be and consistent with CPV-2 to Nigerian Veterinary Clinics in 2013–2014. Seventy-five per cent of these dogs tested positive for CPV-2 in a commercial antigen test and/or by PCR. Partial sequencing of the VP2 gene of six of these demonstrated them to be CPV-2a. Most of the dogs (60 per cent) were vaccinated, with 74 per cent of them puppies less than six months old. PMID:27933190

  1. Gunshot injuries of the orofacial region in Nigerian civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugboko, V I; Owotade, F J; Oginni, F O; Odusanya, S A

    1999-09-01

    The dearth of information from Africa on gunshot injuries to the orofacial region in a civilian population prompted this retrospective survey. Sociodemographic data, manifestations at admission, type of firearm inflicting injuries, mechanism of injury, radiographs, treatment and complications were reviewed. All injuries occurred in the civilian population. The majority of patients (95.5%) were males, involved mainly in recreational hunting expeditions. The Dane gun was mostly used (86.4%) and accidental discharge of the weapon was recorded in 59.1% of the cases, 40.9% of these being accidentally self-inflicted. Overall, the left half of the face received more of the missiles. Complications were seen in 63.6% of the patients and the most common of these was loss of sight. The mortality rate was 22.7%. Late presentation was a frequent occurrence. It is suggested that Nigerian law enforcement agencies devise strategies to monitor the sale, acquisition and use of such firearms.

  2. Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian girl: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senbanjo Idowu O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulcerative colitis (UC is uncommon in the tropics and sub-tropics. We report a case of UC in a 7 year old girl whose parents were both Nigerians. This report is to alert healthcare professionals in sub-Saharan Africa that UC is not a rare health problem, especially in children. Case presentation The patient presented with frequent passage of blood stained stool, abdominal pain and significant weight loss. The diagnosis was entertained after she was investigated for common causes of chronic diarrhea in our setting and the findings were negative. The patient symptoms abated after she was commenced on steroid therapy. Conclusion Under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis may account for a dearth of information on UC in African children.

  3. Firm Traits and Web Based Disclosures in Top Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Ayuba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.

  4. The health benefits of mechanization at the Nigerian Coal Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, S E

    1988-04-01

    Nigerian Coal Corporation started operations in 1916 and in October 1977 introduced full mechanization at its coal mine in Enugu. An appraisal of the mining accidents between 1975-1980 showed an overall downward trend following mechanization, from 1073 per 1000 in 1975 to 425 in 1980 (a 60% reduction). The underground accidents were reduced from a monthly average of 63 to 26 but those at the surface remained basically unaffected. Changes were also recorded in sickness absences indices, with the most significant occurring with respect to the severity index which dropped from 9.2 in 1975 to 3.0 in 1980. The distribution of injury remained essentially the same except that injuries to the upper limbs became more common than the more serious pelvic injury prior to mechanization. The impact of mechanization in industries in developing countries are discussed and ways of ensuring optimum benefits from this transfer of technology suggested.

  5. High degree of duodenal inflammation in Nigerians with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokediuko SC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko,1 Uchenna N Ijoma,1 Olive Obienu,1 Gideon E Anigbo,1 Okechukwu Okafor21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Functional dyspepsia (FD is a heterogeneous disorder associated with diverse pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune activation and low-grade mucosal inflammation. Genetic factors, physiological functions, and environmental factors may determine the relative importance of various pathophysiological mechanisms. This study was designed to determine the histological alterations in the duodenal mucosa of Nigerian patients with FD.Methods: Consecutive patients with dyspepsia seen over a 27-month period in two gastrointestinal endoscopy facilities in Enugu, South-East Nigeria were further evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal mucosal biopsies if no lesion was found in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation who did not have any dyspeptic symptoms and did not have any lesion in the upper gastrointestinal tract on endoscopy were presumed to have non-erosive reflux disease (NERD and they served as controls. The control subjects also had duodenal biopsies. The histopathological findings in the cases and controls were compared.Results: There were 68 patients with FD and 52 patients with NERD. The total inflammatory score was 242 in FD and 66 in NERD (Mann-Whitney U =1168, P=0.0011. Similarly, the scores for chronic inflammation, gastric metaplasia, neutrophilic activity, eosinophilic infiltration, and Helicobacter pylori were significantly higher in FD than NERD.Conclusion: Functional dyspepsia is associated with a high degree of inflammation in the duodenal mucosa. This may reflect the high prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in a tropical environment such as Nigeria. These findings may have therapeutic potential that further studies might elucidate

  6. Corporal punishment-related ocular injuries in Nigerian children

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    Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive statistics using SPSS statistical package version 10. Results: A total of 186 children were seen within the study period. Eighty-nine (47.8% had ocular injuries and 27 (30.3% had ocular injuries resulting from corporal punishment. Of the latter group, eighteen were males and nine were females. Their ages ranged from 3-15 years (mean = 8.5 ± 2.4 years. Corporal punishment-associated injuries occurred most commonly as seen in 17 (63% of our study population who were aged 7-12 years. These 27 cases of injuries were sustained in the schools: 13 (48.2%, homes: eight (29.6%, market place: three (11.1%, workshop: two (7.4% and worship houses: one (3.7%. A stick was the object mostly implicated in causing ocular injuries in 13 (48.2% followed by a belt in five (18.5% and a whip in four (14.8%. Severe visual impairment occurred in two (7.4% patients while blindness occurred in three (11.1% patients. Conclusion: Corporal punishment is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in Nigerian children.

  7. Healthy Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese economic dragon is healthy and dynamic. The dragorthead,Shanghai, is developing at a pace never before seen in world history, The dragon's body is also doing well, not least because there is tremendous competition across the country. Thus, four cities along the central Yangtze River Region are trying to strengthen their competitiveness.

  8. Healthy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  9. Wilcox Group Apparent Thickness, Gulf Coast (wlcxthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Apparent Wilcox Group thickness maps are contoured from location and top information derived from the Petroleum Information (PI) Wells database. The Wilcox...

  10. Effects of development on indigenous dietary pattern: A Nigerian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Bookie; Farag, Karim

    2016-12-01

    The traditional foods of indigenous people in Nigeria are known for their cultural symbolism and agricultural biodiversity which contributes to their daily healthy and rich diet. In the early 90s, rapid development of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) was noted and the resettlement of indigenes to other parts of the region was reported. These changes have facilitated the modification of indigenous diets, as indigenous groups rapidly embraced modern foods and also adopted the food culture of migrant ethnic groups. This has led to a gradual erosion of indigenous diets and traditional food systems in the FCT. This study explored the impact of development on traditional food systems and determined indigenes perception of the modification to their food culture as a result of the development of their land within the FCT. Field survey was carried out in four indigenous communities in the FCT (30 indigenes from each of the four areas) using structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews. Person Chi Square analysis of indigenes socio-economic characteristics revealed significant relationships between gender of indigenes and farm size, Age and farm size, Educational level and farm/herd size. Qualitative analysis of FGDs revealed indigenes opinion on the socio-cultural changes in behaviour and food systems as a result of development. The study also identified indigenous youths as being most influenced by development especially through education, white collar jobs and social interactions with migrant ethnic groups in the FCT. The study recommended that indigenes should be provided with more secure land tenure and "back-to-farm" initiatives should be put in place by the Nigerian government to encourage indigenous youth to engaged more in agriculture.

  11. Pro-inflammatory cytokines profiles in Nigerian pregnant women infected withPlasmodium falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nmorsi OPG; Isaac C; Ohaneme BA; Obiazi HAK

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines profiles in in Nigerian pregnant women infected withPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria.Methods: Peripheral, and placental blood samples were collected from96 consenting volunteers comprising76 P. falciparium infected pregnant women and 20 healthy uninfected pregnant women in Ekpoma, Nigeria, and subjected to ELISA for cytokines evaluation.Results: Increased serum concentrations of interferon-gamma(IFN-γ) was observed in infected pregnant women than their uninfected counterparts[(31.2±20.9)pg/mL vs (1.8±0.9) pg/mL] and these differences were statistically significant(″2= 26.18,P0.05). The interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly elevated in infected pregnant women (81.0±26.1 pg/mL) than in the uninfected pregnant women [(25.0±5.0) pg/mL](″2 = 29.58,P<0.05). In all, mean cytokines concentration of IL-6, IL-12 andIFN-γ in the placental blood from infected pregnant women were (53.5±23.4) pg/mL, (8.7±6.9) pg/mL and(16.4±4.0) pg/mL, respectively. The multigravidae had a higher haemoglobin level of 10.2 g/dL and birth weight of3 000 g than the primigrivadae with lower haemoglobin level of7.5g/dL and birth weight of2 430 g. Conclusions: The elevatedIFN-γamong the malarous pregnant women implicates it as the major cytokine mediator in the host responses to systematicP. falciparummalaria in our locality.

  12. Two deaths, one blind eye, one imprisonment: child abuse in the guise of corporal punishment in Nigerian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianu, E

    2000-07-01

    An examination of reported cases of child abuse in Nigerian schools was carried out against the backdrop of the legal framework for the protection of pupils. The objective was to highlight the deficiency in Nigerian law on child protection in the light of UN Conventions which Nigeria has ratified.

  13. Impact of Job Satisfaction and Burnout on Attitudes towards Strike Action among Employees of a Nigerian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineme, Kubiat M.; Ineme, Mfon E.

    2016-01-01

    The Nigerian tertiary educational system has been ravaged by incessant strike action, which appears to defy all attempts to find solutions. This paper reports on a study that examines the impact of job satisfaction and burnout on attitudes towards strike actions among employees of a Nigerian university. A total of 576 employees participated in the…

  14. Popular Perception Social Reality: The SAP Experience in Contemporary Nigerian Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Tenshak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian literature, like other literatures, is a product of her history and the social issues which influence it. Colonialism may have come, and can be said to be gone as it was practised in the 1880s to the 1960s, but its effects are great and have lasted especially on the establishment and transformation of the literary culture of the African continent. Contemporary Nigerian writing, especially its prose fiction, addresses two main issues: the negotiation of a contemporary identity, and an expression of a general disillusionment with post-colonial Nigeria. Interwoven in the writings of contemporary Nigerian writers is an engagement with the perception and reality of the effects of the World Bank/IMF sponsored Structural Adjustment Programme of the mid-80s to the late 90s on the populace. This paper explores the SAP phenomenon as reflected in the writings of selected contemporary Nigerian novelists, with a view to identifying these writers’ perception of this experience that has and is still affecting Nigeria’s socio-cultural, political, economic and historical landscape. This investigation, through a general synopsis of selected contemporary Nigerian prose fiction, examines how the implementation of this policy facilitated an increase in the military government’s repressive attitude and the escalation of the economic crisis that was being experienced at the time.

  15. A review of Quality of Life studies in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloba, O; Fatoye, O; Mapayi, B; Akinsulore, S

    2013-09-01

    The concept of Quality of Life is becoming an increasingly important measure of the impact of psychiatric disorders and is now recognized as useful in the healthcare evaluation of patients with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review was to document and analyze the research data on quality of life in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. The electronic databases, Medline and Pubmed were searched for published articles on quality of life in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies employed the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version, which is the only quality of life instrument whose psychometric properties have been evaluated among Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. Some of the studies revealed that quality of life was significantly associated with socio demographic factors such marital and employment status and social support. Poor quality of life was reported to be associated with illness related factors such as co morbid medical problems, presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and non adherence to medications. All the studies with the exception of two were conducted in centers located in South-western Nigeria. Quality of life in Nigerian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders is under-researched. There is need for more studies to prospectively investigate quality of life and associated factors among Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders.

  16. Viscous Cosmology and Thermodynamics of Apparent Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Akbar

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is shown that the differential form of Friedmann equations of Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe can be recast as a similar form of the first law ThdSh=dE + W dV of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of FRW universe filled with the viscous fluid.It is also shown that by employing the general expression of temperature Th=|k|/2π=1/2π(r)A(1-(r)A/2H(r)A) associated with the apparent horizon of an FRW universe and assumed that the temperature Tm of the energy inside the apparent horizon is proportional to the horizon temperature Tm = bTh,we are able to show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds in the Einstein gravity provided Th-Tm/(r)A≤(p+(P)).

  17. The Sources of Efficiency of the Nigerian Banking Industry: A Two- Stage Approach

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    Frances Obafemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper employed a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach to examine the sources oftechnical efficiency in the Nigerian banking sub-sector. Using a cross sectionof commercial and merchant banks, the study showed that the Nigerian bankingindustry was not efficient both in the pre-and-post-liberalization era. Thestudy further revealed that market share was the strongest determinant oftechnical efficiency in the Nigerian banking Industry. Thus, appropriatemacroeconomic policy, institutional development and structural reforms mustaccompany financial liberalization to create the stable environment requiredfor it to succeed. Hence, the present bank consolidation and reforms by theCentral Bank of Nigeria, which started with Soludo and continued with Sanusi,are considered necessary, especially in the areas of e banking and reorganizingthe management of banks.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

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    Olatundun Williams

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5% followed by those Igbo descent (10.6% and those of Igede (10.2% and Tiv (1.8% ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females. Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9% than Igede (10.5%, Igbo (10.1% and Tiv (5.0% children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500. The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively. Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351. In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  19. A Strange Manifestation of Malaria in a Native Nigerian Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Paola; Izzo, Ilaria; Saccani, Barbara; Casari, Salvatore; Caligaris, Silvio; Tomasoni, Lina Rachele; Matteelli, Alberto; Lombardi, Annamaria; Meini, Antonella; Castelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The protective role of Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) in malaria endemic areas has been proved, and prevalence of HbS gene in malaria endemic areas is high. Splenic infarction is a well-known complication of SCT, while the association with malaria is considered rare. A Nigerian boy was admitted to our ward after returning from his country of origin, for P. falciparum malaria. He underwent abdominal ultrasound for upper right abdominal pain, showing cholecystitis and multiple splenic lesions suggestive of abscesses. Empiric antibiotic therapy was undertaken. Bartonella, Echinococcus, Entamoeba serologies, blood cultures, Quantiferon test, copro-parasitologic exam were negative; endocarditis was excluded. He underwent further blood exams and abdomen MRI, confirming the presence of signal alterations areas, with radiographic appearance of recent post-infarction outcomes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a percentage of HbS of 40.6% and a diagnosis of SCT was then made. Splenic infarction should be taken into account in patients with malaria and localized abdominal pain. Moreover, diagnosis of SCT should be considered. PMID:28293411

  20. A strange case of Malaria in a Nigerian native boy.

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    Paola Magro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protective role of SCT in malaria endemic areas has been proved and prevalence of HbS gene in malaria endemic areas is high. Splenic infarction is a well-known complication of SCT, rarely associated with malaria. A Nigerian boy was admitted to our ward after returning from his country of origin, for P. falciparum malaria. He underwent abdominal US for upper right abdominal pain, showing cholecystitis and multiple splenic abscesses. Empiric antibiotic therapy was undertaken. Bartonella, Echinococcus, Entamoeba serologies, blood cultures, Quantiferon test, coproparasitologic exam were negative; endocarditis was excluded. He underwent further blood exams and abdomen MRI, confirming the presence of signal alterations areas, with radiographic appearance of recent post-infarction outcomes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a percentage of HbS of 40.6% and a diagnosis of SCT was made. Splenic infarction should be taken into account in patients with malaria and localized abdominal pain.  Moreover, diagnosis of SCT should be considered.

  1. Wilson disease in a Nigerian child: a case report

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    Esezobor Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Wilson disease is rarely reported among African children. This report describes the second case report of a Nigerian child with Wilson disease in three decades. Case presentation An eight-year-old African boy presented with generalized oedema and ascites and proteinuria. Over the next three weeks he developed conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia, severe coagulopathy and prominent extrapyramidal features consisting of rigidity, tremors at rest and in action, shuffling gait, slurred speech and emotional lability. Slit-lamp examination of his eyes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings and sunflower cataracts. His serum caeruloplasmin level was 5mg/dL. Using the scoring system proposed by the 8th International Meeting of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease, a diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. Conclusions Wilson disease does occur in African children, although the diagnosis is rarely made. A diagnosis of Wilson disease should be entertained in the evaluation of African children presenting with liver dysfunction and/or extrapyramidal neurological features.

  2. Extraction and Characterization of Chitin from Nigerian Sources

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    Muhammed Tijani ISA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and characterization of chitin from four sources of Nigerian origin was investigated. Chemical demineralization and deproteinization was done to obtain the chitin. Proximate analysis, XRD and SEM analysis were conducted on obtained chitins. The investigation revealed that the shrimp had the highest yield of chitin of 8.15%, crab, crayfish and periwinkle had yields of 7.8%, 2.88% and 0.44% respectively. The proximate analysis showed that chitin from shrimp had highest moisture and protein content of 8.70% and 4.16% respectively. Crayfish had the highest ash and fiber content of 7.20% and 6.98% respectively. Crab has the highest lipid content of 1.70%. The SEM analysis showed very uniform structure with a lamellar organization and less dense structure for chitin from shrimp and the surface of chitin from crayfish consists of fibers that form parallel thread networks. XRD analysis showed that chitin from shrimp was more crystalline than others.

  3. Backpack-related musculoskeletal symptoms among Nigerian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzat, T K; Abdulkareem, T A; Akinyinka, O O; Fatoye, F A

    2014-09-01

    Musculoskeletal discomfort in schoolchildren is significantly related to the weight and mode of carrying backpack to school. Prevalence and patterns of musculoskeletal discomfort among Nigerian secondary school students carrying backpack was investigated. Systematic sampling technique was used in the selection of the participating junior secondary schools for this study. Participants comprised 1,785 students aged 10-15 years. Standardised Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to collect information on musculoskeletal pain. Backpack weight and participants' body weight were measured using a weighing scale. The visual analogue scale was used to assess pain intensity. Gender differences in backpack weight, backpack percentage and musculoskeletal discomfort were studied using Mann-Whitney U test; Kruskal-Wallis test was used to study the influence of backpack carrying style on musculoskeletal discomfort; and Spearman rho correlation to determine the relationships between backpack weight, backpack to body weight ratio, age and pain intensity. There were 882 boys and 903 girls recruited into the study. Shoulder pain was the most prevalent discomfort (63.5 %), and pain was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.013). There were weak relationships between pain intensity, body weight and backpack to body weight ratio (r range 0.433-0.442; p backpack weight and age (r = 0.892; p backpack weight and body weight (r = 0.136; p backpack may predispose to musculoskeletal pain. Parents, teachers and clinicians can influence the mode of carrying backpack by secondary school students.

  4. Electronic Governance: Myth or Opportunity for Nigerian Public Administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olufemi Fatile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have changed the process of governance in the world. To manage government affairs for the benefits of citizens, governments have adopted e-governance technologies in service delivery. The objectives of this study are to provide a comprehensive review of e-governance in order to give it a sound framework, assess the levels of e-governance implementation, and evaluate critical success factors of e-governance implementation. The analysis of the impact of e-governance in service provision Nigeria is also provided. It notes that Nigeria is facing a number of challenges in the introduction of e-Governance. Given the importance of the successful implementation of electronic governance services and from a practical perspective, the paper suggests that government should take a positive position towards the factors which will bring about effective and efficient e-governance in Nigeria. Government should declare access to ICT services as fundamental human right of every Nigerian and to establish a timetable and guarantee enabling environment for attracting the right level of investments. The paper concludes that there is a lot of hope on the potential of e-governance to transform the internal efficiency of government and the relationship of government with citizens.

  5. Pattern of heart failure in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur C Onwuchekwa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthur C Onwuchekwa, Godspower E AsekomehDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaBackground: Congestive cardiac failure (CCF has emerged as a major public health problem worldwide and imposes an escalating burden on the health care system. Objective: To determine the causes and mortality rate of CCF in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH, south Nigeria, over a five-year period from January 2001 to December 2005.Methods: A retrospective study of CCF cases were identified from the admission and discharge register of the medical wards of UPTH and the case notes were retrieved from the medical records department and analyzed.Results: There were 423 patients: 242 males and 181 females. Their ages ranged from 18 to 100 years with a mean of 54.4 ± 17.3. The commonest causes of CCF were hypertension (56.3% and cardiomyopathy (12.3%. Chronic renal failure, rheumatic heart disease, and ischemic heart disease accounted for 7.8%, 4.3%, and 0.2% of CCF, respectively. Peripartum heart disease was rare despite being commonly reported in northern Nigerian females. Eighteen patients died from various complications with a mortality rate of 4.3%.Conclusion: The burden of CCF in the Niger Delta is mainly attributed to hypertension. Efforts should be geared towards hypertension awareness, detection, treatment, and prevention in the region.Keywords: pattern, cardiac failure, Nigeria, etiological factors

  6. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  7. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

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    M. Chukwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.

  8. Caffeine and theobromine levels in selected Nigerian beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteng, M U; Eyong, E U; Eka, O U; Umoh, I B; Ebong, P E; Ettarh, R R

    1999-01-01

    Caffeine and theobromine contents (mg/g) were determined in samples of selected Nigerian beverage products. The beverages were cocoa (Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita and Enervita), coffee (Nescafe, Bongo, and Maxwell House decaffeinated) and tea (Lipton). The theobromine contents of samples of Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita, Enervita, Nescafe, Bongo, Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee and Lipton were 62.10+/-5.21, 64.80+/-6.72, 82.80+/-4.43, 80.37+/-6.80, 27.00+/-4.31, 14.67+/-2.90, 23.46+/-3.13 and 12.60+/-1.52, respectively. The corresponding caffeine contents of these samples were 2.78+/-0.43 (Milo), 3.17+/-0.36 (Bournvita), 0.92+/-0.51 (Rosevita), 1.05+/-0.68 (Enervita), 93.66+/-8.91 (Nescafe), 6.47+/-2.42 (Bongo), 37.22+/-5.34 (Lipton), and 0.21+/-0.11 (Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee). Semi-processed cocoa beverages (Rosevita and Enervita) had significantly (p theobromine compared with the finished cocoas (Milo and Bournvita). Similarly, Nescafe contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of caffeine compared to Maxwell House (decaffeinated coffee) and Bongo. Levels of caffeine in Lipton tea were moderate.

  9. Ethical challenges of containing Ebola: the Nigerian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Omosivie; Odia, Osaretin

    2015-11-01

    Responding effectively to an outbreak of disease often requires routine processes to be set aside in favour of unconventional approaches. Consequently, an emergency response situation usually generates ethical dilemmas. The emergence of the Ebola virus in the densely populated cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt in Nigeria brought bleak warnings of a rapidly expanding epidemic. However, these fears never materialised largely due to the swift reaction of emergency response and incident management organisations, and the WHO has now declared Nigeria free of Ebola. However, numerous ethical issues arose in relation to the response to the outbreak. This paper discusses some of these ethical challenges and the vital lessons learned. Ethical challenges relating to confidentiality, the dignity of persons, non-maleficence, stigma and the ethical obligations of health workers are examined. Interventions implemented to ensure that confidentiality and the dignity of persons improved and stigma was reduced, included community meetings, knowledge communication and the training of media personnel in the ethical reporting of Ebola issues. In addition, training in infection prevention and control helped to allay the fears of health workers. A potential disaster was also averted when the use of an experimental medicine was reconsidered. Other countries currently battling the epidemic can learn a lot from the Nigerian experience.

  10. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.

  11. Music and Dance Therapy in Nigeria: The Task before the Potential Nigerian Music Therapists in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor M. A. Iyeh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of music and dance as a palliative measure, diversionary means, audio-analgesic and to control pain, is found in the musical practices of Nigerians. These different categories of the use of music can be put into two classifications: the use of music as medicine and the use of music as accompaniment to other healing rites. This paper examines: definitions of music therapy, the concept of illness in the contemporary Nigerian society, and music therapy and its social relevance. While highlighting the emerging issues before the Nigerian music/dance therapists, this paper ends by making some suggestions aimed at enhancing the present level of practice in Nigeria.

  12. Exploratory study of plasma total homocysteine and its relationship to short-term outcome in acute ischaemic stroke in Nigerians

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    Awosanya Gbolahan O

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke, and may have a negative impact on the course of ischaemic stroke. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as it relates to stroke in Africans is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and short-term impact of hyperhomocysteinemia in Nigerians with acute ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that Hcy levels are significantly higher than in normal controls, worsen stroke severity, and increase short-term case fatality rates following acute ischaemic stroke. Methods The study employed both a case-control and prospective follow-up design to study hospitalized adults with first – ever acute ischaemic stroke presenting within 48 hours of onset. Clinical histories, neurological evaluation (including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores on admission were documented. Total plasma Hcy was determined on fasting samples drawn from controls and stroke cases (within 24 hours of hospitalization. Outcome at 4 weeks was assessed in stroke patients using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. Results We evaluated 155 persons (69 acute ischaemic stroke and 86 healthy controls. The mean age ± SD of the cases was 58.8 ± 9.8 years, comparable to that of controls which was 58.3 ± 9.9 years (T = 0.32; P = 0.75. The mean duration of stroke (SD prior to hospitalization was 43.5 ± 38.8 hours, and mean admission NIHSS score was 10.1 ± 7.7. Total fasting Hcy in stroke patients was 10.2 ± 4.6 umol/L and did not differ significantly from controls (10.1 ± 3.6 umol/L; P = 0.88. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined by plasma Hcy levels > 90th percentile of controls (>14.2 umol/L in women and >14.6 umol/L in men, was present in 7 (10.1% stroke cases and 11 (12.8% controls (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.31 – 2.39; P > 0.05. In multiple regression analysis admission NIHSS score (but not plasma Hcy was a significant determinant of 4

  13. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, M.; Prakash, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Albohr, O.

    2008-02-01

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short-wavelength roughness, which may make the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the counterface surface asperities. The results presented are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  14. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofidi, M; Prakash, B [Division of Machine Elements, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa SE-97187 (Sweden); Persson, B N J [IFF, FZ-Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Albohr, O [Pirelli Deutschland AG, 64733 Hoechst/Odenwald, Postfach 1120 (Germany)

    2008-02-27

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short-wavelength roughness, which may make the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the counterface surface asperities. The results presented are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  15. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  16. Apparent exchange rate mapping with diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Water exchange through the cell membranes is an important feature of cells and tissues. The rate of exchange is determined by factors such as membrane lipid composition and organization, as well as the type and activity of aquaporins. A method for noninvasively estimating the rate of water exchange would be useful for characterizing pathological conditions, e.g., tumors, multiple sclerosis, and ischemic stroke, expected to be associated with a change of the membrane barrier properties. This study describes the filter exchange imaging method for determining the rate of water exchange between sites having different apparent diffusion coefficients. The method is based on the filter-exchange pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy experiment, which is here modified to be compatible with the constraints of clinical MR scanners. The data is analyzed using a model-free approach yielding maps of the apparent exchange rate, here being introduced in analogy with the concept of the apparent diffusion coefficient. Proof-of-principle experiments are performed on microimaging and whole-body clinical scanners using yeast suspension phantoms. The limitations and appropriate experimental conditions are examined. The results demonstrate that filter exchange imaging is a fast and reliable method for characterizing exchange, and that it has the potential to become a powerful diagnostic tool.

  17. Multitasking, but for What Benefit? The Dilemma Facing Nigerian University Students Regarding Part-Time Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Evans, Carl; Obalola, Musa Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Students working part-time while studying for a full-time university degree are commonplace in many Western countries. This paper, however, examines the historically uncommon part-time working activities and career aspirations among Nigerian university students. In particular, how working is perceived to contribute to developing employability…

  18. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates' Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Anas Sa'idu; Nair, Subadrah Madhawa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a…

  19. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  20. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Understanding the Nigerian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Victor Ebipuruonwu

    2013-01-01

    The descriptive mixed-methods study explores and describes the challenges and prospects of the growth and development of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) schools and science-based technology education in Nigeria. It is not understood how Nigerians in the United States perceive the impacts of governmental policies on education…

  1. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  2. Perceptual Convergence as an Index of the Intelligibility and Acceptability of Three Nigerian English Accents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimayin Foluke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated perceptual convergence as a measure of the intelligibility and acceptability of three Nigerian English (NE accents with a view to arriving at a possible norm of usage for teaching and communication purposes. The subjects were one hundred and eighty Nigerians of varied socio-economic, educational and ethno-linguistic backgrounds drawn from various offices, institutions in Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan. Two researcher-designed instruments were used. First is the Oral Reading Test for Accent identification made up of phonological difficulties usually exhibited by NE language users. Next is a questionnaire in the form of an intelligibility and acceptability rating scale. Based on the findings, the educated NE accent was the most intelligible and acceptable, followed by the mother-tongue based NE accent and the Regional NE accents. It was recommended among others that language policy makers confront the problem of the NE corpus to be used in teaching and the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council be commissioned to produce texts on the phonology and phonetics of the Educated NE accent. Keywords: Perceptual convergence, index, Nigerian English, Accents, Intelligibility, Acceptability

  3. Fostering Emotional Adjustment among Nigerian Adolescents with Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in fostering emotional adjustment among Nigerian adolescents. Fifty senior secondary school students were randomly selected and divided equally into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with REBT twice a week for six weeks.…

  4. Re-Engineering Values Education in Nigerian Schools as Catalyst for National Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enu, Donald Bette; Esu, A. E. O.

    2011-01-01

    The decay in the Nigerian society has affected the standard of values and moral character formation. This has manifested in so many anti-social vices. Anti-social behaviour exhibited include corruption, dishonesty, greed, violent crimes, lack of accountability, indiscipline, disrespect to constituted authorities, laziness, low moral courage among…

  5. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria, and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without...

  6. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  7. Readability of Igbo Language Textbook in Use in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of Igbo language textbook in use in Nigerian secondary schools. Five Igbo Language textbook were evaluated. The study employed an evaluation research design. The study was conducted in South Eastern Geopolitical zone of Nigeria which is predominantly the Igbo tribe of Nigeria. Four hundred secondary school…

  8. Mental Element of Bribery under Nigerian and Us (Federal Anti-Bribery Laws: an Overview

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    Akeem Olajide BELLO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic reviews have highlighted the problem of lack of clarity with Nigerian antibribery laws. It is important for the criminal law to clearly state the mental element of bribery. This would communicate to citizens, lawyers and judges what is wrong with bribery. It would also provide a yardstick to distinguish between the socio-cultural practice of gift-giving and bribery. This article analyses the mental element of bribery in Nigeria and federal anti-bribery laws in United States of America. The analysis is undertaken with a view to drawing useful insight to propose reform of Nigerian anti-bribery laws. The article finds that American laws better clarifies the wrongful mental conduct that transforms gift-giving into bribery. Unlike Nigerian statutes that uses the undefined word “corruptly” to capture the mental element of bribery, American statutes while using the word “corruptly” further captures the mental element of bribery in terms of intention to use a bribe to influence official action. The American approach if adopted by the legislature to reform Nigerian anti-bribery laws would provide better guidance to the courts, lawyers and laymen in understanding why the law criminalises bribery. It would also provide a platform to distinguish between gift-giving and bribery.

  9. How Manipulatives Affect the Mathematics Achievement of Students in Nigerian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburime, F. Ehi.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics is a very important subject in Nigeria. Yet, for more than twenty years, mathematics education in Nigeria has been in a sorry state. Mathematics achievement has been very low and frustrating. So far, every effort made to save Nigerian education from the devastating effect of persistent poor mathematics achievement has failed. An…

  10. Effective Teaching with ICT in Nigerian Higher Institutions: A Solution to Graduates' Unemployability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femi, Sunday Akinwumi; Yemisi, Etomi Edwin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effective teaching with the aid of ICT in Nigerian higher education institutions as a proposed solution to graduates' unemployability. The survey method was utilized for this study. Respondents were randomly selected from students and teachers of selected higher institutions in Nigeria. The findings reveal that, even though…

  11. Environmental Literacy among Preservice Social Studies Teachers: A Review of the Nigerian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Biodun; Ifegbesan, Ayodeji

    2011-01-01

    This mini-survey assessed the environmental literacy level of preservice teachers in a Nigerian university through 199 social studies teacher-trainees. It found a high level of awareness/knowledge on local environmental problems but low level on global environmental issues. Although a positive disposition toward environmental issues was…

  12. A Conceptual Model for School-Based Management Operation and Quality Assurance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Ibukun, Williams Olusola

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the School-Based Management Committee's (SBMC) involvement and effectiveness in school governance, curriculum implementation and students' learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary schools; the major challenges facing effective operation of SBMCs were identified as low capacity of key members of the SBMCs; poor attendance of…

  13. Education as a Panacea to Women Active Participation in Nigerian Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odionye, Ada E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate into the acute and perennial under-representation of women in Nigerian Politics. In Nigeria women make up half of the population and they have been known to have contributed in no small measure to the development and sustenance of the society yet they are hardly there in the political scene. We have…

  14. Critical Multimodal Literacy: How Nigerian Female Students Critique Texts and Reconstruct Unequal Social Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three female Nigerian high school students were taught to deploy critical multimodal literacy to interrogate texts and reconstruct unequal social structures. A class of ninth-grade students in an all-women school was given instruction through the analysis of how multiple modes were used to represent meanings in…

  15. The figure with recurrent presence: the defiant hero in Nigerian narratives

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    Ignatius Chukwumah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian narratives always reveal corruption, disillusionment, mythological entities, political instability, cultural backgrounds and traditions of the tribes and nations used as context. Textual resources advertise literary works as realistic. In general, the recurring presence of the characters in these narratives is almost ignored. Unlike earlier interpretations of the Nigerian narratives, this essay is based on the theory of Frye’s five mimetic modes or categories. Based on the analysis of The Interpreters (SOYINKA, 1972 and The Famished Road (OKRI, 1992, this article examines the defiant hero as a recurring presence in Nigerian narratives. In fact, the hero is a character of resistance, which, in many ways, is in conflict with the laws made unbearable for others. The article also shows how the character, revealed by the constant manifestations of the structure of the primary activities of the hero of narratives such as myths, gradually and systematically hides in later narratives of mimetic modes through the emergence and influence of realist art. Similar processes in which the hero is involved are abundant in many Nigerian narratives. The insights revealed by these discussions serve to rethink previous critical views on these texts.

  16. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  17. The Nigerian University System: Meeting the Challenges of Growth in a Depressed Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesola, Akin O.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent history of Nigerian higher education chronicles periods of phenomenal expansion, economic downturn and retrenchment, monitoring of efficiency and academic standards, continued uncontrolled expansion in the absence of basic facilities, recently improved fiscal management, revival of student aid, and proposals for the opening…

  18. A Survey of Marital Success and Failure Among Sampled Educated Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebunmi, Akin

    In Nigeria, various forms of polygamy and monogamy are practiced; however, monogamy is more or less practiced by many Christians and a greater percentage of younger men. A survey of marital success and failure was conducted with samples of Nigerian Diploma students and selected educated community members. Subjects completed two instruments, the…

  19. The Understanding of Pictorial Spatial Relationships by Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, John R.; Seddon, G. Malcolm

    1977-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to assess the proportion of students at different levels in a Nigerian secondary school who interpret selected diagrams in 3 or 2 dimensional terms and to see if there are differences between these interpretations and those of English students. (Author/AM)

  20. Ordeals of Physics Instruction in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Way Forward for the Attainment of Global Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderonmu, Temitope S. B.; Obafemi, Deborah T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Physics instruction in secondary schools is a fundamental panacea towards achieving scientific knowledgeable citizens which can propel a nation in the realization of a sustainable economic force. This paper therefore x-rayed ordeals of physics instruction in Nigerian secondary schools and the way forward for the attainment of global…

  1. Challenges of Material Resource Management among Social Studies Lecturers in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, P. O.; Obro, S.; Owhorhu, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The study is focused on the challenges of material resource management among social studies lecturers in Nigerian Universities. The study population is one thousand eight hundred and fifty five (1855). The sample size comprises one hundred staff, one hundred and twenty students, and forty internal material resource managers were randomly selected…

  2. Formal Body Bequest Program in Nigerian Medical Schools: When Do We Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, Oluwole Busayo

    2011-01-01

    Human body dissection is a prerequisite for the training of health professionals and the conduct of medical research. However, most Nigerian medical schools experience difficulty obtaining an adequate and regular supply of human tissue. Presently, the major source of anatomical material comes from unclaimed bodies collected from hospital…

  3. Effects of Non Indigene Discrimination on Contemporary Nigerian Society: Christian Religious Knowledge Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Nkechi C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to look into the non-indigene discrimination that migrated into Nigerian society from European countries. Non-indigene saga is a new trend that has threatened the unity, peace and progress of Nigeria as a pluralistic nation. The paper further explores the causes, forms and effects of non-indigene discrimination. It also…

  4. Validation of the Domains of Creativity Scale for Nigerian Preservice Science, Technology, and Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Fatade, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Investigation into the factor structure of Domains of Creativity Scale has been on for sometimes now. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale on Nigerian preservice science, technology, and mathematics teachers. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed…

  5. A Sociolinguistic Study of Meaning-Making in a Nigerian Linguistic Landscape: The Example of Ibadan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Akinbiyi

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has gone into the sociolinguistics of the linguistic landscape (space for and language of public signs) in the "peripheral," non-native contexts of English Language use and users, none has been specifically devoted to a Nigerian context. This dissertation is intended to fill this wide gap. Focusing on the Ibadan…

  6. Transnational business and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian couples in Guangzhou and Lagos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Guangzhou and Lagos, this paper explores transnational trade activities and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian interracial couples in the context of growing China/Africa trade relations and the recent tightening of China's immigration control. It examines how

  7. Biometric Secured Result Processing Software For Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo Oluwasegun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the challenges facing result processing in Nigerian tertiary institutions is the problem of insecurity. Untraceable changes are made to students result and this result to various disasters such as innocent people losing their jobs since their innocence cannot be proven. Biometric based systems operate on behavioral and physiological biometric data to identify a person and grant required access to a user. Physiological characteristics such as fingerprint remains unchanged throughout an individuals life time and thus it can serve as a viable means of identifying and authenticating users who are to access a system. In this study fingerprint biometric based result processing software is developed to ensure that users are well authenticated and are made to see only what they are pre-configured to see and work with. The fingerprint authentication system was developed using visual basic.net. Staff fingerprints were enrolled into the system to form a biometric template which the system validates against at every login attempt on the result processing software. The digital personal one touch ID sdk and other libraries were used in developing the authentication system. The result processing software also ensures that all write transactions to the database are confirmed and identified by forcing another biometric authentication at the point of making a write request to the web server and associated database. This ensures that the exact person initiating the transaction was the same user who logged in to the application. The users identified at login and various confirmation milestones set for write transactions are logged into a table for future reference and audit trail. Conclusively the developed system has helped to eradicate the problem of user impersonation by ensuring only authorized users are made to access the software and in-turn participate in result processing activities.

  8. Analysis of Project Success Criteria in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Sunday Dosumu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relative importance of the project success criteria in the Nigerian construction industry. It also determined the correlation among the project success criteria. Based on the literatures reviewed, the study proposed a framework for measuring project success in the construction industry. The respondents for the study were the government, private clients, consultants and contractors. Three hundred copies of questionnaires were distributed to capture data on the subject, but only 86 were returned and used for the study. The paper captured respondents that are resident in Lagos state, Nigeria and chosen by convenience from selected organizations used for the study. The data were analysed with SPSS 16 through the use of frequencies, mean scores, factor analysis and correlation. Factor analysis was employed because the mean scores showed that all the project success criteria were at least important. Nine principal components were finally merged into 4 through the factor analysis using the Varimax rotation with Keiser normalization. The study found out that all the project success criteria were important but their level of importance differs according to the factor analysis carried out. Therefore, it was concluded that there are four major components of construction project success in Nigeria- user-related factors, professionals’ factors, organisational factors and other minor factors. The minor factors were found to be related to both organizations and projects but were not highly rated by respondents for determining construction project success. The study also concludes that project success criteria goes beyond meeting cost, time and quality target, it includes users’ satisfaction, professionals’ fulfilment and achievement of organizational goals. The recommendation of the study was that for construction projects to be successful, attention must be paid to users’ related factors, professionals’ factors and

  9. Postnatal depression and its associated factors among Northeastern Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Sulyman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal depression is a serious psychiatric condition that occurs in puerperium. It is associated with increased morbidity and can overwhelm new mothers and interfere with the care of their babies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of postnatal depression and assess factors that are associated with its development among northeastern Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS questionnaire was administered to four hundred and eighty-three women who delivered at the maternity unit of a tertiary health institution in northeastern Nigeria. Their sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained using pro forma questionnaire designed by the researchers. Results: One hundred and eight respondents scored 13 or more points on EPNDS, making the prevalence rate of postnatal depression 22.4%. Factors that are associated with the development of postnatal depression are unemployment [odds ratio (OR = 0.49, 95% (CI = 0.27-0.86, P value = 0.018, lack of support from the husband (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.19-0.60, P value = 0.000, and primiparity (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88, P value = 0.013; others are unplanned pregnancy (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88, P value = 0.013 and physical illness in the mother (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.77-2.79, P value = 0.007. Conclusion: The study showed that a significant proportion of new mothers have postnatal depression. This may negatively affect their parenting skills and may have adverse effects on them and their children. Early detection and effective management, together with an efficient collaboration among psychiatrists, obstetricians, and other health workers who are involved in the care of new mothers, will go a long way in reducing the negative consequences that may result from this condition.

  10. TOWARDS NUTRITION SECURITY: FOOD LABEL USE AMONG NIGERIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food label use by Nigerians, using Kwara State as a case study. Specifically, the study describes the socio-economics characteristics of the respondents, determined people’s perception about food labels and examined factors influencing willingness-to-read food labels in the study area. A total of 120 respondents selected through a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques were used for the study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, 5-point likert scale and logistic resgression analysis. Majority of the respondents were females (72.5%, married (60% and had secondary education (50%. The mean age, household size, number of preschool children and household income of the respondents were 26years, 9 persons, 2 children and N25,250.00/month (USD 157.81 respectively. The respondents opined that food labels were used mainly for traceability (M = 3.24, registration status of the food producer (M = 3.01, advertisement (M =4.02, as a legal requirement (M = 4.00, to know the expiry dates (M = 4.57 and to distinguish the product from that of other competitors (M = 3.54. Results of the regression analysis revealed that women were more willing to read food labels than men, and positively related to age of respondent, household income level, educational status of food planner and nutritional knowledge of the food planner. However, willingness-to-read food labels by the respondents declined with household size and number of preschool children. The study therefore calls for enlightenment of the public by relevant stakeholders on importance of food labels to determine nutritional composition and health implications.

  11. Quality of Life of Nigerians with Unilateral Lower Limb Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Olusanjo Akosile

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the QoL of Nigerians with lower limb amputation and to investigate the influence of some clinical and socio-demographic variables on it. Method: Forty-seven individuals with lower limb amputation participated in this study. Participants’ age, gender, marital status, occupation, time since amputation, level of amputation, affected limb and use of prosthesis were recorded. Quality of life was then measured using the WHO QOL-BREF. Data were analysed using mean and standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test at 0.05 alpha levels. Results: Participants’ overall health and QoL scores were 3.6(SD 0.9 and 3.9(SD 0.7 respectively. Male subjects had significantly higher scores than females in the domains of physical health (p = 0.007, social relationships (p = 0.024 and overall health (p = 0.012. Prosthesis-wearing subjects scored significantly higher in the domains of physical health (p = 0.015, psychological health (p = 0.008 and environment (p = 0.011 and overall health (0.033, than those not wearing prosthesis. Level of amputation, leg dominance and pre-amputation occupational category had no significant influence on participants’ QoL. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the QoL of individuals with lower limb amputation in Nigeria is moderate. The only factors which have significant influence on some QoL domains are gender and use of prosthesis.Implications: Individuals with lower limb amputation, particularly females and those not wearing prosthesis, require special attention. Clinicians should identify barriers to the use of prosthesis so as to enhance their quality of life.

  12. Detection of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; Muckli, Lars; de Millas, Walter; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-07-30

    Dysfunctional prediction in sensory processing has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism in the development of delusions in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that while the perception of apparent motion can mask visual events along the illusory motion trace, such motion masking is reduced when events are spatio-temporally compatible with the illusion, and, therefore, predictable. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specific detection advantage for predictable target stimuli on the apparent motion trace is reduced in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Our data show that, although target detection along the illusory motion trace is generally impaired, both patients and healthy control participants detect predictable targets more often than unpredictable targets. Patients had a stronger motion masking effect when compared to controls. However, patients showed the same advantage in the detection of predictable targets as healthy control subjects. Our findings reveal stronger motion masking but intact prediction of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and suggest that the sensory prediction mechanism underlying apparent motion is not impaired in paranoid schizophrenia.

  13. Bellagio report on Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Simopoulos Artemis P.; Bourne Peter G.; Faergeman Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that m...

  14. INFLUENCE OF TEXTURE AND MINERALOGY IN APPARENT POROSITY, WATER ABSORPTION AND APPARENT DENSITY OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Meyer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work consists in evaluating the results of physical indices (apparent porosity, water absorption and apparent density obtained in granitoids exploited as ornamental and revetment stones in the state of São Paulo and Espírito Santo. The results of physical indices were qualified as parameters specification published by Abirochas use and compared the characteristics observed in petrographic samples.

  15. We Have Come to Stay and We Shall Find All Means to Live and Work in this Country: Nigerian Migrants and Life Challenges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Daniel Ikuomola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times many Nigerians have been singled out when it comes to criminal activities and xenophobic attacks in South Africa, which leads to disruption of the hitherto cordial relationship between South African host communities and Nigerian migrants. Nevertheless, the rate of Nigerians migrating to South Africa keeps soaring. Studies of migration between Nigeria and South Africa, have been scanty, often limited to the study of traditional economic disparity between the two countries with less emphasis on the social-cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in the host communities. This paper thus examined the socio-economic and cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in selected communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data for the study were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with Nigerian migrants in Hillbrow, Braamfontein and Alexandra suburbs in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  16. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  17. Apparent life threatening events (ALTE: diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Manuel Toro-Monjaraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTE are a form of clinical presen- tation of various problems or diseases in children under one year of age. A frequency of 0.6/1000 newborns is estimated. In Mexico, there is no known incidence, systematic approach or guidelines for hospital discharge, so we performed a literature review. Its etiology may be gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine or-idiopathic. The detailed history and physical examination provide an outline to select the laboratory and imaging studies to perform.

  18. Apparent exchange rate imaging in anisotropic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Lundell, Henrik M; Søgaard, Lise V;

    2014-01-01

    Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...... the effect of macroscopic tissue anisotropy on the measurement of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in multicompartment systems.......Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  19. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. ...

  20. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    , and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. RESULTS: In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only......BACKGROUND: Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D...... observational studies were identified; there were 3 studies with moderate, 9 studies with serious, and one study with critical risk of bias. The association between potatoes (not including french fries) and adiposity was neutral in 2 studies and was positive in 2 studies. French fries were positively associated...

  1. Risk factors for near-term myocardial infarction in apparently healthy men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge; Adourian, Aram S; Freiberg, Jacob Johannes von S;

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding risk factors for the near-term (4 years) onset of myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors and putative circulating biomarkers as predictors for MI within 4 years of measurement....

  2. Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Yahia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

  3. Characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle and their attendants in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, Balichene; Kudirkiene, Egle; Mtambo, Madundo

    2016-01-01

    While pathogenic types of Escherichia coli are well characterized, relatively little is known about the commensal E. coli flora. In the current study, antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli and distribution of ERIC-PCR genotypes among isolates of such bacteria from cattle and cattle...... attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle...... specific. The most frequent plasmids replicon genes found in strains from both hosts were of IncF type, which are commonly associated with carriage of antimicrobial and virulence genes. Commensal E. coli from cattle and attendants were found to share same genotypes and to carry antimicrobial resistance...

  4. Respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in apparently healthy workers exposed to flour dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Kolopp, M N; Toamain, J P

    1994-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the levels of exposure to wheat flour dust in a modern industrial bakery, and to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms, sensitization to wheat flour antigens and airway responsiveness in the workforce. Forty four flour-exposed male workers and 164 unexposed controls were examined. Inspirable dust concentrations were measured using personal samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, sensitization to wheat flour antigens by skin-prick tests, and methacholine airway challenge (MAC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MAC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. Inspirable dust concentrations were within acceptable limits in all working areas but one. The proportion of subjects with one or more symptoms and with airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly greater among flour-exposed workers than among controls. Using logistic or linear regression analysis, airway responsiveness was found to be strongly related to working at the bakery and to the baseline level of lung function. A positive skin-prick test was found in only 11% of flour-exposed workers and 6% of controls. In conclusion, our data show that despite exposure to relatively low concentration levels of inspirable flour dust, subjects working in the baking industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  5. Serum uric acid can predict higher C-reactive protein levels in apparently healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Vidigal, Fernanda; de Lima Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez; Paixão Rosado, Gilberto; Lanes Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2014-04-01

    Introducción: Los estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado una asociación entre la enfermedad coronaria y nuevos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, como, los niveles de proteína C-reactiva ultrasensible (PCR-us) y fibrinógeno. Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad de los indicadores bioquímicos en discriminar cambios en los niveles de PCRus y fibrinógeno, en hombres adultos sanos. Métodos: Se evaluaron 130 hombres (20-59 años). Se midió peso y talla. Se realizó mediciones bioquímicas (perfil lipídico, glucosa en ayunas, ácido úrico, PCR-us y fibrinógeno). Se calculó el índice de masa corporal, la relación colesterol total/HDL-c y la relación LDL-c/HDL-c. Se consideró como punto de corte para los valores de PCR-us ≥0,12 mg/dL y para el fibrinógeno se utilizó el percentil 50 de la muestra evaluada. Resultados: El ácido úrico mostró la mejor correlación (r = 0,325) y el área más alta bajo la curva ROC (0,704 ± 0,054), mostrando una mayor capacidad predictiva para detectar niveles más altos de PCR-us (p colesterol total/HDL-c (r = 0,222) y la relación LDLc/ HDL-c (r = 0,235) mostraron una mejor correlación y el área más alta bajo la curva ROC (0,624 ± 0,049 y 0,624 ± 0,049) en la identificación de niveles más altos de fibrinógeno (p colesterol total/ HDL-c y la relación LDL-c/HDL-c mostraron una mayor capacidad predictiva para detectar cambios en los niveles de PCR-us y fibrinógeno, respectivamente. Se sugirió el uso de marcadores bioquímicos en la práctica clínica, a fin de establecer medidas preventivas para la enfermedad cardiovascular en hombres adultos sanos.

  6. Effect of fortified spread on homocysteine concentration in apparently healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Jacobs, R.G.J.M.; Deckere, E. de; Berg, H. van den; Bree, A. de; Put, N.M.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 fortified spreads on the blood concentrations of these vitamins and homocysteine. Design and setting: A 6-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel trial carried out in a clinical research center. Subjects: One

  7. [Prevention of severe diseases in apparently healthy newborn infants by new neonatal diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, A

    1999-02-01

    The benefit of Tamiz Neonatal Ampliado is very high in relation with its cost, which is reasonably low. The Society for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, which is the main association in the world dealing with these diseases, has recently urged the responsible ones for neonatal health, so they increase their programs about Tamiz Neonatal (personal communication), as much as possible; its use should cover all new borns.

  8. [Influence of smoking cessation on the microcirculatory bed in apparently healthy young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotin, B Z; Korneeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Резюме Цель исследования. Изучить влияние прекращения курения на микроциркуляторное русло (МЦР) здоровых лиц молодого возраста. Материалы и методы. В исследование включили 33 здоровых людей молодого возраста (М:Ж = 20:13, средний возраст 21,6±0,5 года) прекративших курить от 1 мес до 10 лет, в среднем 2,5±0,5 года назад. Сравниваемые группы состояли из 15 курящих (М:Ж = 5:10, средний возраст 21,5±0,8 года) и 18 некурящих (М:Ж = 6:12, средний возраст 21±0,3 года). Проводили компьютерную видеобиомикроскопию бульбарной конъюнктивы. В оценке результатов обращали внимание на изменение диаметра микрососудов у прекративших курение табака в сравнении с курящими и некурящими. Результаты. По сравнению с курящими у прекративших курение достоверно увеличиваются средние диаметры артериол (13,01±0,41 и 18,33±0,65 мкм; р0,05). Таким образом, феномен рарификации, отражающий влияние курения на сосуды МЦР в молодом возрасте, быстро подвергается обратному развитию. Увеличение диаметра артериол и количества функционирующих капилляров у прекративших курить происходит уже в первые месяцы отказа от курения (р<0,01). Заключение. Значительное увеличение диаметра артериол и капилляров и числа функционирующих капилляров на 1 мм2 поверхности конъюнктивы свидетельствует о положительном влиянии отказа от курения в молодом возрасте на сосуды МЦР.

  9. Emotional exhaustion and cognitive performance in apparently healthy teachers: a longitudinal multi-source study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Stamov-Roßnagel, Christian; Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-10-01

    We investigate how emotional exhaustion (EE), the core component of burnout, relates to cognitive performance, job performance and health. Cognitive performance was assessed by self-rated cognitive stress symptoms, self-rated and peer-rated cognitive impairments in everyday tasks and a neuropsychological test of learning and memory (LGT-3); job performance and physical health were gauged by self-reports. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses in a sample of 100 teachers confirm that EE is negatively related to cognitive performance as assessed by self-rating and peer-rating as well as neuropsychological testing (all p < .05). Longitudinal linear regression analyses confirm similar trends (p < .10) for self-rated and peer-rated cognitive performance. Executive control deficits might explain impaired cognitive performance in EE. In longitudinal analyses, EE also significantly predicts physical health. Contrary to our expectations, EE does not affect job performance. When reversed causation is tested, none of the outcome variables at Time 1 predict EE at Time 2. This speaks against cognitive dysfunctioning serving as a vulnerability factor for exhaustion. In sum, results underpin the negative consequences of EE for cognitive performance and health, which are relevant for individuals and organizations alike. In this way, findings might contribute to the understanding of the burnout syndrome.

  10. Hematological and serum biochemical profile of apparently healthy hariana cattle heifers in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Singh, Krishna Veer; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Roy, Debashis

    2013-11-01

    The 'Hariana' breed of cattle has been proved to be highly adaptable to harsh climatic conditions and resistant to common diseases prevalent in India. In this study, the normal reference values of hematological and serum proteins and other blood biochemical parameters were determined in the heifers of Hariana breed maintained at Instructional livestock farm complex, DUVASU, Mathura, India. A total of twenty four animals were used in this study. Blood was taken aseptically from all the animals and transported to laboratory for hematological and biochemical analysis. The hematological parameters (Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume) and biochemical parameters (Total protein, total albumin, albumin globulin ratio, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, calcium phosphorous ratio, AST, ALT) values were statistically analyzed, mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as reference values. This study reported hematological and serum biochemical values which could serve as baseline information for comparison in conditions of nutrient deficiency, physiological and health status of Hariana cattle heifers in India.

  11. A multi-ingredient, pre-workout supplement is apparently safe in healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Joy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-workout supplements (PWS have become increasingly popular with recreational and competitive athletes. While many ingredients used in PWS have had their safety assessed, the interactions when combined are less understood. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of 1 and 2 servings of a PWS. Design: Forty-four males and females (24.4±4.6 years; 174.7±9.3 cm; 78.9±18.6 kg from two laboratories participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either one serving (G1; n=14 or two servings (G2; n=18 of PWS or serve as an unsupplemented control (CRL; n=12. Blood draws for safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist before and after the supplementation period. Results: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group×time interactions (p<0.05 for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; CRL: 30.9±0.8–31.0±0.9 pg; G1: 30.7±1.1–30.2±0.7 pg; G2: 30.9±1.2–30.9±1.1 pg, MCH concentration (CRL: 34.0±0.9–34.4±0.7 g/dL; G1: 34.1±0.9–33.8±0.6 g/dL; G2: 34.0±1.0–33.8±0.8 g/dL, platelets (CRL: 261.9±45.7–255.2±41.2×103/µL; G1: 223.8±47.7–238.7±49.6×103/µL; G2: 239.1±28.3–230.8±34.5×103/µL, serum glucose (CRL: 84.1±5.2–83.3±5.8 mg/dL; G1: 86.5±7.9–89.7±5.6 mg/dL; G2: 87.4±7.2–89.9±6.6 mg/dL, sodium (CRL: 137.0±2.7–136.4±2.4 mmol/L; 139.6±1.4–140.0±2.2 mmol/L; G2: 139.0±2.2–138.7±1.7 mmol/L, albumin (CRL: 4.4±0.15–4.4±0.22 g/dL; G1: 4.5±0.19–4.5±0.13 g/dL; G2: 4.6±0.28–4.3±0.13 g/dL, and albumin:globulin (CRL: 1.8±0.30–1.8±0.28; G1: 1.9±0.30–2.0±0.31; G2: 1.8±0.34–1.8±0.34. Each of these variables remained within the clinical reference ranges. Conclusions: The PWS appears to be safe for heart, liver, and kidney function in both one-serving and two-serving doses when consumed daily for 28 days. Despite the changes observed for select variables, no variable reached clinical significance.

  12. Whole-grain and blood lipid changes in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollænder, Pernille Lærke Bjørndal; Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2015-01-01

    dietary fiber. OBJECTIVE: Using a meta-analytic approach, we assessed the effect of whole-grain compared with non-whole-grain foods on changes in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic literature search in selected databases. Studies....../L; 95% CI: -0.08, 0.01; P = 0.10). No association was found between whole-grain dose or baseline TC concentration and any of the outcomes, whereas study duration was positively associated with changes in TC and LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of whole-grain diets lowers LDL cholesterol and TC...

  13. Balanoposthitis as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus in an apparently healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Saoji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanoposthitis inflammation of the glans penis, which often involves prepuce is a common condition and are usually managed symptomatically without considering a possible association diabetes. Acquired balanoposthitis may be the first clinical presentation of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods: We enrolled 100 subjects with balanoposthitis with no history of diabetes mellitus in the past. Random blood sugar was done in all subjects, those with random blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl underwent fasting and 2 hour post prandial blood sugar estimation. Result: Out of 100 patients having balanitis,7 patients were detected to have diabetes mellitus for the first time, while another 4 patients were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for the first time. Conclusion: In conclusion, we must bear in mind that balanoposthitis may be the first clinical sign of diabetes mellitus in males and hence appropriate blood glucose testing should be carried out when assessing men with balanoposthitis.

  14. Apparent contact angle of an evaporating drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S. J. S.

    2012-11-01

    In experiments by Poulard et al. (2005), a sessile drop of perfectly wetting liquid evaporates from a non-heated substrate into an under-saturated mixture of vapour with an inert gas; evaporation is limited by vapour diffusion. The system exhibits an apparent contact angle θ that is a flow property. Under certain conditions, the apparent contact line was stationary relative to the substrate; we predict θ for this case. Observed values of θ are small, allowing lubrication analysis of the liquid film. The liquid and vapour flows are coupled through conditions holding at the phase interface; in particular, vapour partial pressure there is related to the local value of liquid pressure through the Kelvin condition. Because the droplet is shallow, the interfacial conditions can be transferred to the solid-liquid interface at y = 0 . We show that the dimensionless partial pressure p (x , y) and the film thickness h (x) are determined by solving ∇2 p = 0 for y > 0 subject to a matching condition at infinity, and the conditions - p = L hxx +h-3 and (h3px) x + 3py = 0 at y = 0 . The parameter L controls the ratio of Laplace to disjoining pressure. We analyse this b.v.p. for the experimentally-relevant case L --> 0 .

  15. Exploring the agenda-setting potential of homeland online newspapers on perceptions of elections issues among diasporic Nigerians in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambe Kayode Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing transnational migration of people and availability of homeland newspapers on the web have stimulated interest in the understanding of the use and effects of homeland media on a nation’s foreign residents. This study explores the relationship between the agenda covered in three Nigerian online newspapers (N=260 and how they were perceived by Nigerian students in Malaysia (N=350 during the 2011 Nigerian presidential election. Specifically, the issues in online newspapers and their location (homepage and index and length were compared with the issues perceived as being important by Nigerian students in Malaysia. Comparing content analysis data with survey responses, the findings revealed a modest but plausible support for the agenda-setting potential of the online newspapers. In view of the established correspondence between issues that are salient in the news and issues perceived by the readers, the study establishes the importance of homeland online media to political cognitions and actions among diasporic Nigerians. It also suggests the need to explore other cues in the online newspapers capable of raising the salience of issues in the perceptions of the Nigerian diaspora.

  16. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  17. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  18. Distribution of apparent magnetization for Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Magsat total field anomalies over Asia were used to construct an equivalent magnetization model, which represents the apparent magnetization distribution within an equivalent layer 40 km thick and correlates well with large-scale tectonics, for example, the Kazakhstan, Tarim, Yangtze, India, Sino-Korea and Indochina blocks. The basin, plain, sea basin, and islands are delineated by magnetization lows whereas the plateau and marine ridge correspond to magnetization highs. The boundary between Tibetan Plateau and India marked by a strong gradient along its length coincides with the Yarlung Zangbo River fault roughly. The Tanlu fault belt is the boundary between positive and negative anomalies. This boundary stretches in southwest direction and joins Sanjiang fault belt. The boundary between the Southeast China block and the Yangtze block is also clearly delineated by the magnetization anomalies. Generally, the magnetization boundaries are consistent with the collisional suture of blocks.

  19. Apparent energy distribution of sea waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙孚; 丁平兴

    1995-01-01

    A concept of apparent energy distribution of sea waves is suggested and named "the outer frequency spectrum" to distinguish it from the frequency spectrum in common sense In line with the concept, a kind of outer spectrum with three parameters in Cauchy’ s form is derived theoretically from the joint distribution of wave periods and heights reached previously by the present authors and the Bretschneider spectrum is rededuced simply in a distinct manner. The foundation of mechanics of the similarity between the frequency spectrum in common sense and the outer one is briefly discussed. In view of the fact that Bretschneider spectrum has a wide application in engineering, the advantages and probability of using the outer spectrum as a common one are also considered.

  20. AGN jet physics and apparent opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen-Brown, Eric; Pushkarev, Alexander B; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Lister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to measure Gamma*theta_j in flux-limited samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, where Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor and theta_j is the jet's half-opening angle. The Gamma*theta_j parameter is physically important for models of jet launching, and also determines the effectiveness of jet instabilities and magnetic reconnection. We measure Gamma*theta_j by analyzing the observed distribution of apparent opening angles in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) flux-limited samples of jets, given some prior knowledge of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) radio luminosity function. We then apply this method to the MOJAVE flux-limited sample of radio loud objects and find Gamma*theta_j = 0.1 +- 0.03, which implies that AGN jets are subject to a variety of physical processes that require causal connection.

  1. Presbycusis in Nigerians at the University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, A O A; Labaran, A O

    2005-09-01

    Presbycusis refers to sensori-neural hearing impairment in elderly individuals resulting from the degenerative changes of aging. Characteristically, it involves bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, worse at high frequencies, which is associated with difficulty in speech discrimination and central auditory processing of information. The aim of this study is to present our observations on presbycusis as seen in Nigerians. A 41/2-year prospective study of 67 patients that presented with features of presbycusis in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between January 2000 and June 2004 was done. The diagnosis of presbycusis in each subject was based on history, clinical findings, and pure tone audiometry. 67 patients with features of presbycusis were seen and treated over the studied period with 37 males (55.2%), 30 females (44.8%) (M:F 1.2:1) and with an average age of 69.3 years (age range 46-90 years). Presbycusis constituted 2.4% of the 2817 otological cases seen during the studied period. Majority (64.1%) of the cases were of 6th to 8th decades of life. The symptoms were mainly of hearing loss 34 (50.7%), tinnitus 19 (28.4%), hearing loss and tinnitus together in 14 (20.9%) cases. Stria (metabolic) presbycusis 20 (29.9%) constituted the most common type of presbycusis seen in this study followed by mechanical presbycusis 15 (22.4%), neural presbycusis 14 (20.9%) and sensory presbycusis 7 (10.4%) respectively. Presbycusis has been found in this study to affect both males and females subjects almost equally, has an insidious onset as from fourth decades of life in our environment, of stria (metabolic) type mostly, presents with moderate to severe sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL), and constitute an important problem in the society as it occurs in an elderly population that relies on their special senses (especially auditory) to compensate for other age-associated disabilities.

  2. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunde; A; Olayanju; Sheu; K; Rahamon; Ijeboime; O; Joseph; Olatunbosun; G; Arinola

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis.METHODS:Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent.They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20(aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis(S+P);24(40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis(S-P);and 25(53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis(NS+P).An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis.The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed.About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles.Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Student’s t test was used to deter-mine significant differences between the means.Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant.RESULTS:No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes(IgG,IgA,IgM and IgE) when S+P was compared with S-P.Mean salivary levels of IgA(520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.000) and IgM(644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group.Salivary IgA(570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.008) and IgM(703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group.Only one(5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.20 IU/mL).Similarly,only one smoker(4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers(9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE(0.24 IU/mL).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  3. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  4. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  5. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Healthy Dining Hall Eating KidsHealth > For Teens > Healthy Dining Hall Eating ... likely to eat. previous continue Overcoming Common Dining Hall Mistakes Even the most attentive diners can still ...

  6. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... Quinoa is rich in protein . It has almost twice the amount of protein found in oats, and ...

  7. Keeping Your Voice Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Keeping Your Voice Healthy Keeping Your Voice Healthy Patient Health Information ... heavily voice-related. Key Steps for Keeping Your Voice Healthy Drink plenty of water. Moisture is good ...

  8. Healthy food trends -- kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these medicines work. ...

  9. Healthy Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  10. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  11. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  12. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    OpenAIRE

    Ole Faergeman; Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Peter G. Bourne

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) wo...

  13. Nigerian Pidgin Variations in the Ikom-Ogoja Axis of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Ugot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Paper focuses on lexical items in the Ikom Ogoja variety of Nigerian Pidgin (NP. This however does not mean that the regularized Nigerian Pidgin (NP is not being used in the area. However, factors such as contact with the substrate languages in the area and borrowing have all influenced the emergence of some variations in NP usage. The Paper highlights these variations in the Ikom-Ogoja axis of Cross River State in areas of borrowing, reduplication, metaphors and metaphorical extensions and euphemisms. This has helped to show the dynamism of NP which is constantly growing and expanding to suit the needs of a pluralistic society such as Nigeria in general and Cross River State in particular.

  14. Internal Marketing Practices and Job Satisfaction: Evidence from a Nigerian University Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaleke Oluseye Ogunnaike

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study investigated internal marketing practices and its relationship with job satisfaction in a Nigerian university environment. Results indicated internal marketing as having resultant effects on three major areas or components; understanding of organizational vision and values, quality delivery of external marketing as well as quality delivery of interactive marketing. It was also established that there was strong and positive relationship between internal marketing and job satisfaction. The research measures showed good psychometric values. These findings were discussed and situated within the Nigerian university environment. It was recommended that the university should place more emphasis on internal marketing practices thereby enhancing the quality delivery of both interactive and external marketing of the university. The university was advised to promote extrinsic job satisfaction among its staff. Areas of further studies were also
    suggested.

    Keywords: Internal Marketing (IM, Job Satisfaction, Interactive Marketing, External Marketing, Factor Analysis, Nigeria.

  15. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  16. HAEMOGRAM OF NIGERIAN MONGREL BITCH AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Mshelia, J. D. Amin and S. U. R. Chaudhari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The haematologic parameters of the Nigerian Mongrel bitch were investigated at different stages of the reproductive cycle to determine their clinical values. Results showed that red blood cell (RBC counts were highest during anoestrus, with a mean of 5.09  0.62 x 106/µL, while lowest values were recorded during pregnancy, the difference was significant (P<0.05. White blood cell (WBC counts, packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin concentration (Hb showed an increasing pattern from anoestrus to proestrus and then decreased with transition from proestrus to oestrus. Total WBC counts were highest during dioestrus and almost twice the value recorded in pregnancy. It appears that WBC count may be used for pregnancy diagnosis in the Nigerian Mongrel bitch.

  17. Medical students' evaluation of physiology learning environments in two Nigerian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaehie, U S B; Nwobodo, E; Oze, G; Nwagha, U I; Orizu, I; Okeke, T; Anyanwu, G E

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical knowledge and the pursuit of more meaningful learning have led to world-wide evidence-based innovative changes in medical education and curricula. The recent emphasis on problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centred learning environments are, however, not being implemented in Nigerian medical schools. Traditional didactic lectures thus predominate, and learning is further constrained by funding gaps, poor infrastructure, and increasing class sizes. We reviewed medical students' perceptions of their exposed learning environment to determine preferences, shortcomings, and prescriptions for improvements. The results confirm declining interest in didactic lectures and practical sessions with preferences for peer-tutored discussion classes, which were considered more interactive and interesting. This study recommends more emphasis on student-centered learning with alternatives to passive lecture formats and repetitive cookbook practical sessions. The institutionalization of student feedback processes in Nigerian medical schools is also highly recommended.

  18. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  19. Some correlates of electronic health information management system success in nigerian teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS's success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals.

  20. Apparent life-threatening event in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Joung

    2016-01-01

    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants.

  1. The Use of Nigerian Pidgin English in Print Advertising: Deviation from Standard Orthography and Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Endong, Floribert Patrick Calvain

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the content analysis of randomly selected print advertising copies partially written in Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), and used for the promotion of services and products made in Nigeria. It is equally based on a focus group discussion with 15 literate and semi literate users (readers) of these copies. It attempts to show how the writing of advertising copy is complex due to the prevalence of different and personalized spelling systems in the representation of NPE words. I...

  2. Core Conventions of the International Labour Organisation (ILO): Implications for Nigerian Labour Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Emeka Mbah; C. O. Ikemefuna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines core conventions of the International Labour Organization with possible effects on Nigerian Labour Law. The paper highlights the reasons why the ILO was established, one of which the author states as dealing with social welfare policies on employment of children, among others. The author adopts a theoretical approach, the structural functionalist theory by Talcott Parson to explain the dynamics of the international labour organization. The paper further identifies some of ...

  3. EVALUATING CUSTOMER-PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Moguluwa Shed Chinwuba; Ode Egene

    2013-01-01

    Keeping in view the significance of customer perceived quality in todays competitive banking environment, the study was designed to evaluate customer-perceived service quality and customer satisfaction in the Nigerian banking industry. This research focused on the measurement of customer satisfaction through delivery of service quality in the banking sector in Nigeria. A quantitative research was used to study the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction. Find...

  4. Indications and Risk Factors for Complications of Lower Third Molar Surgery in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Osunde, OD; Saheeb, BD; Bassey, GO

    2014-01-01

    Background: The surgical extraction of impacted third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, and it is often associated with complications such as sensory nerve damage, dry socket, pain, swelling, trismus, infection and hemorrhage. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our instit...

  5. Mental Element of Bribery under Nigerian and Us (Federal) Anti-Bribery Laws: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Akeem Olajide BELLO

    2014-01-01

    Academic reviews have highlighted the problem of lack of clarity with Nigerian antibribery laws. It is important for the criminal law to clearly state the mental element of bribery. This would communicate to citizens, lawyers and judges what is wrong with bribery. It would also provide a yardstick to distinguish between the socio-cultural practice of gift-giving and bribery. This article analyses the mental element of bribery in Nigeria and federal anti-bribery laws in United Stat...

  6. Quality Dimensions, Value, Service Cost and Recommendation Behaviour: Evidence from the Nigerian Cellular Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun; Kenneth Sola Adeyemi; Adewale Omotayo Osibanjo

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposed and test a model that connects both affective and cognitive factors in cellular service to customers’ recommendation behavior. Results of the analysis of data collected through questionnaire from 293 respondents with cellular phones and active account in the Nigerian cellular industry indicate that core cellular service dimensions, service cost (price) and hedonic values are significant determinants of customers’ recommendation behavior. In addition, the study found...

  7. Workplace Stress: Implications for Organizational Performance in a Nigerian Public University

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo A. Osibanjo; Odunayo P. Salau; Hezekiah O. Falola; Adebukola E. Oyewunmi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the implications of workplace stress on organizational performance in a Nigerian Public University. The survey method was deployed in sampling one hundred and seventy (170) staff members of the University. The Structural Equation Modelling was adopted using AMOS to establish fitness. Results of the analyses indicate that role congruence, equity, recognition, and distance, have significant influence on organizational performance. This makes it imperative for organizatio...

  8. Barriers to the Uptake of Concurrent Engineering in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Anny Aniekwu

    2012-12-01

    engineering and also to compute the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, which assess the levels of agreement among the judges on the consistency of the rankings. A Kendall’s coefficient of concordance of W=0.57365 was recorded. A lack of awareness emerged as the most important barrier against the integration of this concept into the Nigerian construction industry. The top five variables are all human factors that can be ameliorated by proper education.

  9. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions.

  10. Service Quality Dimensions and Customer Satisfaction with Online Services of Nigerian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke TC; Ezeh GA; Ugochukwu NOA

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction with online/ebanking services of Nigerian banks. Seven service dimensions were included in the study and they are: reliability, assurance, responsiveness, perceived risk, tangibility, security, and price. The study was based on a sample 400 respondents out of which 258 responded to the questionnaire. The seven service quality variables and the dependent variable were all measured with a number of...

  11. RE-ENFORCING RADICALISATION WITH BAD PR? THE NIGERIAN ARMY'S HANDLING OF BOKO HARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan St-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The organisation formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād' and currently known as Wilāyat Gharb Ifrīqīyyah, better known as Boko Haram, rose to international prominence in April 2014, when it kidnapped over 250 school girls from the Nigerian village of Chibok. Although the organisation is active since 2002 and began its violent insurgency in 2009, the mass kidnapping of the “Chibok Girls” attracted worldwide attention to the conflict, in large part due to the #BringBackOurGirls campaign, which was actively supported by U.S. First Lady Michelle Obama. The attention however also focused on the Nigerian government and raised questions about its fight against Boko Haram, why the kidnapping occurred, what could be done to save the girls and how the terrorists could be defeated. This focus put pressure on Goodluck Jonathan's presidency and the Nigerian army to react to the kidnappings and produce results, turning the Boko Haram insurgency into a full fledged propaganda war. While there have been many military and political changes in the eighteen months since, it could be argued that the propaganda war has turned into the main front, thereby raising numerous questions about its impact on the battlefield.

  12. INTEREST RATE REGIME AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edirin Jeroh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study x-ray’s the interest rates regime in Nigeria as it affects the performance of the Nigerian Capital Market. In order to achieve this objective, relevant data for a period of 33 years spanning from 1981 – 2013 were obtained from the Factbook of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, CBN Statistical Bulletin as well as the annual accounts of quoted firms for the relevant years. The data obtained were analysed with the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The result from our analysis reveal among others that changes in interest rate regimes have majorly influenced the level of the performance of the Nigerian Capital Market. Based on the above, we recommend that capital market regulators and other regulatory agencies should keep an eye on movements in interest rates and the Minimum Rediscount Rate (MRR (now MPR and watch their trend. We also recommend that efforts must be put in place to establish a policy review and reassessment mechanism that would help in assessing the impact of selected policy measures on the economy so that policy makers would know the effectiveness and efficiency of designed policies and be guided in the policy review and development process in the country.

  13. The Impact of ICT-Driven Instructional Aids in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japheth Terande Torruam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available he study investigates the impact of ICT-driven instructional aids in Nigerian secondary schools. Information communication technology (ICT has no doubt changed the face of teaching and learning globally. The study observed that, though Nigeria is also making efforts to join the ICT fray, these efforts appear to be ineffective. Nigeria still experience a lag in its implementation due to general neglect and other factors, comprising corruption etc, and this continues to be the major challenge facing access to ICT-driven instructional aids facilities in most Nigerian secondary schools. The study concludes that despite the roles ICT-driven instructional aids can play in education, Nigerian schools are yet to extensively adopt them for teaching and learning. Efforts geared towards integration of ICT-driven instructional aids into the school system, have not had much impact. Problems such as lack of Teachers’ Professional knowledge and technical know how and poor information infrastructure militate against these efforts. The study recommends that efforts should be made by government to post and provide teachers skilled in ICTs to each school to impact ICT skills to the students and also should stabilize electricity supply in Nigeria.

  14. IMPACT OF GLOBAL ADOPTION OF IFRS ON NIGERIAN STOCK MARKET EFFECTIVENESSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Oluku Mukoro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS is a statement of intent to globalize financial standards so as to enable investors move capital and as such enshrine global competitiveness. Nigeria’s case to attract investment through the capital market can be advanced effectively if financial reporting is standardized and adopted. As an impact study, we employed adaptive expectation variant of the autoregressive model and multiple regression technique to study the prospect of Compliance with IFRS and how the Nigerian quoted companies faired in compliance with Nigerian Accounting Standards and its correlation with reporting incentives, idiosyncratic volatilities and stock price informativeness; which more or less indicates their preparedness for global adoption of IFRS in 2012.It is recommended that stiff penalties are required to prepare Nigerian financial environment for the global adoption of IFRS.A clear road map of adoption of IFRS will further drive the much needed foreign investment in-flow and help to brand Nigeria out of the corruption quagmire.

  15. Operational Efficiency Dynamics Of The Nigerian Stock Market (1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Obot Udoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the operational efficiency of the Nigerian stock market between 1986-2010. This was necessary given the degree of thinness of the market.  The objectives of the study were: to investigate the extent to which the operations of the market have contributed to the growth of the Nigerian economy and also to determine the functionality of the market. To achieve these objectives  data were gathered on some capital market indicators from the stock exchange factbook  of various years on market capitalization (MCAP, all share index (ASI volume of transaction (VOLT value of transaction (VALT and number of listed companies (NLC on the stock exchange.  The data were tabulated, analyzed and tested using the ordinary least square statistical technique. Findings resulting from the test of data showed that NLC, VOLT, VALT, ASI and MCAP were positive and that increase in any of the above parameters  would in turn cause an increase in the growth of the Nigerian economy at five and ten  percent levels of significance.  It further showed that  the market was operationally weak form efficient. It was therefore recommended that government should continue to provide better macro-economic environment for the private sector to lead the economy on the part of sustainable growth and development.

  16. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  17. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    of natural and man-made disasters but will also be used for monitoring rapidly changing and dynamic aspect of agriculture, the environment, pipeline oil spillages and other national remote sensing requirements. Commercial exploitation of this unique 24hr revisit EO data is planned to offset the government investment. The second national project is NigeriaSAT-2, which is a geostationary communications minisatellite that has been selected specifically to address the lack of communications infrastructure in Nigeria. Both NigeriaSAT-1 and NigeriaSAT-2 projects are being carried out in co-operation with the Surrey Space Centre (UK), combined with a detailed space know-how transfer and training to build up an indigenous Nigeria capability in space technology, EO and communications. While the acquisition and development space technology is the prime focus of the national space programme, an application center, education center and various space research centers are being formed to draw the maximum benefit of space activities for Nigeria. The paper will present the experience of Nigeria in examining the cost/benefit of an affordable space programme based upon small satellites with real applications that will benefit the people of the country. The Nigerian space policy and programme and its first two small satellite projects (NigeriaSAT-1/DMC and NigeriaSAT-2/GEMINI) will also be presented. This paper focuses on how a developing country can take advantage of a cheap and efficient means of gaining access to space and using space technology in achieving its socio-economic development plans.

  18. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors.

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the abdomen at 3.0 Tesla: image quality and apparent diffusion coefficient reproducibility compared with 1.5 Tesla.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkrantz, A.B.; Oei, M.T.H.; Babb, J.S.; Niver, B.E.; Taouli, B.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare single-shot echo-planar imaging (SS EPI) diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of abdominal organs between 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3.0T in healthy volunteers in terms of image quality, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and ADC reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy vol

  20. Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.

  1. Contribution of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to the Apparent Reflectance of Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Middleton, E. M.; Kim, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance (R) measurements, whi ch provide estimates of relative vegetation vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Vegetation chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) offers a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, monitoring of vegetation vigor based on CF may allow earlier stress detection and more accurate carbon sequestra tion estimates, than is possible using R data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contrib utions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of t his study is to determine the relative R and CF fractions contributing to Ra from the vegetation in the red to near-infrared region of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate t he relationship between CF and R at the foliar level for corn, soybean, maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established f or healthy (optimal N) vegetation changes under N defiiency. To obtai n generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (maple, soybean and corn), unde r controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization l evels. Optical R spectra and actively induced CF emissions were obtained on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of p hotosynthetic function, pigment levels, and C and N content. The comm on spectral trends or similarities were examined. On average, 10-20% of apparent R at 685 nm was actually due to CF. The spectral trends in steady and maximum F varied significantly, with Fs (especially red) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChF to R varied significantly among species, with maple emitting much higher F amounts, as

  2. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of ß-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, C.A.; Naber, T.H.J.; Breemen, van R.B.; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent ß-carotene absorption as measured by the oral–faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-o

  3. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; Naber, T.H.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, c

  4. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.

  5. The Efficiency Level in the Estimation of the Nigerian Population: A Comparison of One-Stage and Two-Stage Sampling Technique (A Case Study of the 2006 Census of Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Akingbade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work compares the one-stage sampling technique (Simple Random Sampling and two-stage sampling technique for estimating the population total of Nigerians using the 2006 census result of Nigerians. A sample size of twenty (20 states was selected out of a population of thirty six (36 states at the Primary Sampling Unit (PSU and one-third of each state selected at the PSU was sample at the Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU and analyzed. The result shows that, with the same sample size at the PSU, one-stage sampling technique (Simple Random Sampling is more efficient than two-stage sampling technique and hence, recommended.

  6. Seroprevalence of Avian Leukosis Virus Antigen Using ELISA Technique in Exotic Broilers and Nigerian Local Chickens in Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sani

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV in exotic broiler chickens and Nigerian local chickens in Zaria, Nigeria, a total of 600 sera (300 from exotic broiler chickens and 300 from Nigerian local chickens, obtained from the live bird market in Zaria, Nigeria, were tested for ALV p27 antigen by the antigen capture-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ac-ELISA technique. The age range of the Nigerian local chickens sampled in this study was 6 – 24 months, while that of the exotic broiler chickens used in this study was 2-3 months. Fourteen out of the 300 sera obtained from the exotic broiler chickens tested positive to ALV p27 antigen, which represents 4.70%, while 180 of the 300 Nigerian local chicken sera were confirmed positive to the antigen, representing 60.00%. Thirteen (92.86% of the fourteen sera from the exotic broiler chickens were lowly positive (ELISA Units range of 10-20% to ALV p27 antigen, while only one (7.14% serum sample was moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with an ELISA Unit of 29.33%. Of the 180 sera from the Nigerian local chickens that tested positive to ALV p27 antigen , 79 (43.89% were lowly positive with ELISA Units ranging from 10.67% to 21.33%, while 101 (56.11% serum samples were moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with ELISA Units ranging from 28.0% to 73.33%. A higher seroprevalence of ALV was detected in Nigerian local chickens than the exotic broiler chickens. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 345-348

  7. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... of different choices, take a taste adventure with ethnic foods. Here's a sample of healthy food choices (lower ...

  8. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Health tips from Dr. Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current ... 2,300 milligrams of sodium each day. Choose foods that are healthy for your heart: fresh fruits, ...

  9. Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  10. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  11. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  12. Bellagio report on Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bellagio Report on Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  13. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Faergeman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  14. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  15. Healthy,Happy trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

  16. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  17. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 2 3 4 5 Choose Healthy Fats Eating Disorders also Affect Boys and Men Which Is Best: ... Info CPE Opportunities Member Updates Connect with Us Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Youtube True © 2017 eatright.org. ...

  18. Healthy cities and healthy urban design

    OpenAIRE

    Drevland, Ingvill S.

    2016-01-01

    As an occupational therapist, I have always found the interaction between humans, their environment and their activities interesting, and how the environment can influence what we do and our occupational patterns is something that fascinates me. As my interest for urban health and healthy cities has grown during this master program, I have chosen to use the experience and knowledge I have from my field of expertise and put it in the context of healthy urban planning. This maste...

  19. General Attitude and Acceptance of Holography in Teaching Among Lecturers in Nigerian Colleges of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman A. Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is a byproduct of instructional design. Thus online learning designers, in their approaches are expected to be familiar with the epistemological underpinnings of several theories and their consequences on the process of instruction. In the same vein constructivism holds assumptions, that learning is an active process whereby the learner constructs knowledge base on experience. Secondly, learning occurs when there is disequilibrium. It therefore takes place in a social context. Recently, technological developments are playing an important role in improving the educational process especially the integration of holographic presentation in the area. A hologram is a three-dimensional record of the positive interference of laser light waves. Teacher training in virtual holographic classrooms could help the new teachers adapt to a real problematic classroom with such tools. Nigeria being one of the moderately growing economy and a successful and relatively stable democracy, educational development is always on the increase due to commitment of government in the area. Holography is a virgin area in the Nigerian educational mindset. Colleges of education in Nigeria are basically teacher training institutions. Teachers are the backbone of education every development. This brought about the need of this study to investigate on the perception, appreciation attitude as well as acceptance of holography in teaching among the academicians in colleges of education in the Nigerian context. This study therefore in a small sample of 100 teachers survey opinions and reported the results in a descriptive statistics as well as variance (t-test and ANOVA with regards to gender and designation. On the scale of structural equation modeling (SEM tool and SPSS regression analysis as well, it presents the actual model of the modified technology acceptance model TAM. The finding indicates less positive attitude and less general acceptance of the holographic system

  20. Drug Leads Agents from Methanol Extract of Nigerian Bee (Apis mellifera Propolis

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    Bashir Lawal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Propolis is a Bee (Apis mellifera product of plant origin with varied chemical composition depending on the ecology of the botanical origin. It has been reported in literatures to possess various therapeutic effects both traditionally, clinical trial and animal study. Objectives In the present study bioactive principle in methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera propolis was determined GC-MS study. Methods The methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera propolis was characterized for its chemical composition by preliminary phytochemicals and GC and ndash;MS using standard procedures and methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones phlobatannins and steroids while GC and ndash;MS chromatogram revealed nineteen peaks representing sixty (60 different chemical compounds. The first compounds identified with less retention time (13.33s were Methyl tetradecanoate, Tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, Decanoic acid, methyl ester while Squalene, All-trans-Squalene, 2,6,10-Dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E- and Farnesol isomer a took longest retention time (23.647s to identify. Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, Methyl isoheptadecanoateand Methyl tridecanoate were the most concentrated constituent as revealed by there peak height (26.01% while eicosanoic acid was the least concentrated (Peak height 0.81% constituent of Nigerian bee propolis. Conclusion: The presence of these chemical principles is an indication that methanol extract of Nigeria bee propolis, if properly screened could yield a drug of pharmaceutical importance [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 43-48

  1. Drug leads agents from methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera) propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Bashir; Shittu, Oluwatosin Kudirat; Abubakar, Asmau Niwoye; Olalekan, Ibrahim Azeez; Jimoh, Adisa Mohammed; Abdulazeez, Adeniyi Kamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a bee (Apis mellifera) product of plant origin with varied chemical composition depending on the ecology of the botanical origin. It has been reported in literature to possess various therapeutic effects both traditionally, clinical trial, and animal study. Objectives: In the present study bioactive principle in methanol extract of Nigerian bee (A. mellifera) propolis was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) study. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Nigerian bee (A. mellifera) propolis was characterized for its chemical composition by preliminary phytochemicals screening and GC/MS analysis using standard procedures and methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones phlobatannins, and steroids while GC/MS chromatogram revealed nineteen peaks representing 60 different chemical compounds. The first compounds identified with less retention time (RT) (13.33s) were methyl tetradecanoate, tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, decanoic acid, methyl ester while squalene, all-trans-squalene, 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E)- and farnesol isomer a took longest RT (23.647s) to identify. Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, methyl isoheptadecanoate, and methyl tridecanoate were the most concentrated constituent as revealed by there peak height (26.01%) while eicosanoic acid was the least concentrated (peak height 0.81%) constituent of Nigerian bee propolis. Conclusion: The presence of these chemical principles is an indication that methanol extract of Nigeria bee propolis, if properly screened could yield a drug of pharmaceutical importance. PMID:27069724

  2. An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Stock Market Crisis on Economic Growth: The Nigerian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Felicia Olokoyo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stock market crashes are social phenomena where external economic events combine with crowd behavior and psychology in a positive feedback loop where selling by some market participants drives more market participants to sell. This study empirically established the relationship between stock market crisis and Nigeria’s economic growth and also showed the relationship between stock market price crash and the crisis itself. In this light, this paper examined the interactive influence of movements in the major indicators of the performance of the Nigerian Stock Exchange Market such as the Market Capitalization (MK, All Share Index (ASI, Number of Deals (NOD, Volume and Value of Stock (VV, Total Number of New Issues (TNI and Inflation (INFR on the Nigerian Gross Domestic Product (GDP using data from 1985-2009. To achieve the two objectives stated above, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was employed. To correct for the OLS result biasness the log was applied to GDP and MK and also AR(1 was introduced to the first model. The result shows that stock market crisis has a highly significant effect on Nigeria’s economic growth. The result also shows a significant relationship between stock market price crash and the market crisis itself. It is therefore recommended that in the face of the ongoing crisis in the global stock market, the Nigerian stock market authorities should aim at making the market meet a world class standard. Also, all the sectors of the economy should act in a collaborative manner such that optimum benefits can be realized from their economic activities in the Nigeria market even in the hub of global crisis.

  3. Action plan for healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, the World Council on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health promoted a scientific meeting in Ancient Olympia, Greece, on the theme Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People. The meeting focused on evolutionary aspects of human diet through the life cycle in terms of genetic predisposition, overall health, prevention of disease and of unhealthy behaviors, such as poor physical activity, and dietary changes caused by the introduction of modern agriculture, from the Agribusiness to systems of food production, from climate changes to the needs imposed by urban agriculture and architecture. Nutritional medical (mostly cardiological and political aspects of disease prevention through healthy dietary habits and physical activity have always been seen in isolation. The meeting, the first of its kind, treated such aspects together, recognizing the importance of integrating and initiating a dialogue between these disciplines. The meeting gathered together experts in cardiovascular prevention, nutrition, as well as politicians, for a global discussion of these themes. A summary statement was then compiled, focusing on the main themes on which a consensus had been reached. I strongly believe that such themes have great relevance for public health, raising the need for disseminating them as widely as possible. I am thankful to the Editor of the Italian Journal of Medicine for allowing this summary document to be made available for the first time in Italy.Raffaele De Caterina

  4. Workplace Stress: Implications for Organizational Performance in a Nigerian Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo A. Osibanjo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the implications of workplace stress on organizational performance in a Nigerian Public University. The survey method was deployed in sampling one hundred and seventy (170 staff members of the University. The Structural Equation Modelling was adopted using AMOS to establish fitness. Results of the analyses indicate that role congruence, equity, recognition, and distance, have significant influence on organizational performance. This makes it imperative for organizations to invest necessary resources in developing strategies and interventions to reduce workplace stress. If this is achieved, there will be endless opportunities in terms of increased performance and overall sustainability.

  5. Nationalist movement’s trends in contemporary Nigerian government and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the contemporary issues in Nigerian Government and Politics through an assessment of the nationalist movement and its persistent and recurrent trends in the contemporary Nigeria, and how these trends continue to affect the present socio-political issues in the country. This is carried out through mobilization of certain variables of political development theory despite its inability to explain the position of indigenous African people in the alien Western political institutions. Based on this, it is revealed that everything went well until that time the ground was made for power politics in which indigenous African people became players.

  6. Business Case for Integrated Reporting in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudeen J. AYOOLA

    2013-03-01

    were sourced from the annual reports and stand-alone sustainability reports of the six multinational companies operating in the Nigerian oil and gas sector. The results found that efforts to address environmental, social and governance reporting (ESG were adhoc, short term and unrelated to the core activities of the corporations and as such were not integrated into their business strategies and model. Information on ESG was also duplicated over many medium in a haphazard and distorted form. The study therefore concluded that the introduction of integrated reporting will streamline performance reporting that is in line with international best practice in the sector.

  7. Vulva Fibroadenoma Associated with Lactating Adenoma in a 26-Year-Old Nigerian Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Anunobi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vulva lactating adenoma is rare and may be misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma in frozen section and aspiration cytology if breast tissue is not anticipated. Objective. To raise the awareness of lactating vulva ectopic breast lesion among clinicians and pathologists. Case Report. We present a case of vulva fibroadenoma associated with lactating adenoma in a 26-year-old Nigerian female. Conclusion. The rarity of vulva ectopic breast tissue can present a diagnostic challenge for both the clinician and the anatomical pathologist. Once excisional biopsy is done and the lesion confirmed histologically, the anxious patient can be reassured.

  8. Examining the link between HRM Practices and Employees’ performance in Nigerian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Tabiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving employee and organizational performance has been the main concern of many organizations for decades and several factors have also been studied as predictors of employee performance in organizations. However, studies that comprehensively measured all the dimensions of employee performance that enhance organizational effectiveness are limited. This paper explored the influence of HRM practices on the employee performance in the Nigerian public sector. Using cross sectional method on 265 participants from local government areas, the findings revealed that HRM practices such as job rotation, job autonomy and career planning had a significant and positive influence on all the three dimensions of employee performance (task, contextual and adaptive performance.

  9. Apparent Cooling Rate of 7°C per Hour in an Avalanche Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Mathias; Putzer, Gabriel; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Avalanche victims can become hypothermic within 35 minutes of snow burial. However, reported cooling rates for avalanche victims are highly variable and it is poorly understood how much cooling is influenced by general factors (body composition, clothing, ambient conditions, duration of burial, and metabolism), unknown inter-individual factors or other phenomena (e.g., afterdrop). We report an apparent cooling rate of ∼7°C in ∼60 minutes in a healthy backcountry skier who was rewarmed with forced air and warm fluids and was discharged after 2 weeks without neurological sequelae.

  10. Lecturers' and Students' Perception on Educational Policy Implementation Factors as Predictors for Quality Education in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredein, Afolakemi O.; Durojaye, Toluwase G.

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on lecturers' and students' perception on educational policy implementation factors and quality education in Nigerian universities. Educational policies have always been formulated purposely to guide the present and future thinking, actions and decisions of managers. The potency of policy is not in formulation but in its proper…

  11. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  12. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  13. Measuring Teachers' Competencies in Constructing Classroom-Based Tests in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Need for a Test Construction Skill Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Ngozi N.; Onyekuba, Chika; Anyichie, Aloysius C.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom-based achievement tests have been extensively used in Nigerian secondary schools especially after the introduction of continuous assessment in 1985. These achievement tests have been criticized by over the years for lack of proper psychometric properties of a test. These views bother on teachers' possession or non possession of…

  14. Self-Concept, Computer Anxiety, Gender and Attitude towards Interactive Computer Technologies: A Predictive Study among Nigerian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2010-01-01

    Interactive Computer Technologies (ICTs) have crept into education industry, thus dramatically causing transformation in instructional process. This study examined the relative and combined contributions of computer anxiety, self-concept and gender to teachers' attitude towards the use of ICT(s). 454 Nigerian teachers constituted the sample. Three…

  15. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  16. Enhancing Students' Attitude towards Nigerian Senior Secondary School Physics through the Use of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the attitude of students towards the use of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies in Nigerian senior secondary school physics. The design selected for this study was quasi-experimental. A total of 140 students took part in the study and they were selected by a random sampling…

  17. Gender Differences in Forestalling Anti-Social Behaviours among Student Fitness Aspirants and Recreationists in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunbor, A. O.; Agwubike, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research was quadrupled. It investigated the prevalence of anti-social behaviours in campuses of Nigerian universities. Several student fitness aspirants and recreationists perceived examination malpractices (85%), stealing (83%), armed robbery (81%), prostitution (82%), drunkenness (80%), smoking (79%), hard drug consumption…

  18. The Views of Nigerian Teachers in Public and Private Primary Schools on the Teaching of Early Literacy in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Foluso

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the bilingual policies and biliteracy programmes of African nations, this paper discusses the context of literacy education in Nigeria and examines Nigerian early literacy teachers' attitudes to teaching literacy and literacy teaching practices as informed by the National Policy on Education, Primary English Language Curriculum and the…

  19. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  20. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  1. Effects of Full and Quasi-Participatory Learning Strategies on Nigerian Senior Secondary Students' Environmental Knowledge: Implications for Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Ajitoni, S. O.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is considered an appropriate intervention for creating awareness of, and an understanding of the challenges of environmental degradation. The introduction of EE into the Nigerian school curricular creates a challenge of how to teach it. A majority of the teachers still employ the old, traditional "chalk and talk"…

  2. Developing a New Framework for Integration and Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) in Nigerian Schools of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwakonye, Obioha; Alagbe, Oluwole; Oluwatayo, Adedapo; Alagbe, Taiye; Alalade, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    As a result of globalization of digital technology, intellectual discourse on what constitutes the basic body of architectural knowledge to be imparted to future professionals has been on the increase. This digital revolution has brought to the fore the need to review the already overloaded architectural education curriculum of Nigerian schools of…

  3. The Adoption of the Mobile Phones in Maintaining Teaching and Learning Quality Assurance in Nigerian Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Omolara A.; Emunemu, Benedict O.

    2010-01-01

    The inability of the public sector to satisfy the growing demand for University education necessitated the entry of the private sector operators into the Nigerian University System, to expand educational access. In as much as higher education is crucial to economic growth, it is thus expedient to consider the place of maintenance of quality…

  4. Observations on the Apparent Solubility of Carbonate-Apatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellis; Lee; Wilson

    1999-10-15

    Previousreports indicating that the apparent solubilities of carbonate-apatites are low appear to conflict with findings that carbonate incorporation into the apatite structure tends to reduce stability. Carbonate-apatites were prepared by a precipitation method and by hydrolysis of monetite and brushite. Apparent solubility profiles were determined by measuring dissolution after exposure for 24 h to acetate buffers with known saturations with respect to hydroxyapatite. All preparations showed a range of apparent solubilities, in agreement with previous work. Precipitated samples had higher apparent solubilities than samples prepared by hydrolysis and this was correlated with differences in crystallinity. Further experiments showed that pyrophosphate ion reduced the apparent solubility, but it was concluded that pyrophosphate occurring naturally in synthetic apatites would be insufficient to cause low apparent solubilities. Microscopical observations showed that precipitated carbonate-apatites were composed of small crystals of uniform size, whereas carbonate-apatites prepared by hydrolysis consisted of both small crystals and very large crystals. The low apparent solubilities observed in the latter preparations are attributed to the large crystals. The surface phenomena possibly involved in apparent solubility behavior are discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. "Apparent Weight": A Concept that Is Confusing and Unnecessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent articles make prominent use of the concept of "apparent weight." The concept of "apparent weight" leads to two confusing inconsistencies. We need to know that with very little change in our representations, we can give our students an improved understanding of "weight" without ever having to invent the appealing but confusing concept of…

  6. Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.K. Entcheva [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21228 (United States); Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: pcampbel@pop900.gsfc.nasa.gov; Middleton, E.M. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corp, L.A. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Kim, M.S. [Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance data, which provide estimates of vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements offer a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, technology based on ChlF may allow more accurate carbon sequestration estimates and earlier stress detection than is possible when using reflectance data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contributions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the relative contributions of reflectance and ChlF fractions to Ra in the red to near-infrared region (650-800 nm) of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate the relationship between ChlF and reflectance at the foliar level for corn, soybean and maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established for healthy vegetation changes under nitrogen (N) deficiency. To obtain generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (corn, soybean and maple) under controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization levels. Optical reflectance spectra and actively induced ChlF emissions were collected on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of photosynthetic function, pigment levels, and carbon (C) and N content. The spectral trends were examined for similarities. On average, 10-20% of Ra at 685 nm was actually due to ChlF. The spectral trends in steady state and maximum fluorescence varied significantly, with steady state fluorescence (especially red, 685 nm) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChlF to Ra varied significantly among species, with maple

  7. Thermodynamics of apparent horizon and modified Friedman equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=T_hdS_h+WdV$, at apparent horizon of a FRW universe, and assuming that the associated entropy with apparent horizon has a quantum corrected relation, $S=\\frac{A}{4G}-\\alpha \\ln \\frac{A}{4G}+\\beta \\frac{4G}{A}$, we derive modified Friedmann equations describing the dynamics of the universe with any spatial curvature. We also examine the time evolution of the total entropy including the quantum corrected entropy associated with the apparent horizon together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. Our study shows that, with the local equilibrium assumption, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

  8. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  9. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  10. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime....... Therefore in designing school meal programs aiming at being supportive for healthy eating, it is necessary to try to integrate the food provision in the life of the school....

  11. Wood Anatomy in Several Genera of Nigerian Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Olusanya OLATUNJI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristic of the wood of Annona muricata, A. senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, A. glauca, A. squamosa, Cleistopholis patens, Monodora tenuifolia and Greenwayodendron suaviolis were investigated in search of their stable taxonomic attribute. Thirty-two wood samples were collected from eight species of Annonnaceae (four specimens each. Fixation of the most healthy and fresh wood of each species was done using 500 ml of FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid and dehydrated in a series of ethanol while infiltration was done using tertiary-butyl-alcohol prepared in accordance with Johansen’s method. The sectioning was carried out with a rotary microtome and the slide containing the wood samples were examined using power shots s70 camera attached to computer. The results revealed several interesting wood anatomical features such as the presence of numerous fibre, ray cells, vessels, absence of axial parenchyma in some species, growth ring ranges from distinct to indistinct. Rays are composed of upright cells in A. muricata, fibre tracheid are also uncommon in A. muricata but common in G. suaviolis. Axial parenchyma are common in A. glauca and A. squamosa but absent in other species. The wood structure of A. glauca and A. squamosa are similar to that of C. patens, but the absence of axial parenchyma distinguished it from them. The results are important in understanding the relationships between and within the species.

  12. Evaluating Lexical Cohesion in Nigerian Newspaper Genres: Focus on the Editorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Malah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applied linguists paying scholarly attention to newspaper genres have often argued that findings emerging from such studies would be of pedagogical significance because most of the newspaper genres share certain conventional features with school genres. Similarly, this study explored lexical cohesion in newspaper editorials, and it is understood that the findings could help learners in handling persuasive writings. The study sought to identify the dominant sources of lexical cohesion in the editorials, and also to examine how lexical cohesion is utilized to achieve coherence in the editorials. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL, the study applied Eggins’ (2004 model of lexical cohesion and analyzed 30 editorial texts of 20, 354 words drawn from three major Nigerian newspapers: The Guardian, The Nation, and Vanguard. The analysis revealed 2, 685 ties across 849 sentences. The data demonstrated that the major types of lexical cohesion in the editorials include: repetition (49.5%, expectancy relations (15. 8%, class/sub-class (11%, and synonymy (10.8%. It was further revealed that lexical cohesion devices, which formed into chains (586 and isolated ties (837, were utilized in building coherence in the editorial texts. It was finally shown how findings of the study could be beneficial in ESP, EAP, and EGP learning, especially in persuasive writings.    Keywords: Editorials, Lexical cohesion, Newspaper Genres, Nigerian Newspapers, School Genres

  13. Knowledge of the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics Among Biomedical Researchers in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Daniel, Folasade; Ansa, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Responsibility for protection of research participants from harm and exploitation rests on Research Ethics Committees and principal investigators. The Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics defines responsibilities of stakeholders in research so its knowledge among researchers will likely aid ethical conduct of research. The levels of awareness and knowledge of the Code among biomedical researchers in southern Nigerian research institutions was assessed. Four institutions were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Research participants were selected by purposive sampling and completed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A total of 102 biomedical researchers completed the questionnaires. Thirty percent of the participants were aware of the National Code though 64% had attended at least one training seminar in research ethics. Twenty-five percent had a fairly acceptable knowledge (scores 50%-74%) and 10% had excellent knowledge of the code (score ≥75%). Ninety-five percent expressed intentions to learn more about the National Code and agreed that it is highly relevant to the ethical conduct of research. Awareness and knowledge of the Code were found to be very limited among biomedical researchers in southern Nigeria. There is need to improve awareness and knowledge through ethics seminars and training. Use of existing Nigeria-specific online training resources is also encouraged.

  14. An Analytic Hierarchy Process Analysis: Application to Subscriber Retention Decisions in the Nigerian Mobile Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebiyi Sulaimon Olanrewaju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mobile number portability (MNP in the Nigerian telecommunications industry has brought a new challenge for mobile operators. This study investigates the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in customer retention decisions in the Nigerian telecommunication industry using a cross-sectional survey design. Primary data were obtained through questionnaires administered to 480 mobile telecommunications subscribers in six tertiary institutions located in Lagos State, Nigeria. These educational institutions were chosen using a multistage sampling technique. Of 438 questionnaires received from subscribers, 408 were valid. Based on this sample data an AHP model was built to assess the determinants of customer retention decisions. Next, eigen values, an eigen vector and maximum lambda (λMax were obtained using the AHP analysis for the matrices. This analysis shows that customers considered call quality as the important in the retention decision. We conclude that AHP is a meaningful tool for determining what motivates retention decisions, that can help network operators formulate effective customer retention strategies.

  15. ICT ADOPTION IN EMERGING CONTEMPORARY MARKETING PRACTICES: THE CASE OF THE NIGERIAN PAINTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oluwaseun OLOMU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of firms about the deployment of information and communications technology continued to stimulate competitive advantage for them in the marketplace. This study investigated the numerous information and communications technologies deployed for products marketing in the Nigerian paints industry and also examined the degree of capacity in which ICTs were deployed in relations to contemporary marketing practices. This study considerably administered 240 questionnaire on paints manufacturing and marketing firms in Nigeria which resulted to 84.5% response rate in year 2014. The outcomes of the analysis revealed that the telephone and e-mail were widely embraced for marketing in the Nigerian paints industry. It was also discovered that paints companies adopted ICT more in a reinforcing capability as against enhancing and transforming purposes. The study suggested that paints producing and marketing firms in Nigeria need to incorporate more of ICT facilities and utilize the various offers of electronic marketing for their daily operations and automations thereby improving firm’s profitability and performance. More importantly, attention should be shifted on companies’ capability to innovate and consequently introducing new ICT products and services in the market.

  16. Anaphylaxis Complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress and Fatal Outcome in A Nigerian Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelebe, Efeturi; Musa, Tawakalit Lily; Ajayi, Idowu Adebowale

    2017-01-01

    Reports on hypersensitivity diseases in Nigerians are rare. We report the incidence of anaphylaxis in three siblings following fatal outcome in their mother. Urticarial rashes were noticed in three siblings’ resident in a South Western Nigerian town, one week before presentation at our facility. All the three siblings developed respiratory distress four days after the rash was noticed. Onset of respiratory distress made the family seek care at a private hospital, where they were admitted and treated with intravenous aminophylline and ceftriaxone. The mother of the children had experienced the same symptoms earlier also. She took treatment and died in the same private hospital, where her children received care. Death of the mother and worsening respiratory distress in the children made the father effect transfer of the children to the paediatric emergency unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. The three children made a slow but uneventful recovery after instituting appropriate management for anaphylaxis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The cases are discussed with a view to create awareness amongst health practitioners about the occurrence of anaphylaxis in our society. The need for prompt recognition and appropriate management, when confronted with this disease is also underscored.

  17. Service Quality Dimensions and Customer Satisfaction with Online Services of Nigerian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke TC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction with online/ebanking services of Nigerian banks. Seven service dimensions were included in the study and they are: reliability, assurance, responsiveness, perceived risk, tangibility, security, and price. The study was based on a sample 400 respondents out of which 258 responded to the questionnaire. The seven service quality variables and the dependent variable were all measured with a number of items each using seven-point Likert scale. The analysis was conducted with Multiple Linear Regression analysis (MLR and the results show that five out of the seven variables: price, security, perceived risk, responsiveness and assurance are significant in enhancing customer satisfaction with online services of Nigerian banks. The other two variables: reliability and tangibility are not significant and require further exploration. The study provides necessary input for bank management to increase customers’ involvement through improving service quality; lowering risk; and enhancing security of operations. Policy implications were highlighted

  18. Haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee (Apis mellifera propolis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice. Methods: Fifteen white Albino mice were grouped into 3(A-C of 5 animals each. Group A mice serve as control group, while groups B and C received 300 and 600 mL/kg of honey bee propolis respectively, for 21 days. The haematological parameters were determined using the automated haematologic analyzer Sysmex kx21, (product of Sysmex Corporation, Japan using standard techniques. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the level of significance was at P 0.05 alteration to the erythrocytic indices like red blood cells, haematocrite, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width, but increase mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in dose related fashion. Acute oral toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe at a high dose on acute exposure. However, 21-days of treatment with the extract do neither increase nor decrease the body weight of the mice. Conclusions: Administration of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice at the doses investigated has brought about leucopoietic and thrombopoietic changes without any significant effect on red blood cells and factors that relate to it, except for the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration.

  19. Appraisal of the impact of environmental scanning on corporate performance in selected Nigerian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Ojo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This research study examines the Impact of Environmental Scanning on Corporate Performancein Selected Nigerian Banks. Our goal was to establish whether the knowledge of organizations environmentand its scanning has any relationship with corporate performance.This research was conducted to increase our level of understanding of the subject investigated andto add to the existing literature on the subject especially in the Third World countries where such study isnot popular.Survey research method was used in carrying out the study. Analysis was done using Difference ofMean and Pearson Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences.From the study, the findings show that environmental scanning firms outperform non- scanningfirms, that information derived from environmental scanning is increasingly been used to drive the strategicmanagement process, that managers have a significant knowledge of their environment, that the fold upof some banks in the Nigerian banking industry was due to its inefficiencies in scanning its environmentfor threats and opportunities and that the scanning intensity in each sector is based on the level of perceivedstrategic uncertainty in each of these sectors.Base on the findings of the study, recommendations were made that more financial resources shouldbe provided by organisation to put the required systems in place for environmental scanning.

  20. Orthodontic Treatment Need and Complexity among Nigerian Adolescents in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfleda Angelina Aikins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The assessment of orthodontic treatment need and complexity are necessary for informed planning of orthodontic services. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess these parameters using the Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON in a Nigerian adolescent population in a region where orthodontic services are just being established. Methods. Six hundred and twelve randomly selected Nigerian adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were examined using the ICON in their school compounds. Descriptive statistics were employed in the data analysis. Results. Out of a total of 38.1% of the population found to need orthodontic treatment, there were more males and older adolescents. The overall mean ICON score for the population was 39.7±25.3 SD with males having statistically higher mean ICON score. The grades of complexity of the population were 21.6% for very difficult and difficult, 7.5% moderate, and 70.9% mild/easy. Conclusions. Although just over a third of the adolescents were found to have a need for treatment, about a quarter of them were found to have difficult and very difficult complexity grades indicating a need for specialist care. The authors recommend the training of more specialist orthodontists in this region.

  1. A weighted least squares analysis of globalization and the Nigerian stock market performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenoghena Osi Raymond

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study empirically investigates the impact of globalization on the performance of the Nigerian Stock market. The study seeks the verification of the existence of a linking mechanism between globalization through trade openness, net inflow of capital, participation in international capital market and financial development on Stock Market performance over the period of 1981 to 2011. The methodology adopted examines the stochastic characteristics of each time series by testing their stationarity using the Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat test. The weighted least squares regression method was employed to ascertain the different level of impacts on the above subject matter. The findings were reinforced by the presence of a long-term equilibrium relationship, as evidenced by the cointegrating equation of the VECM. The Model ascertained that globalization variables actually positively impacted on stock market performance. However, the findings reveal that while net capital inflows and participation in international capital market have greater impact on the Nigerian Stock market performance during the period under review. Accordingly, it is advised that in formulating foreign policy, policy makers should take strategic views on the international economy and make new creative policies that will foster economic integration between Nigeria and its existing trade allies. These creative policies will also assist to create avenues for the making new trade agreements with other nations of the world, which hitherto were not trade partners with Nigeria.

  2. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets.

  3. An Appraisal of the practice of corporate diversification in selected Nigerian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Ojo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the diversification-performance relationship in Nigerian banking industry. Empirical evidences emerging from previous studies from developed countries about the effect of diversification on performance in the banking industry have so far yielded mixed results. There is a major gap in the relevant literature on developing countries which this research filled by studying Nigerian banks and providing empirical evidence on diversification-performance relationship. Survey research design was adopted with the application of probability sampling technique in selecting our case study companies and respondents. Primary data were collected through questionnaire while secondary data were garnered from the annual report and accounts of the banks under study. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics while correlation and ANOVA were used to test our hypotheses. It was discovered that diversification impacts corporate performance of these banks positively and recommends that these banks should engage in geographical diversification in addition to other forms of diversification they are currently involved in for maximum performance.

  4. Some Correlates of Electronic Health Information Management System Success in Nigerian Teaching Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS’s success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557

  5. USE AND USE INTENSITY OF SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKING SYSTEMS BY NIGERIAN AGRO-ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Omotoso AJAYI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-entrepreneurs are key to the Nigerian economy as they constitute the majority of the work force, providing food and employment opportunities for more than 60% of the largest black nation on earth. Nigeria’s social media networking system which is the largest in Africa has got its usefulness in many conventional and contemporary applications in the recent times. Social media has become the fastest, cheapest and unrestricted communication and marketing tool of this jet age. This study therefore focused on the use and use intensity of social media networking systems by Nigerian agro-entrepreneurs. The study made use of mainly primary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between June and September, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three hundred and sixty (360 respondents across the three (3 highly ICT compliant states (Lagos, Ondo and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression model. The results of the regression model indicate that education, availability of power supply and customer base of the agro-entrepreneurs positively influenced use intensity of social media by the agro-entrepreneurs while age and cost of access data negatively influenced their use intensity of social media.

  6. Effective Technological Delivery in Nigerian Polytechnics:Need for Academic Manpower Development Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Adeyemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical education, especially as provided in the Nigerian polytechnics, leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. The production function of the polytechnics in terms of producing quality middle-level manpower through effective teaching delivery depends largely on the quantity and quality of teachers available. However, teacher adequacy is a function of many factors, which include funding, student enrollment overtime, and staff turnover. This article, however, revealed a mismatch between enrollment and available teachers, with huge staff shortfall over the years when the student enrollment was matched with the available teachers, using the ideal teacher-student ratios. Student and teacher projections were carried out based on five-percent annual increase and average teacher-student ratio of 1:12, so as to meet the vision 2010 target year set by the Nigerian government for total development. The projection showed that the polytechnics would require a large additional number of teachers. An all-inclusive funding approach for the polytechnics was recommended so as to increase their financial status, which would allow for improved facilities, workshops, equipment and also improved conditions of service of teachers. We believe that if this was done, more teachers would be attracted from across the world, those who left would return, and new and younger ones will be encouraged to join the teaching force. Such development would to a great extent meet and sustain the anticipated growth for the target year.

  7. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  8. Haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee (Apis mellifera) propolis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Lawal; Oluwatosin Kudrat Shittu; Asmau NiwoyeAbubakar; Garba Muhammed Haruna; Sani Saidu; Prince Chukwudi Ossai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice. Methods: Fifteen white Albino mice were grouped into 3(A-C) of 5 animals each. Group A mice serve as control group, while groups B and C received 300 and 600 mL/kg of honey bee propolis respectively, for 21 days. The haematological parameters were determined using the automated haematologic analyzer Sysmex kx21, (product of Sysmex Corporation, Japan) using standard techniques. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the level of significance was at P 0.05) alteration to the erythrocytic indices like red blood cells, haematocrite, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width, but increase mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in dose related fashion. Acute oral toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe at a high dose on acute exposure. However, 21-days of treatment with the extract do neither increase nor decrease the body weight of the mice. Conclusions: Administration of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice at the doses investigated has brought about leucopoietic and thrombopoietic changes without any significant effect on red blood cells and factors that relate to it, except for the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration.

  9. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    expectations. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The implications of the study are that (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when...... implementing healthy eating interventions, and (3) parents’ awareness of their influence on adolescents’ healthy eating should be reinforced. The third research question is answered in research paper 3. The paper investigated the effects of a healthy eating intervention by employing feedback via text messaging...

  10. Suboptimal management of severe menopausal symptoms by Nigerian Gynaecologists: a call for mandatory continuing medical education for physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkwo Peter O

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective management of menopause is an important way to improve the quality of life of the increasing number of older women. The study sought to find out if Nigerian Gynaecologists offer effective treatment for severe menopausal symptoms. Methods 126 Nigerian Gynaecologists representing the six health zones of Nigeria were interviewed to determine the menopausal symptoms they had ever encountered in their practices, frequency of the symptoms, treatments ever offered for severe symptoms including their attitude to, and practice of hormone replacement therapy. Results A Nigerian Gynaecologist encountered an average of one patient with menopausal symptoms every three months (range: 0-3 patients per month. The commoner symptoms they encountered were hot flushes (88%, insomnia (75.4%, depression (58.0%, irritability (56.3%, night sweats (55.6% and muscle pains (54.8% while urinary symptoms (16.7% and fracture (1.6% were less common. Treatments ever offered for severe symptoms were reassurance (90.5%, anxiolytics (68.3%, analgesics (14.3, HRT (7.9%, Vitamins (4%, Beta-blockers (3.2% and Danazol (2.4%. These treatments were offered as a matter of institutional traditions rather than being based on any evidence of their efficacy. Conclusion The result revealed that most Nigerian Gynaecologists prefer reassurance and anxiolytics for managing severe menopausal symptoms instead of evidence-based effective therapies. A policy of mandatory continuing medical education for Nigerian physicians is recommended to ensure evidence-based management of gynaecological problems, including menopause.

  11. The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal

  12. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  13. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of hu

  14. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  15. Analysis of Apparent Elasticity Constants of Woven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董侠; 张建春; 张燕

    2001-01-01

    The woven fabric can be defined as orthogonal elastomer if the extension force that puts on the fabric is very small. Based on the precondition, the apparent elasticity constants of a woven fabric were analyzed theoretically in the paper. The bias angle (which is between weft yarns and extension direction ) affects apparent elasticity modulus and elasticity coefficient of the fabric in the extension direction. And the experiment describes fluxes of elasticity constants going with the bias angle of the fabric.

  16. Thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in massive cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Applying Clausius relation with energy-supply defined by the unified first law of thermodynamics formalism to the apparent horizon of a massive cosmological model proposed lately, the corrected entropic formula of the apparent horizon is obtained with the help of the modified Friedmann equations. This entropy-area relation, together with the identified internal energy, verifies the first law of thermodynamics for the apparent horizon with a volume change term for consistency. On the other hand, by means of the corrected entropy-area formula and the Clausius relation $\\delta Q=T dS$, where the heat flow $\\delta Q$ is the energy-supply of pure matter projecting on the vector $\\xi$ tangent to the apparent horizon and should be looked on as the amount of energy crossing the apparent horizon during the time interval $dt$ and the temperature of the apparent horizon for energy crossing during the same interval is $1/(2\\pi \\widetilde{r}_A)$, the modified Friedmann equations governing the dynamical evolution of the un...

  17. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambike, S; Zhou, T; Zatsiorsky, V M; Latash, M L

    2015-07-01

    This study used the framework of the referent configuration hypothesis and slow changes in the external conditions during vertical oscillation of a hand-held object to infer the characteristics of hypothetical control variables. The study had two main objectives: (1) to show that hypothetical control variables, namely, referent coordinates and apparent stiffness of vertical hand position and grip force can be measured in an experiment; and (2) to establish relation(s) between these control variables that yield the classic grip-force-load-force coupling. Healthy subjects gripped a handle and performed vertical oscillations between visual targets at one of five metronome-prescribed frequencies. A HapticMaster robot was used to induce slow changes in the vertical force applied to the handle, while the size of the handle was changed slowly leading to changes in the grip aperture. The subjects were instructed not to react to possible changes in the external forces. A linear, second-order model was used to reconstruct the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness values for each phase of the vertical oscillation cycle using across-cycle regressions. The reconstructed time profiles of the referent coordinates and apparent stiffness showed consistent trends across subjects and movement frequencies. To validate the method, these values were used to predict the vertical force and the grip force applied to the handle for movement cycles that were not utilized in the reconstruction process. Analysis of the coupling between the four variables, two referent coordinates and two apparent stiffness values, revealed a single strong constraint reflecting the coupling between the grip force and vertical force. We view these data as providing experimental support for the idea of controlling natural, multi-muscle actions with shifts in a low-dimensional set of referent coordinates.

  19. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Healthy Eating Past ... are one of the first items. Read More "Planning For A Healthy School Year" Articles Back to ...

  20. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  1. Healthy Joints Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my joints more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Although you might think arthritis affects only older ... Discovery Into Health ® Home | Health Information | Research | Funding | News & Events | About Us | Portal en español | Asian-Language ...

  2. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By using healthy-cooking techniques, you can cut saturated fats. Consider, for instance, that many of the fats ... such as butter and lard — are high in saturated fats. Adults should limit calories from saturated fat to ...

  3. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  4. Healthy Eating and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  5. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  6. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... look to maintain health and wellness. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  7. Motivating the Nigerian Worker for Strategic Human Management: Insights and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Agbarachi Opara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the fact that there is no one best way of Motivating the Nigerian worker. That the best approach depends on the individual and the circumstances prevailing the workplace. Broadly speaking, motivation consists of a driving force or state of need deficiency which inclines a person to behave in a particular manner, or to develop a capacity for certain type of behaviour. The urge to act in a certain way may be generated by physiological or psychological needs or states including unconscious and conscious thought process or by external stimuli o by some combination of these. People obviously differ widely in these respects, and accordingly their behaviours also differ.

  8. Challenges of Imprisonment in the Nigerian Penal System: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria D Shajobi-Ibikunle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the customary methods of dealing with offenders prior to colonial rule in Nigeria to the current state of facilities and operations in Nigerian prisons. It critically analyses the condition of the incarcerated offender, the measures put in place for their rehabilitation vis a vis the united nations standard minimum rules for the treatment of offenders. It finds that the prisons are overcrowded, conditions are deplorable with inadequate rehabilitation and aftercare provisions. This paper recommends greater use of fines by courts; restitution, mediation, probation and community service as non-custodial measures for minor and non-violent offenders. Several measures are recommended for rehabilitation and aftercare of convicts.

  9. The Role of Customary Arbitration in the Resolution of Disputes among Nigerian Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kehinde Adekunle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central to the issue of resolution of any disputes is the mechanism adopted in handling it. Customary arbitration is, thus, one of the recognised methods of resolving disputes among the indigenes of Nigeria. Unlike the Western adversarial method of settling disputes under which the winner-takes-all, customary arbitration aimed at reconciling the parties to disputes after effecting settlement. The question, however, is whether customary arbitration has any relevance among Nigerian indigenous communities and whether it has made any impact on the maintenance of societal equilibrium. This paper, therefore, examined the issues involved in customary arbitration such as the ingredients that make it work, conditions of its validity and its effect on the state of the society with a view to making it work more effectively among the indigenes.

  10. Factoring tradotronic media communication for human security management and social stability in Nigerian communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of killing and bloodletting in Nigeria is increasing every second, minute, hour, day, month and year. Man, animals, properties etc are increasingly under threat in contemporary Nigerian society. The causes of the massive insecurity of lives and properties remain multi-dimensional. This paper is centered on the need to factor tradotronic media for human security management in Nigeria. It reveals that the dimensions of human insecurity in Nigeria, include but not limited to assassination-based human insecurity, robbery/kidnapping related human insecurity, political-related human insecurity, ethnic-based human insecurity, inter-communal conflict-related human insecurity, religious-motivated human insecurity and multi-dimensional conflict related human insecurity. The paper calles on all lovers of life and human dignity to rise up and defend the survival and existence of every breathing soul around him or her in this sovereign entity, called Nigeria.

  11. A developmental analysis of certain Piagetian concepts among some Nigerian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehindero, O. J.

    The concepts of distance, area, and the coordinate reference systems were investigated in relation to the displacement volume task among 300 randomly selected primary and high school children in Nigeria. Piaget and Inhelder (1971) theorized a developmental progression in the acquisition of these concepts among Genevan children, and a number of studies have confirmed pancultural stability in the acquisition of these concepts. Four tasks were used to investigate the acquistion of these concepts developmentally, and the data obtained were analyzed by the chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient and the 50% success criterion suggested by Laurendea and Pinard (1962, 1970). The data confirmed Piaget's theorizing but when compared with similar studies in Europe and America (Lovell (1971), Dasen (1972), & Karplus et al. (1977), a developmental lag of about two years was observed among the Nigerian Ss. The concept of horizontal decalages was discussed in relation to the data including some implications for science teaching particularly in developing countries.

  12. Tuberculous mastitis simulating carcinoma of the breast in a young Nigerian woman: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabageh, Donatus; Amao, Emmanuel Afolabi; Ayo-Aderibigbe A, Adebisi; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon disease even in countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic. It typically presents a diagnostic challenge masquerading as carcinoma or other primary disease of the breast. We report the case of a young multiparous Nigerian woman who presented with a tender left breast lump and enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes for which a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast was made after clinical and radiological evaluation. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis and anti-tuberculous therapy was instituted although she later absconded. This case shows that TM may present a diagnostic challenge on clinical, radiologic and microbiological investigation. Therefore, a high index of suspicion as well as FNAC and/or histological evaluation of tissue samples remain very important its diagnosis.

  13. BENCHMARKING INCIDENCE OF DISTRESS IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY ON ALTMAN SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oforegbunam Thaddeus Ebiringa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applied the Altman’s model in the prediction of distress in the Nigerian bankingindustry. Three banks (Union bank, Bank PHB and Intercontinental Bank declared distress duringthe period of the study were used as case studies. Four years financial statistics prior to distress wasused to compute the most discriminating financial ratios that were substituted into the Altman’smodel. The result of the analysis shows that Altman’s model significantly predicted the distress stateof each of the bank at 0.001level. The implication being that Altman’s model can be validly appliedin the prediction of the health state of banks in Nigeria. The paper recommends for further researchon the domestication and adaptation of the model in order to improve its predictive ability.

  14. Observations on the alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme distribution in maternal and amniotic fluid compartments in Nigerian parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpere, E; Okorodudu, A; Gbinigie, O

    1988-01-01

    Estimation of the alkaline phosphates isoenzymes in paired maternal serum and amniotic fluids in term uncomplicated pregnancies and in patients with pre-eclampsia, showed poor correlation coefficients between the levels of both heat stable and heat labile isoenzymes. There was a statistically significant fall in AF (P less than .05) HSAP in pre-eclampsia and a highly significant rise of HLAP in meconial liquor. It is concluded that the poor correlation between the levels of HSAP in maternal serum and amniotic fluid (despite their common source of origin), the normal levels of HLAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly high levels of HSAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly diminished levels in amniotic fluid point to a state of relatively diminished permeability of the chorioamniotic membranes to the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in Nigerians.

  15. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy outcome in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanochie, M C; Ande, A B; Olagbuji, B N

    2011-12-01

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women with obesity and 201 non-obese controls in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in early pregnancy was 9.63%. Obesity was significantly associated with advanced maternal age and parity > or =1. It was also a risk factor for pregnancy induced hypertension, admissions during pregnancy, caesarean delivery and associated with 5th minute apgar score Obesity in early pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome among pregnant Nigerian women. This information should be utilised by physicians to improve the outcome of pregnancy and promote safe motherhood.

  16. Kidney Transplant in a 26-Year-Old Nigerian Patient with Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD. It has variable presentation, ranging from hyposthenuria to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Management of ESRD in SCD patients is froth with multiple challenges which has potential to impact negatively the outcome of the patient. Kidney transplant is the preferred renal replacement therapy in these patients. The objective of this case study is to report kidney transplant in a Nigerian young man with sickle cell nephropathy and to highlight the outcome and the challenges to kidney transplant in this patient. The index case is a 26-years-old sickle cell disease patient with ESRD complicated with cardiovascular, pulmonary, immunological, and infective challenges. These conditions were controlled, and the patient had a successful live-related kidney transplant. Kidney transplant is a viable option for sickle cell disease patients with ESRD.

  17. Side effect profile of Jadelle implant in Nigerian women during the first 12 months of usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Inyang-Etoh

    2016-05-01

    Results: There was no request for discontinuation of the method and no accidental pregnancy occurred during the period of the study. There was significant disruption of the menstrual pattern of clients over time with 31.1% developing irregular uterine bleeding from 6months of usage, whereas 16.6% of clients became amenorrheic from the 12month of usage. (p= 0.000 Changes in blood pressure and body weight of clients were not significant during the 12month period of the survey. Non menstrual side effects of Jadelle implants, which included headache, breast tenderness, dizziness among clients were noted at 6months of usage but became less prevalent by the 12month of usage. Conclusions: Jadelle implant proved to be highly effective, safe and acceptable to Nigerian clients during the study period, even though the implant had significant impact on their menstrual pattern. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1461-1465

  18. Relationship between the Onset Age of Bilingualism and Development of Cognitive Control among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of studies suggests that bilingual persons are better than monolinguals on a variety of cognitive measures. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between the onset age of bilingual and the development of cognitive control among Nigerians. 10 bilingual students studying at University Putra Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study.  They are divided into two groups: 5 early and 5 late bilinguals. The data are collected using online English proficiency test and E-prime software as instruments. Both groups are examined for English proficiency and performance on a flanker task. The result demonstrates that early bilinguals are more proficient in English than late bilinguals. Moreover, early bilingual performs better than late bilingual on flanker task. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that being early active bilinguals tend to have greater advantages in cognitive control and higher language proficiency. Keywords: onset age, bilingualism, and cognitive control

  19. Quality Dimensions, Value, Service Cost and Recommendation Behaviour: Evidence from the Nigerian Cellular Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposed and test a model that connects both affective and cognitive factors in cellular service to customers’ recommendation behavior. Results of the analysis of data collected through questionnaire from 293 respondents with cellular phones and active account in the Nigerian cellular industry indicate that core cellular service dimensions, service cost (price and hedonic values are significant determinants of customers’ recommendation behavior. In addition, the study found that customer service and utilitarian value exert negative effect on recommendation behavior. It seems that strengthening the performance of service providers on core service attributes, service cost (price and the entertainment and emotion evoking aspects of cellular service is of more value in partnering with customer to enlarge customer base through recommendation

  20. Predictors Of Java Programming Self Efficacy Among Engineering Students In A Nigerian University

    CERN Document Server

    Jegede, Philip Olu

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between Java programming self-efficacy and programming background of engineering students in a Nigerian University. One hundred and ninety two final year engineering students randomly selected from six engineering departments of the university participated in the study. Two research instruments: Programming Background Questionnaire and Java Programming Self-Efficacy Scale were used in collecting relevant information from the subjects. The resulting data were analyzed using Pearson product correlation and Multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that Java Programming self-efficacy has no significant relationship with each of the computing and programming background factors. It was additionally obtained that the number of programming courses offered and programming courses weighed scores were the only predictors of Java self-efficacy.

  1. MULTIPLE CEREBRAL TUBERCULOMAS WITHOUT FOCAL NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT ADULT NIGERIAN:A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Okokhere O.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cerebral tuberculomas complicating miliary tuberculosis are a rare occurrence. It is rarer still for multiple cerebral tuberculomas to present without focal neurological deficits. We report the case of a middle-aged Nigerian male with the co-morbidity of miliary tuberculosis and multiple cerebral tuberculomaswho presented without focal neurological deficits buthad complete resolution of symptoms and signs following a 6-month course of antituberculous therapy. This unique case emphasizes the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of atypical presentations of cerebral tuberculomas while also further illustrating the place of computed tomographic scan of the brain in diagnosis. The case also illustrates the place of therapeutic trial in management.

  2. EMPOWERING NIGERIAN YOUTHS THROUGH TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR ENHANCING NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Chidozie Chinedu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian government had initiated several youth empowerment programmes through TVET, but a lot of these programmes lack structure and their impact not felt by the nation’s youths. This is evident in the substantial number of youth that still lack work skills-which often results to unemployment, insecurity, loss of lives and properties and chaos. The study therefore, sought to investigate, TVET empowerment skills required by youths as a means for enhancing national security. Descriptive survey research design was used and data was obtained using a structured questionnaire known as the Empowerment Skill Inventory Checklist (ESIC. Eighty five TVET lecturers in post-secondary vocational institutions took part in the study. Findings revealed that youths require vocational skills in areas such as horticulture, business, engineering and construction works. Also recommended techniques and strategies for career development that include specific skills such as business skills, financial management skills, basic computation skills, communication skills and adaptation skills.

  3. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT AND DEMAND FOR INSURANCE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FROM NIGERIAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass, OlufemiAdebowale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.

  4. Weak Form Efficiency of the Nigerian Stock Market: An Empirical Analysis (1984 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyemo Afego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the weak-form of the efficient markets hypothesis for the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE by testing for random walks in the monthly index returns over the period 1984-2009. The results of the non-parametric runs test show that index returns on the NSE display a predictable component, thus suggesting that traders can earn superior returns by employing trading rules. Statistically significant deviations from randomness are also suggestive of sub-optimal allocation of investment capital within the economy. The findings, in general, contradict the weak-form of the efficient markets hypothesis, and a range of policy strategies for improving the allocative capacity and quality of the information environment of the NSE are discussed.

  5. Healthy Lean Through HRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on findings from the initial, exploratory phase of a longitudinal research study aimed at developing a framework for implementing lean while ensuring employee well-being. Data from observations and in-depth dialogues with persons involved in lean implementation, along...... with relevant theory, are used to construct a tentative framework for implementing "healthy lean". The role of HRD in facilitating implementation of healthy lean is central to the framework, which is presented and discussed....

  6. Characterization of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical wards' patients in a Nigerian university hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deboye O Kolawole

    Full Text Available In contrast to developed countries, only limited data on the prevalence, resistance and clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus are available for African countries. Since S. aureus carriage is a risk factor for postoperative wound infection, patients who had been hospitalized in surgical wards in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital were screened for S. aureus carriage. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped (spa, agr and assigned to multilocus sequence types (MLST. Species affiliation, methicillin-resistance, and the possession of pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAg, exfoliative toxins (ETs and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL were analyzed. Of 192 patients screened, the S. aureus carrier rate was 31.8 % (n = 61. Of these isolates, 7 (11.5% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA. The isolates comprised 24 spa types. The most frequent spa types were t064, t084, t311, and t1931, while the most prevalent MLST clonal complexes were CC5 and CC15. The most frequent PTSAg genes detected were seg/sei (41.0% followed by seb (29.5%, sea (19.7%, seh (14.7% and sec (11.5. The difference between the possession of classical and newly described PTSAg genes was not significant (63.9% versus 59.0% respectively; P = 0.602. PVL encoding genes were found in 39.3% isolates. All MRSA isolates were PVL negative, SCCmec types I and VI in MLST CC 5 and CC 30, respectively. Typing of the accessory gene regulator (agr showed the following distribution: agr group 1 (n = 20, group II (n = 17, group III (n = 14 and group IV (n = 10. Compared to European data, enterotoxin gene seb and PVL-encoding genes were more prevalent in Nigerian methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, which may therefore act as potential reservoir for PVL and PTSAg genes.

  7. Evaluation of microalbuminuria in relation to asymptomatic bacteruria in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Iwalokun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified microalbuminuria (MA and asymptomatic bacteruria (ASB as co-morbid factors in sickle cell anemia (SCA. However, the relationship between these comorbid factors remains unclear and data are lacking for Nigerian patients. This study determined the prevalence of MA and ASB in a cohort of patients with SCA in a steady state, in Lagos, Nigeria. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile bottles from 103 patients comprising 48 males and 55 females with a mean age of 10.4 years. Aerobic culture and colony count of organisms was done using conventional methods. Serum creatinine and hematological indices, including irreversibly sickled cells (ISC, were also assayed. Of the 103 urine samples screened, 23 (22.3% had albuminuria (ALB, and consisted of nine males and 14 females (P > 0.05; 16.5% of the cases had MA (P 0.05. The prevalence of confirmed ASB was 14.6%, with females accounting for 14 of 19 probable ASB cases (P <0.05. Univariate regression analysis demonstrated a significant (P <0.05 association between age at onset of MA, hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, ISC and occurrence of ASB, but with only ISC evolving as an independent predictor. Twenty-eight bacterial isolates predominated by Escherichia coli (39.3%; P <0.05, of whom 89.3% were multi-drug resistant, were recovered from the ASB urine samples. In conclusion, both MA and ASB are common in Nigerian SCA patients, with the former occurring from the first decade of life.

  8. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Nancy; Oyediran, Kola' A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-04-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect-that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  9. Relevant Drivers for Customers` Churn and Retention Decision in the Nigerian Mobile Telecommunication Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for better support marketing decision on customers who are likely to leave a service provider for a competitor is very essential to the survival of most telecommunication firms. The application of logistic regression to the study of customer churn and retention decision in the Nigerian telecommunication industry falls into proactive methods, which helps in a better understanding of the needs of subscribers, to be able to predict their churn and retention decision in the industry and enhance better marketing strategies with a research driven policy guide for the operators in the industry. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relevant drivers of customers` churn and retention in the growing Nigerian mobile telecommunication industry. Considering this issue, the logistic regression models have been used as the evaluating method. Four hundred and eight questionnaires have been used in this study. The population of this questionnaire consists of subscribers of mobile telecommunication in the six selected campuses of higher institution of learning in Lagos-state, Nigeria. The data collected was analysed by STATA 12 software. The results showed that the coefficients of mobile number portability (MNP services and dubious promotions are positive and significant. Furthermore, low coverage and unwanted calls and SMS are positive and significant. This implies that the better the availability of MNP services, the greater the likelihood of customers’ churn. More so, an increase in quality of calls provided by mobile telecom firms will increase the likelihood of customers’ loyalty by retention. The study recommends strong institutional measures for the overhaul of mobile services provision towards an improved service delivery in Nigeria.

  10. THE NIGERIAN GAS MASTER-PLAN, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, ISSUES AFFECTING POWER SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Gas Master-Plan, Investment Opportunities, Challenges, Issues Affecting Power Sector: an Analysis. The objective of this article is to contribute towards understanding of the Nigerian Gas Master Plan (NGMP/Plan and its bifurcations with key socio-economic development factors. I applied the method of discourse to bring to being some points that have hitherto been unknown about the Master-plan and its inter-relationships and bifurcations. Elaborated here are the spectacular gains that have accrued to the Latin American country, Trinidad and Tobago, from its recent development of natural gas resources. This was considered suitable and significant here for highlighting that if such spectacular achievements could be realized from Trinidad and Tobago’s relatively smaller gas deposit (15.3 tcf, probable reserves (8.4 tcf, possible reserves (6.2 tcf would be by far greater considering Nigeria’s larger natural gas reserves (184 tcf wealth as earlier stated. I show that the Plan is well designed relevant to addressing Nigeria’s current development needs generally. It presents potentials for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth by harnessing the country’s abundant natural gas reserves. The Plan enumerates/ elaborates huge investment opportunities. Some challenges likely to be faced in the implementation/management of the Plan are already being surmounted as recent reports show that some of its key investments have been realized and the required infrastructure are being provided. Regarding the issues in the Master-plan that are likely to affect and are affecting Nigeria’s power sector development, I reckon that they are mostly positive factors due to the way the plan promises to stimulate electricity generation in our country.

  11. Knowledge of heart disease risk factors among workers in a Nigerian University: A call for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of mortality worldwide. Many risk factors predate the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adequate knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the cardiovascular diseases burden in any population. This study aims to determine the knowledge of workers in a Nigerian University on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 206 academic and non-academic staff of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria using the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ. Demographic data were taken. The lipid profile and random blood sugar were taken. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 45.3 ΁ 7.9 years. There were 96 males (46.6%. The mean HDFQ score was 48.6%. Only 41 (19.9% of participants were assessed to have good knowledge of heart disease risk factors. Majority, 101 (49.0% had poor knowledge while 64 (31.2% had fair knowledge of heart disease risk factors. There was no significant difference between prevalence of CV risk factors between those with good or fair or low level of knowledge. Most participants did not have a good level of knowledge about risk factors, prevention, treatment and association with diabetes as it relates to heart diseases. Conclusion: Knowledge of heart disease risk factors is low among University workers in Nigeria. Effective education on heart disease risk factors and appropriate preventive strategies are indeed important to reduce cardiovascular disease burden in Nigerian University communities.

  12. Antimicrobial Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From a Nigerian Menstruating Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilola Abidemi Ayeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Racial differences affect the composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in women’s vagina. However, the bacteria present in women’s vagina exert protective effect against invading uropathogens through production of several inhibitory compounds. The LAB composition of the vagina of a menstruating Nigerian woman was examined to detect any difference between the subject’s vaginal LAB flora and reported cases of women from western world and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of these lactic acid bacteria against potential uropathogens and enteropathogens with analysis of possible compounds that may be responsible for inhibition. Methods: Informed consent was obtained from the subject. LAB were identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The organic acids were detected through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC while the volatile compounds were detected by gas chromatography. The hydrogen peroxide production was assayed through enzymatic reactions. Results: Enterococcus faecalis FAA025 and Streptococcus equines FAA026 were the only bacterial strains isolated. The two LAB strains inhibited the growth of all tested uropathogens and enteropathogens to remarkable degree. Both strains produced high quantities of lactic acid while high quantities of hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and ethanol were only observed in Streptococcus equines FAA026. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that in spite of absence of lactobacilli during menstruation in the subject, other LAB present (Enterococcus faecalis FAA025 and Streptococcus equines FAA026 can exert protective effects against invading uropathogens. Also, the LAB composition of the Nigerian woman is similar to her counterparts in the West. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 283-290

  13. Nigerian herbal remedies and heavy metals:violation of standard recommended guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igweze Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Orisakwe Orish Ebere; Obianime Atuboyedia W

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The growing popularity of herbal remedies approved by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), in Nigeria necessitates a critical re-evaluation of the risks associated with their use. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel contents of were analysed to ascertain their compliance with the recommended limits of the World Health Organization, European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency. Methods:Twenty four different Nigerian herbal remedies (NHR) in two types of pharmaceutical dosage forms - liquid and capsules, were sampled using basket market protocol in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, in December, 2010. The NHR were ashed before digestion using conc aqua regia HCL:HNO3 (3:1) and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel were assayed with Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer, AAS 205A. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and nickel contents of were compared with the recommended limits of the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU) and United States Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA). Results: The highest concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the solid dosage forms whereas the lowest concentrations were found in the liquid preparations. Our study shows the percentage violation of the WHO and EU limits for the six metals were arsenic (0%); cadmium (58:3%);chromium (4.16%); cobalt (0%); lead (54.1%) and nickel (54.1%). Conclusions: This study highlights the need for pharmaco-vigillance especially with respect to metalo-toxicity of Nigerian herbal remedies and need for in-depth risk assessment to understand the extent of the problem.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life of Nigerian Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Ogunrinu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the impact of cerebral palsy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL of Nigerian children.Method: This is a cross-sectional survey. The study involved 54 children (33 males and 21 females, between 1 and 12 years of age, with cerebral palsy. They were consecutively recruited from two tertiary health institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. The socio-demographic details of the participants were obtained through interviews. Their HRQoL was assessed using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-28 (CHQ-PF 28. The questionnaire was completed by their parents, guardians or primary care-givers. Severity of motor disability was assessed and classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Chi-square was used to find the association between each of the selected socio-demographic variables and motor disability, and HRQoL.Results: Thirty-eight children (70.3% were between 1 and 6 years of age, and 16 (29.7% were between 7 and 12 years. The participants’ overall scores and scores on each domain of CHQ-PF 28 were very low. Majority (69.5% were in GMFCS classification-level 1, 7 (13.0% were in level 2, 12 (22.2% were in level 3, 14 (25.9% were in level 4, and 16 (29.6% were in level 5. Age had significant effect (CI = 95% on HRQoL of children with cerebral palsy. Severity of disability had negative impact (CI = 95% on HRQoL of children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions: The health-related quality of life of Nigerian children with cerebral palsy is low, and is negatively affected by age and severity of disability. Key words: Quality of life, cerebral palsy, children, Nigeriadoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.24

  15. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  16. Re-reading 1 Corinthians 6:12�20 in the context of Nigerian Pentecostals' theology of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale J. Adelakun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Paul�s teachings on sexuality in 1 Corinthians 6:12�20 and the relationship between those teachings and the prevalent sexual practices in Corinth. It is argued that Paul�s quest for robust spirituality among the Christians in Corinth informed his injunctions against certain sexual acts which were permitted in the then Greco-Roman world. The text is also read in the context of Nigerian Pentecostals� theology of sex. The conclusion of this article is that Nigerian Pentecostals� theology of sex is diluted in the sense that it emerges from both the African cultural belief and biblical injunctions, especially Paul�s teaching about sex in 1 Corinthians 6:12�20.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The confusion and controversy this kind of theology generates will continue to be a major concern for scholars in the fields of biblical interpretation, theology, sociology and other related disciplines.

  17. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Smart Substitutions Updated:Dec 16,2016 Healthy eating doesn’ ... mean giving up all the foods you love! Smart substitutions can help you maintain an overall healthy ...

  18. Study of multi black hole and ring singularity apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    We study critical black hole separations for the formation of a common apparent horizon in systems of $N$ - black holes in a time symmetric configuration. We study in detail the aligned equal mass cases for $N=2,3,4,5$, and relate them to the unequal mass binary black hole case. We then study the apparent horizon of the time symmetric initial geometry of a ring singularity of different radii. The apparent horizon is used as indicative of the location of the event horizon in an effort to predict a critical ring radius that would generate an event horizon of toroidal topology. We found that a good estimate for this ring critical radius is $20/(3\\pi) M$. We briefly discuss the connection of this two cases through a discrete black hole 'necklace' configuration.

  19. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  20. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  1. Simple tandem repeat (TTTAn polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase gene and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okobia Michael N

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. The incidence of the disease is increasing globally and this increase is occurring at a faster rate in population groups that hirtherto enjoyed low incidence. This study was designed to evaluate the role of a simple tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP in the aromatase (CYP19 gene in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women, a population of indigenous sub-Saharan African ancestry. Methods A case-control study recruiting 250 women with breast cancer and 250 women without the disease from four University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria was carried out between September 2002 and April 2004. Participants were recruited from the surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of the Nigerian institutions. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay was employed for genotyping and product sizes were detected with an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer. Results Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that harboring the putative high risk genotypes conferred a 29% increased risk of breast cancer when all women in the study were considered (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–2.00, although this association was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis based on menopausal status showed similar results among premenopausal women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.76–2.41 and postmenopausal women (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.64–2.49. The data also demonstrated marked differences in the distribution of (TTTAn repeats in Nigerian women compared with other populations. Conclusion This study has shown that harboring 10 or more repeats of the microsatellite (TTTAn repeats of the CYY19 gene is associated with a modest increased risk of breast cancer in Nigerian women.

  2. Export Performance of SMEs in the Nigerian Leather Industry and the Mediating Effect of Perception of Export Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Sambo Junaidu

    2012-01-01

    Even though a large amount of work has been carried out to research the factors that affect export performance, there is a seeming neglect of research about specific industries operating in developing countries like Nigeria. This paper presents a research into the factors that affect export performance of SMEs in the Nigerian leather industry. Based on the resource-based view, we posit that intangible resources (Knowledge, Image and marketing resources) are all positively related to firm expo...

  3. Foliation dependence of black hole apparent horizons in spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio; Firouzjaee, Javad T; Helou, Alexis; Musco, Ilia

    2016-01-01

    Numerical studies of gravitational collapse to black holes make use of apparent horizons, which are intrinsically foliation-dependent. We expose the problem and discuss possible solutions using the Hawking quasilocal mass. In spherical symmetry, we present a physically sensible approach to the problem by restricting to spherically symmetric spacetime slicings. In spherical symmetry the apparent horizons are gauge-independent in any spherically symmetric foliation but physical quantities associated with them, such as surface gravity and temperature, are not. The widely used comoving and Kodama foliations, which are of particular interest, are discussed in detail.

  4. Foliation dependence of black hole apparent horizons in spherical symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Ellis, George F. R.; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Helou, Alexis; Musco, Ilia

    2017-01-01

    Numerical studies of gravitational collapse to black holes make use of apparent horizons, which are intrinsically foliation dependent. We expose the problem and discuss possible solutions using the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal mass. In spherical symmetry, we present a physically sensible approach to the problem by restricting to spherically symmetric spacetime slicings. In spherical symmetry, the apparent horizons enjoy a restricted gauge independence in any spherically symmetric foliation, but physical quantities associated with them, such as surface gravity and temperature, are fully gauge dependent. The widely used comoving and Kodama foliations, which are of particular interest, are discussed in detail as examples.

  5. Effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyechi, Kay C.N.; Eseadi, Chiedu; Umoke, Prince C.I.; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B.; Otu, Mkpoikanke S.; Obidoa, Jaachimma C.; Agu, Fedinand U.; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O.; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N.; Ncheke, Chijioke D.; Ugwuozor, Felix O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. Methods: The study used a pretest–posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation. The treatment group took part in a GCBHEP for 10 weeks, while the control group received 10 weeks’ conventional counseling. After the intervention program, both the treatment and control groups were evaluated. The repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis and partial η2 was also used as a measure of effect size. Results: The findings showed that the GCBHEP had a strong effect on cigarette-smoking habits among the inmates in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. The effect of the GCBHEP by age was moderate, and modest by educational qualification. Conclusion: Group-focused cognitive behavioral health education is effective in breaking the habit of cigarette smoking among Nigerian prisoners. Therefore, future researchers are encouraged to adopt this approach in helping individuals with a smoking problem and other drug-abuse behaviors in Nigerian prisons. PMID:28072681

  6. Common mechanisms in apparent motion perception and visual pattern matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Axel; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-12-01

    Common mechanisms in apparent motion perception and visual pattern matching. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 526-534.There are close functional similarities between apparent motion perception and visual pattern matching. In particular, striking functional similarities have been demonstrated between perception of rigid objects in apparent motion and purely mental transformations of visual size and orientation used in comparisons of objects with respect to shape but regardless of size and orientation. In both cases, psychophysical data suggest that differences in visual size are resolved as differences in depth, such that transformation of size is done by translation in depth. Furthermore, the process of perceived or imagined translation appears to be stepwise additive such that a translation over a long distance consists of a sequence of smaller translations, the durations of these steps being additive. Both perceived and imagined rotation also appear to be stepwise additive, and combined transformations of size and orientation appear to be done by alternation of small steps of pure translation and small steps of pure rotation. The functional similarities suggest that common mechanisms underlie perception of apparent motion and purely mental transformations. In line with this suggestion, functional brain imaging has isolated neural structures in motion area MT used in mental transformation of size.

  7. Eudynamis Minima, an apparently new Cuckoo from Southwestern New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Only an adult male of this apparently new form of the genus Eudynamis has been collected near Bivak Island, in the Noord River, Southwestern New Guinea, at 9 January 1910 by the members of the last Lorentz-expedition to the snowy mountains. (Coll. Lorentz n°. 508). The plumage is black, glossed with

  8. Apparent horizons in Clifton-Mota-Barrow inhomogeneous universe

    CERN Document Server

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P; Liberati, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the apparent horizon dynamics in the inhomogeneous Clifton-Mota-Barrow solution of Brans-Dicke theory. This solution models a central matter configuration embedded in a cosmological background. In certain regions of the parameter space we find solutions exhibiting dynamical creation or merging of two horizons.

  9. Studying the cosmological apparent horizon with quasistatic coordinates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rui-Yan Yu; Towe Wang

    2013-02-01

    This article aims at a natural generalization of the static coordinates to the ( + 1)-dimensional Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) Universe. After demonstrating a no-go theorem, we put forward the quasistatic coordinates for the FLRW Universe. Then, the quasistatic coordinates are utilized to study the unified first law and the scalar-type perturbations on the cosmological apparent horizon.

  10. An Apparent Paradox: Catt's Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccini, M.; Selleri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Catt's anomaly is a sort of "thought experiment" (a "gedankenexperiment") where electrons seem to travel at the speed of light. Although its author argued with conviction for many years, it has a clear and satisfactory solution and it can be considered indubitably just an apparent paradox. Nevertheless, it is curious and…

  11. Children with fever without apparent source: diagnosis and dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Bleeker (Sacha)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTills thesis describes the results of diagnostic research in young children presenting with fever without apparent source at the emergency department. The study was conducted at the Sophia Children's University Hospital in Rotterdam and the Juliana Children's Hospital in The Hague, both

  12. Requirement of the laying hen for apparent fecal digestible lysine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J.B.; Smink, W.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the requirement for lysine of a White Leghorn strain of hens with a body weight of approximately 1,600 g. Before starting the experiment, apparent fecal digestibility of amino acids of the basal diet was determined in an in vivo digestibility trial with six individ

  13. Automatic real and apparent age estimation in still images

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Garcia, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We performed a study on age estimation via still images creating a new face image database containing real age and apparent age label annotations. Two age estimation methods are proposed using the state of the art techniques and analyse their performance with the proposed database.

  14. A New Theory of Leadership: "Realwert" Versus Apparent Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Donald

    1999-01-01

    "Realwert" ("real good") stems from an understanding of humanity's "raison d'etre"--treating others with respect and dignity. It can be contrasted with "apparent good," a condition wherein one mistakenly thinks real good is being pursued. Drawing on Aquinas and Hodginson, this paper argues for a…

  15. Increasing Range Of Apparent Depth In A Stereoscopic Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Optical configuration conceived for increasing range of apparent depth provided by stereoscopic display system, without imposing concomitant reduction in field of view. Observer wears shuttered goggles synchronized with alternating left- and right-eye views on display. However, instead of looking directly at display screen, observer looks at screen via reflection in mirror collimating light emitted by screen.

  16. Apparent Barrier Height in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L.; Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt;

    1996-01-01

    The apparent barrier height phi(ap), that is, the rate of change of the logarithm of the conductance with tip-sample separation in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), has been measured for Ni, Pt, and Au single crystal surfaces. The results show that phi(ap) is constant until point contact...

  17. Circadian aspects of apparent correlation dimension in human heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, P; Bettermann, H; An der Heiden, U; Kümmell, H C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in complexity of cardiac dynamics over 24 h. With use of Holter monitoring, 27 24-h electrocardiogram recordings were obtained from 15 healthy subjects. For each recording, the apparent dimension (DA) was calculated for consecutive sections of 500 heartbeats. These were used to determine nighttime and daytime dimension (D(An) and D(Ad), respectively) as well as the difference between D(An) and D(Ad) (delta DA). Mean 24-h DA, D(An), and D(Ad) were 5.9 +/- 0.3, 6.3 +/- 0.5, and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively. D(An) was significantly higher than D(Ad) (P heart rate complexity. We suggest that the decreased complexity during daytime may result from the synchronization of physiological functions. The increase in complexity at night would then correspond to an uncoupling of these functions during the regenerative period.

  18. Fertility and apparent genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupart, Douglas; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark; Winship, Ingrid M; Goldberg, Paul; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-09-01

    Genetic anticipation is the phenomenon in which age of onset of an inherited disorder decreases in successive generations. Inconsistent evidence suggests that this occurs in Lynch syndrome. A possible cause for apparent anticipation is fecundity bias, which occurs if the disease adversely affects fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) on lifetime fertility in Lynch syndrome, and whether this can falsely create the appearance of genetic anticipation. A computer model simulated age of diagnosis of CRC in hypothetical Lynch syndrome carriers and their offspring. The model assumed similar age distribution of CRC across generations (i.e. that there was no true anticipation). Age distribution of CRC diagnosis, and lifetime fertility rates (grouped by age of diagnosis of CRC) were determined from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR). Apparent anticipation was calculated by comparing ages of diagnosis of CRC in affected parent-child pairs. A total of 1,088 patients with CRC were identified from the ACCFR. Total lifetime (cohort) fertility was related to age of diagnosis of CRC (correlation coefficient 0.13, P = 0.0001). In the simulation, apparent anticipation was 1.8 ± 0.54 years (P = 0.0044). Observed apparent anticipation in the ACCFR cohort was 4.8 ± 1.73 years (P = 0.0064). There was no difference in apparent anticipation between the simulate d and observed parent-child pairs (P = 0.89). The appearance of genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome can be falsely created due to changes in fertility.

  19. Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shumaila Kiran; Arif Mahmood Bhutta; Bakhtyawar Ali Khan; Sobia Durrani; Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Ali; Furhan Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods: One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results: It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters.Conclusions: It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters.

  20. Identification of cancer predisposition variants in apparently healthy individuals using a next-generation sequencing-based family genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Ioannis; Mizzi, Clint; Giannopoulou, Efstathia; Pavlidis, Cristiana; Peters, Brock A; Zagoriti, Zoi; Stenson, Peter D; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Borg, Joseph; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Drmanac, Radoje; Stubbs, Andrew; van der Spek, Peter; Cooper, David N; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P

    2015-06-20

    Cancer, like many common disorders, has a complex etiology, often with a strong genetic component and with multiple environmental factors contributing to susceptibility. A considerable number of genomic variants have been previously reported to be causative of, or associated with, an increased risk for various types of cancer. Here, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach in 11 members of two families of Greek descent to identify all genomic variants with the potential to predispose family members to cancer. Cross-comparison with data from the Human Gene Mutation Database identified a total of 571 variants, from which 47 % were disease-associated polymorphisms, 26 % disease-associated polymorphisms with additional supporting functional evidence, 19 % functional polymorphisms with in vitro/laboratory or in vivo supporting evidence but no known disease association, 4 % putative disease-causing mutations but with some residual doubt as to their pathological significance, and 3 % disease-causing mutations. Subsequent analysis, focused on the latter variant class most likely to be involved in cancer predisposition, revealed two variants of prime interest, namely MSH2 c.2732T>A (p.L911R) and BRCA1 c.2955delC, the first of which is novel. KMT2D c.13895delC and c.1940C>A variants are additionally reported as incidental findings. The next-generation sequencing-based family genomics approach described herein has the potential to be applied to other types of complex genetic disorder in order to identify variants of potential pathological significance.

  1. Cardiovascular risk in young apparently healthy descendents from Asian Indian migrants in the Netherlands: the SHIVA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S S; Oemrawsingh, P V; Cannegieter, S C; Le Cessie, S; Schreur, J; Rosendaal, F R; Schalij, M J

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND.: Asian Indian migrants in the Western world are highly susceptible for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Until now, most IHD risk studies were performed in first and second generation Asian Indian expatriates. For optimal prevention, knowledge of the cardiovascular risk profile of younger generations is crucial. METHOD.: In a cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of conventional IHD risk factors and Framingham risk score in asymptomatic third to seventh generation Asian Indian descendants, compared with Europeans. Subjects were classified as asymptomatic if they did not have documented IHD, diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol. RESULTS.: A total of 1790 Asian Indians (45% men, age 35.9+/-10.7 years) and 370 native Dutch hospital employees (23% men, age 40.8+/-10.1 years) were recruited. Asian Indians had higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein levels than the Dutch. Glucose intolerance was present in 7.1 vs. 0.5% men, and in 6.1 vs. 1.4% women (both p<0.001). Asian Indian women were more frequently obese (12 vs. 5%; p<0.001), and centrally obese (44 vs. 25%; p<0.001) as compared with the Dutch women. Prevalence of most of the conventional and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in each ten-year age group was higher in Asian Indians compared with controls, which reflected in higher Framingham risk scores. CONCLUSION.: This study demonstrates the persistence of an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile in young, third to seventh generation migrated Asian Indians and supports an aggressive screening and intervention strategy. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:155-61.).

  2. Association between albuminuria, atherosclerotic plaques, elevated pulse wave velocity, age, risk category and prognosis in apparently healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Blyme, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    .4, 20.6% or 7.9, 8.2, 16.6, 19.5% or 6.6, 7.6, 9.8, 20.0%) increased, all P aged 61 or 71 years, with moderate or very high SCORE or intermediate or high FRS (all P aged 41, 51 or 61 years......, with moderate SCORE or with high-intermediate or high FRS (all P aged 51 years (P aged 51 [hazard ratio 2.7 (1.6-4.8)] and 61...... and especially atherosclerotic plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) at least 0.73/1.06 mg/mmol (men/women) added prognostic information in individuals aged 51 or 61 years or with moderate or intermediate risk....

  3. Ventricular arrhythmias and risk of death and acute myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects of age >or=55 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner;

    2006-01-01

    , and 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. All patients were followed for up to 5 years. Combined events were defined as all-cause mortality or acute myocardial infarction. A cardiovascular event was defined as cardiovascular death or acute myocardial infarction. In total, 84% had 0 to 10...... ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/hour, 8% had 11 to 30 VPCs/hour, and 8% had >30 VPCs/hour; 10.8% had >or=1 run of >or=3 VPCs. Frequent VPCs (>or=30/hour) was a significant predictor of combined (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 4.68, p = 0.006) and cardiovascular (hazard ratio 2...

  4. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social interaction as well as for most people’s occupation. Proper care and use of your voice will give you the best chance for having a healthy voice for your entire lifetime. Hoarseness or roughness in your voice is often ...

  5. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Recently, Zhao Zhixin, a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuiiding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily, sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow: China Youth Daily: What do you think about food therapy as a regimen?

  6. The Healthy Eating Pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; Lin

    2007-01-01

    Experts from the Harvard School of Public Health created the Healthy Eating Pyramid.The pyramid is about the links between diet and health and offers useable information to help people make better choices about what to eat. Remember:its base is daily exercise and weight control.

  7. Some like it healthy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contini, Caterina; Casini, Leonardo; Stancu, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Authorising new health claims in Europe will favour the diffusion on the market of a greater number of foods with health claims. This scenario presents new opportunities to promote healthy food choices and launches new challenges to define strategies aimed at promoting products on the market. The...

  8. Making Healthy Sexual Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including your partner) ? Is your decision to have sex based on the right reasons? (It shouldn’t be based on peer ... re ready! Tags: birth control , condoms , contraception , healthy sex , peer ... Contraception (EC) Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: General Information How do I ...

  9. Comparison of selenite and selenate apparent absorption and retention in infants using stable isotope methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dael, Peter; Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Fay, Laurent B; Barclay, Denis

    2002-01-01

    The inorganic selenium compounds selenite and selenate are used for selenium fortification of infant formulas. However, information on absorption and retention of selenium from these compounds is lacking. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine apparent absorption and retention of selenium from selenate and selenite added to a milk-based infant formula in healthy infants. Labeled test meals were prepared by addition of 10 microg Se as (76)Se-selenate or (74)Se-selenite to 500 mL formula. The two batches of labeled formulas were fed as alternate feeds during the first day of the balance period, followed by unlabeled formula. Selenium isotopes were determined in feces collected for 72h after intake and in 3 consecutive 24h collections of urine. Mean apparent absorption was 97.1% for (76)Se-selenate and 73.4% for (74)Se-selenite; mean difference 23.7% (range: 13.8%-35.7%; SD 6.8%, p absorption and urinary excretion differed for selenite and selenate, selenium was equally well retained by infants from both selenium compounds. We therefore concluded that Se fortification of infant formulas with selenate or selenite can be expected to have similar impact on the selenium nutritional status of term infants.

  10. Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5 years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2 years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48% than in the control group (23.7% during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease.

  11. Apparent Dissolution Kinetics of Diatomite in Alkaline Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gaoxiang; L(U) Guocheng; HE Xuwen

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution kinetics of diatomite in alkaline solution is the theoretical basis for the process optimization of alkali-diatomite reaction and its applications.In this study,the dissolution kinetics of diatomite in NaOH solution is investigated.The results indicate that the dissolution reaction fits well the unreacted shrinking core model for solid-liquid heterogeneous reactions.The apparent reaction order for NaOH is 2 and the apparent activation energy for the reaction (Ea) is 28.06 kJ.mol-1.The intra-particle diffusion through the sodium silicate layer is the rate-controlling step.When the dissolution reaction occurs at the interface of unreacted diatomite solid core,the diffusion in the trans-layer (the liquid film around the wetted particle) reduces the rate of whole dissolution process.

  12. Mass density at geostationary orbit and apparent mass refilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, Kazue; Amoh, Justice; Singer, H. J.

    2016-04-01

    We used the inferred equatorial mass density ρm,eq based on measurements of Alfvén wave frequencies measured by the GOES satellites during 1980-1991 in order to construct a number of different models of varying complexity for the equatorial mass density at geostationary orbit. The most complicated models are able to account for 66% of the variance with a typical variation from actual values of a factor of 1.56. The factors that influenced ρm,eq in the models were, in order of decreasing importance, the F10.7 EUV index, magnetic local time, the solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, the phase of the year, and the solar wind BZ (GSM Z direction). During some intervals, some of which were especially geomagnetically quiet, ρm,eq rose to values that were significantly higher than those predicted by our models. For 10 especially quiet intervals, we examined long-term (>1 day) apparent refilling, the increase in ρm,eq at a fixed location. We found that the behavior of ρm,eq varies for different events. In some cases, there is significant apparent refilling, whereas in other cases ρm,eq stays the same or even decreases slightly. Nevertheless, we showed that on average, ρm,eq increases exponentially during quiet intervals. There is variation of apparent refilling with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. On the third day of apparent refilling, ρm,eq has on average a similar value at solar maximum or solar minimum, but at solar maximum, ρm,eq begins with a larger value and rises relatively less than at solar minimum.

  13. Lead-Free Metamaterials with Enormous Apparent Piezoelectric Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanfeng; Chen, Pan; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Xiaotong; Chu, Baojin

    2015-11-01

    Lead-free flexoelectric piezoelectric metamaterials are created by applying an asymmetric chemical reduction to Na1/2 Bi1/2 TiO3 -BaTiO3 ceramics. The reduction induces two gradient-generating mechanisms, curvature structure and chemical inhomogeneity, and enhances the flexoelectric effect. The ceramics behave like piezoelectric materials, exhibiting an enormous and high-temperature stable apparent piezoelectric response, outperforming existing lead-oxide-based piezoelectrics.

  14. Definition of apparent activation energy on DTG curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Serikbayeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of sulphidation oxidized copper ores and tailings with sulfur. Defined by the apparent activation energy in the conditions of heating the mixture of substances interacting with a constant speed by differential thermogravimetry (DTG. It was established that the sulfiding may occur in a kinetic mode , since the interaction is charged, in the presence of liquid and gaseous sulfur , i.e. transport of sulfur to the surface of the mineral is not a limiting process.

  15. Definition of apparent activation energy on DTG curves

    OpenAIRE

    Serikbayeva, A. K.; Zhumashev, K.; N. Sh. Janaliyeva; M. Rakhimberdina

    2016-01-01

    The article gives the results of sulphidation oxidized copper ores and tailings with sulfur. Defined by the apparent activation energy in the conditions of heating the mixture of substances interacting with a constant speed by differential thermogravimetry (DTG). It was established that the sulfiding may occur in a kinetic mode , since the interaction is charged, in the presence of liquid and gaseous sulfur , i.e. transport of sulfur to the surface of the mineral is not a limiting process.

  16. Breastfeeding profile and practice of Nigerian mothers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding patterns in the developing world are still below the recommended levels and the potential to improve child survival remains untapped. This study investigated the breastfeeding profile and practices of Nigerian nursing mothers. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved women at attending selected baby-friendly facilities in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria who had breastfed their most recent baby for a minimum of six months. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, infant-maternal characteristics and breastfeeding practices. 383 mothers volunteered for this study, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of the respondent was 29.0 +/- 4.96 years. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate was 86.2%. Breastfeeding initiation time of less than 1 hour after delivery and 24 hours rooming-in practice rate was 78.3% and 79.1% respectively. Daily breastfeeding time and total breastfeeding duration was 8.06 +/- 2.33 hours and 18.3 +/- 4.82 months respectively. The mean onset time for water supplementation was 4.74 +/- 1.77 months with a rate of 30.3% within 1-3 months. Weaning initiation time was mostly (43.9% within 12 to 18 month of infant's age. There was significant association between EBF practice and each of maternal education (X2 = 6.554; P = 0.038 and Socio-Economic Status (SES (X2 = 19.32; P = 0.031 with most of the respondents in the lower SES (56.1% subscribing to EBF. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate for the first six months among Nigerian mothers attending baby-friendly clinics was high. Breastfeeding initiation time after delivery was early, water supplementation to breastfeeding was before 5 months of the infant's life and weaning practice was late. Maternal educational level and socio-economic status significantly influenced EBF practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet

  17. Lead exposure: a contributing cause of the current breast cancer epidemic in Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Olusegun I; Schrauzer, Gerhard N

    2010-08-01

    Breast cancer incidence in Nigerian women has significantly increased during the past three decades in parallel with the rapid industrialization of that country. This suggested that the associated widespread contamination of the soil and of the water supplies by lead (Pb) and other industrial metals was a major contributing cause. Because of its many domestic, industrial, and automotive uses, Pb is of particular concern as it has been shown to promote the development of mammary tumors in murine mammary tumor virus-infected female C3H mice at levels as low of 0.5 ppm Pb in the drinking water. Lead belongs to the group of selenium-antagonistic elements that interact with selenium (Se), abolishing its anti-carcinogenic effect. Lead on chronic, low-level exposure in addition also accelerates tumor growth rates. Higher levels of Pb were found in blood and head hair samples of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer, all with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, the most common form of breast cancer in Nigeria, seen at Obafemi Awolowo University, than in cancer-free controls from the same area. Evidence for interactions between Pb and Se was obtained from blood, hair, and tumor biopsy tissue analyses. Furthermore, the Pb levels in hair samples of the patients were directly correlated with the volumes of their tumors, in accord with the tumor growth-promoting effects of Pb. Conversely, Se levels in hair and blood were inversely correlated with the tumor volumes, consistent with the anti-proliferative effects of Se. Several other elements, e.g., Cd, Hg, Cr, Sn, and As, were detected in the scalp hair of the patients and the controls, although at significantly lower levels than those of Pb. However, correlation calculations revealed them also to interact with Se, suggesting that only a fraction of the Se in organs and tissues is actually present in bioactive forms. In metal-exposed subjects, a state of latent Se deficiency may exist, resulting in depressed immune functions

  18. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  19. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq Ayodele Adebayo, Amanze Nkemjika Ikwu, Michael Olabode Balogun, Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide, Olufemi Eyitayo Ajayi, Victor Oladeji Adeyeye, Tuoyo Omasan Mene-Afejuku, Olaniyi James Bamikole, Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Adeola Olubunmi Ajibare, Omolola Abiodun OketonaCardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases.Objective: To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit.Methods: Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101 Holter ECG machine.Results: Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2% and 176 were females (56.8%. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23% and 49 (15.8% of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%. The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively.Conclusion: Palpitation and syncope were the

  20. Serum levels of leptin in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia

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    Aina Ayoola O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the pathophysiology of homozygous sickle cell anaemia (SCA results in a myriad of metabolic, nutritional, haematological and clinical effects that interact with other co-morbid factors to determine the quality of life and life expectancy of afflicted patients. Because of its critical roles in nutrition and metabolism, inflammation, haematopoiesis and cellular immunity, this study determined the plasma levels of leptin in steady and unsteady states of HbSS in Nigerian patients. Methods A total of 51 SCA patients aged 5 - 35 years with 34 (61.8% being females who were either on admission or visiting four medical centres in Lagos, Nigeria together with 22 non-SCD controls aged 5 -30 years comprising 12 (54.5% females were enrolled after obtaining their informed consent and ethical approval. Patients were further stratified into steady and unsteady cases of SCA based on clinical presentations, while blood samples collected by venipuncture from each of the study participants were analyzed haematologically for full blood count and HbF level and microscopically for malaria, while plasma leptin was assayed using ELISA method. Body composition defined by weight, fat mass and body mass index (BMI was determined using standard methods. Data obtained for cases and controls were analyzed statistically. Results Twenty - one patients had unsteady HbSS and elicited greater and significant (P P. falciparum parasitaemia (4613.7 vs. 749.6 - 1078.4 parasites/uL, pyrexia rate (58.3 vs. 25.8% when compared with steady state patients or non-SCD controls. Compared to the control, significant decreases in plasma leptin before and after controlling for body fat that was worsened by crisis were observed among the SCD patients. Unlike the non-SCD controls, leptin correlated non-significantly (P > 0.05 with all body composition indices measured in the patients except for fat mass in unsteady cases. Multivariate regression

  1. Maternal demand for cesarean section: perception and willingness to request by Nigerian antenatal clients

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    Okonkwo NS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ngozi S Okonkwo1, Oladosu A Ojengbede2, Imran O Morhason-Bello1, Babatunde O Adedokun31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College Hospital; 2Center for Population and Reproductive Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan; 3Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics, and Environmental Health, College of Medicine, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: Contrary to the widely reported aversion to cesarean section in the West African subregion, maternal demand for cesarean section (MDCS seems to be on the increase, and there is little evidence to explain this trend. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and attitudes of Nigerian antenatal clients towards MDCS, their willingness to request MDCS, and the relationship between willingness to request MDCS and sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 843 antenatal clients at Agbongbon/Orayan primary health care centers (PHCs, Adeoyo Maternity Hospital (SHC, and UCH Ibadan (THC, representing the three different levels of health care in Nigeria, ie, primary, secondary, and tertiary.Results: The proportion of women aware of MDCS was 39.6%. Predictors of awareness were education and type of health facility. Women from THC and those with tertiary education and above were more likely to be aware of MDCS than others (P = 0.001. Doctors were major sources of information on MDCS (30.8% as well as friends (24.3%. Common reasons reported for MDCS were fear of labor pains (68.9%, and fear of poor labor outcome (60.1%, and fear of fecal (20.2% and urinary incontinence (16.8%. More women from the THC than other facilities believed that requests for MDCS should be granted (P < 0.001. However, willingness to request MDCS was low (6.6%. More than 50% of those willing to request MDCS would likely be criticized, mainly by their husbands. On multiple logistic regression, respondents at the THC were significantly more

  2. Recent perspectives on the anticancer properties of aqueous extracts of Nigerian Vernonia amygdalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard CB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carolyn Bingham Howard,1–3 William K Johnson,2,3 Shehla Pervin,4 Ernest B Izevbigie5 1Breast Cancer Research Laboratory, Research Centers in Minority Institutions, 2Department of Biology, 3NIH-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 4Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria Abstract: Innovative developments are necessary for treating and defeating cancer, an oftentimes deadly group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Breast cancer (BC is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of women in the USA, and prostate cancer (PC is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of American men. Although some efficacious BC drugs are pharmaceutically marketed, they affect the quality of life for some patients because they are toxic in that their usages have been accompanied by side effects such as stroke, thrombosis, slow heart rate, seizure, increased blood pressure, nausea, emesis, and more. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of molecular markers for early detection of this disease and discovery of targets for the development of novel, less toxic therapeutics. A botanical plant Vernonia amygdalina has been widely used in Nigerian and other Central and West African cultures for centuries as an herbal medicine. Mounting evidence suggests that treatment with low concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts of the edible Nigerian V. amygdalina plant (Niger-VA arrests the proliferative activities and induces apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative, and triple-negative human breast cancerous cells and in androgen-independent human PC-3. Also, in athymic mice, Niger-VA potentiates increased

  3. Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus - Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008: Results of a multicenter study

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    Sunday Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the commonest endocrine-metabolic disorder in Nigeria similar to the experience in other parts of the world. The aim was to assess the clinical and laboratory profile, and evaluate the quality of care of Nigerian diabetics with a view to planning improved diabetes care. Materials and Methods: In a multicenter study across seven tertiary health centers in Nigeria, the clinical and laboratory parameters of diabetic out-patients were evaluated. Clinical parameters studied include type of diabetes, anthropometry, and blood pressure (BP status, chronic complications of diabetes, and treatment types. Laboratory data assessed included fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h post-prandial (2-HrPP glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, urinalysis, serum lipids, electrolytes, urea, and creatinine. Results: A total of 531 patients, 209 (39.4% males and 322 (60.6% females enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 57.1 ± 12.3 years with the mean duration of diabetes of 8.8 ± 6.6 years. Majority (95.4% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM compared to type 1 DM (4.6%, with P < 0.001. The mean FPG, 2-HrPP glucose, and HbA1c were 8.1 ± 3.9 mmol/L, 10.6 ± 4.6 mmol/L, and 8.3 ± 2.2%, respectively. Only 170 (32.4% and 100 (20.4% patients achieved the ADA and IDF glycemic targets, respectively. Most patients (72.8% did not practice self-monitoring of blood glucose. Hypertension was found in 322 (60.9%, with mean systolic BP 142.0 ± 23.7 mmHg, and mean diastolic BP 80.7 ± 12.7 mmHg. Diabetic complications found were peripheral neuropathy (59.2%, retinopathy (35.5%, cataracts (25.2%, cerebrovascular disease (4.7%, diabetic foot ulcers (16.0%, and nephropathy (3.2%. Conclusion: Most Nigerian diabetics have suboptimal glycemic control, are hypertensives, and have chronic complications of DM. Improved quality of care and treatment to target is recommended to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

  4. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

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    Udenze Ifeoma Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048, waist circumference (P = 0.002, body mass index (P = 0.012, waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023, high density lipoprotein (HDL (P = 0.012, and insulin resistance (IR (P = 0.042. There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019, the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040, and TNF-α (P = 0.031 between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are

  5. Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS infections in paediatric Nigerian patients

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    Adetokunbo Rafel Adebola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were to determine the pattern and frequency of oral lesions and to compare the prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions in paediatric Nigerian patients on HAART with those not on HAART. Materials and Methods: All patients aged 15 years and below attending the Infectious Disease Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV were consecutively examined in a cross-sectional study over a 2-year period. Information was obtained by history, physical examinations, HIV testing, and enumeration of CD+ T cells. The results are presented. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 105 children comprising 63 males and 42 female who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study, mean age in months was 53.3±42.2, with a mean of 3.4±2.2 for male and 2.8±1.8 for female respectively. Oral lesions occurred in 61.9% of the children Overall, 22 (21.0% had at least one oral lesion, 43 (41.0% had multiple lesion. The most common lesion was oral candidiasis (79.1%. The angular cheilitis (43.8% variant was most frequent. The mean CD4 counts were 1138 cells/mm [3] , 913 cells/mm [3] and 629 cells/mm [3] for those without oral lesion, with single lesion and multiple oral lesions respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (ANOVA: F=0.185, df=2, 80, 82, P=0.831. Patients on HAART comprised about 61.9% and these were found to have reduced risk for development of such oral lesions as angular cheilitis (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.56-1.02; P=0.03, pseudomembranous candidiasis (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.54-0.94; P=0.024 and HIV-gingivitis (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.46-0.75; P=0.001. HAART had some beneficial but insignificant effect on development of HIV-periodonttitis (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.51-0.70; P=0.09. The chances of occurrence of other oral lesions were not significantly reduced by HAART (Kaposi sarcoma, OR=1.24; 95% CI=0.31-5.01; P=0.47, erythematous candidiasis, OR=1.13; 95% CI=0

  6. Immunological profile in persons under antiretroviral therapy in a rural Nigerian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Maiyaki Musa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with Nigeria having the third highest burden of HIV infection globally; efforts are made to increases access to HIV/AIDS care and treatment. This has currently reached rural areas with limited manpower and laboratory evaluation capacity. This review is necessitated by the paucity of interim report on treatment profile in Nigerian rural areas. We report on the immunological profile of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Otukpo General Hospital, a rural Nigerian hospital. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving ART treatment and care, on April 2009, when 2347 patients were under ART therapy. Out of these, 96 patients were selected by simple random sampling from hospital register, with their data abstracted from standardized Ministry of Health registers and facility documents kept at the hospital, and analyzed for descriptive and biometric measures. Ninty-six patients (29% males with a median age of 35 years, median baseline CD4 lymphocyte count 221 cells/mL, median one year CD4 lymphocyte count of 356 cells/mL and median one year CD4 lymphocyte increment of 124 cells/mL were studied. There is no statistically significant difference in baseline CD4 lymphocyte count when data is disaggregated by type of drug regimen (AZT, D4T and TDF. Fourty-four percent, 23% and 33% of patients were on TDF, D4T & AZT based regimen, respectively (P=0.66. Increment of >100 cells/mL was seen in 64.58% of the reviewed patients. There was a higher CD4 lymphocyte count increment in patients on TDF & D4T compared with those in AZT based regimens (ANOVA; P<0.0003. Multivariate linear regression model showed one year CD4 lymphocyte count, one year increment in CD4 lymphocyte count, WBC count, and absolute neutrophil count to be significant correlates of baseline CD4 lymphocyte count (P<0.0001. Equally, multivariate logistic regression found

  7. Product design enhancement using apparent usability and affective quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios.

  8. Coherent and random apparent stresses in periodically unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Anthony Byrd

    1990-08-01

    The transitional flow field downstream of a smooth, symmetrically constricted Sylgard pipe was measured with a two color, two component Laser Doppler Anemometer for both pulsatile and steady flows. Vibrations in the flow system were induced with an exciter/shaker and were monitored with an accelerator. The vibration has little effect on the value of the maximum axial and radial turbulence intensities. A frequency domain signal processing technique to separate the disturbance velocity into coherent and random components was modified to guarantee that the sum of the decomposed velocity components equaled the original disturbance velocity. Results of the velocity separation demonstrated that the velocity disturbances prior to turbulent transition consisted almost entirely of coherent velocity fluctuations. The maximum apparent shear stress was found to occur just after the turbulent transition and consisted almost entirely of the random component. The data suggest that if the absolute magnitude of the apparent stress is the determining factor in red blood cell destruction, then the coherent apparent stress is not a significant destruction mechanism. However, the exact mechanism in hemolysis are not identified.

  9. The apparent state of droplets on a rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoLing; LU Tian

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the state and wetting transition of droplets on a rough surface are both complex and obscure. The change in wetting is directly reflected by changes under the contact condition of the droplets with the surface. The recent study about the wettability of the superhydrophobic surface under the condensing condition arouses the new understanding about the apparent state of droplets on a rough surface, in this work, to validate the existence of droplets in an intermediate state, a microscale pillar topological polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was manufactured and its wettability under various conditions was studied. According to the experimental data, it is proposed that the wetting state of a rough surface may be embodied using the contact area ratio of a solid/liquid/gas droplet with the projective plane. A general calculation model for the apparent contact angle of droplets is given and expressed diagrammatically. It is found that the measured apparent contact angles of droplets at dif-ferent states on the surface falls within the range predicted by our proposed equation.

  10. Apparent kinetics of high temperature oxidative decomposition of microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saad Aldin M; Razzak, Shaikh A; Hossain, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative thermal characteristics of two microalgae species biomass Nannochloropsis oculta and Chlorella vulgaris have been investigated. The apparent kinetic parameters for the microalgal biomass oxidation process are estimated by fitting the experimental data to the nth order rate model. Also, the iso-conversional methods Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) were used to evaluate the apparent activation energy. The results indicate that biomass of different microalgae strains exhibit different thermal behavior and characteristics. In addition, growth parameters and medium composition can affect the biomass productivity and composition. This would have significant impact on the thermal decomposition trend of the biomass. The kinetic modeling of the oxidation reaction with direct model fitting method shows good prediction to the experimental data. The apparent activation energies estimated by KAS and FWO methods for N. oculta were 149.2 and 151.8kJ/mol, respectively, while for C. vulgaris were 214.4 and 213.4kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. The apparent state of droplets on a rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the state and wetting transition of droplets on a rough surface are both complex and obscure. The change in wetting is directly reflected by changes under the contact condition of the droplets with the surface. The recent study about the wettability of the superhydrophobic surface under the condensing condition arouses the new understanding about the apparent state of droplets on a rough surface. In this work, to validate the existence of droplets in an intermediate state, a microscale pillar topological polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was manufactured and its wettability under various conditions was studied. According to the experimental data, it is proposed that the wetting state of a rough surface may be embodied using the contact area ratio of a solid/liquid/gas droplet with the projective plane. A general calculation model for the apparent contact angle of droplets is given and expressed diagrammatically. It is found that the measured apparent contact angles of droplets at dif- ferent states on the surface falls within the range predicted by our proposed equation.

  12. Healthy Maternal Ambivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the psychoanalytic omission in theorizing maternal subjectivity and the subsequent idealisation of the early mother-baby bond that excludes negative maternal feelings. It suggests that painful maternal experiences of resentment, persecution and hatred remain under-explored. Perhaps, even more alarming, this exclusion compels mothers to hide conflictual and shameful feelings from professionals – and from themselves. The paper suggests that healthy maternal ambival...

  13. Many Healthy Returns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-08

    International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.  Created: 2/8/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2010.

  14. Selfies, Healthies, Usies, Felfies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Spejlet hører til en af de skelsættende nyopfindelser, der udbredes i renæssancen og sætter selvet og subjektet i centrum. Det samme gør den såkaldte selfie, der siden den for alvor blev populær i løbet af sidste halvdel af 2013 har udmøntet sig i adskillige underkategorier: Healthies, Usies...

  15. A Healthy Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevald Høye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person. Two hundred thirty-two nursing students from Indonesia, 50 students from Sweden, and 119 students from Norway participated by answering an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of health in a cultural and national context. The characteristics of a healthy person were summarized in the theme “external and inner balance,” which are intertwined because of the wholeness of self-image and appearance. The subcategories were having a strong and positive body image, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. There were more similarities than differences between the Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students’ understanding of being a healthy person. The difference is that the Scandinavian students mentioned individuality, whereas the Indonesian students referred to collective values.

  16. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses.

  17. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS AND PRODUCT PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF NIGERIAN CONSUMER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo OYENIYI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy has experienced increased launching of consumer products; this is occasioned by the level of competition in the country. As such consumers are exposed to large number of product-related communication messages in primetime television and newspaper content. One commonly strategy adopted by manufacturers of consumer products is the use of celebrity endorsement with it attendance cost and other risks. The main objective of this study is to establish if there is a relationship between brand positioning, purchasing decisions, brand equity and celebrity endorsement. A survey of 142 respondents was used and the data was analyzed with Structural Equation Model. The results indicate that trust, level of expertise and the fit between the celebrity and the product have positive impact on product performance. However, it was discovered that attractiveness of the celebrity and the similarities between the celebrity and the receiver has little effect on product performance. Therefore, organizations desirous of making use of celebrity in promoting their products should evaluate the attributes of the celebrities that will enhance product performance.

  18. Philtral Columns and Nostril Shapes in Nigerian Children: A Morphometric and Aesthetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdulrasheed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The upper lip-nose complex contributes significantly to the concept of symmetry and proportion of the face. A study of the morphology and aesthetic preferences of the lip-nose complex will provide a database that will serve as a guide for reconstruction. Subjects and Methods. Hundred Nigerian children participated in this study. Demographic data and standard photographs of the philtral column and nostrils were obtained. Sixty volunteers were recruited to evaluate the photographs. Each volunteer was asked to rank the photographs based on their aesthetic preference. Results. The morphology of the philtral columns was classified into four groups: (1 triangular, (2 concave, (3 flat, and (4 parallel. The nostril shape was also classified into four groups: (1 triangular, (2 round, (3 teardrop, and (4 rectangular. In both genders, the triangular shape of philtral column was the most common. There are significant age differences in the aesthetic rankings of philtral columns and nostril shapes. Conclusion. Our study establishes the basal values for the morphometric and aesthetic parameters of the lip-nose complex of 5- and 6-year-old children in Nigeria. We hope our results and reconstructive surgery will intersect at a point to treat disfigurements of the philtrum and nostrils successfully.

  19. Effects of Lexico-syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peace Chinwendu Israel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors cut across the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria – Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba and the selection of the textbooks covered the major disciplines of study. We adopted the descriptive research design and specifically employed the survey method to accomplish the purpose of our exploratory research.  The lexico-syntactic errors in the selected textbooks were identified and classified into various categories. These errors were not different from those identified over the years in students’ essays and exam scripts. This buttressed our argument that students are merely the conveyor belt of errors contained in the teaching material and that we can analyse the students’ lexico-syntactic errors in tandem with errors contained in the material used in teaching.

  20. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of human resources management (factors on employees’ job satisfaction using data collected from two banks in the Nigerian banking industry. The study attempts to determine the effect of training and development on employee job satisfaction; to determine the influence of working conditions on employee job satisfaction; and to determine the impact of human resources factors on employee job satisfaction. The survey instrument used in the collection of data was the questionnaire. The population of the study covered the entire staff of Intercontinental and Ecobank and the sample size of 200 employees were selected, using the simple random sampling techniques. Correlation and Regression analysis was adopted and the data generated was in line with the objectives of the study. The hypotheses were tested, and valid result was achieved i.e. Human Resources Management has an effect on employee job satisfaction. This suggests that for organization to develop, it must invest more in the human capital. The business environment is dynamic and there is need for organizations to adopt strategies to motivate and equip their staff, so as to ensure their loyalty and be source of competitive advantage.