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Sample records for apoptosis key players

  1. Sphingolipids: Key Regulators of Apoptosis and Pivotal Players in Cancer Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giussani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells still constitutes a huge problem that frequently impairs the efficacy of both conventional and novel molecular therapies. Chemotherapy usually acts to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; therefore, the investigation of apoptosis control and of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis could be translated in an improvement of therapies. Among many tools acquired by cancer cells to this end, the de-regulated synthesis and metabolism of sphingolipids have been well documented. Sphingolipids are known to play many structural and signalling roles in cells, as they are involved in the control of growth, survival, adhesion, and motility. In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8αNeu5Ac(2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. In light of this evidence, the employment of chemical or genetic approaches specifically targeting sphingolipid dysregulations appears a promising tool for the improvement of current chemotherapy efficacy.

  2. Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals.

  3. DMPD: TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16027039 TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Schroder M, Bowie AG.... Trends Immunol. 2005 Sep;26(9):462-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player... or bystander? PubmedID 16027039 Title TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Authors Schr... File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer... - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  4. RTE: a key player for the Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main missions of RTE is to ensure at any moment the balance between the generated power and the consumed power; to achieve that goal, RTE has to work with all the Power System players, that is generating units, consumers, distribution operators and neighbouring TSOs. For that reason, RTE is a key player in the Smart Grids deployment. This generation/load balance will indeed be more difficult to obtain in the future because of both the massive penetration of intermittent generation and the active demand which is less predictable. To integrate these new actors or behaviours the best way, RTE has to develop new means to make a more flexible use of its assets. And even if a transmission network can already be considered as 'smart', the effort has to be intensified, especially in the R and D area. Three key technical fields are then to be considered: - Make the use of the existing assets more flexible, - Optimize the market design for the optimal use of the infrastructure, - Develop new facilities with a minimal environmental impact. The first two topics deal with the existing facilities; indeed, considering the assets lifetime and the difficulty to build new lines, it's very important to take advantage as far as possible of the existing network. The third topic is related to network development; the absolute need for new transmission capacities in the future has to cope with environment issues. New operating processes, including new technologies, will be needed. If some part of this work will be carried out at the national scale, more and more projects will be done at the European level. Due to the electricity market development and to the renewables penetration, the variability of the border flows is growing and needs a stronger cooperation between Transmission System Operators. ENTSO-E, the 42TSOs association that is operational since July 2009, will facilitate this common work. The publishing of its 'Research and Development Plan' is a good point. This

  5. ER Stress-Mediated Signaling: Action Potential and Ca(2+) as Key Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Kim, Hyongsuk; Yoon, Hyonok

    2016-09-15

    The proper functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for multiple cellular activities and survival. Disturbances in the normal ER functions lead to the accumulation and aggregation of unfolded proteins, which initiates an adaptive response, the unfolded protein response (UPR), in order to regain normal ER functions. Failure to activate the adaptive response initiates the process of programmed cell death or apoptosis. Apoptosis plays an important role in cell elimination, which is essential for embryogenesis, development, and tissue homeostasis. Impaired apoptosis can lead to the development of various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, cancer, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Calcium (Ca(2+)) is one of the key regulators of cell survival and it can induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis in response to various conditions. Ca(2+) regulates cell death both at the early and late stages of apoptosis. Severe Ca(2+) dysregulation can promote cell death through apoptosis. Action potential, an electrical signal transmitted along the neurons and muscle fibers, is important for conveying information to, from, and within the brain. Upon the initiation of the action potential, increased levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) (depolarization) lead to the activation of the ER stress response involved in the initiation of apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the involvement of Ca(2+) and action potential in ER stress-mediated apoptosis.

  6. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  7. tBid and cardiolipin - trying an insight to the interplay of cell apoptosis key players in a simple model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya; Antonsson, Bruno

    he abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefor...

  8. Key players and activities across the ERP life cycle: A temporal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are enterprise wide systems that, because of their integration, automate all of a company's business processes. They have rapidly become the de facto industry standard for replacement of legacy systems. In this paper I analyze using an information theory approach the temporal aspects of key players and activities specific to Romanian SME's ERP implementations with focus on both generic and unique aspects

  9. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado

    2015-10-30

    Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different.

  10. Regulatory RNA Key Player in p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Embryonic Stem Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) must maintain the integrity of their genomes or risk passing potentially deleterious mutations on to numerous tissues. Thus, ESCs have a unique genome surveillance system and easily undergo apoptosis or differentiation when DNA damage is detected. The protein p53 is known to promote differentiation in mouse ESCs (mESCs), but its role in DNA

  11. Swelling-activated ion channels: functional regulation in cell-swelling, proliferation and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stutzin, A; Hoffmann, E K

    2006-01-01

    Cell volume regulation is one of the most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms and essential for normal cellular function. At the same time, however, many physiological mechanisms are associated with regulatory changes in cell size meaning that the set point for cell volume regulation is under phys...... as key players in the maintenance of normal steady-state cell volume, with particular emphasis on the intracellular signalling pathways responsible for their regulation during hypotonic stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis....

  12. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L.; Narula, J.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  13. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  14. Prospective Player-Reported Injuries in Female Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V; Davis, Randi; Brophy, Robert H; Prather, Heidi; Garbutt, Jane; Wright, Rick W

    2015-01-01

    There is a scarcity of literature evaluating injuries in youth fast-pitch softball players. To perform a descriptive analysis of player-reported injuries in youth fast-pitch softball position players and pitchers during a single select-level season. Prospective observation cohort study. Level 3. Ninety-eight athletes (48 pitchers, 50 position players) were followed for a single select fast-pitch softball season. Study participants completed web-based surveys every 3 weeks reporting injuries related to participation in fast-pitch softball. Injury was defined as pain causing cessation of participation in the current game or practice that prevents the player's return to that session or any pain that causes cessation of a player's customary participation on the day after the day of onset. The median age of the study participants was 14 years (range, 9-18 years). There were 49 reported injuries in 98 athletes. The average age was 13 years for those not injured and 14 years for those who were injured (P softball players. Better off-season and preseason conditioning may be a key factor for reducing pitching injuries. Recognition of injury patterns in fast-pitch softball players is critical to developing strategies to keep these athletes competing safely. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Long Non-Coding RNAs: The Key Players in Glioma Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiang, Karrie Mei-Yee; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit, E-mail: gilberto@hku.hk [Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-07-29

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS), will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed.

  16. Long Non-Coding RNAs: The Key Players in Glioma Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, Karrie Mei-Yee; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS), will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed

  17. Carbon ion beam triggers both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis in HeLa and status of PARP-1 controls intensity of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P; Ghosh, Utpal

    2015-04-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam (CIB) is becoming very promising tool for various cancer treatments and is more efficient than conventional low LET gamma or X-rays to kill malignant or radio-resistant cells, although detailed mechanism of cell death is still unknown. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key player in DNA repair and its inhibitors are well-known as radio-sensitizer for low LET radiation. The objective of our study was to find mechanism(s) of induction of apoptosis by CIB and role of PARP-1 in CIB-induced apoptosis. We observed overall higher apoptosis in PARP-1 knocked down HeLa cells (HsiI) compared with negative control H-vector cells after irradiation with CIB (0-4 Gy). CIB activated both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via caspase-9 and caspase-8 activation respectively, followed by caspase-3 activation, apoptotic body, nucleosomal ladder formation and sub-G1 accumulation. Apoptosis inducing factor translocation into nucleus in H-vector but not in HsiI cells after CIB irradiation contributed caspase-independent apoptosis. Higher p53 expression was observed in HsiI cells compared with H-vector after exposure with CIB. Notably, we observed about 37 % fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and mild activation of caspase-8 without any detectable apoptotic body formation in un-irradiated HsiI cells. We conclude that reduction of PARP-1 expression activates apoptotic signals via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in un-irradiated cells. CIB irradiation further intensified both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis synergistically along with up-regulation of p53 in HsiI cells resulting overall higher apoptosis in HsiI than H-vector.

  18. Macranthoidin B Modulates Key Metabolic Pathways to Enhance ROS Generation and Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Induction of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS mediated-apoptosis have been utilized as effective strategies in anticancer therapy. Macranthoidin B (MB is a potent inducer of ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Method: Superoxide production with MB exposure in colorectal cancer (CRC cells was measured using lucigenin chemiluminescence and real-time PCR. MB’s inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of CRC cells was determined by proliferation assays. MB’s effect on apoptosis of CRC cells was determined by Western blotting and annexin V-FITC/PI staining. MB’s effect on the growth of CRC xenografts in mice was assessed. An established metabolomics profiling platform combining ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was performed to determine MB’s effect on total metabolite variation in CRC cells. Results: We found that MB increases ROS generation via modulating key metabolic pathways. Using metabolomics profiling platform combining LC-MS with GC-MS, a total of 236 metabolites were identified in HCT-116 cells in which 31 metabolites were determined to be significantly regulated (p ≤ 0.05 after MB exposure. A number of key metabolites revealed by metabolomics analysis include glucose, fructose, citrate, arginine, phenylalanine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, suggesting specific modulation of metabolism on carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides, lipids, nucleotide, cofactors and vitamins in HCT-116 CRC cells with MB treatment highly associated with apoptosis triggered by enhanced ROS and activated caspase-3. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that MB represses CRC cell proliferation by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis.

  19. Macranthoidin B Modulates Key Metabolic Pathways to Enhance ROS Generation and Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Rao, Jun; Zhang, Ziwei; Li, Dengfeng; Cui, Wenhao; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Tou, Fangfang; Zheng, Zhi; Shen, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Induction of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated-apoptosis have been utilized as effective strategies in anticancer therapy. Macranthoidin B (MB) is a potent inducer of ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Superoxide production with MB exposure in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was measured using lucigenin chemiluminescence and real-time PCR. MB's inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of CRC cells was determined by proliferation assays. MB's effect on apoptosis of CRC cells was determined by Western blotting and annexin V-FITC/PI staining. MB's effect on the growth of CRC xenografts in mice was assessed. An established metabolomics profiling platform combining ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed to determine MB's effect on total metabolite variation in CRC cells. We found that MB increases ROS generation via modulating key metabolic pathways. Using metabolomics profiling platform combining LC-MS with GC-MS, a total of 236 metabolites were identified in HCT-116 cells in which 31 metabolites were determined to be significantly regulated (p ≤ 0.05) after MB exposure. A number of key metabolites revealed by metabolomics analysis include glucose, fructose, citrate, arginine, phenylalanine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), suggesting specific modulation of metabolism on carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides, lipids, nucleotide, cofactors and vitamins in HCT-116 CRC cells with MB treatment highly associated with apoptosis triggered by enhanced ROS and activated caspase-3. Our results demonstrate that MB represses CRC cell proliferation by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Prospective Player-Reported Injuries in Female Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew V.; Davis, Randi; Brophy, Robert H.; Prather, Heidi; Garbutt, Jane; Wright, Rick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a scarcity of literature evaluating injuries in youth fast-pitch softball players. Purpose: To perform a descriptive analysis of player-reported injuries in youth fast-pitch softball position players and pitchers during a single select-level season. Study Design: Prospective observation cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Ninety-eight athletes (48 pitchers, 50 position players) were followed for a single select fast-pitch softball season. Study participants completed web-based surveys every 3 weeks reporting injuries related to participation in fast-pitch softball. Injury was defined as pain causing cessation of participation in the current game or practice that prevents the player’s return to that session or any pain that causes cessation of a player’s customary participation on the day after the day of onset. Results: The median age of the study participants was 14 years (range, 9-18 years). There were 49 reported injuries in 98 athletes. The average age was 13 years for those not injured and 14 years for those who were injured (P softball players. Better off-season and preseason conditioning may be a key factor for reducing pitching injuries. Clinical Relevance: Recognition of injury patterns in fast-pitch softball players is critical to developing strategies to keep these athletes competing safely. PMID:26502442

  1. Developing Talented Soccer Players: An Analysis of Socio-Spatial Factors as Possible Key Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra-Olivares Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821 and countries (n = 59 in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05, and also between countries (p < .05. The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent.

  2. Polyphenols as Key Players for the Antileukaemic Effects of Propolis

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    Murtala B. Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis (a bee product which has a long history of medicinal use by humans has attracted a great deal of research interest in the recent time; this is due to its widely reported biological activities such as antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Crude form of propolis and its phenolic contents have both been reported to exhibit antileukaemic effects in various leukaemia cell lines. The ability of the polyphenols found in propolis to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis and differentiation in addition to inhibition of cell growth and proliferation makes them promising antileukaemic agents, and hence, they are believed to be a key to the antileukaemic effects of propolis in different types of leukaemia. This paper reviews the molecular bases of antileukaemic activity of both crude propolis and individual polyphenols on various leukaemia cell lines, and it indicates that propolis has the potential to be used in both treatment and prevention of leukaemia. This however needs further evaluation by in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies as well as clinical trials.

  3. PARP-1 is a key player in controlling apoptosis induced by high LET carbon ion beam and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Ghosh, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 inhibitors have long been used as chemo-sensitizer or radio-sensitizer and specific PARP-1 inhibitors are also in clinical trial for the treatment of various cancers. PARP-1 is not only involved in DNA repair but also plays very complex role in induction of apoptosis in postirradiation condition. Our objective is to investigate role of PARP-1 in apoptosis triggered by high LET carbon ion beam (CIB) and low LET gamma. We have treated HeLa and PARP-1 knock down HeLa (Hsil) cells with various doses of CIB and gamma. We measured DNA damage by comet assay and various apoptotic parameters such as nuclear fragmentation, activation of caspase-3,8,9, AIF translocation etc. We observed higher DNA breaks and also higher apoptosis in HsiI cells compared with HeLa cells. Both CIB and gamma treatment results G2/M arrest but unlike gamma CIB makes S-phase delay, implicating that gamma and CIB triggers different pathway after DNA damage. Cell death by CIB or by gamma increased up on knocking down of PARP-1 but increase is higher for high LET CIB compared with low LET gamma. Furthermore, expression level of PARP-1 controls the intensity of overall apoptosis in cells in post-irradiation condition. So, combination of PARP-1 inhibition with high LET CIB could be a promising tool to combat cancer. (author)

  4. A multiplexed method for kinetic measurements of apoptosis and proliferation using live-content imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artymovich, Katherine; Appledorn, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell proliferation and apoptosis assays are widely used to study cancer cell biology. Commonly used methodologies are however performed at a single, user-defined endpoint. We describe a kinetic multiplex assay incorporating the CellPlayer(TM) NucLight Red reagent to measure proliferation and the CellPlayer(TM) Caspase-3/7 reagent to measure apoptosis using the two-color, live-content imaging platform, IncuCyte(TM) ZOOM. High-definition phase-contrast images provide an additional qualitative validation of cell death based on morphological characteristics. The kinetic data generated using this strategy can be used to derive informed pharmacology measurements to screen potential cancer therapeutics.

  5. Micro-Economics of Apoptosis in Cancer: ncRNAs Modulation of BCL-2 Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Lidia; Careccia, Silvia; De Maria, Ruggero; Fiori, Micol E

    2018-03-23

    In the last few years, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been a hot topic in cancer research. Many ncRNAs were found to regulate the apoptotic process and to play a role in tumor cell resistance to treatment. The apoptotic program is on the frontline as self-defense from cancer onset, and evasion of apoptosis has been classified as one of the hallmarks of cancer responsible for therapy failure. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family members are key players in the regulation of apoptosis and mediate the activation of the mitochondrial death machinery in response to radiation, chemotherapeutic agents and many targeted therapeutics. The balance between the pro-survival and the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins is strictly controlled by ncRNAs. Here, we highlight the most common mechanisms exerted by microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs on the main mediators of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade with particular focus on their significance in cancer biology.

  6. Human-gyrovirus-Apoptin triggers mitochondrial death pathway--Nur77 is required for apoptosis triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Wiem; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; El-Gazzah, Mohamed; Jain, Mayur V; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Rafat, Mehrdad; Stetefeld, Joerg; Ghavami, Saeid; Los, Marek J

    2014-09-01

    The human gyrovirus derived protein Apoptin (HGV-Apoptin) a homologue of the chicken anemia virus Apoptin (CAV-Apoptin), a protein with high cancer cells selective toxicity, triggers apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. In this paper, we show that HGV-Apoptin acts independently from the death receptor pathway as it induces apoptosis in similar rates in Jurkat cells deficient in either FADD (fas-associated death domain) function or caspase-8 (key players of the extrinsic pathway) and their parental clones. HGV-Apoptin induces apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. It induces both mitochondrial inner and outer membrane permebilization, characterized by the loss of the mitochondrial potential and the release into cytoplasm of the pro-apoptotic molecules including apoptosis inducing factor and cytochrome c. HGV-Apoptin acts via the apoptosome, as lack of expression of apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 in murine embryonic fibroblast strongly protected the cells from HGV-Apoptin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, QVD-oph a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor delayed HGV-Apoptin-induced death. On the other hand, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL confers resistance to HGV-Apoptin-induced cell death. In contrast, cells that lack the expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK are protected from HGV-Apoptin induced apoptosis. Furthermore, HGV-Apoptin acts independently from p53 signal but triggers the cytoplasmic translocation of Nur77. Taking together these data indicate that HGV-Apoptin acts through the mitochondrial pathway, in a caspase-dependent manner but independently from the death receptor pathway. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microparticles as players in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, N.; Georgescu, A.

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and include all diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels. The main cause of most CVD is atherosclerosis, which is an abnormal build-up of fat and other substances which form plaque inside the arteries. Atherosclerosis is most serious when it leads to reduced or blocked blood supply to the heart (causing angina or heart attack) or to the brain (causing a stroke). The majority of CVD is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified. Microparticles (MPs) are now recognized as potential biomarkers and key elements in the development of CVD. Although MP generation is a physiological phenomenon, their shedding from a variety of cell types into body fluid is intensified in response to cellular activation, high shear stress, as well as cellular apoptosis. In this review we outline distinct aspect of MP generation and their side as players n the CVD development.

  8. B-lymphocytes as key players in chemical-induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De Vooght

    Full Text Available T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are key players in allergic asthma, with B-lymphocytes producing antigen-specific immunoglobulins E (IgE. We used a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma and transferred B-lymphocytes from sensitized animals into naïve wild type mice, B-lymphocyte knock-out (B-KO mice or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. On days 1 and 8, BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized with 0.3% toluene diisocyanate (TDI (20 µl/ear. On day 15, mice were euthanized and the auricular lymph nodes isolated. B-lymphocytes (CD19(+ were separated from the whole cell suspension and 175,000 cells were injected in the tail vein of naïve wild type, B-KO or SCID mice. Three days later, the mice received a single oropharyngeal challenge with 0.01% TDI (20 µl or vehicle (acetone/olive oil (AOO (controls. Airway reactivity to methacholine and total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were measured 24 hours after challenge. B-lymphocytes of AOO or TDI-sensitized mice were characterized for the expression of surface markers and production of cytokines. We found that transfer of B-cells obtained from mice dermally sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI into naïve wild type mice, B-KO mice or SCID mice led, within three days, to an acute asthma-like phenotype after an airway challenge with TDI. This response was specific and independent of IgE. These B-lymphocytes showed antigen presenting capacities (CD80/CD86 and CD40 and consisted of B effector (Be2- (IL-4 and Be1-lymphocytes (IFN-γ. The transferred B-lymphocytes were visualized near large airways, 24 hours after TDI challenge. Thus, B-lymphocytes can provoke an asthmatic response without the action of T-lymphocytes and without major involvement of IgE.

  9. The key role of extracellular vesicles in the metastatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyun; Achreja, Abhinav; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Nagrath, Deepak; Fais, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, have a key role in the paracrine communication between organs and compartments. EVs shuttle virtually all types of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites and even pharmacological compounds. Their ability to transfer their biomolecular cargo into target cells enables EVs to play a key role in intercellular communication that can regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and migration. This has led to the emergence of EVs as a key player in tumor growth and metastasis through the formation of "tumor niches" in target organs. Recent data have also been shown that EVs may transform the microenvironment of primary tumors thus favoring the selection of cancer cells with a metastatic behavior. The release of EVs from resident non-malignant cells may contribute to the metastatic processes as well. However, cancer EVs may induce malignant transformation in resident mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the metastatic process is not exclusively due to circulating tumor cells. In this review, we outline and discuss evidence-based roles of EVs in actively regulating multiple steps of the metastatic process and how we can leverage EVs to impair metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Upregulation of NOXA by 10-Hydroxycamptothecin plays a key role in inducing fibroblasts apoptosis and reducing epidural fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihang Dai

    2017-01-01

    the first to demonstrate that upregulation of NOXA by HCPT plays a key role in inducing fibroblast apoptosis and in reducing epidural fibrosis. These findings might provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing epidural fibrosis following laminectomy.

  11. Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif1) mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2017-03-01

    Anacardic acid is a medicinal phytochemical that inhibits proliferation of fungal as well as several types of cancer cells. It induces apoptotic cell death in various cell types, but very little is known about the mechanism involved in the process. Here, we used budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to study the involvement of some key elements of apoptosis in the anacardic acid-induced cell death. Plasma membrane constriction, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) indicated that anacardic acid induces apoptotic cell death in S. cerevisiae. However, the exogenous addition of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or deletion of the yeast caspase Yca1 showed that the anacardic acid-induced cell death is caspase independent. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF1) deletion mutant was resistant to the anacardic acid-induced cell death, suggesting a key role of Aif1. Overexpression of Aif1 made cells highly susceptible to anacardic acid, further confirming that Aif1 mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, instead of the increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally observed during apoptosis, anacardic acid caused a decrease in the intracellular ROS levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed downregulation of the BIR1 survivin mRNA expression during the anacardic acid-induced apoptosis.

  12. Dynamic Difficulty Adaptation for Heterogeneously Skilled Player Groups in Multiplayer Collaborative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Greciano, Miguel Cristian

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the combination of two key concepts: Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment/Adaptation (video games adapting their difficulty according to the in-game performance of players, making themselves easier if the player performs poorly or more difficult if the player performs well) and Collaborative Multiplayer Games (video games where two or more human players work together to achieve a common goal). It considers and analyzes the challenges, potential and possibilities of Dynamic Diffi...

  13. Nutritional guidance to soccer players for training and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for a nutrition education as applied to individual soccer players provide a key to guiding them towards appropriate food selection. Scientific investigations have associated energy requirements, composition of the diet and carbohydrate intake with muscle glycogen storage, and adequacy of fluids with optimal athletic performance. In general, soccer players appear to consume adequate energy but low carbohydrate diets. The training diet should be comprised of 55-65% carbohydrate, 12-15% protein and less than 30% fat. The goal of the training diet is to provide adequate energy for weight maintenance, and 7-10 g of carbohydrate per kg body weight for maximizing glycogen storage. Nutritional needs for competition include eating prior to and after matches. Consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods for energy needs and glycogen resynthesis are key behaviours soccer players need to focus on daily. Qualified dietitians should be on hand to provide personal nutrition counselling, carbohydrate resource lists and education on food labels as simple and quick nutrition education strategies to guide soccer players, their parents, coaches and trainers towards improved food selections.

  14. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  15. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  16. β2-adrenoceptor blockage induces G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells via Ras/Akt/NFκB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and stress, pancreatic cancer (PanCa risk factors, stimulate nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and catecholamines production respectively. NNK and catecholamine bind the β-adrenoceptors and induce PanCa cell proliferation; and we have previously suggested that β-adrenergic antagonists may suppress proliferation and invasion and stimulate apoptosis in PanCa. To clarify the mechanism of apoptosis induced by β2-adrenergic antagonist, we hypothesize that blockage of the β2-adrenoceptor could induce G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis and Ras may be a key player in PanCa cells. Results The β1 and β2-adrenoceptor proteins were detected on the cell surface of PanCa cells from pancreatic carcinoma specimen samples by immunohistochemistry. The β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI118,551 significantly induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis compared with the β1-adrenergic antagonist metoprolol, which was determined by the flow cytometry assay. β2-adrenergic antagonist therapy significantly suppressed the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E and induced the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax by Western blotting. Additionally, the β2-adrenergic antagonist reduced the activation of NFκB in vitro cultured PanCa cells. Conclusions The blockage of β2-adrenoceptor markedly induced PanCa cells to arrest at G1/S phase and consequently resulted in cell death, which is possibly due to that the blockage of β2-adrenoceptor inhibited NFκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways. Therefore, their upstream molecule Ras may be a key factor in the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in PanCa cells. The new pathway discovered in this study may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for PanCa.

  17. Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the microRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaojun; Li, Fake; Jia, Shuangrong; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbing; Shang, Ya; Chang, Kai; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB (LTB). ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Early Secreted Antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Promotes Apoptosis of Macrophages via Targeting the MicroRNA155-SOCS1 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Methods: Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB and latent TB (LTB. Conclusion: ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.

  19. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved taken into account that players’ perceptions of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and cultural background. One...... promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players - and thereby attempt to close the affective loop in games - is to automatically tailor the game content in real-time. To realize player-driven procedural content generation one needs to specify the aspects of the game...... that have a key influence on the gameplay experience, identify the relationship between these aspects and player experience and define a mechanism for tailoring the game content to each individual needs. In this dissertation we attempt to address the following research questions towards the aim...

  20. Combinatorial treatment with anacardic acid followed by TRAIL augments induction of apoptosis in TRAIL resistant cancer cells by the regulation of p53, MAPK and NFκβ pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha Raj, M; Yashaswini, B; Rössler, Jochen; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2016-05-01

    TRAIL, an apoptosis inducing cytokine currently in phase II clinical trial, was investigated for its capability to induce apoptosis in six different human tumor cell lines out of which three cell lines showed resistance to TRAIL induced apoptosis. To investigate whether Anacardic acid (A1) an active component of Anacardium occidentale can sensitize the resistant cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis, we treated the resistant cells with suboptimal concentration of A1 and showed that it is a potent enhancer of TRAIL induced apoptosis which up-regulates the expression of both DR4 and DR5 receptors, which has been observed in the cellular, protein and mRNA levels. The death receptors upregulation consequent to A1 treatment was corroborated by the activation of p53 as well as phosphorylation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases and concomitant inactivation of NFκβ and ERK signaling cascades. Also, A1 modulated the expression of key apoptotic players like Bax, Bcl-2 and CAD along with the abatement of tumor angiogenesis in vivo in EAT mouse model. Thus, post A1 treatment the TRAIL resistant cells turned into TRAIL sensitive cells. Hence our results demonstrate that A1 can synergize TRAIL induced apoptosis through the upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in cancer context.

  1. Oil Exploration and Production in Africa since 2014. Evolution of the Key Players and their Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    The fall in oil prices, which began in fall 2014, had a significant influence on the strategies of the key players in the oil industry in Africa. The continent's oil sector has experienced deep-reaching changes, ranging from a drop in exploration budgets, the disappearance or sale of weakened companies, the reorganization or pullback of the traditional oil majors, the establishment of new companies and the arrival of state-owned companies attracted by the crisis-induced windfall effects. Yet the crisis has not redefined the geography of African production, whose principal giants are and will continue to be Nigeria, Angola, Algeria and Libya, at least in terms of reserves. Nevertheless, new zones have emerged, in particular due to the risks taken by junior players backed by powerful investment funds that have had faith in the potential of geologists and technical teams formerly employed by the big companies. This is first of all the case in East Africa, for oil, in Uganda and Kenya, along with gas, with Tanzania and Mozambique. Several very significant oil and gas discoveries have been made in a new basin located between Mauritania and Guinea, contributing to its development. However, no single African model has taken shape, as each company has followed its own path in making decisions about acquisition and exploration. Whereas traditional players, such as the Western majors ENI and Total, have continued to invest on this continent that plays a central role in their global production and strategy, some big companies, such as ConocoPhilipps, have quite simply left the field, while others, such as BP and ExxonMobil, have made new high-risk acquisitions. As for the large Asian state-owned companies, China's investments in exploration and production have tended to stagnate (concerning CNPC and Sinopec in particular), while others, such as the Indonesian Pertamina or India's ONGC, have significantly bolstered their presence. The disengagement of the

  2. An investigation of player to player character identification via personal pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The player character is an important feature of many games, where it is through the character that the player interacts with game world. There has been considerable interest in the relationship between the player and the player character. Much of this work has examined the identification of players......, third) as an indication of the relationship between player and character. Results indicate that the presence of story and information about the player character had no effect on identification with the plater character. However, characteristics of the players, particularly gender and general experience...... in playing video games, did have a statistically significant affect, indicating that different levels of identification are more dependent on the player than on the game. This indicates that players are not a homogeneous group with respect to player character identification and is an important consideration...

  3. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  5. Uncoupling Protein 2: A Key Player and a Potential Therapeutic Target in Vascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Pierelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that belongs to the uncoupling protein family and plays an important role in lowering mitochondrial membrane potential and dissipating metabolic energy with prevention of oxidative stress accumulation. In the present article, we will review the evidence that UCP2, as a consequence of its roles within the mitochondria, represents a critical player in the predisposition to vascular disease development in both animal models and in humans, particularly in relation to obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. The deletion of the UCP2 gene contributes to atherosclerosis lesion development in the knockout mice, also showing significantly shorter lifespan. The UCP2 gene downregulation is a key determinant of higher predisposition to renal and cerebrovascular damage in an animal model of spontaneous hypertension and stroke. In contrast, UCP2 overexpression improves both hyperglycemia- and high-salt diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and ameliorates hypertensive target organ damage in SHRSP. Moreover, drugs (fenofibrate and sitagliptin and several vegetable compounds (extracts from Brassicaceae, berberine, curcumin, and capsaicin are able to induce UCP2 expression level and to exert beneficial effects on the occurrence of vascular damage. As a consequence, UCP2 becomes an interesting therapeutic target for the treatment of common human vascular diseases.

  6. A strategic game between key players in a competitive oil market; Um jogo estrategico entre atores-chave em um mercado competitivo de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Fernando; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    This article aims to state a strategic game devised in Theory Game, regarding some aspects present in a highly competitive oil market. A set of strategies for two key players of the world oil industry is created. Both of them are in a conflict of economic interest and make decisions based on rational and conservative principles. Pure and mixed strategies, the minimax optimizing method and the concept of Nash Equilibrium among optimum strategies are used to calculate the expected value for decision for each actor in the game. (author)

  7. Ceramides in Alzheimer’s Disease: Key Mediators of Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ and intracellular deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (phospho-tau protein. Ceramides, the major molecules of sphingolipid metabolism and lipid second messengers, have been associated with AD progression and pathology via Aβ generation. Enhanced levels of ceramides directly increase Aβ through stabilization of β-secretase, the key enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP. As a positive feedback loop, the generated oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ induces a further increase in ceramide levels by activating sphingomyelinases that catalyze the catabolic breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. Evidence also supports important role of ceramides in neuronal apoptosis. Ceramides may initiate a cascade of biochemical alterations, which ultimately leads to neuronal death by diverse mechanisms, including depolarization and permeabilization of mitochondria, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cytochrome c release, Bcl-2 depletion, and caspase-3 activation, mainly by modulating intracellular signalling, particularly along the pathways related to Akt/PKB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. This review summarizes recent findings related to the role of ceramides in oxidative stress-driven neuronal apoptosis and interplay with Aβ in the cascade of events ending in neuronal degeneration.

  8. A Role for Serglycin Proteoglycan in Mast Cell Apoptosis Induced by a Secretory Granule-mediated Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Fabio Rabelo; Waern, Ida; Rönnberg, Elin; Åbrink, Magnus; Lee, David M.; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Turk, Boris; Wernersson, Sara; Pejler, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell secretory granules (secretory lysosomes) contain large amounts of fully active proteases bound to serglycin proteoglycan. Damage to the granule membrane will thus lead to the release of serglycin and serglycin-bound proteases into the cytosol, which potentially could lead to proteolytic activation of cytosolic pro-apoptotic compounds. We therefore hypothesized that mast cells are susceptible to apoptosis induced by permeabilization of the granule membrane and that this process is serglycin-dependent. Indeed, we show that wild-type mast cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis induced by granule permeabilization, whereas serglycin-deficient cells are largely resistant. The reduced sensitivity of serglycin−/− cells to apoptosis was accompanied by reduced granule damage, reduced release of proteases into the cytosol, and defective caspase-3 activation. Mechanistically, the apoptosis-promoting effect of serglycin involved serglycin-dependent proteases, as indicated by reduced sensitivity to apoptosis and reduced caspase-3 activation in cells lacking individual mast cell-specific proteases. Together, these findings implicate serglycin proteoglycan as a novel player in mast cell apoptosis. PMID:21123167

  9. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Hastings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  10. History and Development of Coronal Mass Ejections as a Key Player in Solar Terrestrial Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently discovered phenomenon in 1971, some 15 years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earths space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the 1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of CME research following the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission in 1995, resulting in the establishment of a full picture of CMEs.

  11. Advances in cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway and therapies of polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying LIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is one of the monogenic inherited diseases. In PKD, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and disruption of the mechanisms controlling tubular diameter may all lead to cyst formation. Current evidence has demonstrated that intracellular calcium ion and cAMP imbalance drive both abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway. The present paper summarized the evidence implicating calcium ion and cAMP as central players in the signaling pathway of cell proliferation and apoptosis in PKD, and considered the potential therapeutic approaches targeted to slow cyst growth in PKD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.13

  12. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  13. Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, D

    1993-08-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. There is still much uncertainty and debate surrounding its physiological requirements because emphasis is on skills to the neglect of fitness, conservative training methods and the difficulty of studying the sport scientifically. The frequently found values for total distance covered in a game of about 10 km and an above-average, though not outstanding, maximum oxygen uptake of 60 ml/kg/min suggest a moderate overall aerobic demand. A comparison of top teams and players with less able participants indicates that the components of anaerobic fitness-speed, power, strength and the capacity of the lactic acid system may differentiate better between the 2 groups. Generally, there is a reduction in the level of activity in the second half of games compared with the first. There is some evidence that increased aerobic fitness may help counteract this. Progressively lower muscle glycogen stores are one likely cause of reduction in activity, and nutrition also appears to be a key factor in minimising performance deterioration, both in terms of overall diet and, more particularly, the ingestion of carbohydrates immediately before, during and after a game. There are evolutionary trends in the sport such as greater frequency of games, changes in the roles of players, and new strategies and tactics which are placing increasing demands on the all-round fitness of players. Many studies indicate scope for improvement in player fitness. The challenge for coaches and players is to meet these fitness requirements without sacrificing the skill work which makes the sport unique.

  14. MEANING TO BE VOLLEYBALL PLAYER IN CAREER TRANSITION PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Justino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the meaning of being that a volleyball player for the under-19 players who are experiencing a transition in their in career. Sixteen male players aged 17 and 18 were evaluated, by being asked the triggering question “What does being a volleyball player mean to you?” The analysis of the discourses was carried out according to the procedures recommended by Miles & Huberman (2004. Four response categories resulted: psychoemotional and behavioral skills, emotions in sport, recognition and financial return, skills as an athlete/player. The athletes showed that the meaning of sport lies especially in the passion for practice, but also, in the improving of their tactics and techniques, in the development of psychoemotional and behavioral skills, in the professional recognition and, to a lesser degree, in the financial aspect. Most athletes state they intend to continue in the juvenile sports categories, therefore, understanding the meaning of this activity in their life can be the key to the elaboration of a plan of psychological preparation whose aim is to provide support to their needs in this moment of professional choice.

  15. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.; Cabilla, Jimena P.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary. PMID:27611913

  16. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A Ronchetti

    Full Text Available Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2 are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO, an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  17. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  18. 14-3-3 zeta is a molecular target in guggulsterone induced apoptosis in Head and Neck cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macha, Muzafar A; Matta, Ajay; Chauhan, SS; Siu, KW Michael; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-01-01

    The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies. Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP). GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing

  19. Combinatorial action of Grainyhead, Extradenticle and Notch in regulating Hox mediated apoptosis in Drosophila larval CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Risha; Sipani, Rashmi; Govinda Rajan, Sriivatsan; Kumar, Raviranjan; Joshi, Rohit

    2017-10-01

    Hox mediated neuroblast apoptosis is a prevalent way to pattern larval central nervous system (CNS) by different Hox genes, but the mechanism of this apoptosis is not understood. Our studies with Abdominal-A (Abd-A) mediated larval neuroblast (pNB) apoptosis suggests that AbdA, its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh), and Notch signaling transcriptionally contribute to expression of RHG family of apoptotic genes. We find that Grh, AbdA, and Exd function together at multiple motifs on the apoptotic enhancer. In vivo mutagenesis of these motifs suggest that they are important for the maintenance of the activity of the enhancer rather than its initiation. We also find that Exd function is independent of its known partner homothorax in this apoptosis. We extend some of our findings to Deformed expressing region of sub-esophageal ganglia where pNBs undergo a similar Hox dependent apoptosis. We propose a mechanism where common players like Exd-Grh-Notch work with different Hox genes through region specific enhancers to pattern respective segments of larval central nervous system.

  20. Network theory inspired analysis of time-resolved expression data reveals key players guiding P. patens stem cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Bao, Jie; Hanke, Sebastian T; Hiss, Manuel; Tiko, Theodhor; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems.

  1. Biomarkers of Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Autophagy in Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Al-Wasiyah, Mohammad K.; Alqahtani, Mohammed H.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cell death with morphological and molecular features of apoptosis has been detected in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, which suggests a key role for chondrocyte death/survival in the pathogenesis of OA. Identification of biomarkers of chondrocyte apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapies that may eliminate the cause or, at least, slow down the degenerative processes in OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signals that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords chondrocyte death, apoptosis, osteoarthritis, autophagy and biomarker. Several molecules considered to be markers of chondrocyte apoptosis will be discussed in this brief review. Molecular markers and signalling pathways associated with chondroycte apoptosis may turn out to be therapeutic targets in OA and approaches aimed at neutralizing apoptosis-inducing molecules may at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA. PMID:26334269

  2. IL-9 and Mast Cells Are Key Players of Candida albicans Commensalism and Pathogenesis in the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Giorgia; Moretti, Silvia; Oikonomou, Vasilis; Borghi, Monica; Zelante, Teresa; Paolicelli, Giuseppe; Costantini, Claudio; De Zuani, Marco; Villella, Valeria Rachela; Raia, Valeria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Bartoli, Andrea; Baldoni, Monia; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Sidoni, Angelo; Garaci, Enrico; Maiuri, Luigi; Pucillo, Carlo; Romani, Luigina

    2018-05-08

    Candida albicans is implicated in intestinal diseases. Identifying host signatures that discriminate between the pathogenic versus commensal nature of this human commensal is clinically relevant. In the present study, we identify IL-9 and mast cells (MCs) as key players of Candida commensalism and pathogenicity. By inducing TGF-β in stromal MCs, IL-9 pivotally contributes to mucosal immune tolerance via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. However, Candida-driven IL-9 and mucosal MCs also contribute to barrier function loss, dissemination, and inflammation in experimental leaky gut models and are upregulated in patients with celiac disease. Inflammatory dysbiosis occurs with IL-9 and MC deficiency, indicating that the activity of IL-9 and MCs may go beyond host immunity to include regulation of the microbiota. Thus, the output of the IL-9/MC axis is highly contextual during Candida colonization and reveals how host immunity and the microbiota finely tune Candida behavior in the gut. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Anthropometric Characteristics of Futsal Players Compared with Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukiewicz Anna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and

  4. Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....

  5. Studying arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis of Colo-16 cells with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... induced apoptosis at the single cell level. Key words: Two-photon laser scanning microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, human skin squamous carcinoma cells (Colo-16 cells), arsenic trioxide, apoptosis. INTRODUCTION. Although arsenic is poisonous and chronic arsenic exposure from ...

  6. Predicting Player Churn In the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadiji, Fabian; Sifa, Rafet; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Free-to-Play or "freemium" games represent a fundamental shift in the business models of the game industry, facilitated by the increasing use of online distribution platforms and the introduction of increasingly powerful mobile platforms. The ability of a game development company to analyze...... a crucial value, allowing developers to obtain data-driven insights to inform design, development and marketing strategies. One of the key challenges is modeling and predicting player churn. This paper presents the first cross-game study of churn prediction in Free-to-Play games. Churn in games is discussed...... and derive insights from behavioral telemetry is crucial to the success of these games which rely on in-game purchases and in-game advertising to generate revenue, and for the Company to remain competitive in a global marketplace. The ability to model, understand and predict future player behavior has...

  7. Calcium plays a key role in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-associated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Du, Yi; Ju, Furong; Ma, Shunxiang; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is one of the most toxic organophosphorus pesticides, but its toxic mechanisms associated with apoptosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate calcium-associated mechanisms in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. EL4 cells were exposed to POX for 0-16 h. EGTA was used to chelate Ca(2+ ) in extracellular medium, and heparin and procaine were used to inhibit Ca(2+ )efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Z-ATAD-FMK was used to inhibit caspase-12 activity. The apoptotic rate assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to reveal the mechanisms of POX-induced apoptosis. POX significantly increased the expression and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, enhanced expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2, and induced the release of cyt c, but did not change the expression of Grp 78. Inhibiting caspase-12 activity alleviated POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1 and caspase-3, promoted POX-induced upregulation of calpain 2, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release, suggesting that there was a cross-talk between the ER-associated pathway and mitochondria-associated apoptotic signals. Attenuating intracellular calcium concentration with EGTA, heparin or procaine decreased POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1, calpain 2, caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release. After pretreatment with EGTA or procaine, POX significantly promoted expression of Grp 78. Calcium played a key role in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways. The cross-talk of ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways was accomplished through calcium signal.

  8. Interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hao-Ran; Shi, Zhao-Qi; Zhu, He-Pan; Gu, Li-Hu; Wang, Xian-Fa; Yang, Yi

    2017-09-22

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two pivotal mechanisms in mediating cell survival and death. Cross-talk of autophagy and apoptosis has been documented in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancer, while the interplay between the two pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been comprehensively summarized. In this study, we outlined the basis of apoptosis and autophagy machinery firstly, and then reviewed the recent evidence in cellular settings or animal studies regarding the interplay between them in CRC. In addition, several key factors that modulate the cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis as well as its significance in clinical practice were discussed. Understanding of the interplay between the cell death mechanisms may benefit the translation of CRC treatment from basic research to clinical use.

  9. Construction and analysis of a modular model of caspase activation in apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Kenneth L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key physiological mechanism employed by multicellular organisms is apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Apoptosis is triggered by the activation of caspases in response to both extracellular (extrinsic and intracellular (intrinsic signals. The extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are characterized by the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC and the apoptosome, respectively; both the DISC and the apoptosome are oligomers with complex formation dynamics. Additionally, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are coupled through the mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel via the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Results A model of caspase activation is constructed and analyzed. The apoptosis signaling network is simplified through modularization methodologies and equilibrium abstractions for three functional modules. The mathematical model is composed of a system of ordinary differential equations which is numerically solved. Multiple linear regression analysis investigates the role of each module and reduced models are constructed to identify key contributions of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in triggering apoptosis for different cell lines. Conclusion Through linear regression techniques, we identified the feedbacks, dissociation of complexes, and negative regulators as the key components in apoptosis. The analysis and reduced models for our model formulation reveal that the chosen cell lines predominately exhibit strong extrinsic caspase, typical of type I cell, behavior. Furthermore, under the simplified model framework, the selected cells lines exhibit different modes by which caspase activation may occur. Finally the proposed modularized model of apoptosis may generalize behavior for additional cells and tissues, specifically identifying and predicting components responsible for the transition from type I to type II cell behavior.

  10. Nutritional Practices of National Female Soccer Players: Analysis and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louise; Lambeth, Anneliese; Scott, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the nutritional practices and activity patterns of elite female soccer players. The nutritional intake of 16 female England Soccer players was self-reported over a seven-day period. Participants were provided with written and verbal guidelines for the completion of the diaries. Training details were also recorded, and used in combination with BMR predictions to calculate daily energy expenditure. Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined using DietMaster 4.0 software. Results suggest that energy intake was low (1904 ± 366.3 kcal) in relation to previous recommendations for soccer players. Energy expenditure (2153.5 ± 596.2 kcal) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from intake, suggesting energy balance was achieved. Carbohydrate (53.8 ± 6.8%), protein (16.8 ± 2.1%) and fat (28.8 ± 6.6%) intakes were in line with recommendations. Fluid intake (2466 ± 1350.5ml·day-1) was sufficient to meet baseline recommendations, but would need to be higher to meet the additional requirement of training and competition. With the exception of vitamin A and iron, all micronutrient intakes were higher than the DRI. In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI. Key points Female soccer players demonstrate a low energy intake in relation to predicted requirements, but were in energy balance in this study. Increased carbohydrate intake may be beneficial to both training and competition performance of elite female soccer players Fluid requirements should be addressed on an individual basis and matched to player requirements. The iron status of female soccer players may be compromised due to insufficient dietary intake to meet the DRV. PMID:24198690

  11. Nutritional practices of national female soccer players: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louise; Lambeth, Anneliese; Scott, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the nutritional practices and activity patterns of elite female soccer players. The nutritional intake of 16 female England Soccer players was self-reported over a seven-day period. Participants were provided with written and verbal guidelines for the completion of the diaries. Training details were also recorded, and used in combination with BMR predictions to calculate daily energy expenditure. Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined using DietMaster 4.0 software. Results suggest that energy intake was low (1904 ± 366.3 kcal) in relation to previous recommendations for soccer players. Energy expenditure (2153.5 ± 596.2 kcal) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from intake, suggesting energy balance was achieved. Carbohydrate (53.8 ± 6.8%), protein (16.8 ± 2.1%) and fat (28.8 ± 6.6%) intakes were in line with recommendations. Fluid intake (2466 ± 1350.5ml·day(-1)) was sufficient to meet baseline recommendations, but would need to be higher to meet the additional requirement of training and competition. With the exception of vitamin A and iron, all micronutrient intakes were higher than the DRI. In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI. Key pointsFemale soccer players demonstrate a low energy intake in relation to predicted requirements, but were in energy balance in this study.Increased carbohydrate intake may be beneficial to both training and competition performance of elite female soccer playersFluid requirements should be addressed on an individual basis and matched to player requirements.The iron status of female soccer players may be compromised due to insufficient dietary intake to meet the DRV.

  12. A cross-genre study of online gaming: player demographics, motivation for play, and social interactions among players

    OpenAIRE

    Ghuman, D; Griffiths, MD

    2012-01-01

    One key limitation with the contemporary online gaming research literature is that much of the published research has tended to examine only one genre of games (i.e., Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games). Three relatively little studied online games are First Person Shooter (FPS) Games, Role Play Games (RPG) and Real Time Strategy (RTS) Games. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine player behaviour and characteristics in these three different online gaming genres. More spec...

  13. The strategy of the key players in the African oil sector (the Gulf of Guinea)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copinsch, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    The African oil industry, (particularly in the deep water offshore fields of the Gulf of Guinea), is symbolic of the new balance of power taking shape in the oil industry between the international companies and the host state on the one hand, and between the petrol companies themselves on the other. In an area rich in potential and which has become highly competitive, the traditional players in the region's oil development sector (Shell, Chevron and TotalFinaElf) which have for so long been sheltered from genuine competition in their respective areas of activity, must now face up to the renewed ambitions of new 'Super Majors' (in particular ExxonMobil), not to mention those of many independent companies seeking to internationalize their business. Several reasons explain this change. Firstly, the main developments are now taking place offshore with deep water drilling, and financial solidity and technological competence have replaced the closeness of political links as key factors of success. In these conditions, the risk of long term marginalization for the medium-sized companies is considerable. Secondly, the need to achieve profitability stressed by the major petrol groups is opening the door to the independents who are operating a niche policy (based on marginal or mature fields which no longer interest the majors). This type of competition tends to promote activity and to open up new countries to exploration and production (in particular Equatorial Guinea). (author)

  14. Role of heat shock proteins in cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Kaźmierczuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is, apart from necrosis and autophagy, one of the possible cell death mechanisms eliminating needless, not normal or infected cells. This process ensures quantitative and qualitative cell control of organisms. Apoptosis is tightly regulated, it requires both activation of a large number of genes and energy input. Up-to-date two main apoptotic pathways have been recognized – external/receptor and internal, processed with the participation of mitochondria. Heat shock proteins HSPs, the molecules known from their chaperone activity and molecular conservatism, play essential functions in the course of apoptosis. Among that proteins family, i.e. HSP100, 90, 70, 60, 40 and small molecular (sHSP, there are agents mainly protective against programmed cell death. However, in some conditions some of these proteins may promote apoptosis. This review describes different key apoptotic proteins interacting with main members of HSP family and the consequence of these events for cell survival or apoptosis.

  15. Dynamics of tactical behaviour in association football when manipulating players' space of interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ric

    coordinative state became highly unstable when the distance from the target decreased. Ball location relative to the scoring zone and interpersonal distance constitute key environmental information that constrains the players' coordinative behaviour. Based on our results, dynamic overlap is presented as a good option to capture tactical performance. Moreover, the selected collective (i.e. relational variables would allow coaches to identify the effects of training drills on teams and players' behaviour. More research is needed considering these type variables to understand how the manipulation of constraints induce a more stable or flexible dynamical structure of tactical behaviour.

  16. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  17. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  18. A comparison of static near stereo acuity in youth baseball/softball players and non-ball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lauren M; Rosengren, Kenneth J; Martin, Daniel F; Boden, Scott D

    2009-03-01

    Although many aspects of vision have been investigated in professional baseball players, few studies have been performed in developing athletes. The issue of whether youth baseball players have superior stereopsis to nonplayers has not been addressed specifically. The purpose of this study was to determine if youth baseball/softball players have better stereo acuity than non-ball players. Informed consent was obtained from 51 baseball/softball players and 52 non-ball players (ages 10 to 18 years). Subjects completed a questionnaire, and their static near stereo acuity was measured using the Randot Stereotest (Stereo Optical Company, Chicago, Illinois). Stereo acuity was measured as the seconds of arc between the last pair of images correctly distinguished by the subject. The mean stereo acuity score was 25.5 +/- 1.7 seconds of arc in the baseball/softball players and 56.2 +/- 8.4 seconds of arc in the non-ball players. This difference was statistically significant (P softball players had significantly better static stereo acuity than non-ball players, comparable to professional ball players.

  19. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in

  20. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  1. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).

  2. Apoptosis – is it good or bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used classification of mammalian cell death recognizes two types: apoptosis and necrosis. Autophagy, which has been proposed as a third mode of cell death allows a starving cell, or in situations when cell is deprived of growth factors, to survive. Apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis, a particular mode of cell death may predominate, depending of the injury and the type of cell. [1] One very important characteristic of all multicellular organisms is apoptosis, the controlled death of cells. In necrosis, early loss of integrity of the plasma membrane resultant with swelling of the cell and its organelles. A key morphologic feature of apoptosis is collapses of cell and its subcellular components.[2] The distinction between apoptosis and necrosis is due in part to differences in how the plasma membrane participates in these processes. In apoptosis, plasma membrane integrity persists until late in the process. In necrosis, early loss of integrity of the plasma membrane allows an influx of extracellular ions and fluid, with resultant swelling of the cell and its organelles. During that time, on the inside of cell there occurs the cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins by aspartate specific proteases, which thereby collapses subcellular components. Other characteristic features are chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and the formation of plasma membrane blebs. The type and intensity of noxious signals, ATP concentration, cell type, and other factors determine how cell death occurs. Acute myocardial ischemia induces necrosis (because the ischemia precipitates rapid and profound decreases of ATP, whereas chronic congestive heart failure induces apoptosis (with more modest and chronic decreases of ATP. The blockade of a particular pathway of cell death may not prevent the destruction of the cell but may instead recruit an alternative path: antiapoptotic caspase inhibitors cause hyperacute necrosis of hepatocytes and kidney tubular cells

  3. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  4. Characteristics of Professional and Non-Professional Football Players – An Eight-Year Follow-Up of Three Age Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther1

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the most talented youth players is regarded as a key part of the talent development process in football. The basis for the criteria is naturally affected by the characteristics of the early-detected talented players. Nonetheless, earlier research has found limited evidenced for different criteria in this process. This study has examined whether professional and non-professional football players showed differences in player and coach characteristics as talented youth-level players eight years earlier. A total of 103 players selected for Norwegian youth national teams (age cohorts 1991–1993 participated in this study. Based on player and coach characteristics, the results showed that non-professional players had the most playing time and felt more successful in comparison to the professional players. The professional players, however, reported higher ambitions and a higher number of weekly-organized training sessions. No differences between the professional and non-professional players showed in terms of their relationship to their coaches were found. The study concludes that we need more research on identification criteria to be able to predict which abilities and skills should be sought in the identification process for youth-level players. As in earlier research, this study also found a poor relationship between youth performance and senior performance.

  5. A Cross-Continental Study on Children's Drawings of Football Players: Implications for Understanding Key Issues and Controversies in Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C Ap

    2017-08-01

    Professionals examine various aspects of girls' and boys' drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children's drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children's drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint.

  6. A Cross-Continental Study on Children's Drawings of Football Players: Implications for Understanding Key Issues and Controversies in Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J.; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C. Ap

    2017-01-01

    Professionals examine various aspects of girls’ and boys’ drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children’s drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children’s drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint. PMID:28904595

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN BASKETBALL PLAYERS, HANDBALL PLAYERS AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Miftari; Juel Jarani; Dhimitraq Stratoberdha; Hazir Salihu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometric measurement to the professional players of the three different disciplines of basketball, handball and volleyball. . For each player anthropometric measurements such as weight, body height, waist circumference, BMI and skinfold calculation on different sports are performed. Differences in terms of anthropometric measurements were assessed by independent static tests and the differences for each variable for each sport were evaluated ...

  8. The players on the European gas market - 2008 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2008-02-01

    In a context of growing dependence on extra-European sources, a growth potential in gas use for power generation and the acceleration of the liberalization process, the 2008 Edition of 'The Players on the European Gas Market' offers a unique detailed review of the positioning of players in both the upstream (production, reserves) and downstream (wholesale and retail supply) sectors of the gas chain. This 140-pages report, includes 55 tables and 29 figures, and presents an in-depth description of the European gas industry by country. The Survey 'The Players on the European Gas Market' provides: - The analysis of new upstream areas and production growth prospects, - Company rankings in terms of reserve and production volumes, - The complete overview of the whole European gas market (market characteristics, supply sources, consuming outlets, effective competition), - Strategies and key facts of the wholesale suppliers to Europe, - An in-depth review of national market structures, - The detailed positioning and analysis of national market power of the numerous companies involved in gas supply

  9. RGMs : Structural Insights, Molecular Regulation, and Downstream Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebold, Christian; Yamashita, Toshihide; Monnier, Philippe P.; Mueller, Bernhard K.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    Although originally discovered as neuronal growth cone-collapsing factors, repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) are now known as key players in many fundamental processes, such as cell migration, differentiation, iron homeostasis, and apoptosis, during the development and homeostasis of many tissues

  10. Genome-Wide Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii ROP18’s Human Interactome Shows Its Key Role in Regulation of Cell Immunity and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein ROP18 (TgROP18 is a key virulence factor secreted into the host cell during invasion, where it modulates the host cell response by interacting with its host targets. However, only a few TgROP18 targets have been identified. In this study, we applied a high-throughput protein–protein interaction (PPI screening in human cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC to identify the targets of Type I strain ROP18 (ROP18I and Type II strain ROP18 (ROP18II. From a pool of more than 18,000 human proteins, 492 and 141 proteins were identified as the targets of ROP18I and ROP18II, respectively. Gene ontology, search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins PPI network, and Ingenuity pathway analyses revealed that the majority of these proteins were associated with immune response and apoptosis. This indicates a key role of TgROP18 in manipulating host’s immunity and cell apoptosis, which might contribute to the immune escape and successful parasitism of the parasite. Among the proteins identified, the immunity-related proteins N-myc and STAT interactor, IL20RB, IL21, ubiquitin C, and vimentin and the apoptosis-related protein P2RX1 were further verified as ROP18I targets by sensitized emission-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SE-FRET and co-immunoprecipitation. Our study substantially contributes to the current limited knowledge on human targets of TgROP18 and provides a novel tool to investigate the function of parasite effectors in human cells.

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3: a key kinase in retinal neuron apoptosis in early diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohui; Ma Ling; Chen Xiaodong; Li Yonghao; Li Shiyi; Zhang Jinglin; Lu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes-related pathogenic factors can cause retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis,but the specific mechanism is not very clear.The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation and retinal neuron apoptosis.Methods In an in vitro experiment,the number of apoptotic RGC-5 cells differentiated by staurosporine was evaluated via flow cytometry and nuclei staining using Hoechst 33258.GSK-3 phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation in RGC-5 cells after serum deprivation were determined using Western blotting.Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected using the dye 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetrethyl benzimidalyl carbocyanine iodide,and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured with dihydroethidium.In an in vivo experiment,the number of apoptotic retinal neurons was evaluated via terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL),and GSK-3 phosphorylation was determined using Western blotting,in the retinal nerve epithelial tissue of rats in which diabetes was induced by intravenous tail-vein injection of streptozotocin for 4 weeks.Results The levels of phosphorylated Ser21/9 in GSK-3α/β and p-T308/S473-AKT were lower and the cleaved caspase-3 levels were higher in the serum-deprived model (P <0.05).Lithium chloride treatment was associated with a slower rate of apoptosis,increased mitochondrial membrane potential,and decreased ROS levels in differentiated RGC-5 cells (P <0.05).The level of blood glucose and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the whole-mounted retinas were higher (P <0.01),and the levels of phosphorylated Ser21/9 in GSK-3α/β and body weight were lower (P <0.05).However,the thickness of the retinal nerve epithelial layer was not significantly less in diabetic rats compared with control group.Lithium chloride intravitreal injection increased the levels of phosphorylated Ser21/9 in GSK-3α/β and decreased TUNEL-positive cells in the whole-mounted retinas

  12. Biomechanics of Heading a Soccer Ball: Implications for Player Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Babbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the risk and safety of heading a soccer ball, the author created a set of simple mathematical models based upon Newton�s second law of motion to describe the physics of heading. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head. The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Safety is greatly improved when players head the ball with greater effective body mass, which is determined by a player�s size, strength, and technique. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls. Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Lower pressure balls also have greater “touch” and “playability”, measured in terms of contact time and contact area between foot and ball during a kick. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls.

  13. Player communities in multiplayer online games : A systematic review of emperical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmelink, H.J.G.; Siitonen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers have written about the social dynamics of player communities in multiplayer online games. Following a systematic review of refereed empirical research publications from 2000-2010, this article synthesizes the key methods and concepts researchers have used to study and

  14. Is strength-training frequency a key factor to develop performance adaptations in young elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Esquina, Carlos; de Hoyo Lora, Moisés; Gonzalo-Skok, Óliver; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Sánchez, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a combined strength-training programme (full-back squat, YoYo TM leg curl, plyometrics and sled towing exercises) on performance in elite young soccer players and to examine the effects when this training programme was performed one or two days per week. Thirty-six male soccer players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to experimental groups (EXP1: 1 s w -1 ; EXP2: 2 s w -1 ) or a control group (CON). Performance was assessed through a countermovement jump (CMJ) test (relative peak power [CMJ PP ] and CMJ height [CMJ H ]), a 20-m linear sprint test with split-times at 10-m, and a change of direction test (V-cut test) 1 week before starting the training programme and also 1 week after performing such training programme. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in CMJ variables (ES: 0.39-0.81) and COD (ES: 0.70 and 0.76) in EXP1 and EXP2, while EXP2 also showed substantial enhancements in all linear sprinting tests (ES: 0.43-0.52). Between-group analysis showed substantially greater improvements in CMJ variables (ES: 0.39-0.68) in experimental groups in comparison to CON. Furthermore, EXP2 achieved a substantial better performance in 20-m (ES: 0.48-0.64) than EXP1 and CON. Finally, EXP2 also showed greater enhancements in 10-m (ES: 0.50) and V-cut test (ES: 0.52) than EXP1. In conclusion, the combined strength-training programme improved jumping ability, independently of training frequency, though the achievement of two sessions per week also enhanced sprinting abilities (linear and COD) in young soccer players.

  15. Lateral Scapular Slide Test and Scapular Mobility in Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation

  16. Player and Game Characteristics and Head Impacts in Female Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nick; Taha, Tim; Greenwald, Richard; Keightley, Michelle

    2017-08-01

      Despite the growing popularity of ice hockey among female youth and interest in the biomechanics of head impacts in sport, the head impacts sustained by this population have yet to be characterized.   To describe the number of, biomechanical characteristics of, and exposure to head impacts of female youth ice hockey players during competition and to investigate the influences of player and game characteristics on head impacts.   Cohort study.   Twenty-seven female youth ice hockey players (mean age = 12.5 ± 0.52 years) wore instrumented ice hockey helmets during 66 ice hockey games over a 3-year period. Data specific to player, game, and biomechanical head impact characteristics were recorded. A multiple regression analysis identified factors most associated with head impacts of greater frequency and severity.   A total of 436 total head impacts were sustained during 6924 minutes of active ice hockey participation (0.9 ± 0.6 impacts per player per game; range, 0-2.1). A higher body mass index (BMI) significantly predicted a higher number of head impacts sustained per game (P = .008). Linear acceleration of head impacts was greater in older players and those who played the forward position, had a greater BMI, and spent more time on the ice (P = .008), whereas greater rotational acceleration was present in older players who had a greater BMI and played the forward position (P = .008). During tournament games, increased ice time predicted increased severity of head impacts (P = .03).   This study reveals for the first time that head impacts are occurring in female youth ice hockey players, albeit at a lower rate and severity than in male youth ice hockey players, despite the lack of intentional body checking.

  17. Involvement of apoptosis in host-parasite interactions in the zebra mussel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Minguez

    Full Text Available The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism.

  18. Involvement of Apoptosis in Host-Parasite Interactions in the Zebra Mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Brulé, Nelly; Sohm, Bénédicte; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455

  19. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... that the method can be used online during the content generation process where the mod- els can improve and better content can be presented as the game is being played....

  20. Apoptosis in Drosophila: which role for mitochondria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Colin, Jessie; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    It is now well established that the mitochondrion is a central regulator of mammalian cell apoptosis. However, the importance of this organelle in non-mammalian apoptosis has long been regarded as minor, mainly because of the absence of a crucial role for cytochrome c in caspase activation. Recent results indicate that the control of caspase activation and cell death in Drosophila occurs at the mitochondrial level. Numerous proteins, including RHG proteins and proteins of the Bcl-2 family that are key regulators of Drosophila apoptosis, constitutively or transiently localize in mitochondria. These proteins participate in the cell death process at different levels such as degradation of Diap1, a Drosophila IAP, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or stimulation of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Here, we review these mitochondrial events that might have their counterpart in human.

  1. What mental process favours quality decision-making in young soccer players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Hallé Petiot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this research is to identify the mechanisms that lead soccer players to make quality tactical decisions, and how these mechanisms evolve over time. Methods Ninety male youth players training in a professional club in Brazil were submitted to a soccer video test which consists in making tactical decisions when the image freezes. These participants were divided in five groups with 18 players in each of following age levels: Under-11, Under-13, Under-15, Under-17 and Under-20. The dominant statements of verbal reports were distributed in categories that reflect key mechanisms. The frequency of correct tactical answers was calculated for each statement types and Standard Residuals (e were calculated to verify the influence of the mechanisms on the quality of tactical decision for each age level. Results Results revealed that evaluation statement was related to accurate tactical decisions from Under-15 age level. Conclusion In conclusion, evaluation of perceived information makes better decision makers.

  2. Impact locations and concussion outcomes in high school football player-to-player collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Mihalik, Jason P; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-09-01

    Little research has examined concussion outcomes in terms of impact location (ie, the area on the head in which the impact occurred). This study describes the epidemiology of concussions resulting from player-to-player collision in high school football by impact location. National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study data (2008/2009-2012/2013) were analyzed to calculate rates and describe circumstances of football concussion (eg, symptomology, symptom resolution time, return to play) resulting from player-to-player collisions by impact location (ie, front-, back-, side-, and top-of-the-head). Most concussions resulting from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head (44.7%) and side-of-the-head (22.3%) impacts. Number of symptoms reported, prevalence of reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and length of time to return to play were not associated with impact location. However, a larger proportion of football players sustaining concussions from top-of-the-head impacts experienced loss of consciousness (8.0%) than those sustaining concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (3.5%) (injury proportion ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.2; P = .008). Players had their head down at the time of impact in a higher proportion of concussions caused by top-of-the-head impacts (86.4%) than concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (24.0%) (injury proportion ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.0; P impact location. Recommended strategies for reducing the proportion of top-of-the-head impacts include improved education regarding tackling with proper "head-up" technique. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. MGMT: key node in the battle against genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and apoptosis induced by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaina, Bernd; Christmann, Markus; Naumann, Steffen; Roos, Wynand P

    2007-08-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) plays a crucial role in the defense against alkylating agents that generate, among other lesions, O(6)-alkylguanine in DNA (collectively termed O(6)-alkylating agents [O(6)AA]). The defense is highly important, since O(6)AA are common environmental carcinogens, are formed endogenously during normal cellular metabolism and possibly inflammation, and are being used in cancer therapy. O(6)AA induced DNA damage is subject to repair, which is executed by MGMT, AlkB homologous proteins (ABH) and base excision repair (BER). Although this review focuses on MGMT, the mechanism of repair by ABH and BER will also be discussed. Experimental systems, in which MGMT has been modulated, revealed that O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)MeG) and O(6)-chloroethylguanine are major mutagenic, carcinogenic, recombinogenic, clastogenic and killing lesions. O(6)MeG-induced clastogenicity and cell death require MutS alpha-dependent mismatch repair (MMR), whereas O(6)-chloroethylguanine-induced killing occurs independently of MMR. Extensive DNA replication is required for O(6)MeG to provoke cytotoxicity. In MGMT depleted cells, O(6)MeG induces apoptosis almost exclusively, barely any necrosis, which is presumably due to the remarkable ability of secondarily formed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to trigger apoptosis via ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and p73. Depending on the cellular background, O(6)MeG activates both the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The inter-individual expression of MGMT in human lymphocytes is highly variable. Given the key role of MGMT in cellular defense, determination of MGMT activity could be useful for assessing a patient's drug sensitivity. MGMT is expressed at highly variable amounts in human tumors. In gliomas, a correlation was found between MGMT activity, MGMT promoter methylation and response to O(6)AA. Although the human MGMT gene is inducible by glucocorticoids and genotoxins such as radiation and

  4. Physical fitness of elite Belgian soccer players by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Steyaert, Adelheid; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into the physical and physiological profile of elite Belgian soccer players with specific regard to the player's position on the field. The sample consisted of 289 adult players from 6 different first division teams. The players were divided into 5 subgroups (goalkeepers, center backs, full backs, midfielders, and strikers) according to their self-reported best position on the field. The subjects performed anaerobic (10-m sprint, 5 × 10-m shuttle run [SR], squat jump [SJ], and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and aerobic (incremental running protocol) laboratory tests. The strikers had significantly shorter sprinting times (5-, 5- to 10-m time, and SR) compared with the midfielders, center backs, and goalkeepers, whereas the full backs were also significantly faster compared with the goalkeepers and the center backs. The goalkeepers and the center backs displayed higher jumping heights (total mean SJ = 40.7 ± 4.6 cm and CMJ = 43.1 ± 4.9 cm) compared with the other 3 positions, whereas the strikers also jumped higher than the full backs and the midfielders did. Regarding the aerobic performance, both full backs and the midfielders (61.2 ± 2.7 and 60.4 ± 2.8 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively) had a higher VO2max compared with the strikers, center backs, and goalkeepers (56.8 ± 3.1, 55.6 ± 3.5, and 52.1 ± 5.0 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively). From this study, it could be concluded that players in different positions have different physiological characteristics. The results of this study might provide useful insights for individualized conditional training programs for soccer players. Aside from the predominant technical and tactical skills, a physical profile that is well adjusted to the position on the field might enhance game performance.

  5. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  6. The Distribution of Benefits for Players in Agricultural Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanming; LI; Huibo; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Players of the agricultural industrial chain pursue their own profit maximization,which can lead to conflicts of interest and affect the stability of the industrial chain. Therefore,fair and reasonable profit allocation mechanism is the key to guaranteeing the development and strengthening the strategic alliance relationship between participate members. Shapley model is an effective method to solve the profit distribution in cooperative relations. But it does not consider the three factors: risks faced by players during the operation of the agricultural industrial chain,technology innovation ability,and the degree of participating in the cooperation. So,correction factors are introduced to modify the Shapley value model,in order to make the distribution of benefits more equitable and reasonable,and effectively guide practice.

  7. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  8. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  9. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  10. The mitochondria-mediate apoptosis of Lepidopteran cells induced by azadirachtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Huang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria have been shown to play an important role in apoptosis using mammalian cell lines. However, this seems not to be the case in Drosophila, an insect model organism; thus more in-depth studies of insect cell apoptosis are necessary. In the present study, mitochondrial involvement during azadirachtin- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells (isolated from Spodoptera frugiperda pupal ovarian tissue was investigated. The results showed that both azadirachtin and camptothecin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were observed very early during apoptosis and were followed subsequently by the release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondria. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP induced by azadirachtin could be significantly inhibited by the permeability transition pore (PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA, which was used to identify the key role of mitochondria in the apoptosis of Sf9 cells. However, in camptothecin-treated Sf9 cells, CsA could not suppress the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP when apoptosis was induced. The data from caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and detection of apoptosis by morphological observation and flow cytometry also uncovered the different effect of CsA on the two botanical apoptosis inducers. Although different mechanisms of apoptosis induction exist, our study revealed that mitochondria play a crucial role in insect cell line apoptosis.

  11. The mitochondria-mediate apoptosis of Lepidopteran cells induced by azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfei; Lv, Chaojun; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria have been shown to play an important role in apoptosis using mammalian cell lines. However, this seems not to be the case in Drosophila, an insect model organism; thus more in-depth studies of insect cell apoptosis are necessary. In the present study, mitochondrial involvement during azadirachtin- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells (isolated from Spodoptera frugiperda pupal ovarian tissue) was investigated. The results showed that both azadirachtin and camptothecin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed very early during apoptosis and were followed subsequently by the release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondria. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP induced by azadirachtin could be significantly inhibited by the permeability transition pore (PTP) inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA), which was used to identify the key role of mitochondria in the apoptosis of Sf9 cells. However, in camptothecin-treated Sf9 cells, CsA could not suppress the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP when apoptosis was induced. The data from caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and detection of apoptosis by morphological observation and flow cytometry also uncovered the different effect of CsA on the two botanical apoptosis inducers. Although different mechanisms of apoptosis induction exist, our study revealed that mitochondria play a crucial role in insect cell line apoptosis.

  12. World cup soccer players tend to be born with sun and moon in adjacent zodiacal signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, J

    2000-01-01

    The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p = 0.00001) to be born on days when the sun and moon are in adjacent zodiacal signs. Key Words: soccer; World Cup; astrology; moon PMID:11131239

  13. H:q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Smith, Andrew W; Wong, Del P

    2012-06-01

    One of the key components in sports injury prevention is the identification of imbalances in leg muscle strength. However, different leg muscle characteristics may occur in large playing area (field) sports and small playing area (court) sports, which should be considered in regular injury prevention assessment. This study examined the isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and bilateral leg strength balance in 40 male college (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs) team sport players (field sport = 23, soccer players; court sport = 17, volleyball and basketball players). Five repetitions of maximal knee concentric flexion and concentric extension were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at two speeds (slow: 60°·s(-1) and fast: 300°·s(-1)) with 3 minutes rest between tests. Both legs were measured in counterbalanced order with the dominant leg being determined as the leg used to kick a ball. The highest concentric peak torque values (Nm) of the hamstrings and quadriceps of each leg were analyzed after body mass normalization (Nm·kg(-1)). Court sport players showed significantly weaker dominant leg hamstrings muscles at both contraction speeds (P Sport-specific leg muscle strength was evident in college players from field and court sports. These results suggest the need for different muscle strength training and rehabilitation protocols for college players according to the musculature requirements in their respective sports.

  14. Caspase-10 Is the Key Initiator Caspase Involved in Tributyltin-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald F. Krug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tributyltin (TBT is one of the most toxic compounds produced by man and distributed in the environment. A multitude of toxic activities have been described, for example, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, and endocrine disruptive effects. Moreover, it has been shown for many cell types that they undergo apoptosis after treatment with TBT and the cell death of immune cells could be the molecular background of its immunotoxic effect. As low as 200 nM up to 1 μM of TBT induces all signs of apoptosis in Jurkat T cells within 1 to 24 hrs of treatment. When compared to Fas-ligand control stimulation, the same sequence of events occurs: membrane blebbing, phosphatidylserine externalisation, the activation of the “death-inducing signalling complex,” and the following sequence of cleavage processes. In genetically modified caspase-8-deficient Jurkat cells, the apoptotic effects are only slightly reduced, whereas, in FADD-negative Jurkat cells, the TBT effect is significantly diminished. We could show that caspase-10 is recruited by the TRAIL-R2 receptor and apoptosis is totally prevented when caspase-10 is specifically inhibited in all three cell lines.

  15. Ankle Sprain Injuries: A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Female Greek Professional Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2007-01-01

    Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995

  16. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072

  17. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  18. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  19. Bex2 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in malignant glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiuping; Meng, Qingming; Xu, Xuebin; Zhi, Tongle; Shi, Qiong; Wang, Yong; Yu, Rutong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The expression levels of Bex2 markedly increased in glioma tissues. ► Bex2 over-expression promoted cell proliferation, while its down-regulation inhibited cell growth. ► Bex2 down-regulation promoted cell apoptosis via JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway. -- Abstract: The function of Bex2, a member of the Brain Expressed X-linked gene family, in glioma is controversial and its mechanism is largely unknown. We report here that Bex2 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in malignant glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The expression level of Bex2 is markedly increased in glioma tissues. We observed that Bex2 over-expression promotes cell proliferation, while down-regulation of Bex2 inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Bex2 down-regulation promotes cell apoptosis and activates the JNK pathway; these effects were abolished by administration of the JNK specific inhibitor, (SP600125). Thus, Bex2 may be an important player during the development of glioma.

  20. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  1. The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. Results From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Conclusions Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori. PMID:21040523

  2. Apoptosis in fish: environmental factors and programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AnvariFar, Hossein; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Ouraji, Hossein; Jalali, M Ali; Üçüncü, Sema İşisağ

    2017-06-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical component in maintaining homeostasis and growth in all tissues and plays a significant role in immunity and cytotoxicity. In contrast to necrosis or traumatic cell death, apoptosis is a well-controlled and vital process characterized mainly by cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. Our understanding of apoptosis is partly based on observations in invertebrates but mainly in mammals. Despite the great advantages of fish models in studying vertebrate development and diseases and the tremendous interest observed in recent years, reports on apoptosis in fish are still limited. Although apoptotic machinery is well conserved between aquatic and terrestrial organisms throughout the history of evolution, some differences exist in key components of apoptotic pathways. Core parts of apoptotic machinery in fish are virtually expressed as equivalent to the mammalian models. Some differences are, however, evident, such as the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis including lack of a C-terminal region in the Fas-associated protein with a death domain in fish. Aquatic species inhabit a complex and highly fluctuating environment, making these species good examples to reveal features of apoptosis that may not be easily investigated in mammals. Therefore, in order to gain a wider view on programmed cell death in fish, interactions between the main environmental factors, chemicals and apoptosis are discussed in this review. It is indicated that apoptosis can be induced in fish by exposure to environmental stressors during different stages of the fish life cycle.

  3. Musculoskeletal injuries among Malaysian badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, A H; George, J; Ramlan, A A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by Malaysian badminton players. This is a retrospective case notes review of all badminton players who attended the National Sports Institute (NSI) Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and were diagnosed with musculoskeletal injuries. In a two and a half year period, from January 2005 to June 2007, 469 musculoskeletal injuries were diagnosed among badminton players at the NSI Clinic. The mean age of the players who attended the clinic was 19.2 (range 13-52) years. Approximately 60 percent of the injuries occurred in players younger than 20 years of age. The majority of injuries (91.5 percent) were categorised as mild overuse injury and mostly involved the knee. The majority of the injuries sustained by badminton players in this study were due to overuse, primarily in the knee. The majority of the injuries were diagnosed in younger players and occurred during training/practice sessions. There was no difference in terms of incidence and types of injuries between the genders.

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  5. Personal and sports variables and injuries in handball players: A descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches.Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category

  6. Personal and sports variables and injuries in handball players: A descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches. Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category

  7. Effects of small-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p performance (p performance were observed (p physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key pointsThree-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games.In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals compared with the six-a-side games.Impairment in endurance and field test performance was observed mainly after three-a-side games.The use of the three-a-side games to develop physical fitness and technique in young soccer players is recommended.

  8. Time-motion analysis of goalball players in attacks: differences of the player positions and the throwing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monezi, Lucas Antônio; Magalhães, Thiago Pinguelli; Morato, Márcio Pereira; Mercadante, Luciano Allegretti; Furtado, Otávio Luis Piva da Cunha; Misuta, Milton Shoiti

    2018-03-26

    In this study, we aimed to analyse goalball players time-motion variables (distance covered, time spent, maximum and average velocities) in official goalball match attacks, taking into account the attack phases (preparation and throwing), player position (centres and wings) and throwing techniques (frontal, spin and between the legs). A total of 365 attacks were assessed using a video based method (2D) through manual tracking using the Dvideo system. Inferential non-parametric statistics were applied for comparison of preparation vs. throwing phase, wings vs. centres and, among the throwing techniques, frontal, spin and between the legs. Significant differences were found between the attack preparation versus the throwing phase for all player time-motion variables: distance covered, time spent, maximum player velocity and average player velocity. Wing players performed most of the throws (85%) and covered longer distances than centres (1.65 vs 0.31 m). The between the legs and the spin throwing techniques presented greater values for most of the time-motion variables (distance covered, time spent and maximum player velocity) than did the frontal technique in both attack phases. These findings provide important information regarding players' movement patterns during goalball matches that can be used to plan more effective training.

  9. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Skinner

    Full Text Available Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  10. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  11. Shoulder instability in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Ocular Apoptosis in Zebrafish gdf6a Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Sameer D.; March, Lindsey D.; Famulski, Jakub K.

    2013-01-01

    intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic mechanisms were involved, morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting baxa, baxb, and p53 were employed. Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to assay apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition (using SB203580) and IHC were used to investigate the role of p38...... occurs 28 hours post fertilization (hpf) in gdf6a(-/-) mutants that is mediated independently of p53 by intrinsic mechanisms involving Bax proteins. Also, gdf6a(-/-) mutants exhibit markedly increased p38 MAP kinase activation that can be inhibited to significantly reduce retinal apoptosis. A reduction...... in retinal smad1 expression was also noted in gdf6a(-/-) mutants. CONCLUSIONS. gdf6a(-/-)-induced apoptosis is characterized by the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathways, p38 MAP kinases, and dysregulated smad expression. Modulation of key mediators can inhibit retinal apoptosis offering potential...

  13. Myeloperoxidase serves as a redox switch that regulates apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Ghassan M; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Jiang, Zhong L; Fletcher, Nicole M; Diamond, Michael P; Abu-Soud, Husam M; Munkarah, Adnan R

    2010-02-01

    Resistance to apoptosis is a key feature of cancer cells and is believed to be regulated by nitrosonium ion (NO(+))-induced S-nitrosylation of key enzymes. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is utilized by MPO to generated NO(+). We sought to investigate the expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and iNOS in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and determine their effect on S-nitrosylation of caspase-3 and its activity as well as apoptosis. MPO and iNOS expression were determined using immunofluorescence in SKOV-3 and MDAH-2774 and EOC tissue sections. S-nitrosylation of caspase-3 and its activity, levels of MPO and iNOS, as well as apoptosis, were evaluated in the EOC cells before and after silencing MPO or iNOS genes with specific siRNA probes utilizing real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and TUNEL assays. MPO and iNOS are expressed in EOC cell lines and in over 60% of invasive EOC cases with no expression in normal ovarian epithelium. Indeed, silencing of MPO or iNOS gene expression resulted in decreased S-nitrosylation of caspase-3, increased caspase-3 activity, and increased apoptosis but with a more significant effect when silencing MPO. MPO and iNOS are colocalized to the same cells in EOC but not in the normal ovarian epithelium. Silencing of either MPO or iNOS significantly induced apoptosis, highlighting their role as a redox switch that regulates apoptosis in EOC. Understanding the mechanisms by which MPO functions as a redox switch in regulating apoptosis in EOC may lead to future diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Apoptosis In Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were positively correlated with positive progesterone receptor. In Conclusion; oxidative stress, NO and apoptosis are highly detected in breast cancer tissues especially with advanced grade and stage. Key words: Breast cancer, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Total Antioxidants

  15. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  16. Chess players' fame versus their merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2015-12-12

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings, we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as the player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time, the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  17. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla

    2012-02-01

    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  18. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; phealing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  19. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  20. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling i del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams. PMID:26171606

  1. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Jaime; McGarry, Tim; Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling I Del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.

  2. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    Full Text Available Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA, and (ii describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230. The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.

  3. IgE - the main player of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekman, Henrike C H; Eiwegger, Thomas; Upton, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing problem worldwide, presently affecting 2-4% of adults and 5-8% of young children. IgE is a key player in food allergy. Consequently huge efforts have been made to develop tests to detect either the presence of IgE molecules, their allergen binding sites...... or their functionality, in order to provide information regarding the patient's food allergy. The ultimate goal is to develop tools that are capable of discriminating between asymptomatic sensitization and a clinically relevant food allergy, and between different allergic phenotypes in an accurate and trustworthy manner...

  4. Apoptosis induced by GanoPoly in human gastric cancer cell line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... ... cancer's active therapy. Key words: Apoptosis, polysaccharide, human gastric cancer cells. ... The active components of polysaccharides are all glucans, which have a ... for the treatment of alleviated fatigue, night sweating,.

  5. Comparative characteristics of psychophysiological features skilled basketball players-women with hearing and skilled basketball players healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.

  6. Comparative characteristics of psychophysiological features skilled basketball players-women with hearing and skilled basketball players healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.

  7. α-blockade, apoptosis, and prostate shrinkage: how are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłosta, Piotr; Drewa, Tomasz; Kaplan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The α1-adrenoreceptor antagonists, such as terazosin and doxazosin, induce prostate programmed cell death (apoptosis) within prostate epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. This treatment should cause prostate volume decrease, However, this has never been observed in clinical conditions. The aim of this paper is to review the disconnect between these two processes. PubMed and DOAJ were searched for papers related to prostate, apoptosis, and stem cell death. The following key words were used: prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, programmed cell death, apoptosis, cell death, α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, α-blockade, prostate epithelium, prostate stroma, stem cells, progenitors, and in vitro models. We have shown how discoveries related to stem cells can influence our understanding of α-blockade treatment for BPH patients. Prostate epithelial and mesenchymal compartments have stem (progenitors) and differentiating cells. These compartments are described in relation to experimental in vitro and in vivo settings. Apoptosis is observed within prostate tissue, but this effect has no clinical significance and cannot lead to prostate shrinkage. In part, this is due to stem cells that are responsible for prostate tissue regeneration and are resistant to apoptosis triggered by α1-receptor antagonists.

  8. The consultation of rugby players in co-developing a player health study: feasibility and consequences of sports participants as research partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Madeleine A M; Balai, Edward; Adams, Jo; Carter, John-Henry; Judge, Andrew; Newton, Julia L; Arden, Nigel K

    2017-01-01

    Many funding bodies within the United Kingdom and globally have encouraged public involvement in research. The Department of Health has also called public involvement a sign of good research. Despite the wide acceptance of public involvement improving many aspects of research, from its design to its communication, involvement has varied levels of implementation across different fields of research. Sports people have rarely been involved in research, partly as this research tends not to be funded by mainstream funding bodies. This may lead to a lower research quality, not founded in player ('service user') experiences. When creating a study of former rugby player health, we were very keen to involve rugby players, understand their thoughts on player health, and their playing experiences. This article explains how rugby players were involved in several ways, but mainly in group discussions during the design stage. These groups helped to inform our study's aims and questionnaire, ensure the questionnaire would capture player experiences and answer questions relevant to players, that they would like to understand after their participation in rugby. We found that these groups were easy to arrange, and that in only one session with each group, we were given many ideas of how to improve the questionnaire and study. We believe that other studies in sports should involve sports people, and that this is a useful activity that will change data collection forms and processes, improving the research, helping researchers, and making studies more suitable for players who take part in them. Background Patient and public involvement ('involvement') in the UK has increased in accordance with funding requirements, patient-centered health policy initiatives and reporting of the positive impact of involvement for those involved, research and researchers. However, involvement has not been implemented equally across all disease areas and populations. The aim of this process was to

  9. Contributions to Using IT in Education: An Educational Video Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian CUCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trends of IT use in education we propose four main principles of educational application development: anytime-anywhere access (including access for mobile devices; user-generated content; assigning users an active role inside the platform; creating a correlation between natural activities and educational activities – adding fun into the equation. With these principles in mind we developed a small Educational Player – a movie player that connects to a database to show information relevant to the events in the movie, more specific to the exact key-frame (in the movie time-line at the moment of the request. Though the application is still in a conceptual form, its possibilities make us confident in its future success either as an informal way of learning, or by using it in a formal educational context either as an e-learning tool, either as interactivity tool in a traditional classroom setting.

  10. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  11. Rules of engagement : influence of co-player presence on player involvement in digital games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajadhar, B.J.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study of social setting as a determinant of player involvement in competitive play. We conceptualize player experience as comprising of components of involvement and enjoyment. Involvement relates to the attentional pull of games encompassing feelings of immersion,

  12. An embouchure aid for saxophone player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jin Moon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the method that can relieve vibrating forces to oral environment by making an embouchure aid. Thin plastic crown forms were fabricated to prevent tooth abrasion and irritation to lip mucosa for the saxophone player. After application to the player, the most comfort form was chosen and delivered to 3 professional saxophone players. After 5 mon, the players responded to the survey. This embouchure aid did not disturb playing and gave comfort to lower lip. In general, the players preferred thin soft type and thought it caused little effect on sound. Far too little attention has been paid to the problems encountered by single-reed wind instrumentalist who suffer from tooth abrasion and irritation to lip mucosa. The embouchure aid not only prevent tooth damage but also diminish the discomfort of tight embouchure.

  13. Radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Harumi

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction that can be induced in many cell types via numerous physiological and pathological stimuli. We found that interphasedeath of thymocytes is a typical apoptosis showing the characteristic features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Moderate dose of radiation induces extensive apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell population such as the epithelium of intestinal crypt. Recent reports indicate that the ultimate form of radiation-induced mitotic death in several cells is also apoptosis. One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the enzymatic internucleosomal degradation of chromatin DNA. We identified an endonuclease responsible for the radiation-induced DNA degradation in rat thymocytes. The death-sparing effects of interrupting RNA and protein synthesis suggested a cell genetic program for apoptosis. Apoptosis of thymocytes initiated by DNA damage, such as radiation and radio mimetic substance, absolutely requires the protein of p53 cancer suppresser gene. The cell death induced by glucocorticoid, or aging, has no such requirement. Expression of oncogene bcl-2 rescues cells from the apoptosis. Massive apoptosis in radiosensitive cells induced by higher dose radiation may be fatal. It is suggested that selective apoptotic elimination of cells would play an important role for protection against carcinogenesis and malformation through removal of cells with unrepaired radiation-induced DNA damages. Data to evaluate the significance of apoptosis in the radiation risk are still poor. Further research should be done in order to clarify the roles of the cell death on the acute and late effects of irradiation. (author)

  14. Invisible players: a family systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstedt, Jon

    2005-10-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate that the family is a key player in the athlete's development and performance, sometimes invisible, but often all too visible. The practice of clinical sport psychology is enriched by a family-based orientation to the assessment and treatment of athletes. Creating a workable family system is a challenge for parents. They have many difficult decisions to make, and are often without support and direction in making those choices. Sport psychiatrists and psychologists can be helpful to parents as well as athletes by using family-based assessments and treatment interventions that provide education, challenge, and support as they negotiate the tasks and transitions in the family life cycle.

  15. Cystogenesis in ARPKD results from increased apoptosis in collecting duct epithelial cells of Pkhd1 mutant kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bo; He, Xiusheng; Li, Ao; Qiu, Qingchao; Li, Cunxi; Liang, Dan; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Jie; Coffey, Robert J.; Zhan, Qimin; Wu, Guanqing

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the PKHD1 gene result in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) in humans. To determine the molecular mechanism of the cystogenesis in ARPKD, we recently generated a mouse model for ARPKD that carries a targeted mutation in the mouse orthologue of human PKHD1. The homozygous mutant mice display hepatorenal cysts whose phenotypes are similar to those of human ARPKD patients. By littermates of this mouse, we developed two immortalized renal collecting duct cell lines with Pkhd1 and two without. Under nonpermissive culture conditions, the Pkhd1 -/- renal cells displayed aberrant cell-cell contacts and tubulomorphogenesis. The Pkhd1 -/- cells also showed significantly reduced cell proliferation and elevated apoptosis. To validate this finding in vivo, we examined proliferation and apoptosis in the kidneys of Pkhd1 -/- mice and their wildtype littermates. Using proliferation (PCNA and Histone-3) and apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3) markers, similar results were obtained in the Pkhd1 -/- kidney tissues as in the cells. To identify the molecular basis of these findings, we analyzed the effect of Pkhd1 loss on multiple putative signaling regulators. We demonstrated that the loss of Pkhd1 disrupts multiple major phosphorylations of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and these disruptions either inhibit the Ras/C-Raf pathways to suppress MEK/ERK activity and ultimately reduce cell proliferation, or suppress PDK1/AKT to upregulate Bax/caspase-9/caspase-3 and promote apoptosis. Our findings indicate that apoptosis may be a major player in the cyst formation in ARPKD, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies for human ARPKD.

  16. Auditory memory function in expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.

  17. JALUR MOLEKULER MEKANISME APOPTOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a normal condition for development and live multicellular organism. Apoptosis is a morphological phenomenon that plays an important role in physiologic processes during fetal development and in adult. Mitochondria play an important role in apoptosis. Mitochondria can do apoptosis directly. Mitochondria has 2 family of protein Bcl-2. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are anti apoptosis while Bad an Bax are pro apoptosis. There are 3 different mechanism to receptors at the cell surface and a third may be triggered by dangerous agent that different from two ways before. Apoptosis also need caspase as cell death executor. Study of apoptosis still done especially in case of disease. Some disease have known related with disturbing of apoptosis mechanism for example cancer and auto immune. This article reviews about molecular mechanism of apoptosis for understanding disease and future therapy.

  18. Positioning and deciding : key factors for talent development in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannekens, R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2011-01-01

    Talent identification and development implicate recognizing youth players who will be successful in the future and guiding them to the top. A major determinant of this success is tactical skills. To identify possible key factors that help in predicting success over time, this study assesses the

  19. Player Skill Decomposition in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Yizhou; El-nasr, Magy Seif; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.

    2017-01-01

    Successful analysis of player skills in video games has important impacts on the process of enhancing player experience without undermining their continuous skill development. Moreover, player skill analysis becomes more intriguing in team-based video games because such form of study can help discover useful factors in effective team formation. In this paper, we consider the problem of skill decomposition in MOBA (MultiPlayer Online Battle Arena) games, with the goal to understand what player...

  20. Zinc finger protein 598 inhibits cell survival by promoting UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaohong; Gupta, Romi

    2018-01-19

    UV is one of the major causes of DNA damage induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells adopt alternative mechanisms to evade UV-induced apoptosis. To identify factors that protect cancer cells from UV-induced apoptosis, we performed a genome wide short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, which identified Zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as a key regulator of UV-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UV irradiation transcriptionally upregulates ZNF598 expression. Additionally, ZNF598 knockdown in cancer cells inhibited UV-induced apoptosis. In our study, we observe that ELK1 mRNA level as well as phosphorylated ELK1 levels was up regulated upon UV irradiation, which was necessary for UV irradiation induced upregulation of ZNF598. Cells expressing ELK1 shRNA were also resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, and phenocopy ZNF598 knockdown. Upon further investigation, we found that ZNF598 knockdown inhibits UV-induced apoptotic gene expression, which matches with decrease in percentage of annexin V positive cell. Similarly, ectopic expression of ZNF598 promoted apoptotic gene expression and also increased annexin V positive cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZNF598 is a UV irradiation regulated gene and its loss results in resistance to UV-induced apoptosis.

  1. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  2. Protective equipment and player characteristics associated with the incidence of sport-related concussion in high school football players: a multifactorial prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Evolution of apoptosis-like programmed cell death in unicellular protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon; Sajid, Mohammed; Reece, Sarah E

    2011-03-25

    Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) has recently been described in multiple taxa of unicellular protists, including the protozoan parasites Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Apoptosis-like PCD in protozoan parasites shares a number of morphological features with programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. However, both the evolutionary explanations and mechanisms involved in parasite PCD are poorly understood. Explaining why unicellular organisms appear to undergo 'suicide' is a challenge for evolutionary biology and uncovering death executors and pathways is a challenge for molecular and cell biology. Bioinformatics has the potential to integrate these approaches by revealing homologies in the PCD machinery of diverse taxa and evaluating their evolutionary trajectories. As the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in model organisms are well characterised, and recent data suggest similar mechanisms operate in protozoan parasites, key questions can now be addressed. These questions include: which elements of apoptosis machinery appear to be shared between protozoan parasites and multicellular taxa and, have these mechanisms arisen through convergent or divergent evolution? We use bioinformatics to address these questions and our analyses suggest that apoptosis mechanisms in protozoan parasites and other taxa have diverged during their evolution, that some apoptosis factors are shared across taxa whilst others have been replaced by proteins with similar biochemical activities.

  4. Molecular mechanism of apoptosis and characterization of apoptosis induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yumin; Zhang Yuguang; Li Yukun

    1999-01-01

    The major discoveries of apoptosis research in recent years were reviewed briefly. The mechanisms of caspases/ICE gene family and bcl-2 gene family on apoptosis were analyzed. And the signal transduction pathway of apoptosis found currently has been summarized. The characterizations of apoptosis induced by radiation such as time-effects, dose-effects and the radiosensibility were summed up

  5. Broad targeting of resistance to apoptosis in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Muqbil, Irfana; Lowe, Leroy; Yedjou, Clement; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Siegelin, Markus David; Fimognari, Carmela; Kumar, Nagi B.; Dou, Q. Ping; Yang, Huanjie; Samadi, Abbas K.; Russo, Gian Luigi; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Ray, Swapan K.; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Morre, James D.; Coley, Helen M.; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S. Salman; Helferich, William G.; Yang, Xujuan; Boosani, Chandra S.; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Keith, W. Nicol; Bilsland, Alan; Halicka, Dorota; Nowsheen, Somaira; Azmi, Asfar S.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is natural way of removing aged cells from the body. Most of the anti-cancer therapies trigger apoptosis induction and related cell death networks to eliminate malignant cells. However, in cancer, de-regulated apoptotic signaling, particularly the activation of an anti-apoptotic systems, allows cancer cells to escape this program leading to uncontrolled proliferation resulting in tumor survival, therapeutic resistance and recurrence of cancer. This resistance is a complicated phenomenon that emanates from the interactions of various molecules and signaling pathways. In this comprehensive review we discuss the various factors contributing to apoptosis resistance in cancers. The key resistance targets that are discussed include (1) Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins; (2) autophagy processes; (3) necrosis and necroptosis; (4) heat shock protein signaling; (5) the proteasome pathway; (6) epigenetic mechanisms; and (7) aberrant nuclear export signaling. The shortcomings of current therapeutic modalities are highlighted and a broad spectrum strategy using approaches including (a) gossypol; (b) epigallocatechin-3-gallate; (c) UMI-77 (d) triptolide and (e) selinexor that can be used to overcome cell death resistance is presented. This review provides a roadmap for the design of successful anti-cancer strategies that overcome resistance to apoptosis for better therapeutic outcome in patients with cancer. PMID:25936818

  6. Real-Time Imaging of Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. Yap

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring real-time apoptosis in-vivo is an unmet need of neurodegeneration science, both in clinical and research settings. For patients, earlier diagnosis before the onset of symptoms provides a window of time in which to instigate treatment. For researchers, being able to objectively monitor the rates of underlying degenerative processes at a cellular level provides a biomarker with which to test novel therapeutics. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells project has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, the key pathological process in glaucoma. Numerous animal studies have used DARC to show efficacy of novel, pressure-independent treatment strategies in models of glaucoma and other conditions where retinal apoptosis is reported, including Alzheimer’s disease. This may forge exciting new links in the clinical science of treating both cognitive and visual decline. Human trials are now underway, successfully demonstrating the safety and efficacy of the technique to differentiate patients with progressive neurodegeneration from healthy individuals. We review the current perspectives on retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, the way in which this can be imaged, and the exciting advantages that these future methods hold in store.

  7. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  8. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Verburgh

    Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  9. Comparison of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE gene polymorphisms elite basketball players and volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Süel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to research the differences of genotype polymorphism between the elite male and elite female basketball player, volleyball player and control group. Material and Methods: 58 basketball players (ages 24.25±4.99 years, height 188.22±12.31 cm and weight 80.62±16.34 kg, 64 volleyball players (ages 22.82±5.40 years, height 188.67±9.69 cm and weight 77.82±12.14 kg and 122 sedentary subjects (control group were participated randomly in the study. 5cc blood was taken control and control groups for measuring the ACE gene polymorphism. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA, Levene’s Tests, and frequencies of allele were used for statistical evaluation at significance level p0.05, basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, male basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, female basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05 and male and female athletes (p>0.05 respectively. There were no significance differences in male athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=1.31, vertical jump (F=0.22, and 20m sprint test (F=0.44. There were also no significance differences in female athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=2.03, vertical jump (F=0.10, and 20m sprint test (F=1.17. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism genotype distribution in terms of elite female and male volleyball players with elite female and male basketball players are the same.

  10. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  11. Translucent Players: Explaining Cooperative Behavior in Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous experiments have shown that humans do not always behave so as to maximize their material payoff. Cooperative behavior when non-cooperation is a dominant strategy (with respect to the material payoffs is particularly puzzling. Here we propose a novel approach to explain cooperation, assuming what Halpern and Pass call translucent players. Typically, players are assumed to be opaque, in the sense that a deviation by one player in a normal-form game does not affect the strategies used by other players. But a player may believe that if he switches from one strategy to another, the fact that he chooses to switch may be visible to the other players. For example, if he chooses to defect in Prisoner's Dilemma, the other player may sense his guilt. We show that by assuming translucent players, we can recover many of the regularities observed in human behavior in well-studied games such as Prisoner's Dilemma, Traveler's Dilemma, Bertrand Competition, and the Public Goods game.

  12. Rehabilitation protocol for patellar tendinopathy applied among 16- to 19-year old volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Ryszard; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Trzaskoma, Lukasz; Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of rehabilitation protocol applied during competitive period for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A total of 28 male volleyball players were divided into two groups. Fifteen from experimental group (E) and 13 from control group (C) fulfilled the same tests 3 times: before the training program started (first measurement), after 12 weeks (second measurement) and after 24 weeks (third measurement). The above-mentioned protocol included the following: USG imagining with color Doppler function, clinical testing, pain intensity evaluation with VISA-P questionnaire, leg muscle strength and power and jumping ability measurements. The key element of the rehabilitation program was eccentric squat on decline board with additional unstable surface. The essential factor of the protocol was a set of preventive functional exercises, with focus on eccentric exercises of hamstrings. Patellar tendinopathy was observed in 18% of the tested young volleyball players. Implementation of the presented rehabilitation protocol with eccentric squat on decline board applied during sports season lowered the pain level of the young volleyball players. Presented rehabilitation protocol applied without interrupting the competitive period among young volleyball players together with functional exercises could be an effective method for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy.

  13. Developmental activities and the acquisition of superior anticipation and decision making in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, André; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether soccer players with varying levels of perceptual-cognitive expertise can be differentiated based on their engagement in various types and amounts of activity during their development. A total of 64 participants interacted with life-size video clips of 11 versus 11 dynamic situations in soccer, viewed from the first-person perspective of a central defender. They were required to anticipate the actions of their opponents and to make appropriate decisions as to how best to respond. Response accuracy scores were used to categorise elite players (n = 48) as high- (n = 16) and low-performing (n = 16) participants. A group of recreational players (n = 16) who had lower response accuracy scores compared to the elite groups acted as controls. The participation history profiles of players were recorded using retrospective recall questionnaires. The average hours accumulated per year during childhood in soccer-specific play activity was the strongest predictor of perceptual-cognitive expertise. Soccer-specific practice activity during adolescence was also a predictor, albeit its impact was relatively modest. No differences were reported across groups for number of other sports engaged in during development, or for some of the key milestones achieved. A number of implications for talent development are discussed.

  14. Neuroplus biofeedback improves attention, resilience, and injury prevention in elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, Aiace; Corradini, Giuliano; Stoianov, Ivilin

    2017-06-01

    Performance and injury prevention in elite soccer players are typically investigated from physical-tactical, biomechanical, and metabolic perspectives. However, executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and psychophysiological adaptability or resilience are also fundamental for efficiency and well-being in sports. Based on previous research associating autonomic flexibility with prefrontal cortical control, we designed a novel integrated autonomic biofeedback training method called Neuroplus to improve resilience, visual attention, and injury prevention. Herein, we introduce the method and provide an evaluation of 20 elite soccer players from the Italian Soccer High Division (Serie-A): 10 players trained with Neuroplus and 10 trained with a control treatment. The assessments included psychophysiological stress profiles, a visual search task, and indexes of injury prevention, which were measured pre- and posttreatment. The analysis showed a significant enhancement of physiological adaptability, recovery following stress, visual selective attention, and injury prevention that were specific to the Neuroplus group. Enhancing the interplay between autonomic and cognitive functions through biofeedback may become a key principle for obtaining excellence and well-being in sports. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that shows improvement in visual selective attention following intense autonomic biofeedback. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Has player development in men's tennis really changed? An historical rankings perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Michael Kenneth; Reid, Machar; Morgan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Tennis federations are regularly faced with decisions regarding which athletes should be supported in financial terms, and for how long. The financial investments can be considerable, given the cost of competing on tour has been estimated at a minimum $121,000 per year and only the top 130 professionally ranked athletes earned enough prize money to cover this cost in 2012. This study investigates key points of progression in tennis players' careers, to determine how these have changed over time and how that evolution may inform talent development. Approximately 400,000 weekly rankings for 273 male professional tennis players between 1985 and 2010 were compiled, and historical trends in the time taken to reach career milestones were investigated by least-squares regression. The time between earning a first professional ranking point and entry into the Top 100 significantly increased over time for all considered athletes. This was at the detriment of time spent within the Top 100 for some athletes. Career peak Top 50-100 athletes have shown an increase in longevity. These results assist tennis federations in assessing the progress of developing athletes and highlight the evolving nature of the competition for top players.

  16. The audiological health of horn players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J; O'Brien, Ian; Bradley, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Among orchestral musicians, horn players are one of the most at-risk groups for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). To investigate this group further, pure tone audiometry and a 14-item questionnaire were used to assess the hearing health, as well as attitudes and practices regarding hearing conservation, among 142 French horn players attending an international horn conference in Brisbane, Australia. Of this study's French horn players, 11.1% to 22.2%, and 17.7% to 32.9% of those aged ≤40 years, showed some form of hearing loss (corrected for age and gender) typical of NIHL, using conservative versus lenient criteria, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed no obvious predictor of hearing loss in this study's participants. Of the 18% of participants who reported using hearing protection, 81% used this protection "sometimes" and 50% used generic, foam, or other inferior forms of protection. Continued efforts to better manage the hearing health of horn players is warranted particularly as any hearing loss will affect a horn player's ability to perform and therefore his or her livelihood. Managing the hearing health of horn players will be challenging, however, with no simple predictor of NIHL loss being identified in this study's sample.

  17. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  18. Myostatin induces mitochondrial metabolic alteration and typical apoptosis in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Cheng, H; Zhou, Y; Zhu, Y; Bian, R; Chen, Y; Li, C; Ma, Q; Zheng, Q; Zhang, Y; Jin, H; Wang, X; Chen, Q; Zhu, D

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulates the glucose metabolism of muscle cells, while dysregulated myostatin activity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders, including muscle cachexia, obesity and type II diabetes. We observed that myostatin induced significant mitochondrial metabolic alterations and prolonged exposure of myostatin induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells addicted to glycolysis. To address the underlying mechanism, we found that the protein levels of Hexokinase II (HKII) and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), two key regulators of glucose metabolisms as well as metabolic stress-induced apoptosis, were negatively correlated. In particular, VDAC1 was dramatically upregulated in cells that are sensitive to myostatin treatment whereas HKII was downregulated and dissociated from mitochondria. Myostatin promoted the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, and knockdown of VDAC1 inhibited myostatin-induced Bax translocation and apoptosis. These apoptotic changes can be partially rescued by repletion of ATP, or by ectopic expression of HKII, suggesting that perturbation of mitochondrial metabolism is causally linked with subsequent apoptosis. Our findings reveal novel function of myostatin in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23412387

  19. Suitability of FIFA's "The 11" Training Programme for Young Football Players - Impact on Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. "The 11 "injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA's medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of "The 11 "for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed "The 11 "training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players' perceptions of "The 11". No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to "The 11 "should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children.The 11 "improves essential physical performance characteristics and has the potential to reduce the risk of injury.It may be prudent to implement a 'child-friendly' version of "The 11", to enhance long-term programme adherence and to ensure progressive physical development of players.

  20. 17-AAG sensitized malignant glioma cells to death-receptor mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelin, Markus David; Habel, Antje; Gaiser, Timo

    2009-02-01

    17-AAG is a selective HSP90-inhibitor that exhibited therapeutic activity in cancer. In this study three glioblastoma cell lines (U87, LN229 and U251) were treated with 17-AAG, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or the combination of both. Treatment with subtoxic doses of 17-AAG in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces rapid apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant glioma cells, suggesting that this combined treatment may offer an attractive strategy for treating gliomas. 17-AAG treatment down-regulated survivin through proteasomal degradation. In addition, over-expression of survivin attenuated cytotoxicity induced by the combination of 17-AAG and TRAIL. In summary, survivin is a key regulator of TRAIL-17-AAG mediated cell death in malignant glioma.

  1. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF ADOLESCENT ATHLETES' MOTIVATION: BASKETBALL PLAYERS VS. FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolom\\u00E9 J. Almagro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of an athlete is determinant for the athletic engagement of the adolescent. The present study attempts to analyze the motivation of adolescent basketball and football players from the perspectives of Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1989 and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985. The study's sample was composed of 248 athletes from 12 to 17 years of age. Half were from basketball and half were from football. The instruments that were utilized were: the Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS (Núñez, Martín-Albo, Navarro, & González, 2006, the Spanish version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMSCQ-2 (Balaguer, Mayo, Atienza, & Duda, 1997, and the adapted Spanish translation (Moreno, Moreno, & Cervelló, 2007 of the Intention to be Physically Active Scale (IPAS by Hein, Müür, and Koka (2004. The comparison of the means of the variables between football and basketball players was done utilizing the student t-test for independent samples. Significant differences were found for variables such as: intrinsic motivation (IM toward accomplishment, external regulation, amotivation, task, ego, and Self-Determination Index (SDI. Basketball players obtained higher values in the SDI, in task, and in IM toward accomplishment than football players. The search for premature performance in football and coaches' educations can help to explain these differences. The importance of these differences reside in the relationship between these motivational variables and the adherence to athletic practice. In conclusion, basketball demonstrated better values in motivational variables, which demonstrates that training sessions are more oriented toward task than ego, that players have more intrinsic and self-determined motivation, and therefore, the adherence of the young athletes will be greater in this sport.

  2. Ceramide-Induced Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Cells: A Role of Mitochondria and Sphingosine-1-Phoshate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norishi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized upon stimuli, and induces apoptosis in renal tubular cells (RTCs). Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) functions as a survival factor. Thus, the balance of ceramide/S1P determines ceramide-induced apoptosis. Mitochondria play a key role for ceramide-induced apoptosis by altered mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP). Ceramide enhances oligomerization of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, ceramide channel, and reduces anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the MOM. This process alters MOMP, resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome C release into the cytosol, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Ceramide regulates apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-dependent and -independent pathways. Conversely, MAPKs alter ceramide generation by regulating the enzymes involving ceramide metabolism, affecting ceramide-induced apoptosis. Crosstalk between Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS, and many signaling pathways regulates ceramide-induced apoptosis. Growth factors rescue ceramide-induced apoptosis by regulating the enzymes involving ceramide metabolism, S1P, and signaling pathways including MAPKs. This article reviews evidence supporting a role of ceramide for apoptosis and discusses a role of mitochondria, including MOMP, Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS, and signaling pathways, and crosstalk between these factors in the regulation of ceramide-induced apoptosis of RTCs. A balancing role between ceramide and S1P and the strategy for preventing ceramide-induced apoptosis by growth factors are also discussed. PMID:25751724

  3. Anthropometry of World-Class Elite Handball Players According to the Playing Position: Reports From Men's Handball World Championship 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hamid; Rajabi, Hamid; Farzad, Babak; Bayati, Mahdi; Jeffreys, Ian

    2013-12-18

    Identifying the anthropometric measures of successful and less successful handball players may be helpful in developing a talent identification and development model, allowing for the determination of key physical capacities required for elite performance. The purpose of the study was to describe the anthropometric characteristics, including age, standing stature, body mass and body mass index (BMI) in handball players who participated in the 2013 Men's Handball World Championships. Secondly, the objective was to identify the possible differences in these parameters in terms of individual playing positions (goalkeeper, back, center back, wing, line player). Rosters with handball player's age, standing stature, and body mass were obtained from the International Handball Federation website. The research material included 409 handball players (24 teams). National teams were organized by their ranks and sub-grouped using their continents and playing positions. The results of the analyses of variance demonstrated significant differences in age (F=2.30; p=0.044; Partial ŋ2=0.028), standing stature (F=14.02; p=0.0001; Partial ŋ2=0.148), and body mass (F=5.88; p=0.0001; Partial ŋ2=0.068) among the groups (G1-G6). Players in G1 had the highest standing stature and body mass, while players in G6 had the lowest age and body mass values. The backs and line players were the tallest. In addition, the measurement of body mass showed that the line players had the highest body mass and BMI values. In conclusion, this study presented anthropometric data that differentiated levels of success in male handball teams playing in the 2013 world championships. This information should serve as a reference for the average standing stature, body mass, and BMI of handball players for particular positions at the professional level.

  4. Independent regulation of reovirus membrane penetration and apoptosis by the mu1 phi domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthi, Pranav; Coffey, Caroline M; Parker, John S L; Abel, Ty W; Dermody, Terence S

    2008-12-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of reovirus encephalitis. Reovirus outer-capsid protein mu1, which functions to penetrate host cell membranes during viral entry, is the primary regulator of apoptosis following reovirus infection. Ectopic expression of full-length and truncated forms of mu1 indicates that the mu1 phi domain is sufficient to elicit a cell death response. To evaluate the contribution of the mu1 phi domain to the induction of apoptosis following reovirus infection, phi mutant viruses were generated by reverse genetics and analyzed for the capacity to penetrate cell membranes and elicit apoptosis. We found that mutations in phi diminish reovirus membrane penetration efficiency by preventing conformational changes that lead to generation of key reovirus entry intermediates. Independent of effects on membrane penetration, amino acid substitutions in phi affect the apoptotic potential of reovirus, suggesting that phi initiates apoptosis subsequent to cytosolic delivery. In comparison to wild-type virus, apoptosis-defective phi mutant viruses display diminished neurovirulence following intracranial inoculation of newborn mice. These results indicate that the phi domain of mu1 plays an important regulatory role in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease.

  5. Independent regulation of reovirus membrane penetration and apoptosis by the mu1 phi domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Danthi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of reovirus encephalitis. Reovirus outer-capsid protein mu1, which functions to penetrate host cell membranes during viral entry, is the primary regulator of apoptosis following reovirus infection. Ectopic expression of full-length and truncated forms of mu1 indicates that the mu1 phi domain is sufficient to elicit a cell death response. To evaluate the contribution of the mu1 phi domain to the induction of apoptosis following reovirus infection, phi mutant viruses were generated by reverse genetics and analyzed for the capacity to penetrate cell membranes and elicit apoptosis. We found that mutations in phi diminish reovirus membrane penetration efficiency by preventing conformational changes that lead to generation of key reovirus entry intermediates. Independent of effects on membrane penetration, amino acid substitutions in phi affect the apoptotic potential of reovirus, suggesting that phi initiates apoptosis subsequent to cytosolic delivery. In comparison to wild-type virus, apoptosis-defective phi mutant viruses display diminished neurovirulence following intracranial inoculation of newborn mice. These results indicate that the phi domain of mu1 plays an important regulatory role in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease.

  6. Colorectal cancer: can nutrients modulate NF-kappaB and apoptosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula; Aranha, Márcia M; Borralho, Pedro M; Moreira da Silva, Isabel B; Correia, Luís; Fernandes, Afonso; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Camilo, Maria

    2010-02-01

    NF-kappaB may promote carcinogenesis by altering cell cycle, inflammatory responses and apoptosis-related gene expression, though cell mechanisms relating diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unveiled in humans. This study in patients with CRC aimed to explore potential interactions between the dietary pattern, nutrient intake, expression of NF-kappaB, apoptosis and tumour histological aggressiveness. Usual diet was assessed by diet history; nutrient composition was determined by DIETPLAN software. Histologically classified patient tissue samples (adenoma, adenocarcinoma and normal surrounding mucosa) were obtained via biopsies during colonoscopy (n=16) or surgery (n=8). NF-kappaB expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis were higher in tumours (p<0.01), greater along with histological aggressiveness (p<0.01). Highest intake terciles of animal protein, refined carbohydrates, saturated fat, n-6 fatty acids and alcohol were associated with higher NF-kappaB, apoptosis and histological aggressiveness (p<0.01); the opposite tissue characteristics were associated with highest intake terciles of n-3 fatty acids, fibre, vitamin E, flavonoids, isoflavones, beta-carotene and selenium (p<0.002). Additionally, higher n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 26:1) was associated with higher NF-kappaB (p<0.006) and apoptosis (p<0.01), and more aggressive histology (p<0.01). Conversely, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 6:1) was associated with lower NF-kappaB (p<0.002) and apoptosis (p<0.002), and less aggressive histology (p<0.002). NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis increased from adenoma to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. This degenerative transition, recognized as key in carcinogenesis, appear to have been influenced by a diet promoting a pro-inflammatory milieu that can trigger NF-kappaB. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Apoptosis signaling and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akinori; Suzuki, Norio; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection by apoptosis control is the suppression of cell death in highly radiosensitive tissues. This paper describes the outline of radiation-induced apoptosis framework, apoptosis-concerned target molecules possibly related to apoptosis by radiation and their inhibitors. Although there are intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptor) pathways in apoptosis, this review mainly mentions the former which is more important in radiation-induced apoptosis. Those molecules known at present in the apoptosis are caspase, Bcl-2 family and p53. Caspase, a group of cystein proteases, initiates apoptosis but its inhibition is known not always to result in apoptosis suppression, suggesting the existence of caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 family involves apoptosis-suppressing (possessing BH domains) and -promoting (lacking BH domains or possessing BH3 domain alone/BH3-only protein) groups. Two p53-transcription-dependent and one -independent pathways in p53-induced apoptosis are known and p53 can be a most possible target molecule since it positions at the start of apoptosis. Authors have found a vanadate inactivates p53. Inhibitors affecting upstream molecules of apoptosis will be the most useful candidate for apoptosis suppression/radiation protection. (S.I.) 106 refs

  8. N-player quantum games in an EPR setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Chappell

    Full Text Available The N-player quantum games are analyzed that use an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR experiment, as the underlying physical setup. In this setup, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for N-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the players' payoffs and mixed Nash equilibrium are determined. Players' N x N payoff matrices are then defined using linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the N-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific example, we solve the Prisoners' Dilemma game for general N ≥ 2. We find a new property for the game that for an even number of players the payoffs at the Nash equilibrium are equal, whereas for an odd number of players the cooperating players receive higher payoffs. By dispensing with the standard unitary transformations on state vectors in Hilbert space and using instead rotors and multivectors, based on Clifford's geometric algebra (GA, it is shown how the N-player case becomes tractable. The new mathematical approach presented here has wide implications in the areas of quantum information and quantum complexity, as it opens up a powerful way to tractably analyze N-partite qubit interactions.

  9. Alteration of Regulation of Fas/FasL Mediated Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reggie García Robles

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is an important neoplasticdisease in all around the world because its highincidence and mortality. Otherwise, apoptosis isa key process of programmed cell death duringembryogenesis, regulation of immune system,and holding the tissue homeostasis. Besides,the escape of apoptosis by different ways is anessential molecular aspect for the developmentof cancer. In this article we present an exhaustivereview of the current evidence of the roleof apoptosis through Fas/FasL pathway in thedevelopment of gastric carcinogenesis, includingsince early stages like in appearance of preneoplasticlesions. Finally, we think that a bettercomprehension of the signaling pathway Fas/FasL role in the different stages of gastric carcinogenesiscould let us know more about the implicatedmolecular ways and the physiopathologicalchanges in the appearance of this disease.

  10. Player Modeling for Intelligent Difficulty Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas

    In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.

  11. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret...... sharing (VSS), as well as multi-party computation (MPC) belong to the most appealing and/or useful ones. The former two are basic tools to achieve better robustness of cryptographic schemes against malfunction or misuse by “decentralizing” the security from one single to a whole group of individuals...... (captured by the term threshold cryptography). The latter allows—at least in principle—to execute any collaboration among a group of players in a secure way that guarantees the correctness of the outcome but simultaneously respects the privacy of the participants. In this work, we study three aspects...

  12. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2017-06-01

    Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.

  13. SET mediates TCE-induced liver cell apoptosis through dephosphorylation and upregulation of nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xifei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Wu, Desheng; Zou, Fei; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-06-20

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an occupational and environmental chemical that can cause severe hepatotoxicity. While our previous studies showed that the phosphatase inhibitor SET is a key mediator of TCE-induced liver cell apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Using quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis, we report here that nucleolin is a SET-regulated phosphoprotein in human liver HL-7702 cells. Functional analysis suggested that SET promoted dephosphorylation of nucleolin, decreased its binding to its transcriptional activator, c-myc, and upregulated nucleolin expression in TCE-treated cells. Importantly, TCE-induced hepatocyte apoptosis was significantly attenuated when nucleolin was downregulated with specific siRNAs. These findings indicate that TCE may induce hepatocyte apoptosis via SET-mediated dephosphorylation and overexpression of nucleolin.

  14. Comparison of Shoulder Strength in Routinely Trained Badminton Players and Non-Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Zhen Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common reason for patients to seek medical help in any healthcare center. Shoulder pain is influenced by a few factors such as gender, posture during daily activities, aging and psychological factors. Based on the study of Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers, shoulder pain due to shoulder injuries can be reduced by strengthening the shoulder muscle. Badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, especially in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine if badmintonis able to strengthen the shoulder muscle group. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic experimental study was conducted on September 2015 at Lodaya Badminton Training Center and Bale Padjadjaran of Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were 30 healthy male routinely trained badminton players and 30 non-badminton players who voluntarily follow the rstudy procedures. Strength measurement procedures were provided to the subjects after getting informed consent.  Data analysis was performed using T-test. Results: The shoulder strength  in routinely trained badminton players was significantly different from  non-badminton players (P<0.05. Conclusions: Shoulder strength can be improved through routine training of badminton to reduce risk of shoulder injury.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1083

  15. How Players Lose Interest in Playing a Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, Christian; Kersting, Kristian; Sifa, Rafet

    2012-01-01

    introduce methods from random process theory into game data mining in order to draw inferences about player engagement. Given large samples (over 250,000 players) of behavioral telemetry data from five different action-adventure and shooter games, we extract information as to how long individual players......Analyzing telemetry data of player behavior in computer games is a topic of increasing interest for industry and research, alike. When applied to game telemetry data, pattern recognition and statistical analysis provide valuable business intelligence tools for game development. An important problem...... in this area is to characterize how player engagement in a game evolves over time. Reliable models are of pivotal interest since they allow for assessing the long-term success of game products and can provide estimates of how long players may be expected to keep actively playing a game. In this paper, we...

  16. Effect of coach change on professional tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Nekolová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Title: Effect of coach change on professional tennis players Objectives of work: The aim of the thesis is to analyze the impact of coach change on professional tennis players from the psychology perspective, social relationship and player's attitude to the sport itself. The impact of the coach change on player's approach to tennis, game results, personal life and interpersonal relationships will be examined. Method: The methods that will be used are narrative interviews - annotated transcript...

  17. Cellular zinc fluxes and the regulation of apoptosis/gene-directed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Tran, A Q; Ho, L H; Chai, F; Zalewski, P D

    2000-05-01

    The maintenance of discrete subcellular pools of zinc (Zn) is critical for the functional and structural integrity of cells. Among the important biological processes influenced by Zn is apoptosis, a process that is important in cellular homeostasis (an important cellular homeostatic process). It has also been identified as a major mechanism contributing to cell death in response to toxins and in disease, offering hope that novel therapies that target apoptotic pathways may be developed. Because Zn levels in the body can be increased in a relatively nontoxic manner, it may be possible to prevent or ameliorate degenerative disorders that are associated with high rates of apoptotic cell death. This review begins with brief introductions that address, first, the cellular biology of Zn, especially the critical labile Zn pools, and, second, the phenomenon of apoptosis. We then review the evidence relating Zn to apoptosis and address three major hypotheses: (1) that a specific pool or pools of intracellular labile Zn regulates apoptosis; (2) that systemic changes in Zn levels in the body, due to dietary factors, altered physiological states or disease, can influence cell susceptibility to apoptosis, and (3) that this altered susceptibility to apoptosis contributes to pathophysiological changes in the body. Other key issues are the identity of the molecular targets of Zn in the apoptotic cascade, the types of cells and tissues most susceptible to Zn-regulated apoptosis, the role of Zn as a coordinate regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and the apparent release of tightly bound intracellular pools of Zn during the later stages of apoptosis. This review concludes with a section highlighting areas of priority for future studies.

  18. Bridging Media with the Help of Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Michael; Drake, Matthew; Murray, Janet

    We suggest harvesting the power of multiplayer design to bridge content across different media platforms and develop player-driven cross-media experiences. This paper first argues to partially replace complex AI systems with multiplayer design strategies to provide the necessary level of flexibility in the content generation for cross-media applications. The second part describes one example project - the Next Generation Play (NGP) project - that illustrates one practical approach of such a player-driven cross-media content generation. NGP allows players to collect virtual items while watching a TV show. These items are re-used in a multiplayer casual game that automatically generates new game worlds based on the various collections of active players joining a game session. While the TV experience is designed for the single big screen, the game executes on multiple mobile phones. Design and technical implementation of the prototype are explained in more detail to clarify how players carry elements of television narratives into a non-linear handheld gaming experience. The system describes a practical way to create casual game adaptations based on players' personal preferences in a multi-user environment.

  19. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  20. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  1. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  2. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation......-driven content generation....

  3. DECISION-MAKING OF SPANISH FEMALE BASKETBALL TEAM PLAYERS WHILE THEY ARE COMPETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Concepci\\u00F3n Jim\\u00E9nez S\\u00E1nchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making play a very important role in basketball. While the game is taking place, players are constantly choosing what to do. In order to carry out this research work, two questions have been formulated: 1 how do high level female basketball players make a decision while they are competing? 2 which key components do they use to make the best decisions? The twelve players who make up the Spanish female basketball team have taken part in this project. They all participated in the 2008 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament, which took place in Madrid. This tournament allowed them to qualify and take part in the 2008 Olympic Games, where they finished in fifth place. A questionnaire and an interview have been used to make this research possible. The matches of the 2008 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament have also been analyzed. Those aspects in terms of the team's performance in 1x1 and 2x2 attack situations, and more specifically in pick actions, have been recorded and analyzed. In order to include these data, a system of specific categories and variables has been established. The results show that players are expert on making decisions during the competition. In order to come to this conclusion, their opinions, style of decision-making, as well as the way they move in 1x1 and 2x2 situations, were very useful. This research has also confirmed that decisions made by playmakers, forwards and centers are different.

  4. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.

  5. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  6. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topič, Mojca Doupona; Šibila, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women’s handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years) and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years)). We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club’s reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia), while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer. PMID:28149349

  7. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon Marta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women’s handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years. We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club’s reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia, while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer.

  8. Prohibitin (PHB) acts as a potent survival factor against ceramide induced apoptosis in rat granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Branch, Alicia; Olatinwo, Moshood; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland; Thompson, Winston E

    2011-08-29

    Ceramide is a key factor in inducing germ cell apoptosis by translocating from cumulus cells into the adjacent oocyte and lipid rafts through gap junctions. Therefore studies designed to elucidate the mechanistic pathways in ceramide induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis and follicular atresia may potentially lead to the development of novel lipid-based therapeutic strategies that will prevent infertility and premature menopause associated with chemo and/or radiation therapy in female cancer patients. Our previous studies have shown that Prohibitin (PHB) is intimately involved in GCs differentiation, atresia, and luteolysis. In the present study, we have examined the functional effects of loss-/gain-of-function of PHB using adenoviral technology in delaying apoptosis induced by the physiological ligand ceramide in rat GCs. Under these experimental conditions, exogenous ceramide C-8 (50 μM) augmented the expression of mitochondrial PHB and subsequently cause the physical destruction of GC by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. In further studies, silencing of PHB expression by adenoviral small interfering RNA (shRNA) sensitized GCs to ceramide C8-induce apoptosis. In contrast, adenovirus (Ad) directed overexpression of PHB in GCs resulted in increased PHB content in mitochondria and delayed the onset of ceramide induced apoptosis in the infected GCs. Taken together, these results provide novel evidences that a critical level of PHB expression within the mitochondria plays a key intra-molecular role in GC fate by mediating the inhibition of apoptosis and may therefore, contribute significantly to ceramide induced follicular atresia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiently detecting outlying behavior in video-game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Bin; Kang, Shin Jin; Lee, Sang Hyeok; Jung, Jang Young; Kam, Hyeong Ryeol; Lee, Jung; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Joonsoo; Kim, Chang Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise. The proposed method detects such outlying behavior based on the game players' characteristics. These characteristics are captured non-invasively in a general game environment. In this paper, cameras were used to analyze observed data such as facial expressions and player movements. Moreover, multimodal data from the game players (i.e., data regarding adjustments to the volume and the use of the keyboard and mouse) was used to analyze high-dimensional game-player data. A support vector machine was used to efficiently detect outlying behaviors. We verified the effectiveness of the proposed method using games from several genres. The recall rate of the outlying behavior pre-identified by industry experts was approximately 70%. The proposed method can also be used for feedback analysis of various interactive content provided in PC environments.

  10. Head Impact Exposure in Junior and Adult Australian Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hecimovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measured and compared the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by junior and adult Australian football players, respectively, and between player positions over a season of games. Twelve junior and twelve adult players were tracked using a skin-mounted impact sensor. Head impact exposure, including frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts, was quantified using previously established methods. Over the collection period, there were no significant differences in the impact frequency between junior and adult players. However, there was a significant increase in the frequency of head impacts for midfielders in both grades once we accounted for player position. A comparable amount of head impacts in both junior and adult players has implications for Australian football regarding player safety and medical coverage as younger players sustained similar impact levels as adult players. The other implication of a higher impact profile within midfielders is that, by targeting education and prevention strategies, a decrease in the incidence of sports-related concussion may result.

  11. Morphological evolution of Springbok rugby players: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physique of rugby players has evolved over the course of the Twentieth Century. A novel morphological dataset was constructed of all Springbok rugby players until 2014. Although most of the change in body structure, particularly body weight, occurs during the era of professionalism, white Springbok rugby players ...

  12. Kinematic Description of Elite Vs. Low Level Players in Team-Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Buchecker, Michael; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Müller, Erich

    2010-01-01

    The jump throw is the most applied throwing technique in team- handball (Wagner et al., 2008); however, a comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of the team-handball jump throw is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was: 1) to measure differences in ball release speed in team- handball jump throw and anthropometric parameters between groups of different levels of performance and (2) to analyze upper body 3D-kinematics (flexion/extension and rotation) to determine significant differences between these groups. Three-dimensional kinematic data was analyzed via the Vicon MX 13 motion capturing system (Vicon Peak, Oxford, UK) from 26 male team-handball players of different performance levels (mean age: 21.2 ± 5.0 years). The participants were instructed to throw the ball (IHF Size 3) onto a target at 8 m distance, and to hit the center of a square of 1 × 1 m at about eye level (1.75 m), with maximum ball release speed. Significant differences between elite vs. low level players were found in the ball release speed (p handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed in the jump throw, and that an increase in trunk flexion and rotation angular velocity improve the performance in team-handball jump throw that should result in an increase of ball release speed. Key points Team-handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed. An increase in trunk flexion, trunk rotation and shoulder internal rotation angular velocity should result in an increase of ball release speed. Trunk movements are normally well observable for experienced coaches, easy correctable and therefore practical to improve the performance in team-handball jump throw of low level players during training without using complex measurement devices. PMID:24149381

  13. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  15. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  16. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  17. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  18. Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...

  19. Protective equipment use among female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Knox, Christy L

    2005-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use and the motivation for using protective equipment among a sample of US female rugby players. We surveyed a convenience sample of 234 current US female rugby players from 14 teams participating in a US women's rugby tournament, obtaining self-reported demographic, rugby exposure, and protective equipment use information. Mouthguards were the most commonly used piece of protective equipment: 90.8% of players reported having always worn a mouthguard while playing or practicing rugby within their most recent 3 months of play. Fewer than 15% of players reported having always worn other types of protective equipment. Equipment use varied by playing position. Whereas over 80% of players in all other positions always wore a mouthguard, 66.7% of scrum halves reported always wearing one. Both backs and forwards reported wearing shoulder pads, but only forwards reported always wearing padded headgear. Mouthguards, padded headgear, and shoulder pads were worn "to prevent injury," whereas ankle braces, neoprene sleeves, and athletic tape on joints were worn "to protect a current/recent injury." This is the first study of female rugby players to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use by playing position and the motivation for using protective equipment. With the exception of mouthguards, US female rugby players infrequently use protective equipment. Protective equipment use varies by playing position. Some types of protective equipment appear to be used as primary prevention mechanisms, whereas others are used as secondary or tertiary prevention mechanisms.

  20. Physical demands on young elite European female basketball players with special reference to speed, agility, explosive strength, and take-off power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erčulj, Frane; Blas, Mateja; Bračič, Mitja

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and analyze the level of certain motor abilities (acceleration and agility, the explosive strength of arms, and take-off power) of young elite European female basketball players. We also wanted to establish whether there were any differences between 3 groups of female basketball players who differed in terms of their playing performance. The sample of subjects consists of 65 female basketball players aged 14.49 (± 0.61) years who were divided into 3 groups (divisions A, B, and C of the European Championships). We compare the groups by using 8 motor tests. p Values training status, this is also 1 of the key reasons for these players' lower playing efficiency compared to those from divisions A and B. We hope the findings of this study will enable the generation of model values, which can assist basketball coaches for this age category in basketball clubs, high schools, national teams, and basketball camps.

  1. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  2. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  3. Physical and temporal characteristics of under 19, under 21 and senior male beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao, José Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players' role (blocker vs. defender specialist) in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19), 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21), and 1480 rallies from senior (senior) (Men's Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011) were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams' competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as "balanced", "moderate balanced" and "unbalanced" games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies) and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers) characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player's role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a) balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19) and U21; b) moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c) unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players' performances according to age group and players' role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics. Key PointsPlayer roles, quality of opposition

  4. ENCoRE: an efficient software for CRISPR screens identifies new players in extrinsic apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümbach, Dietrich; Pfeiffer, Susanne; Poppe, Manuel; Scherb, Hagen; Doll, Sebastian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Schick, Joel A

    2017-11-25

    As CRISPR/Cas9 mediated screens with pooled guide libraries in somatic cells become increasingly established, an unmet need for rapid and accurate companion informatics tools has emerged. We have developed a lightweight and efficient software to easily manipulate large raw next generation sequencing datasets derived from such screens into informative relational context with graphical support. The advantages of the software entitled ENCoRE (Easy NGS-to-Gene CRISPR REsults) include a simple graphical workflow, platform independence, local and fast multithreaded processing, data pre-processing and gene mapping with custom library import. We demonstrate the capabilities of ENCoRE to interrogate results from a pooled CRISPR cellular viability screen following Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha challenge. The results not only identified stereotypical players in extrinsic apoptotic signaling but two as yet uncharacterized members of the extrinsic apoptotic cascade, Smg7 and Ces2a. We further validated and characterized cell lines containing mutations in these genes against a panel of cell death stimuli and involvement in p53 signaling. In summary, this software enables bench scientists with sensitive data or without access to informatic cores to rapidly interpret results from large scale experiments resulting from pooled CRISPR/Cas9 library screens.

  5. Are squash players protecting their eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Finch, C F; Sherman, C A; Garnham, A P

    2002-09-01

    To determine factors associated with adult squash players' protective eyewear behaviours. A survey of 303 players (aged >or =18 years) was conducted at three squash venues in Melbourne, Australia over a three week period in June 2000 to obtain information about protective eyewear use. Of 303 participants the response rate was 98.1%; 66.1% were males, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The majority (68.4%) had played squash for 10 years or more. Although 18.8% of players reported using protective eyewear, only 8.9% reported wearing approved eyewear. Both age group (peye injuries (50.0%) and knowledge of eye injury risk (33.9%). A commonly reported barrier was restriction of vision (34.2%). These findings demonstrate a low prevalence of voluntary use of appropriate protective eyewear. Future prevention strategies incorporating education campaigns should focus on increasing players' knowledge of risks. The barriers to use and misconceptions about which types of eyewear is most protective need to be addressed as a priority.

  6. Apoptosis and radiosensitivity induced by N-acety1 phytosphingosine, in human cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, K. S.; Han, Y. S.; Jeon, S. J.; Song, J. Y.; Jung, I. S.; Hong, S. H.; Yun, Y. S.; Park, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramide is a key lipid molecule in signal transduction with a role in various regulatory pathways including differentiation, proliferation and especially apoptosis. Ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis is associated with accumulation of ceramide, and the sphingomyelinase deficiency results in radioresistance. We investigated the exogenous treatment of N-acetyl-phytosphingosine (NAPS), an analogue of N-acetyl-sphingosine (C 2 -Ceramide), and C 2 -ceramide exert apoptotic effect on human T cell lymphoma Jurkat cells and breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. NAPS and C 2 -Ceramide has cytotoxic effect in time- and dose-dependent manner, and increased caspase-3, 8 activity. However, NAPS induced apoptosis more effectively, and increased caspase activity induced by NAPS is more higher than C 2 -ceramide. Moreover, NAPS decreased clonogenicity of irradiated cells and increased radiation-induced apoptosis significantly. Increased cell death by irradiation in the presence of NAPS is owing to the increase of caspase activity. These data suggest that NAPS might be used for lead as a new type of radiosensitizing agent increasing radiation-induced apoptosis

  7. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise.

  8. Anthropometry of World-Class Elite Handball Players According to the Playing Position: Reports From Men’s Handball World Championship 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hamid; Rajabi, Hamid; Farzad, Babak; Bayati, Mahdi; Jeffreys, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the anthropometric measures of successful and less successful handball players may be helpful in developing a talent identification and development model, allowing for the determination of key physical capacities required for elite performance. The purpose of the study was to describe the anthropometric characteristics, including age, standing stature, body mass and body mass index (BMI) in handball players who participated in the 2013 Men’s Handball World Championships. Secondly, the objective was to identify the possible differences in these parameters in terms of individual playing positions (goalkeeper, back, center back, wing, line player). Rosters with handball player’s age, standing stature, and body mass were obtained from the International Handball Federation website. The research material included 409 handball players (24 teams). National teams were organized by their ranks and sub-grouped using their continents and playing positions. The results of the analyses of variance demonstrated significant differences in age (F=2.30; p=0.044; Partial ŋ2=0.028), standing stature (F=14.02; p=0.0001; Partial ŋ2=0.148), and body mass (F=5.88; p=0.0001; Partial ŋ2=0.068) among the groups (G1–G6). Players in G1 had the highest standing stature and body mass, while players in G6 had the lowest age and body mass values. The backs and line players were the tallest. In addition, the measurement of body mass showed that the line players had the highest body mass and BMI values. In conclusion, this study presented anthropometric data that differentiated levels of success in male handball teams playing in the 2013 world championships. This information should serve as a reference for the average standing stature, body mass, and BMI of handball players for particular positions at the professional level. PMID:24511357

  9. Chromatin status of apoptosis genes correlates with sensitivity to chemo-, immune- and radiation therapy in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Anne; Janssen, Connie M; van den Elsen, Peter J; van Eggermond, Marja C J A; Hoon, Dave S B; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2014-12-01

    The apoptosis pathway of programmed cell death is frequently deregulated in cancer. An intact apoptosis pathway is required for proper response to anti-cancer treatment. We investigated the chromatin status of key apoptosis genes in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal cancer cell lines in relation to apoptosis induced by chemo-, immune- or radiation therapy. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we measured the presence of transcription-activating histone modifications H3Ac and H3K4me3 and silencing modifications H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 at the gene promoter regions of key apoptosis genes Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-9, Fas (CD95) and p53. Cell lines DLD1, SW620, Colo320, Caco2, Lovo and HT29 were treated with cisplatin, anti-Fas or radiation. The apoptotic response was measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and annexin V-FITC. The chromatin status of the apoptosis genes reflected the activation status of the intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-9 and p53) and extrinsic (Fas) pathways. An active intrinsic apoptotic pathway corresponded to sensitivity to cisplatin and radiation treatment of cell lines DLD1, SW620 and Colo320. An active Fas promoter corresponded to an active extrinsic apoptotic pathway in cell line DLD1. mRNA expression data correlated with the chromatin status of the apoptosis genes as measured by ChIP. In conclusion, the results presented in this study indicate that the balance between activating and silencing histone modifications, reflecting the chromatin status of apoptosis genes, can be used to predict the response of tumor cells to different anti-cancer therapies and could provide a novel target to sensitize tumors to obtain adequate treatment responses.

  10. Player behavioural modelling for video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In

  11. Regulation of apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated, cisplatin-induced apoptosis by Akt

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, X; Fraser, M; Abedini, M R; Bai, T; Tsang, B K

    2008-01-01

    Cisplatin is a first-line chemotherapeutic for ovarian cancer, although chemoresistance limits treatment success. Apoptosis, an important determinant of cisplatin sensitivity, occurs via caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Activation of the protein kinase Akt, commonly observed in ovarian tumours, confers resistance to ovarian cancer cells via inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, the effect of Akt on cisplatin-induced, caspase-independent apoptosis remains unclear. W...

  12. Self-determined motivation in rehabilitating professional rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, F.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the views of professional rugby union players during the early rehabilitation, late rehabilitation and return to play stages, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods A qualitative dominant, mixed methodological approach was utilized with five players who had suffered an ACL injury requiring reconstructive surgery. A longitudinal approach, concurrent with each player?s rehabilitation, consisting of twice monthly intervie...

  13. Cigarette smoke causes caspase-independent apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bucchieri

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important links between air pollution and asthma. Amongst these pollutants, environmental cigarette smoke is a risk factor both for asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. As the barrier to the inhaled environment, the bronchial epithelium is a key structure that is exposed to cigarette smoke.Since primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis, we hypothesized that they would be susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cell death.PBECs from normal and asthmatic donors were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; cell survival and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and protective effects of antioxidants evaluated. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated using caspase inhibitors and immunofluorescent staining for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF.Exposure of PBEC cultures to CSE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell death. At 20% CSE, PBECs from asthmatic donors exhibited significantly more apoptosis than cells from non-asthmatic controls. Reduced glutathione (GSH, but not ascorbic acid (AA, protected against CSE-induced apoptosis. To investigate mechanisms of CSE-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 or -9 inhibitors were tested, but these failed to prevent apoptosis; in contrast, CSE promoted nuclear translocation of AIF from the mitochondria. GSH reduced the number of nuclear-AIF positive cells whereas AA was ineffective.Our results show that PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to CSE-induced apoptosis. This response involves AIF, which has been implicated in DNA damage and ROS-mediated cell-death. Epithelial susceptibility to CSE may contribute to the impact of environmental tobacco smoke in asthma.

  14. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  15. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  16. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  17. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Clark, Andrew T; Clark, Jessica A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; McConnell, Kevin W; Chang, Katherine C; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-06-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.

  18. Investigating the Nutritional and Recovery Habits of Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fleming

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables, and post-match nutrition and recovery. On match day-1, the consumption of balanced meals consisting of carbohydrate (CHO, fat and protein, with some micronutrient considerations were reported by 51% of players. On match-days, CHOs were prioritised prior to match-play with CHO dominant meals consumed by the majority of players. During matches, all players adopted a nutritional strategy, with water (94%, banana(s (86% and sports drinks (50% commonly used. Carbohydrate rich nutritional aids, including sports drinks (80% and energy gels (26% were utilised more readily during long matches (>2 h. The day after match-play, 39% of players reported the consumption of “nothing specific”. Multiple post-match recovery strategies were adopted by 80% of players, with foam rolling (77%, ice baths (40%, protein shake intake (37% and hot baths (26% most used. Findings indicate highly variable eating and recovery habits in tennis players pre-, during and post-match-play, with scope for improved practices.

  19. Investigating the Nutritional and Recovery Habits of Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James A; Naughton, Robert J; Harper, Liam D

    2018-04-03

    In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables, and post-match nutrition and recovery. On match day-1, the consumption of balanced meals consisting of carbohydrate (CHO), fat and protein, with some micronutrient considerations were reported by 51% of players. On match-days, CHOs were prioritised prior to match-play with CHO dominant meals consumed by the majority of players. During matches, all players adopted a nutritional strategy, with water (94%), banana(s) (86%) and sports drinks (50%) commonly used. Carbohydrate rich nutritional aids, including sports drinks (80%) and energy gels (26%) were utilised more readily during long matches (>2 h). The day after match-play, 39% of players reported the consumption of "nothing specific". Multiple post-match recovery strategies were adopted by 80% of players, with foam rolling (77%), ice baths (40%), protein shake intake (37%) and hot baths (26%) most used. Findings indicate highly variable eating and recovery habits in tennis players pre-, during and post-match-play, with scope for improved practices.

  20. Long non-coding RNAs as molecular players in plant defense against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaynab, Madiha; Fatima, Mahpara; Abbas, Safdar; Umair, Muhammad; Sharif, Yasir; Raza, Muhammad Ammar

    2018-05-31

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has significant role in of gene expression and silencing pathways for several biological processes in eukaryotes. lncRNAs has been reported as key player in remodeling chromatin and genome architecture, RNA stabilization and transcription regulation, including enhancer-associated activity. Host lncRNAs are reckoned as compulsory elements of plant defense. In response to pathogen attack, plants protect themselves with the help of lncRNAs -dependent immune systems in which lncRNAs regulate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors. Role of lncRNAs in plant microbe interaction has been studied extensively but regulations of several lncRNAs still need extensive research. In this study we discussed and provide as overview the topical advancements and findings relevant to pathogen attack and plant defense mediated by lncRNAs. It is hoped that lncRNAs would be exploited as a mainstream player to achieve food security by tackling different plant diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Generative Agents for Player Decision Modeling in Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling player decision making through the use of agents as AI-driven personas. The paper argues that artificial agents, as generative player models, have properties that allow them to be used as psyhometrically valid, abstract simulations of a human player......’s internal decision making processes. Such agents can then be used to interpret human decision making, as personas and playtesting tools in the game design process, as baselines for adapting agents to mimic classes of human players, or as believable, human-like opponents. This argument is explored...... in a crowdsourced decision making experiment, in which the decisions of human players are recorded in a small-scale dungeon themed puzzle game. Human decisions are compared to the decisions of a number of a priori defined “archetypical” agent-personas, and the humans are characterized by their likeness...

  2. Beneficial Long Communication in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and re-confirmations are made available to players. In the multi-player EMG, however, as we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of

  3. Decomposition of Multi-player Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengji; Schiffel, Stephan; Thielscher, Michael

    Research in General Game Playing aims at building systems that learn to play unknown games without human intervention. We contribute to this endeavour by generalising the established technique of decomposition from AI Planning to multi-player games. To this end, we present a method for the automatic decomposition of previously unknown games into independent subgames, and we show how a general game player can exploit a successful decomposition for game tree search.

  4. α/β-hydrolase domain containing protein 15 (ABHD15--an adipogenic protein protecting from apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Walenta

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about adipocyte metabolism and development is steadily growing, yet many players are still undefined. Here, we show that α/β-hydrolase domain containing protein 15 (Abhd15 is a direct and functional target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis. In line, Abhd15 is mainly expressed in brown and white adipose tissue and strongly upregulated during adipogenesis in various murine and human cell lines. Stable knockdown of Abhd15 in 3T3-L1 cells evokes a striking differentiation defect, as evidenced by low lipid accumulation and decreased expression of adipocyte marker genes. In preconfluent cells, knockdown of Abhd15 leads to impaired proliferation, which is caused by apoptosis, as we see an increased SubG1 peak, caspase 3/7 activity, and BAX protein expression as well as a reduction in anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein. Furthermore, apoptosis-inducing amounts of palmitic acid evoke a massive increase of Abhd15 expression, proposing an apoptosis-protecting role for ABHD15. On the other hand, in mature adipocytes physiological (i.e. non-apoptotic concentrations of palmitic acid down-regulate Abhd15 expression. Accordingly, we found that the expression of Abhd15 in adipose tissue is reduced in physiological situations with high free fatty acid levels, like high-fat diet, fasting, and aging as well as in genetically obese mice. Collectively, our results position ABHD15 as an essential component in the development of adipocytes as well as in apoptosis, thereby connecting two substantial factors in the regulation of adipocyte number and size. Together with its intricate regulation by free fatty acids, ABHD15 might be an intriguing new target in obesity and diabetes research.

  5. Mental Toughness Attributes of Junior Level Medalist Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese C. Antony

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to compare the mental toughness attributes between medalist and non-medalist badminton players and between male and female players. Participants were 15 male and 15 female badminton players aged between 13-19 years (M= 15.71, SD=2.82. Mental toughness questionnaire of Tiwari and Sharma was administered and the data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and t-test. Medalist players have exhibited higher mean values on self-confidence, attention control, motivation and goal setting attributes. Overall mental toughness of medalists was higher 180.80±17.15 than non-medalists 170.25±20.10. Comparison analysis showed significant difference between medalists and non-medalists on mental toughness attributes: Self-confidence (SCO: p=0.001<0.05, medalists scored (M±SD=31.33±2.10 higher than non-medalists; motivation (MOT: p=0.006<0.05, medalist scored higher (M±SD=33.50±4.07; goal setting (GSE: p=0.044<0.05, medalists scored significantly higher (M±SD=33.55±4.11 than non-medalists. Other attributes did not show any significant difference between medalist and non-medalist players. When compared with gender, no significant difference was observed on mental toughness attributes except attention control (ATNCON: p=0.044<0.05, female players scored (M±SD=38.97±3.08 higher than male players. The findings confirm that mental toughness is a desired attribute which differentiates a medalist and non-medalist player. Connaughton et al., (2007 stated that elite competitive athletes possess better mental toughness. Medalist players displayed better self-confidence than the non-medalists as supported by Kuan and Roy (2007, Loehr (1986. Motivation helps players to achieve their best and enhance mental toughness (Connaughton et al., 2008; Mohammad et al., 2009. Goal setting determines successful performance Weinberg and Weigand (1993, Weinberg (2003. It was concluded that medalist badminton players showed better mental toughness

  6. A Survey on Common Injuries in Recreational Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Muttalib

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study is to determine the incidence of injuries among recreational badminton players. We evaluated 86 recreational badminton players in the city of Malacca; 35 were excluded for fitting the exclusion criteria. The average recreational badminton player was 36.13 years old and had been playing badminton for the past 17.84 years at a frequency of 2.11 times per week. 39.21% of the recreational badminton players complained of recent injuries in relation to playing badminton. Our data showed that the most common injury sustained by recreational badminton players was pain and stiffness at the shoulder joint. None of the injuries sustained by the players in our data were serious enough to warrant any form of surgical intervention. We conclude that badminton is a sport of relatively low risk and that the majority of related injuries were chronic overuse injuries.

  7. Nitrosative stress induces DNA strand breaks but not caspase mediated apoptosis in a lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentz Brandon G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key steps crucial to the process of tumor progression are genomic instability and escape from apoptosis. Nitric oxide and its interrelated reactive intermediates (collectively denoted as NOX have been implicated in DNA damage and mutational events leading to cancer development, while also being implicated in the inhibition of apoptosis through S-nitrosation of key apoptotic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between NOX-mediated DNA strand breaks (DSBs and apoptosis in cultured tumor cell lines. Methods Two well-characterized cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of exogenous NOX via donor compounds. Production of NOX was quantified by the Greiss reaction and spectrophotometery, and confirmed by nitrotyrosine immunostaining. DSBs were measured by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (the COMET assay, and correlated with cell viability by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed both by TUNEL staining and Annexin V/propidium iodine FACS. Finally, caspase enzymatic activity was measured using an in-vitro fluorogenic caspase assay. Results Increases in DNA strand breaks in our tumor cells, but not in control fibroblasts, correlated with the concentration as well as rate of release of exogenously administered NOX. This increase in DSBs did not correlate with an increase in cell death or apoptosis in our tumor cell line. Finally, this lack of apoptosis was found to correlate with inhibition of caspase activity upon exposure to thiol- but not NONOate-based NOX donor compounds. Conclusions Genotoxicity appears to be highly interrelated with both the concentration and kinetic delivery of NOX. Moreover, alterations in cell apoptosis can be seen as a consequence of the explicit mechanisms of NOX delivery. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that NOX may play an important role in tumor progression, and underscores potential pitfalls which should be considered when

  8. Incidence of tinnitus in mp3 player users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; Azevedo, Andreia Aparecida de; Oliveira, Patrícia Mello de; Amorim, Sandro Pereira Vasconcellos; Rios, Artur Guedes; Baptista, Vanderlei

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to loud noise is one of the main causes of tinnitus. To analyze the incidence of tinnitus in mp3 player users and non-users. One hundred subjects aged from 15 to 30 years were enrolled, 54 of them were regular mp3 player users and 46 were not. Patients with continuous tinnitus for at least 6 months completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and were tested with high frequency audiometry and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TAOE). A cross-sectional cohort study. The incidence of tinnitus in non-users was about 8 %; in mp3 player users it was about 28 %, a statistically significant difference. Hearing thresholds at 8 kHz were significantly higher in tinnitus patients that used mp3 portable players.TAOE were reduced at 2 kHz in the users group. No statistically significant difference was found in the THI scores between the two groups. Tinnitus was more frequent in teenagers and young adults who regularly listen to mp3 music in players. Moreover, the incidence of tinnitus among mp3 player users was associated with higher hearing thresholds at 8 kHz and lower TOAE at 2 kHz.

  9. Comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non- players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yarigholi, Mohammad R

    2004-03-01

    A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game) were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon). Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m(-2) and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities. Key PointsThat the ability of a champion depends on many sensory, motor and perceptual factors.Visual factors such as facility of accommodation and visual acuity in reduced lumination should be considered in table tennis players.Visual training may be useful for novice and also for experts.

  10. Female Chess Players Outperform Expectations When Playing Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Stereotype threat has been offered as a potential explanation of differential performance between men and women in some cognitive domains. Questions remain about the reliability and generality of the phenomenon. Previous studies have found that stereotype threat is activated in female chess players when they are matched against male players. I used data from over 5.5 million games of international tournament chess and found no evidence of a stereotype-threat effect. In fact, female players outperform expectations when playing men. Further analysis showed no influence of degree of challenge, player age, nor prevalence of female role models in national chess leagues on differences in performance when women play men versus when they play women. Though this analysis contradicts one specific mechanism of influence of gender stereotypes, the persistent differences between male and female players suggest that systematic factors do exist and remain to be uncovered.

  11. [Apoptosis and pathological process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Mukhammed Salim Iusef

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs normally for maitenance of tissue homeostasis and play an important role in morphogenesis, embriogenesis and tissue growth. On the other hand, apoptosis may be involved in different pathological processes such as malignancy, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. Apoptosis is regulated by various mediators. Caspases, death receptors, mitochondria, Bcl-2 protoncogenes and tumor supressor genes are considered to be the most important of them. Advance in apoptosis regulation research suggests enormouse facilities for therapy of wide range of human illnesses.

  12. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  13. Performance following a first professional concussion among National Basketball Association players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stotts, Jeff; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Gardner, Ryan M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-09-01

    Basketball is a physical game played on a hardwood floor among high-jumping athletes at risk for injury. It is currently unknown how sport-related concussion (SRC) affects player performance after injury among professional basketball players. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of SRC on basketball performance among National Basketball Association (NBA) players. A retrospective, archival cohort study was performed that compared NBA player performance following concussion to pre-concussive performance. A comprehensive NBA injury database, compiled from publically available sources, was queried for NBA players who suffered concussion from 2005-06 to 2014-15 (10 seasons). Intra-and inter-player analyses were performed against a matched control group of players who missed playing time for personal reasons. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a matching process, 51 concussed players and 51 control players were included in analysis. There were no statistically significant decrements in baseline to post-concussion performance metrics in intra-player or player vs. controls after 5 return games. Our findings suggest that at the NBA level, an athlete's performance in the initial 5 games following injury does not suffer from the after-effects of concussive injury. These results may be useful in counseling professional athletes following a concussion.

  14. Big Data for Business Ecosystem Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perko Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the provided research, some of the Big Data most prospective usage domains connect with distinguished player groups found in the business ecosystem. Literature analysis is used to identify the state of the art of Big Data related research in the major domains of its use-namely, individual marketing, health treatment, work opportunities, financial services, and security enforcement. System theory was used to identify business ecosystem major player types disrupted by Big Data: individuals, small and mid-sized enterprises, large organizations, information providers, and regulators. Relationships between the domains and players were explained through new Big Data opportunities and threats and by players’ responsive strategies. System dynamics was used to visualize relationships in the provided model.

  15. UGT74S1 is the key player in controlling secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) formation in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-02-02

    Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying

  16. Coping strategies of soccer players | Plaatjie | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...

  17. Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on apoptosis of human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. M.; Weyer, S.; Weening, J. J.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis of neutrophils is a key mechanism to control the intensity of the acute inflammatory response. Previously, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was reported by some to have pro-apoptotic and by others to have antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils. The aim of this study was

  18. Time-motion analysis and physiological responses of small-sided team handball games in youth male players: Influence of player number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bělka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective training depends on knowledge of a sport's requirements. Small-sided games (SSG are a spontaneous form of specific training, where exercise intensity can be manipulated mainly by modifying external factors. In SSG the players develop technical and tactical skills in the similar situations, such as during a match and can also develop their physical skills. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the distance covered and physiological response of altering the number of youth male players during small-sided team handball games with modified rules. Methods: The subjects consisted of 12 male youth team handball players (age 16.6 ± 0.5 years playing the first league for youth male players in the Czech Republic. The study was conducted during six weeks (one training session per week. Only three SSG were played in each training session. The SSG were played, first with five players on each side (5 vs. 5, then four (4 vs. 4, then three (3 vs. 3. Each game was four minutes long, followed by three minutes of passive rest. Results: The players covered the greatest distance (520.6 ± 61.4 m in the SSG 3 vs. 3. There was a difference in the distance covered between players in the 3 vs. 3 SSG and the other SSG (4 vs. 4 and 5 vs. 5 (p = .041 and p = .043, respectively. In individual speed zones a difference occurred only in the first and third speed zone and always among the 3 vs. 3 and 5 vs. 5 SSG (p = .034 and p = .044, respectively. The highest average intensity (87.9 ± 4.8% HRmax was in 3 vs. 3 SSG. Loading of the players in 5 vs. 5 was lower compared to 4 vs. 4 (p = .035 and 3 vs. 3 (p < .001. There was a difference in zone load intensity (> 90% HRmax between 3 vs. 3 and 5 vs. 5 SSG (p = .041. Conclusions: These results indicate that changing the number of players during SSG with modified rules in youth team handball may be used to manipulate the physiological response

  19. Efficiently detecting outlying behavior in video-game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise. The proposed method detects such outlying behavior based on the game players’ characteristics. These characteristics are captured non-invasively in a general game environment. In this paper, cameras were used to analyze observed data such as facial expressions and player movements. Moreover, multimodal data from the game players (i.e., data regarding adjustments to the volume and the use of the keyboard and mouse was used to analyze high-dimensional game-player data. A support vector machine was used to efficiently detect outlying behaviors. We verified the effectiveness of the proposed method using games from several genres. The recall rate of the outlying behavior pre-identified by industry experts was approximately 70%. The proposed method can also be used for feedback analysis of various interactive content provided in PC environments.

  20. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  1. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun; Feron, Eric; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    the opponents' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player's history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player's security strategies are provided.

  2. I Fought the Law: Transgressive Play and The Implied Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarseth, Espen J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand Game Studies through the contested notion of the “player” both inside and outside “the game object” – that is the object that game users perceive and respond to when they play. Building on Hans-Georg Gadamer’s notion of games as a subject that “masters...... the players”, the paper will go beyond the traditional split between the social sciences’ real players and the aesthetics/humanities critical author-as-player, and present a theory of the player and player studies that incorporates the complex tensions between the real, historical player and the game’s human...... components. Since games are both aesthetic and social phenomena, a theory of the player must combine both social and aesthetic perspectives to be successful. The tension between the humanities and the social sciences over who controls the idea of the player can be found mirrored also in the struggle between...

  3. How should "hot" players in basketball be defended? The use of fast-and-frugal heuristics by basketball coaches and players in response to streakiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that changes in shot difficulty may have rendered the hot-hand effect in basketball unobservable and are potentially a result of defensive adjustments. However, it has not been directly analysed whether strategic changes indeed take place in response to streakiness and whether they are effective with respect to winning games. The current work consists of an experimental study with 18 professional coaches and 20 players based on video sequences from National Basketball Association games, where the shown player displayed a streaky performance in half of the sequences. While coaches were asked to devise a defensive strategy after each viewed sequence, players had to assume the role of the shown player and decide whether to shoot or pass the ball. We find that coaches tended to increase the defensive pressure significantly more often on presumably hot players and thus make use of the hot-hand heuristic. Meanwhile, players chose to shoot more frequently in low-pressure and streaky situations but selected "pass" regardless of the previous performance when they faced increased defensive pressure. Assuming that a streaky player's performance is indeed elevated during hot phases, hot-hand behaviour can be considered adaptive in certain situations as it led hot players to pass instead of shoot.

  4. Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids regulate apoptosis in human THP-1 cells in a PPARγ-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangaveti, Venkat N; Shashidhar, Venkatesh M; Rush, Catherine; Malabu, Usman H; Rasalam, Roy R; Collier, Fiona; Baune, Bernhard T; Kennedy, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Macrophage apoptosis, a key process in atherogenesis, is regulated by oxidation products, including hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs). These stable oxidation products of linoleic acid (LA) are abundant in atherosclerotic plaque and activate PPARγ and GPR132. We investigated the mechanisms through which HODEs regulate apoptosis. The effect of HODEs on THP-1 monocytes and adherent THP-1 cells were compared with other C18 fatty acids, LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA). The number of cells was reduced within 24 hours following treatment with 9-HODE (p labelling of cells (p blocked by the caspase inhibitor DEVD-CHO. The PPARγ antagonist T0070907 further increased apoptosis, suggestive of the PPARγ-regulated apoptotic effects induced by 9-HODE. The use of siRNA for GPR132 showed no evidence that the effect of HODEs was mediated through this receptor. 9-HODE and 13-HODE are potent--and specific--regulators of apoptosis in THP-1 cells. Their action is PPARγ-dependent and independent of GPR132. Further studies to identify the signalling pathways through which HODEs increase apoptosis in macrophages may reveal novel therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis.

  5. Soccer player recognition by pixel classification in a hybrid color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Nicolas; Macaire, Ludovic; Postaire, Jack-Gerard

    1997-08-01

    Soccer is a very popular sport all over the world, Coaches and sport commentators need accurate information about soccer games, especially about the players behavior. These information can be gathered by inspectors who watch the soccer match and report manually the actions of the players involved in the principal phases of the game. Generally, these inspectors focus their attention on the few players standing near the ball and don't report about the motion of all the other players. So it seems desirable to design a system which automatically tracks all the players in real- time. That's why we propose to automatically track each player through the successive color images of the sequences acquired by a fixed color camera. Each player which is present in the image, is modelized by an active contour model or snake. When, during the soccer match, a player is hidden by another, the snakes which track these two players merge. So, it becomes impossible to track the players, except if the snakes are interactively re-initialized. Fortunately, in most cases, the two players don't belong to the same team. That is why we present an algorithm which recognizes the teams of the players by pixels representing the soccer ground which must be withdrawn before considering the players themselves. To eliminate these pixels, the color characteristics of the ground are determined interactively. In a second step, dealing with windows containing only one player of one team, the color features which yield the best discrimination between the two teams are selected. Thanks to these color features, the pixels associated to the players of the two teams form two separated clusters into a color space. In fact, there are many color representation systems and it's interesting to evaluate the features which provide the best separation between the two classes of pixels according to the players soccer suit. Finally, the classification process for image segmentation is based on the three most

  6. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  7. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  8. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  9. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  10. Effect of Concussion on Performance of National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Nicole; Hayward, Rodney A; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Burke, James F

    2017-09-01

    Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury. Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007-2010. Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders' calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player's contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player's baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models. The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report. On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.

  11. Tracking of ball and players in beach volleyball videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gomez

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points.

  12. Linking performance decline to choking: players' perceptions in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Ashley Marie; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Chow, Graig M

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed at examining how basketball players view unexpected performance errors in basketball, and under what conditions they perceive them as choking. Fifty-three basketball players were randomly assigned into 2 groups (game half) to evaluate the linkage between performance decline and choking as a function of game-time, score gap and game half. Within each group, players viewed 8 scenario clips, which featured a different player conducting an error, and subsequently rated the extent of performance decline, the instance of choking and the salience of various performance attributions regarding the error. The analysis revealed that choking was most salient in the 2nd half of the game, but an error was perceived as choking more saliently in the beginning of the 2nd half. This trend was also shown for players' perception of performance decline. Players' ratings of the attributions assigned to errors, however, revealed that during the end of the 2nd half, time pressure and lack of concentration were the causes of errors. Overall, the results provide evidence towards a conceptual framework linking performance decline to the perception of choking, and that errors conducted by players are perceived as choking when there is not a salient reason to suggest its occurrence.

  13. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (psprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  14. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936

  15. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic ...

  16. An Optimized Player Taxonomy Model for Mobile MMORPGs with Millions of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs have great potential as sites for research within the social and human-computer interaction. In the MMORPGs, a stability player taxonomy model is very important for game design. It helps to balance different types of players and improve business strategy of the game. The players in mobile MMORPGs are also connected with social networks; many studies only use the player's own attributes statistics or questionnaire survey method to predict player taxonomy, so lots of social network relations' information will be lost. In this paper, by analyzing the impacts of player's social network, commercial operating data from mobile MMORPGs is used to establish our player taxonomy model (SN model. From the model results, social network-related information in mobile MMORPGs will be considered as important factors to pose this optimized player taxonomy model. As experimental results showed, compared with another player taxonomy model (RA model, our proposed player taxonomy model can achieve good results: classification is more stable.

  17. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  18. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  19. Mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Erin E; Jung, Enjae; Breed, Elise; Dominguez, Jessica A; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and killed 24 h later. Septic animals had a marked increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis by both hematoxylin-eosin and active caspase 3 staining. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus-induced intestinal apoptosis was associated with an increase in the expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Bax and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the mitochondrial pathway. In the receptor-mediated pathway, MRSA pneumonia induced an increase in Fas ligand but decreased protein levels of Fas, FADD, pFADD, TNF-R1, and TRADD. To assess the functional significance of these changes, MRSA pneumonia was induced in mice with genetic manipulations in proteins in either the mitochondrial or receptor-mediated pathways. Both Bid-/- mice and animals with intestine-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 had decreased intestinal apoptosis compared with wild-type animals. In contrast, Fas ligand-/- mice had no alterations in apoptosis. To determine if these findings were organism-specific, similar experiments were performed in mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced gut apoptosis, but unlike MRSA, this was associated with increased Bcl-2 and TNF-R1 and decreased Fas. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus pneumonia thus induces organism-specific changes in intestinal apoptosis via changes in both the mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, although the former may be more functionally significant.

  20. Phytoceuticals in Acute Pancreatitis: Targeting the Balance between Apoptosis and Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Laura; Robu, Georgiana Catalina; Radoi, Mugurel Petrinel; Stroica, Laura; Badea, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the complex pathogenesis of pancreatitis, the management of the disease remains suboptimal. The use of phytoceuticals (plant-derived pleiotropic multitarget molecules) represents a new research trend in pancreatology. The purpose of this review is to discuss the phytoceuticals with pancreatoprotective potential in acute pancreatitis and whose efficacy is based, at least in part, on their capacity to modulate the acinar cell death. The phytochemicals selected, belonging to such diverse classes as polyphenols, flavonoids, lignans, anthraquinones, sesquiterpene lactones, nitriles, and alkaloids, target the balance between apoptosis and necrosis. Activation of apoptosis via various mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteins by embelin, upregulation of FasL gene expression by resveratrol) and/or inhibition of necrosis seem to represent the essential key for decreasing the severity of the disease. Apart from targeting the apoptosis/necrosis balance, the phytochemicals displayed other specific protective activities: inhibition of inflammasome (e.g., rutin), suppression of neutrophil infiltration (e.g., ligustrazine, resveratrol), and antioxidant activity. Even though many of the selected phytoceuticals represent a promising therapeutic alternative, there is a shortage of human evidence, and further studies are required to provide solid basis to justify their use in the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:29686719

  1. Different mechanisms between premitotic apoptosis and postmitotic apoptosis in X-irradiated U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Kuno, Yukie; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Fukasawa, Masashi; Okumura, Atsushi; Uefuji, Megumi; Rokutanda, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Apoptosis is currently being evaluated for its importance as a pathway of radiation-induced cell death. However, the difference in the mechanisms between premitotic and postmitotic apoptosis following X-irradiation remains not well understood. We show here that the human monoblastoid cell line U937 can be induced to undergo these two different types of apoptosis. Methods and Materials: U937 cells were irradiated at a dose of 5 or 20 Gy, and the DNA fragmentation rate was measured by both flow cytometric analysis and gel electrophoresis. Activation of caspase-3 was detected by Western blot analysis and fluorogenic assay using acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin (Ac-DEVD-AMC). Detection of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (no. DELTAno. no. PSIno. ) was performed by using Rho123. Chasing of S-phase fraction following X-irradiation was performed after labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Thymidine was used for synchronization of the cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity was achieved by Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Results: Time courses of the apoptotic rates, caspase activation, and no. DELTAno. no. PSIno. indicated that two different types of cell death were induced by the different X-ray doses. High-dose X-ray (20 Gy) induced a rapid and strong apoptosis, whereas low-dose X-ray (5 Gy) induced a slow and mild apoptosis. Cell-cycle analyses revealed that there was cell death before cell division in the former apoptosis but the cells must be dying after cell division in the latter apoptosis. By means of cell-cycle synchronization, the S-phase cells proved to be the most sensitive fraction to premitotic apoptosis, but an obvious difference in the susceptibility to cell death among the cell-cycle phases was not observed in postmitotic apoptosis. Ac-DEVD-CHO treatment effectively blocked caspase activity and premitotic apoptosis, but it failed to block postmitotic apoptosis. Conclusions: Irradiation of U937 cells at

  2. Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research.

  3. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  4. Relations of competitive state anxiety and efficacy of young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavić, Boris; Jurko, Damir; Grgantov, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of validating the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory on a population of young Croatian volleyball players, 286 examinees, 106 male and 180 female volleyball players (average age of 16.09+/-1.83), filled out the CSAI-2, constructed by Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump and Smith (1990)1. Given the fact that all scales of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory have good homogeneity, reliability and sensitivity, it can be concluded that they represent high-quality measuring instruments for measuring psychological characteristics of young volleyball players. Young male and female volleyball players generally have a moderate level of self-confidence, and their cognitive anxiety is more prominent that somatic anxiety. In order to determine the age and gender differences in somatic and cognitive anxiety and self-confidence, parametric analysis of differences was performed and coefficients of the independent samples t-test were calculated. By analysis of differences according to age, it has been established that female junior players, in relation to female youth players, express a significantly lower level of somatic and cognitive anxiety and a significantly higher level of self-confidence. As opposed to female players, male youth and junior players do not differ in any of the analysed variables. By analysis of differences according to gender, it has been established that male youth players have a significantly higher level of self-confidence in comparison to female youth players. No significant differences were found in the level of competitive anxiety and self-confidence by analysis of variance between different player roles. No significant differences were found by discriminant analysis in somatic and cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence of female volleyball players of different situational efficacy. The group of least efficient male volleyball players is characterized by a very low level of self-confidence, while the most efficient group of volleyball

  5. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis

  6. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang, E-mail: wangdang511@126.com; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis nuoG is a virulence gene that inhibits apoptosis of infected host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakannan Velmurugan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on its capacity to manipulate multiple host defense pathways, including the ability to actively inhibit the death by apoptosis of infected host cells. The genetic basis for this anti-apoptotic activity and its implication for mycobacterial virulence have not been demonstrated or elucidated. Using a novel gain-of-function genetic screen, we demonstrated that inhibition of infection-induced apoptosis of macrophages is controlled by multiple genetic loci in M. tuberculosis. Characterization of one of these loci in detail revealed that the anti-apoptosis activity was attributable to the type I NADH-dehydrogenase of M. tuberculosis, and was mainly due to the subunit of this multicomponent complex encoded by the nuoG gene. Expression of M. tuberculosis nuoG in nonpathogenic mycobacteria endowed them with the ability to inhibit apoptosis of infected human or mouse macrophages, and increased their virulence in a SCID mouse model. Conversely, deletion of nuoG in M. tuberculosis ablated its ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis and significantly reduced its virulence in mice. These results identify a key component of the genetic basis for an important virulence trait of M. tuberculosis and support a direct causal relationship between virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and their ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis.

  8. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  9. Hear today, gone tomorrow: an assessment of portable entertainment player use and hearing acuity in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samit; Gopal, Bharat; Reis, Janet; Novak, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a common but preventable disability. The purpose of this study was to assess the understanding of NIHL in a community sample in the context of exposure to portable music players, including MP3 players, and personal hearing acuity as tested with the Welch Allyn Audioscope 3. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 94 adults (18 to 65 years old) at a university recreation center completed an analysis of personal use of portable digital music players (MP3 players), concerns about hearing loss, and a 3-dB-level hearing test at 4 levels of speech frequency in a low ambient noise setting. The majority of participants (85%) were concerned about hearing loss, willing to protect their hearing with lower volume (77%), had little measurable hearing loss but were exposed to longer and louder periods of noise than other national samples, and mistakenly felt that NIHL is a medically reversible condition. Many (40%) also wanted their family medicine physician to be more concerned about their hearing. Family medicine physicians are in a key position to provide basic information on the preventability and negative consequences of NIHL, as well as to identify and refer patients with identified hearing loss.

  10. Clustering Professional Basketball Players by Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Riki

    2017-01-01

    Basketball players are traditionally grouped into five distinct positions, but these designationsare quickly becoming outdated. We attempt to reclassify players into new groupsbased on personal performance in the 2016-2017 NBA regular season. Two dimensionalityreduction techniques, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) and principalcomponent analysis (PCA), were employed to reduce 18 classic metrics down to two dimensionsfor visualization. k-means clustering discovered four grou...

  11. Exploring Stereotypical Perceptions of Female Players in Digital Gaming Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Linda K; Gresty, Claire E; Stubbs-Ennis, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established. Overall, player competence was perceived to be highest when male avatars were used, specifically when female players were depicted in this way. Study 2 explored the relationships between male social identity and gender-role beliefs, with sexist attitudes in gaming, and whether this varied by gaming context (massively multiplayer online [MMO] vs. first-person shooter [FPS]). Male online gamers (N = 193) were recruited, of which 112 were MMO players, and 81 were FPS players. It was found that identifying as male social identity was not related to sexist attitudes in either gaming context. However, more general gender-role beliefs were related to sexist attitudes. The findings indicate that although certain stereotypes exist (e.g., competence perceptions), these are not necessarily harvested by players' identities within communities, but may derive through more operational functions such as avatar gender.

  12. Physical and physiological attributes of female volleyball players--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidor, Ronnie; Ziv, Gal

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 31) on physical attributes, physiological attributes, and on-court performances of female volleyball players. Empirical and practical knowledge emerging from studies on training-related issues in volleyball, such as body mass, fat-free mass, aerobic profile, strength, and agility and speed, should be integrated and applied when planning annual training programs for volleyball players. Based on our review, it was found that (a) players of a higher skill level are taller, somewhat heavier, and have higher vertical jump values than players of a lower level; (b) the aerobic profile of female volleyball players is similar to that of female basketball players; (c) ballistic resistance training can increase vertical jump values in female volleyball players; and (d) preseason conditioning should be conducted to prevent fatigue and reduced performance at the beginning of the season. Among the research concerns discussed in the article are that there is a lack data for on-court performance and time-motion analysis in female volleyball players and that more experimental/manipulative studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs on physiological attributes of female volleyball players. Two practical implications are suggested for volleyball and strength and conditioning coaches: (a) functional and nonfunctional overreaching should be carefully monitored when planning strength and conditioning programs, and (b) volleyball programs should include ballistic-type training.

  13. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  14. Speed and countermovement-jump characteristics of elite female soccer players, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among elite players over a 15-y period. 194 female elite players (22± 4.1 y, 63 ± 5.6 kg), including an Olympic winning squad, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic training center from 1995 to 2010. Moderate to large velocity differences across performance levels and positions were observed. National-team players were 2% faster than 1st-division players (P = .027, d = 0.5) and 5% faster than 2nd-division players (P players jumped 8-9% higher than 1st-division players (P = .001, d = 0.6) and junior elite players (P = .023, d = 0.5). Forwards were 3-4% faster than midfielders (P Players from 2006-2010 were 2% faster (P players from 1995-1999 over 20 m, whereas no differences in 20- to 40-m velocity or CMJ performance were observed. This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, age, and player position on sprint and CMJ performance in female soccer players. While 20- to 40-m velocity and CMJ performance have remained stable over the time, there has been a moderate but positive development in 0- to 20-m velocity among elite performers.

  15. Sports hernia in National Hockey League players: does surgery affect performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoi, Andre; O'Neill, Craig; Damsgaard, Christopher; Fehring, Keith; Tom, James

    2013-01-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a complex injury that results in loss of play in competitive athletes, especially hockey players. The number of reported sports hernias has been increasing, and the importance of their management is vital. There are no studies reporting whether athletes can return to play at preinjury levels. The focus of this study was to evaluate the productivity of professional hockey players before an established athletic pubalgia diagnosis contrasted with the productivity after sports hernia repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional National Hockey League (NHL) players who were reported to have a sports hernia and who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2008 were identified. Statistics were gathered on the players' previous 2 full seasons and compared with the statistics 2 full seasons after surgery. Data concerning games played, goals, average time on ice, time of productivity, and assists were gathered. Players were divided into 3 groups: group A incorporated all players, group B were players with 6 or fewer seasons of play, and group C consisted of players with 7 or more seasons of play. A control group was chosen to compare player deterioration or improvement over a career; each player selected for the study had a corresponding control player with the same tenure in his career and position during the same years. Forty-three hockey players were identified to have had sports hernia repairs from 2001 to 2008; ultimately, 80% would return to play 2 or more full seasons. Group A had statistically significant decreases in games played, goals scored, and assists. Versus the control group, the decreases in games played and assists were supported. Statistical analysis showed significant decreases in games played, goals scored, assists, and average time on ice the following 2 seasons in group C, which was also seen in comparison with the control group. Group B (16 players) showed only statistical significance in games played versus the control group

  16. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  17. Isolated and painless (? atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle: left handed versus right handed volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago D. Gonçalves Côelho

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The suprascapular nerve originates from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or less frequently from the root of C5. It runs a short way and crosses the suprascapular notch. It innervates the supraspinatus muscle and the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Then, it crosses the lateral edge of the spine of the scapula passing through the spinoglenoid notch, and innervates the infraspinatus muscle. These are potential sites of injury to the suprascapular nerve. Three cases of suprascapular nerve entrapment causing an isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy in volleyball players were studied. It is suggested the hypothesis that the nature of the smash, in which the athlete uses the arm violently, more than does in volleyball service or in the art of reception, is the key to the pathogenesis of the lesion in volleyball players.

  18. How to know and choose online games: differences between current and potential players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ching-I; Lo, Shao-Kang; Wang, Pe-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated how different adolescent players acquire game information and the criteria they use in choosing online games and found that (1) current players generally use comprehensive information sources more than potential players do; (2) current players rely on free trials and smooth display of motion graphics as choice criteria more than potential players do; (3) potential players rely on the look of advertisements more than current players do; (4) both current and potential players most likely use word-of-mouth and gaming programs on TV as information sources; and (5) endorser attractiveness is ranked the least important among six choice criteria by both current and potential players.

  19. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  20. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  1. The Effects of Core Stability Exercise on the Dynamic Balance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadeghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic balance is a key component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in sports. Training the core muscles has been hypothesized as an intervention for improving balance. However, there is a lack of current scientific evidence to support this claim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a core stability program on dynamic balance of volleyball players as measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Thirty healthy participants were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise groups. All participants performed the SEBT before and after 8-week exercise time. During the 8-week time, the exercise group performed a core stability program, whereas the control group abstained from any new exercise. These results also illustrated there was significant differences in the scores for pre-test and post-test of all direction according SEBT in the experimental group. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare experimental and control group (F=43.573, Sig=0.000. These results were a significant difference in the scores for control and experimental groups. Maximum excursion distances improved for the exercise group, compared with the control group. This result justifies the hypothesis that core strengthening can improve dynamic postural control during landing of volleyball players significantly. Keywords: Core stabilization; volleyball player; dynamic balance; SEBT

  2. Iodinated contrast media induce neutrophil apoptosis through a mitochondrial and caspase mediated pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, N F

    2012-02-03

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in renal, myocardial and endothelial cells. Following intravascular injection, circulating immune cells are exposed to high concentrations of ICM. As neutrophils constitutively undergo apoptosis we hypothesized that ICM may adversely affect neutrophil survival. Our aim was to investigate the effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophils were isolated from healthy subjects and cultured in vitro with ionic (diatrizoate and ioxaglate) and non-ionic (iohexol and iotrolan) ICM. The effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils was determined by annexin V flow cytometry. The influence of physicochemical properties of the different ICM on apoptosis of neutrophils was also studied. We further investigated the effects of ICM on key intracellular signal pathways, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by Western blotting, and mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activity by flow cytometry. Isoiodine concentrations (20 mg ml(-1)) of ionic (diatrizoate 69.6+\\/-2.9%; ioxaglate 58.9+\\/-2.0%) and non-ionic (iohexol 57.3+\\/-2.9%; iotrolan 57.1+\\/-2.6%) ICM significantly induced neutrophil apoptosis over control levels (47.7+\\/-1.4%). The apoptotic effect of ICM was influenced by their chemical structure, with ionic ICM having a more significant (p<0.01) apoptotic effect than non-ionic ICM (p<0.05). Furthermore, ICM reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of lipopolysaccharide (1000 ng ml(-1)) treated neutrophils to control levels (23.0+\\/-3.5% to 61.2+\\/-5.3%; n=4; p<0.05). These agents induce apoptosis through a p38 MAPK independent pathway that results in mitochondrial depolarization, and is dependent on caspase activation. As neutrophils play a central role in host response to infection and injury, ICM, through induction of neutrophil apoptosis, could have a significant deleterious effect on host immune defence and

  3. The most important key-performance indicators at BC Timişoara management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the management of objectives at BC Timisoara, motivation and performance analysis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the most important key factors involved in a basketball team performance. The basketball team analyzed is BC Timisoara, a well established club in this city of Western Romania. The article combines information gathered from BC Timisoara’s manager and management theories relevant to the topic. Goal setting is affected by financial and human resource factors as well control and regulation functions. Finally motivation plays a key role in players performance.

  4. Fault Predictive Control of Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    Optical disc players such as CD-players have problems playing certain discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The problem is to be found in the servo controller which positions the optical pick-up, such that the laser beam is focused on the information track. A scheme handling...

  5. The Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in (-)-gossypol-induced autophagy versus apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiqin; Karnak, David; Xu, Liang

    2010-11-01

    Bcl-2 is a key dual regulator of autophagy and apoptosis, but how the level of Bcl-2 influences the cellular decision between autophagy and apoptosis is unclear. The natural BH3-mimetic (-)-gossypol preferentially induces autophagy in androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer cells that have high levels of Bcl-2 and are resistant to apoptosis, whereas apoptosis is preferentially induced in androgen-dependent or -independent cells with low Bcl-2. (-)-Gossypol induces autophagy via blocking Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), together with downregulating Bcl-2, upregulating Beclin 1 and activating the autophagic pathway. Furthermore, (-)-gossypol-induced autophagy is Beclin 1- and Atg5-dependent. These results provide new insights into the mode of cell death induced by Bcl-2 inhibitors, which could facilitate the rational design of clinical trials by selecting patients who are most likely to benefit from the Bcl-2-targeted molecular therapy.

  6. Hyperthermia-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of studies that investigated several aspects of heat-induced apoptosis in human lymphoid malignancies. Cells harbour both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and the balance between these proteins determines whether a cell is susceptible to undergo apoptosis. In this

  7. User-based key frame detection in social web video

    OpenAIRE

    Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Video search results and suggested videos on web sites are represented with a video thumbnail, which is manually selected by the video up-loader among three randomly generated ones (e.g., YouTube). In contrast, we present a grounded user-based approach for automatically detecting interesting key-frames within a video through aggregated users' replay interactions with the video player. Previous research has focused on content-based systems that have the benefit of analyzing a video without use...

  8. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  9. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.

  10. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  11. Ranking benchmarks of top 100 players in men's professional tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Machar; Morris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    In men's professional tennis, players aspire to hold the top ranking position. On the way to the top spot, reaching the top 100 can be seen as a significant career milestone. National Federations undertake extensive efforts to assist their players to reach the top 100. However, objective data considering reasonable ranking yardsticks for top 100 success in men's professional tennis are lacking. Therefore, it is difficult for National Federations and those involved in player development to give empirical programming advice to young players. By taking a closer look at the ranking history of professional male tennis players, this article tries to provide those involved in player development a more objective basis for decision-making. The 100 names, countries, birthdates and ranking histories of the top 100 players listed in the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) at 31 December 2009 were recorded from websites in the public domain. Descriptive statistics were reported for the ranking milestones of interest. Results confirmed the merits of the International Tennis Federation's junior tour with 91% of the top 100 professionals earning a junior ranking, the mean peak of which was 94.1, s=148.9. On average, top 100 professionals achieved their best junior rankings and earned their first ATP point at similar ages, suggesting that players compete on both the junior and professional tours during their transition. Once professionally ranked, players took an average 4.5, s=2.1 years to reach the ATP top 100 at the mean age of 21.5, s=2.6 years, which contrasts with the mean current age of the top 100 of 26.8, s=3.2. The best professional rankings of players born in 1982 or earlier were positively related to the ages at which players earned their first ATP point and then entered the top 100, suggesting that the ages associated with these ranking milestones may have some forecasting potential. Future work should focus on the change in top 100 demographics over time as well

  12. Kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Rathi, B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players. A total forty elite and non-elite level female softball players were selected from the different colleges affiliated to the Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, for the present study. The height of subjects was measured by using the standard anthropometric rod. Weight was measured with portable weighing machine. Widths and diameters of body parts were measured by using digital caliper. Girths and lengths were taken with steel tape. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using the Slimguide skinfold caliper. All subjects were also assessed for performance tests i.e. vertical jump, 50m sprint, medicine ball throw, 10×4m shuttle run and reaction time. Independent samples t-test reveals that elite female softball players were significantly taller (Psoftball players also had significantly greater biacromial (Psoftball players. The non-elite female softball players were found to have significantly greater thigh circumference (Psoftball players. The non-elite players were also found to have significantly higher percentage body fat (Psoftball players. The elite female softball players had significantly greater kinanthropometric characteristics, body composition and performance characteristics than the non-elite female softball players.

  13. Decreased shoulder function and pain common in recreational badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, M; Söderman, K

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and consequences of painful conditions in the shoulder region in recreational badminton players. A questionnaire study was performed on 99 players, of whom 57 were also assessed with Constant score. Previous or present pain in the dominant shoulder was reported by 52% of the players. Sixteen percent of the players had on-going shoulder pain associated with badminton play. A majority of these players reported that their training habits were affected by the pain. Total Constant score was lower in the painful shoulders. Furthermore, range of active pain-free shoulder abduction was decreased. However, isometric shoulder strength test showed no differences when compared with pain-free shoulders. Even though the pain caused functional problems, the players were still playing with on-going symptoms. The diagnoses were mostly unknown, although history and clinical tests indicate problems resembling subacromial impingement.

  14. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  15. Incidence of injuries in high school softball and baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Ellen; Rauh, Mitchell J; Michener, Lori A; Ellenbecker, Todd S

    2011-01-01

    Participation in high school sports has grown 16.1% over the last decade, but few studies have compared the overall injury risks in girls' softball and boys' baseball. To examine the incidence of injury in high school softball and baseball players. Cohort study. Greenville, South Carolina, high schools. Softball and baseball players (n = 247) from 11 high schools. Injury rates, locations, types; initial or subsequent injury; practice or game setting; positions played; seasonal trends. The overall incidence injury rate was 4.5/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), with more injuries overall in softball players (5.6/1000 AEs) than in baseball players (4.0/1000 AEs). Baseball players had a higher initial injury rate (75.9/1000 AEs) than softball players (66.4/1000 AEs): rate ratio (RR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 1.7. The initial injury rate was higher than the subsequent injury rate for the overall sample (P softball (P Softball players were more likely to be injured in a game than were baseball players (RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 0.8, 4.3). Most injuries (77%) were mild (3.5/1000 AEs). The upper extremity accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (63.3%). The incidence of injury for pitchers was 37.3% and for position players was 15.3%. The rate of injury was highest during the first month of the season (7.96/1000 AEs). The incidence of injury was low for both softball and baseball. Most injuries were minor and affected the upper extremity. The injury rates were highest in the first month of the season, so prevention strategies should be focused on minimizing injuries and monitoring players early in the season.

  16. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Andersson, Helena

    2008-01-01

    , (2) fatigue develops temporarily during and towards the end of a game, and (3) defenders have lower work rates than midfielders and attackers. The difference in high-intensity running between the 2 levels demonstrates the importance of intense intermittent exercise for match performance in women......We sought to study the physical demands and match performance of women soccer players. Nineteen top-class and 15 high-level players were individually videotaped in competitive matches, and time-motion analysis were performed. The players changed locomotor activity >1,300 times in a game...... fewer (P women soccer players (1) top-class international players perform more intervals of high-intensity running than elite players at a lower level...

  17. Performance Outcomes After Metacarpal Fractures in National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T

    2016-12-01

    Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.

  18. Radiation Induced Apoptosis of Murine Bone Marrow Cells Is Independent of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Z Oben

    Full Text Available An understanding of how each individual 5q chromosome critical deleted region (CDR gene contributes to malignant transformation would foster the development of much needed targeted therapies for the treatment of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs. Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1 is a key transcriptional regulator of myeloid differentiation located within the 5q chromosome CDR that has been shown to regulate HSC (hematopoietic stem cell quiescence as well as the master regulator of apoptosis-p53. Since resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant transformation, we investigated the role of EGR1 in apoptosis of bone marrow cells; a cell population from which myeloid malignancies arise. We evaluated radiation induced apoptosis of Egr1+/+ and Egr1-/- bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo. EGR1 is not required for radiation induced apoptosis of murine bone marrow cells. Neither p53 mRNA (messenger RNA nor protein expression is regulated by EGR1 in these cells. Radiation induced apoptosis of bone marrow cells by double strand DNA breaks induced p53 activation. These results suggest EGR1 dependent signaling mechanisms do not contribute to aberrant apoptosis of malignant cells in myeloid malignancies.

  19. Caspase cleavage of viral proteins, another way for viruses to make the best of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A; Tulasne, D

    2012-03-08

    Viral infection constitutes an unwanted intrusion that needs to be eradicated by host cells. On one hand, one of the first protective barriers set up to prevent viral replication, spread or persistence involves the induction of apoptotic cell death that aims to limit the availability of the cellular components for viral amplification. On the other hand, while they completely depend on the host molecular machinery, viruses also need to evade the cellular responses that are meant to destroy them. The existence of numerous antiapoptotic products within the viral kingdom proves that apoptosis constitutes a major threat that should better be bypassed. Among the different strategies developed to deal with apoptosis, one is based on what viruses do best: backfiring the cell on itself. Several unrelated viruses have been described to take advantage of apoptosis induction by expressing proteins targeted by caspases, the key effectors of apoptotic cell death. Caspase cleavage of these proteins results in various consequences, from logical apoptosis inhibition to more surprising enhancement or attenuation of viral replication. The present review aims at discussing the characterization and relevance of this post-translational modification that adds a new complexity in the already intricate host-apoptosis-virus triangle.

  20. Physiological characteristics of elite and sub-elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheong Hwa; Tan, Albert; Ahmad, Azwari; Kwong, Kien Weng; Sompong, Ruji; Ghazali, Khairul Aswadi Mohd; Liew, Swee Lee; Chai, Wen Jin; Thompson, Martin William

    2009-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish the physical and physiological attributes of elite and sub-elite Malaysian male badminton players and to determine whether these attributes discriminate elite players from sub-elite players. Measurements and tests of basic anthropometry, explosive power, anaerobic recovery capacity, badminton-specific movement agility, maximum strength, and aerobic capacity were conducted on two occasions, separated by at least one day. The elite (n = 12) and sub-elite (n = 12) players' characteristics were, respectively: mean age 24.6 years (s = 3.7) and 20.5 years (s = 0.7); mass 73.2 kg (s = 7.6) and 62.7 kg (s = 4.2); stature 1.76 m (s = 0.07) and 1.71 m (s = 0.05); body fat 12.5% (s = 4.8) and 9.5% (s = 3.4); estimated VO(2max) 56.9 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (s = 3.7) and 59.5 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (s = 5.2). The elite players had greater maximum absolute strength in one-repetition maximum bench press (P = 0.015) compared with the sub-elite players. There were significant differences in instantaneous lower body power estimated from vertical jump height between the elite and sub-elite groups (P badminton-specific movement agility tests. Our results show that elite Malaysian male badminton players are taller, heavier, and stronger than their sub-elite counterparts. The test battery, however, did not allow us to discriminate between the elite and sub-elite players, suggesting that at the elite level tactical knowledge, technical skills, and psychological readiness could be of greater importance.

  1. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  2. Role-player expectations regarding the education of nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelie, S C; Bornman, J E; Botes, A C

    2003-12-01

    This article reports on role player expectations regarding the education of nursing research. The importance of the role player expectations are two-fold: firstly as a factor in the external environment influencing and guiding the formulation phase of the development of standards and secondly, due to the clear indications of problems regarding nursing research in the nursing profession in literature. The role player expectations were elicited using a qualitative, exploratory and contextual design. The role player population included nurse educators, nurses in managerial, clinical and research positions, students and the medical profession. The data was gathered using the naïve sketches and qualitative data analysis was done using Morse & Field's approach (1996:103-107) in combination with Tesch's data analysis approach as cited by Creswell (1994:154-156). Sixty initial categories were narrowed down to six final categories, which are the research learning programme, personnel, students, departmental policies, funding and support systems. The role player expectations were elicited as part of a research study aiming tot develop a self-evaluation system for quality assurance in nursing research and as such, the role player expectations plays a pivotal role in the development of standards for the self-evaluation system.

  3. THE KEY VIRAL PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  4. The players of the photovoltaic sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2012-01-01

    This document reviews 338 players in the French photovoltaic industry. Each player can be the owner of a photovoltaic power plant, or its operator, or the manufacturer of photovoltaic systems, or the manufacturer of components involved in photovoltaic systems, or the equipment wholesaler, or the designer of photovoltaic projects, or the photovoltaic system installer. For each player some pieces of information are gathered: a brief history of the enterprise, the enterprise activity, its staff, its turnover, its main achievements and its prospects. (A.C.)

  5. Monitoring Elite Soccer Players' External Loads Using Real-Time Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steve

    2017-11-01

    To assess the validity of measuring locomotor activities and PlayerLoad using real-time (RT) data collection during soccer training. Twenty-nine English soccer players participated. Each player wore the same MEMS device (Micromechanical Electrical Systems; S5, Optimeye; CatapultSports, Melbourne, Australia) during 21 training sessions (N = 331 data sets) in the 2015-16 and 2016-17 seasons. An RT receiver (TRX; Catapultsports, Melbourne, Australia) was used to collect the locomotor activities and PlayerLoad data in RT and compared with the postevent downloaded (PED) data. PlayerLoad and locomotor activities (total distance covered; total high-speed running distance covered, >5.5#x00A0;m/s; total sprinting distance covered, >7 m/s; maximum velocity) were analyzed. Correlations were near perfect for all variables analyzed (r = .98-1.00), with a varied level of noise between RT and PED also (0.3-9.7% coefficient of variation). Locomotor activities and PlayerLoad can use both RT and PED concurrently to quantify a player's physical output during a training session. Caution should be taken with higher-velocity-based locomotor activities during RT compared to PED.

  6. Context-dependent player's movement interpretation: application to adaptive game development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Francois; Estraillier, Pascal

    2010-02-01

    Video games are more and more controlled by the real movements of the player. However, the player is constrained by the system devices, imposing a limited vocabulary of actions associated with a set of unnatural movements. To introduce more entertaining video games to players, a component-based architecture is proposed. It has been acknowledged as the starting point for the development of adaptive applications based on the hypothesis of a high level dialogue between the system and the player. The system adaptability relies on interpretation mechanisms of the player behaviors. These behaviors are defined through the representation of the real movements of the player who freely interacts with the 3D elements composing an immersive virtual environment, following a given game scenario. The efficient interpretation of the player movements relies on the introduction in the system of the management of the scene's context. The contextual information not only helps to determine the true meaning of an observed behavior but also makes the system to adapt its processes regarding this interpretation, while managing its hardware and software resources efficiently. A commercial motion capture interface has been enhanced by the elaboration of such a system.

  7. Effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of human neutrophils in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zeng, Mian; Zheng, Haichong; Huang, Chunrong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Chen, Yanzhu; Xie, Ruijie

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by lung inflammation and the diffuse infiltration of neutrophils into the alveolar space. Neutrophils are abundant, short-lived leukocytes that play a key role in immune defense against microbial infections. These cells die via apoptosis following the activation and uptake of microbes, and will also enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter pathogens. Apoptosis is essential for the removal of neutrophils from inflamed tissues and for the timely resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor, produced and secreted mainly from the stomach. Previous studies have reported that ghrelin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in lung injury through the regulation of the apoptosis of different cell types; however, the ability of ghrelin to regulate alveolar neutrophil apoptosis remains largely undefined. We hypothesized that ghrelin may have the ability to modulate neutrophil apoptosis. In this study, to examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on freshly isolated neutrophils in vitro. Our findings demonstrated a decrease in the apoptotic ratio (as shown by flow cytometry), as well as in the percentage of cells with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling-positive rate, accompanied by an increased B-cell lymphoma 2/Bax ratio and the downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 in neutrophils following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml). However, pre-treatment with ghrelin at a physiological level (100 nM) did not have a notable influence on the neutrophils in all the aforementioned tests. Our findings suggest that ghrelin may not possess the ability to modulate the neutrophil lifespan in vitro. PMID:27431014

  8. Online Game Elements, Players and the Bond Between Them

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The results are guidelines for game developers to improve their game design. Through using the guidelines of the paper, developers know how to implement appealing online game elements which appeal to the player and draw them in. The result of the thesis are socializing, achievements and immersion are motivated the player to play online games, as well as the way online games stimulate the player's brain.

  9. Motivational profile quality players handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez Moreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the sport context, elite category, it is necessary to know all the factors, which in one way or another, affect the athletes throughout the different competitions. The object of study is to know the motivational profile of elite handball players. The sample consisted of 495 players, of whom 47.8% were boys and 52.2% girls, their ages ranged from 12 to 16 years, with an average of 13.8 years (dt = 1.0. Descriptive statistical analyzes of the sample, absolute and relative frequencies were performed for the qualitative variables and for the quantitative values minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha. Correlation between variables, with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The MANCOVA test was performed to determine if there were differences between the dimensions of the questionnaire, according to age and years of practice. The results reveal that handball players elite category of the sample object of study have mainly intrinsic motivation, achieving high scores on general motivation, motivation achievement and motivation stimulation. In addition to moderately high values in introjected regulation and very low values in demotivation.

  10. Diagnosis Aerobic Component of Operational Preparedness Skill Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance for the control system, selection and orientation of the players on the stage long-term preparation plays a selection of effective methods of testing the various components of functional fitness athlete for timely, objective information about the players. The use of reliable scientific methods of effective monitoring of the athlete contributes to the further improvement of skills, increase athletic achievements. The purpose of this article is to describe and summarize modern methods of diagnosis and development of aerobic component of operational preparedness players qualifications. This article describes methods that actively and effectively used in leading European football teams. Specifically Yo-Yo test, test Shuttle (beep-test, Bangsbo test, test Hoff-Helgerud, test Conconi, Wingate-test. These tests have a high level of reliability and security mechanisms for assessing aerobic power players.

  11. MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-02

    Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Noise effects in a three-player prisoner's dilemma quantum game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M; Khan, M K

    2008-01-01

    We study the three-player prisoner's dilemma game under the effect of decoherence and correlated noise. It is seen that the quantum player is always better off than the classical players. It is also seen that the game's Nash equilibrium does not change in the presence of correlated noise in contradiction to the effect of decoherence in the multiplayer case. Furthermore, it is shown that for maximum correlation the game does not behave as a noiseless game and the quantum player is still better off for all values of the decoherence parameter p which is not possible in the two-player case. In addition, the payoffs reduction due to decoherence is controlled by the correlated noise throughout the course of the game

  13. Race differences in ventricular remodeling and function among college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Francois; Peter, Shanon; Hulme, Olivia; Liang, David; Schnittger, Ingela; Puryear, Josephine; Gomari, Fatemeh A; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor; Garza, Daniel; Ashley, Euan A

    2013-07-01

    Athletic training is associated with increases in ventricular mass and volume. Recent studies have shown that left ventricular mass increases proportionally in white athletes with a mass/volume ratio approaching unity. The objective of this study was to compare the proportionality in ventricular remodeling and ventricular function in black versus white National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. From 2008 to 2011, football players at Stanford University underwent cardiovascular screening with a 12-point history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and focused echocardiography. Compared with white players, black players had on average higher left ventricular mass indexes (77 ± 11 vs 71 ± 11 g/m(2), p = 0.009), higher mass/volume ratios (1.18 ± 0.16 vs 1.06 ± 0.09 g/ml, p 1.2. Mass/volume ratio was inversely related to early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity e' (r = -0.50, p football players exhibit more concentric ventricular remodeling, lower early diastolic annular velocities, and increased ventricular voltage compared with white players. Ventricular mass increases proportionally to volume in white players but not in black players. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dental Trauma and Mouthguard Usage among Soccer Players in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Uzel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of dental injuries in 343 amateur Turkish soccer players in İzmir and the level of knowledge of the teams’ soccer players about mouthguards. The soccer players were interviewed to determine the occurrence of dental trauma during soccer and mouthguard usage level. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis to determine absolute and relative frequencies of answers for each one of the questions. Only 35 (10.2% soccer players reported the occurrence of some type of dental injury during soccer practice. Regarding emergency conducts, approximately 84 players (24.48% answered that replantation could be obtained after teeth avulsion, 23 players (27.38% answered that successful replantation could be obtained within 2 hours immediately after injury, and 60.71% were not able to answer this question. Regarding mouthguard use, 61.8% of soccer players did not know about mouthguards. It was possible to conclude that dental injuries are common during amateur soccer practice and that there is a lack of information in the soccer players related to the emergency conducts and prevention of dental trauma.

  15. Taurine inhibits 2,5-hexanedione-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangyue; Guan, Huai; Qian, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yijie; Gao, Chenxue; Li, Guixin; Yang, Yi; Piao, Fengyuan; Hu, Shuhai

    2017-04-07

    2,5-hexanedione (HD) is the ultimate neurotoxic metabolite of hexane, causing the progression of nerve diseases in human. It was reported that HD induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Taurine has been shown to be a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the protection of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. Our results showed the decreased viability and increased apoptosis in HD-exposed PC12 cells. HD also induced the disturbance of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, the loss of MMP, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, HD resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and a decline in the activities of superoxidedismutase and catalase in PC12 cells. However, taurine pretreatment ameliorated the increased apoptosis and the alterations in key regulators of mitochondria-dependent pathway in PC12 exposed to HD. The increased ROS level and the decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes in HD group were attenuated by taurine. These results indicate that pretreatment of taurine may, at least partly, prevent HD-induced apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondria-dependent pathway. It is also suggested that the potential of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis may benefit from its anti-oxidative property.

  16. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2018-02-01

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  17. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.

  18. SPORTS SHOES PURCHASE INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS VS. NON-VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A CONCEPTUAL PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOH PIN SIANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to the Malaysian volleyball players throughout several volleyball tournament venues in Malaysia. The experiment will be conducted by comparing two groups of respondents, including volleyball players and non-volleyball players. This study is limited to several independent variables such as endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth. This study is significant for marketers for solving the challenges faced in the sport industry. It also helps to identify consumers’ purchase preferences for sport shoes. The marketer would understand more about their targeted customers’ intentions to purchase, thus the sport industry related with sport marketing in Malaysia might gain more profit.

  19. N-Player Stochastic Differential Games. [control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaiya, P.

    1974-01-01

    Conditions are described which guarantee that the control strategies adopted by N players constitute an efficient solution, an equilibrium, or a core solution. The system dynamics are described by an Ito equation, and all players have perfect information. It was found that when the set of instantaneous joint costs and velocity vectors is convex, the conditions are necessary.

  20. Quantum Two Player Game in Thermal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dajka

    Full Text Available A two-player quantum game is considered in the presence of thermal decoherence. It is shown how the thermal environment modeled in terms of rigorous Davies approach affects payoffs of the players. The conditions for either beneficial or pernicious effect of decoherence are identified. The general considerations are exemplified by the quantum version of Prisoner Dilemma.

  1. Development of speed qualities of skilled water-polo players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovsky M.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Swimming preparation of water-polo players is the basic factor of victory of command. There are a few variants of development of speed swimming preparation. The effective pedagogical mean of stimulation of speed qualities is brief exercises at the end of employments after long aerobic work. The purpose of work is an improvement of method of speed preparation of skilled water-polo players. 26 skilled water-polo players (MS -14 and KMS - 12 took part in an experiment in age from 21 to 32 years. The results of correction of structure of training employment are in-process presented in micro cycle. They are directed on the improvement of speed qualities of water-polo players.

  2. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training

  3. Towards Player Adaptivity in a Serious Game for Conflict Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, C.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Togelius, J.

    2011-01-01

    to resolve this type of conflict, the underlying system generates level content automatically which adapts to player experience and behaviour. Preliminary results demonstrate the efficiency of the procedural content generation mechanism in guiding the training of players towards targeted learning objectives.......We present a technology demonstrator for an adaptive serious game for teaching conflict resolution and discuss the research questions associated with the project. The prototype is a single-player 3D mini-game which simulates a resource management conflict scenario. In order to teach the player how...

  4. Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George

    2010-01-01

    regarding proper training and injury prevention in relation to professional experience in soccer. Key pointsMuscle strength increased from the low (5-7 years) to the intermediate professional training age (8-10 years) and stabilized thereafter.Soccer practicing and competition at the professional level induces critical strength adaptations (asymmetries) regarding the function of the knee and ankle musculature.Soccer players with long professional training age showed a tendency for lower isokinetic strength asymmetries than players with intermediate and short professional training age.

  5. Apoptosis: its pathophysiology and monitoring. The role of apoptosis in the radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopotyk, J.; Rogowski, F.; Parfienczyk, A.

    2004-01-01

    The review aims to give an up to date understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis (programmed cell death), the methods of detecting apoptosis, in particular with regard to imaging such changes non-invasively. Radioiodine (I-131) is a gamma and beta emitting radionuclide and is commonplace in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. I-131 therapy relies on the destruction of thyroid tissue by beta radiation, and such destruction is proposed to be partly as a result of apoptosis. The review undertakes to explore and provoke research into the mechanisms of thyroid cell destruction by I-131, and whether such changes are able to be detected or monitored. Current knowledge concerning apoptosis in the thyroid gland in diseased states (including cancer) are described. The clinical significance of monitoring and modifying apoptosis are emphasized. Furthermore, overt and late destruction of thyroid tissue following I-131 therapy requires elaboration, and the relevance of detecting and modifying thyroid cell apoptosis following I-131 are questioned.(author)

  6. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  7. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  8. [Eating habits of a group of professional volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostrołeka, Myślenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB.

  9. The health status of retired American football players: Super Bowl III revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Stephen J; Nicholas, James A; Nicholas, Calvin; Diecchio, Jennifer R; McHugh, Malachy P

    2007-10-01

    Despite a perception that retired professional football players have poor health, there are little supporting data. Retired football players have poor health compared with age-matched population norms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Thirty-six of 41 members of the 1969 Super Bowl winning team were contacted 35 years after that event (3 were deceased, and no contact information was available for 2). Players completed an SF-36 health survey and a medical history and football-specific questionnaire. Each player's football-related injury history before 1969 was documented from medical records. It was estimated that there was 80% power to detect a 10% difference in physical and mental health scores between the retired football players (age, 62 +/- 3 y) and population norms (n = 741) at an alpha level of 0.05. SF-36 scores for physical and mental health were not different from age-matched norms (physical health P = .69; mental health P = .49). The most prevalent medical conditions were arthritis (24 of 36 players), hypertension (13 of 36 players), and chronic low back pain (13 of 36 players). SF-36 physical health scores were 21% lower in players with arthritis (P football for 8.3 +/- 3.8 years, and 33 players (94%) reported having had "very fulfilling" (n = 24) or "somewhat fulfilling" (n = 9) careers. These professional football players had long and fulfilling careers with no apparent long-term detrimental effects on physical or mental health scores despite a high prevalence of arthritis.

  10. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  11. The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo, David; Pastor Vicedo, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Villora, Sixto; Contreras Jordan, Onofre Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP) in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs), although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE. Key pointsThere was RAE in all groups analyzed, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the general population.RAE is more evident in the Elite groups than in the Amateur probably because of the detection process, which is more thorough in the Elite groups.Playing position, number of years in their specific age group and category of the team did not have any influence on the extent of RAE.Any attempts to prevent RAE should be based on a stable sport policy and the implication of all the stakeholders in the system. All of them should think in the development of a player as a long-term project.

  12. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  13. ANTHROPOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON INDIAN INTERUNIVERSITY BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Koley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian interuniversity basketball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant and Vo2max,with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometriccharacteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables were measured on randomly selected 60 inter-university Indian basketball players (35 males and 25 females aged 18–25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females. The results indicated that male basketball players were taller (6.63% and heavier (7.31% and female basketball players were slightly taller (0.31% and lighter (3.74% than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p ≤ .004 - .000 between group differences in all the variables (excepthip circumference between basketball players and controls. In basketball players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 12 variables, with percent body fat and 7 variables, with right hand grip strength and 12 variables and with Vo2max and other 9 variables, and significantly negative correlationswere found with BMI and other 1 variable (% lean body mass, with percent body fat and other 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 2 variables and with Vo2max with other 3 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in the game of basketball and its training program development.

  14. Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi isolates induce activation and apoptosis of human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa M D Magalhães

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are critical players in the first line of defense against pathogens and in the activation of subsequent cellular responses. We aimed to determine the effects of the interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with human neutrophils, using isolates of the two major discrete type units (DTUs associated with Chagas' disease in Latin America (clone Col1.7G2 and Y strain, DTU I and II, respectively. Thus, we used CFSE-stained trypomastigotes to measure neutrophil-T. cruzi interaction, neutrophil activation, cytokine expression and death, after infection with Col1.7G2 and Y strain. Our results show that the frequency of CFSE+ neutrophils, indicative of interaction, and CFSE intensity on a cell-per-cell basis were similar when comparing Col1.7G2 and Y strains. Interaction with T. cruzi increased neutrophil activation, as measured by CD282, CD284, TNF and IL-12 expression, although at different levels between the two strains. No change in IL-10 expression was observed after interaction of neutrophils with either strain. We observed that exposure to Y and Col1.7G2 caused marked neutrophil death. This was specific to neutrophils, since interaction of either strain with monocytes did not cause death. Our further analysis showed that neutrophil death was a result of apoptosis, which was associated with an upregulation of TNF-receptor, TNF and FasLigand, but not of Fas. Induction of TNF-associated neutrophil apoptosis by the different T. cruzi isolates may act as an effective common mechanism to decrease the host's immune response and favor parasite survival.

  15. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  16. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The ability to escape apoptosis or programmed cell death is a hallmark of human cancers, for example pancreatic cancer. This can promote tumorigenesis, since too little cell death by apoptosis disturbs tissue homeostasis. Additionally, defective apoptosis signaling is the underlying cause of failure to respond to current treatment approaches, since therapy-mediated antitumor activity requires the intactness of apoptosis signaling pathways in cancer cells. Thus, the elucidation of defects in the regulation of apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma can result in the identification of novel targets for therapeutic interference and for exploitation for cancer drug discovery

  17. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulda, Simone [Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Komturstr. 3a, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-01-11

    The ability to escape apoptosis or programmed cell death is a hallmark of human cancers, for example pancreatic cancer. This can promote tumorigenesis, since too little cell death by apoptosis disturbs tissue homeostasis. Additionally, defective apoptosis signaling is the underlying cause of failure to respond to current treatment approaches, since therapy-mediated antitumor activity requires the intactness of apoptosis signaling pathways in cancer cells. Thus, the elucidation of defects in the regulation of apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma can result in the identification of novel targets for therapeutic interference and for exploitation for cancer drug discovery.

  18. Physical qualities and activity profiles of sub-elite and recreational Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Josh G; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Dawson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical qualities and match activity profiles of recreational Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Forty players from three recreational Australian football teams (Division One, Two and Three) underwent a battery of fitness tests (vertical jump, 10 and 40 m sprint, 6 m × 30 m repeated sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level Two and 2-km time trial). The activity profiles of competitive match-play were quantified using 10-Hz Global Positioning System units. Division One players possessed greater maximum velocity, Yo-Yo level Two and 2-km time trial performances than Division Two and Three players. In addition, Division One players covered greater relative distance, and relative distances at moderate- and high-intensities during match-play than Division Two and Three players. Division Two players had better 2-km time trial performances than Division Three players. Positive associations (P football players competing at a higher level exhibit greater physical qualities and match-play activity profiles than lesser-skilled recreational players. Acceleration and maximum velocity, 2-km time trial and Yo-Yo level Two performances discriminate between players of different playing levels, and are related to physical match performance in recreational Australian football. The development of these qualities is likely to contribute to improved match performance in recreational Australian football players. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mean Field Games with a Dominating Player

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensoussan, A., E-mail: axb046100@utdallas.edu [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: michaelchaumanho@gmail.com; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: scpyam@sta.cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.

  20. Motivation and Sport Injuries in Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.

  1. Repeated change-of-direction test for collegiate male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, S; Gray, H; Calabrese, L S; Haff, G G; Sands, W A; Ramsey, M W; Cardinale, M; Stone, M H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the applicability of a repeated change-of-direction (RCoD) test for NCAA Division-I male soccer players. The RCoD test consisted of 5 diagonal direction changes per repetition with a soccer ball to be struck at the end. Each player performed 15 repetitions with approximately 10 seconds to jog back between repetitions. Data were collected in two sessions. In the first session, 13 players were examined for heart rate responses and blood lactate concentrations. In the second session, 22 players were examined for the test's ability to discriminate the primary from secondary players (78.0±16.1 and 10.4±13.3 minutes per match, respectively). Heart rate data were available only from 9 players due to artifacts. The peak heart rate (200.2±6.6 beats∙min-1: 99.9±3.0% maximum) and blood lactate concentration (14.8±2.4 mmol∙L-1 immediately after) resulted in approximately 3.5 and 6.4-fold increases from the resting values, respectively. These values appear comparable to those during intense periods of soccer matches. In addition, the average repetition time of the test was found to discriminate the primary (4.85±0.23 s) from the secondary players (5.10±0.24 s) (P=0.02). The RCoD test appears to induce physiological responses similar to intense periods of soccer matches with respect to heart rate and blood lactate concentration. Players with better average repetition times tend to be those who play major minutes.

  2. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21 badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG. The present investigation noted the statistically significant differences among East - zone Inter - university level male as well as female B adminton player’s preferences for specific coaching behaviour. Differences were not observed between male and female badminton players in all the dimensions together of specific coaching behaviours of preferred leadership. It is recommended that coaches a lign their coaching style to meet the needs of their teams.

  3. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Everett J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic head injuries. Beginning about 10 years ago, a growing concern developed among neurologists and researchers about the long-term effects that playing professional football has on the neurologic health of the players. Autopsy-based studies identified a pathologically distinct neurodegenerative disorder, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, among athletes who were known to have experienced concussive and subconcussive blows to the head during their playing careers. Football players have been well represented in these autopsy findings. A mortality study of a large cohort of retired professional football players found a significantly increased risk of death from neurodegeneration. Further analysis found that non-line players were at higher risk than line players, possibly because of an increased risk of concussion. Although the results of the studies reviewed do not establish a cause effect relationship between football-related head injury and neurodegenerative disorders, a growing body of research supports the hypothesis that professional football players are at an increased risk of neurodegeneration. Significant progress has been made in the last few years on detecting and defining the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, less progress has been made on other factors related to the progression of those diseases in football players. This review identifies three areas for further research: (a) quantification of exposure - a consensus is needed on the use of clinically

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor (17-AAG) Induces Apoptosis and Decreases Cell Migration/Motility of Keloid Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Lee, Mi Hee; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lew, Dae Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won Jai

    2015-07-01

    The regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, and migration of fibroblasts is altered in keloids. The 90-kDa heat shock protein (heat shock protein 90) is known to play a key role in such regulation. Therefore, the authors investigated whether the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 in keloid fibroblasts could induce apoptosis and attenuate keloid fibroblast proliferation and migration. The authors evaluated heat shock protein 90 expression in keloid tissues with immunohistochemistry. The authors used cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays and annexin V/propidium iodide staining for apoptosis, a wound healing model and cell tracking system to assess cell migration, and Akt Western blotting analysis in keloid fibroblasts after inhibition of heat shock protein 90 with 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). The expression of heat shock protein 90 in keloid tissues was significantly increased compared with normal tissues. The 17-AAG-treated keloid fibroblasts showed significantly decreased proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, and decreased expression of Akt. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease in cell migration was noted after 17-AAG treatment of keloid fibroblasts. The 17-AAG-treated keloid fibroblasts had less directionality to the wound center and migrated a shorter distance. The authors confirmed that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 in keloid fibroblasts could promote apoptosis and attenuate proliferation and migration of keloid fibroblasts. Therefore, the authors think that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 is a key factor in the regulation of biological processes in keloids. With further preclinical study, the authors will be able to apply these results clinically for keloid treatment.

  5. Characteristics of anteroposterior curvatures of the spine in soccer and futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromik Krystyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine differences in anteroposterior spine curvatures between futsal players, soccer players, and non-training students. The results may contribute to the development of present-day knowledge of posturometry, and its implementation in training can help reduce the risk of body posture disorders in athletes. Methods. The examined group consisted of 48 athletes and 38 non-training college students. Body posture parameters were measured with the use of Posturometr-S. The normality of distribution was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk test, and the differences between the groups were measured with ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. The analysis of angle values revealed the widest and most similar measurements in the group of futsal players and soccer players. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between the soccer players and futsal players (p = 0.003. The difference between the soccer players and non-training students was statistically significant. The highest γ angular value was measured in non-training students, followed by futsal players and soccer players. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the non-training students and futsal players, as well as non-training students and soccer players (p < 0.001. Conclusions. A complex assessment of athletes’ body posture is crucial in injury prevention. Training overloads may often lead to disorders of the organ of locomotion and affect the correct body posture in athletes. This, in turn, may result in pains and injuries.

  6. Algorithms for finding optimal paths in network games with p players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Boliac

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of finding optimal paths in network games with p players. Some polynomial-time algorithms for finding optimal paths and optimal by Nash strategies of the players in network games with p players are proposed.

  7. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H

    2014-01-01

    Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...

  8. Analyzing In-Game Movements of Soccer Players at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gyarmati, Laszlo; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to get access to datasets related to the physical performance of soccer players. The teams consider such information highly confidential, especially if it covers in-game performance.Hence, most of the analysis and evaluation of the players' performance do not contain much information on the physical aspect of the game, creating a blindspot in performance analysis. We propose a novel method to solve this issue by deriving movement characteristics of soccer players. We use eve...

  9. Ameliorative effects of nano-elemental selenium against hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis in broiler liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueting, Liu; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Mehmood, Khalid; Huang, Shucheng; Tian, Xinxin; Wu, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Donghai

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined the ameliorative effects of nano-elemental selenium (Nano-Se) against chromium-VI (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 )-induced apoptosis in chickens. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot. A total of 60, one-day-old broiler chickens allotted to six equal groups, i.e., control group (standard diet), Cr(VI)-exposed group (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 via drinking water), Nano-Se group (Nano-Se at 0.5 mg/kg via diet), protection group (K 2 Cr 2 O 7  + Nano-Se), cure group (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 for initial 2 weeks and then Nano-Se), and prevention group (opposite to the cure group) and were detected by the activities of pro-apoptosis (Bax, Caspase-3) and anti-apoptosis (Bcl-2) genes expression at day 35 of the experiment. Intense apoptosis was observed in liver tissues of chickens exposed to K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . The Nano-Se supplementation caused a significant decrease (P Nano-Se experimental groups as compare to control and Cr(VI)-exposed group. The results quantified by the RT-qPCR were further confirmed by the western blot analysis. Altogether, these results suggest anti-apoptotic effects of Nano-Se in the chicken liver, which is interesting for further study. The present findings suggested that Nano-Se has protective effects against K 2 Cr 2 O 7 -induced apoptosis in broilers liver and can serve a key role as a protective agent against apoptosis.

  10. Profiling in basketball: physical and physiological characteristics of elite players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Mazic, Sanja; Dikic, Nenad

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe structural and functional characteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have different physical and physiological profiles. Five men's basketball teams participated in the study and competed in the professional First National League. Physiological measurements were taken of 60 players during the final week of their preparatory training for competition. According to positional roles, players were categorized as guards (n = 20), forwards (n = 20), and centers (n = 20). Guards were older (p Vertical jump power was significantly higher in centers (p basketball.

  11. Glutathione Depletion Induced by c-Myc Downregulation Triggers Apoptosis on Treatment with Alkylating Agents1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroccio, Annamaria; Benassi, Barbara; Fiorentino, Francesco; Zupi, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Here we investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the c-Myc-dependent drug response of melanoma cells. By using three M14-derived c-Myc low-expressing clones, we demonstrate that alkylating agents, cisplatin and melphalan, trigger apoptosis in the c-Myc antisense transfectants, but not in the parental line. On the contrary, topoisomerase inhibitors, adriamycin and camptothecin, induce apoptosis to the same extent regardless of c-Myc expression. Because we previously demonstrated that c-Myc downregulation decreases glutathione (GSH) content, we evaluated the role of GSH in the apoptosis induced by the different drugs. In control cells treated with one of the alkylating agents or the others, GSH depletion achieved by l-buthionine-sulfoximine preincubation opens the apoptotic pathway. The apoptosis proceeded through early Bax relocalization, cytochrome c release, and concomitant caspase-9 activation, whereas reactive oxygen species production and alteration of mitochondria membrane potential were late events. That GSH was determining in the c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by altering the intracellular GSH content of the c-Myc low-expressing cells up to the level of controls. Indeed, GSH ethyl ester-mediated increase of GSH abrogated apoptosis induced by cisplatin and melphalan by inhibition of Bax/cytochrome c redistribution. The relationship among c-Myc, GSH content, and the response to alkylating agent has been also evaluated in the M14 Myc overexpressing clones as well as in the melanoma JR8 c-Myc antisense transfectants. All together, these results demonstrate that GSH plays a key role in governing c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:15153331

  12. Body composition of italian female hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this work the anthropometric features and the body composition of Italian hockey players, members of the Female National team, were analysed. The purpose of the research was to verify if morphological features could influence the performance of different positional groups. Materials and Methods: Each player was measured for her total and sitting height, weight, 9 skinfolds thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Different equations were used to calculate the Fat% from skinfolds thickness. Results: Average height is not a crucial advantage for this sport. On the contrary the proportion trunk-limb seems to play an important role for the performance of the midfield players. Percentage of body fat of the hockey players was lower than the Fat% of the non-athletes women of the same age. Significant differences were found between Fat% determined by skinfolds thickness and Fat% obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in anthropometric features and in body composition between positional groups, stressing the importance of a specific training program. Keywords: field hockey, bioelectrical impedance, skinfolds thickness, anthropometry.

  13. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  14. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  15. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (pfootball players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  16. Non-invasive Player Experience Estimation from Body Motion and Game Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Triantafyllidis, George; Patras, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate on the relationship between player experience and body movements in a non-physical 3D computer game. During an experiment, the participants played a series of short game sessions and rated their experience while their body movements were tracked using a depth camera....... The data collected was analysed and a neural network was trained to find the mapping between player body movements, player in- game behaviour and player experience. The results reveal that some aspects of player experience, such as anxiety or challenge, can be detected with high accuracy (up to 81......%). Moreover, taking into account the playing context, the accuracy can be raised up to 86%. Following such a multi-modal approach, it is possible to estimate the player experience in a non-invasive fashion during the game and, based on this information, the game content could be adapted accordingly....

  17. Isolation of key retinoid signalling and metabolic modules in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana André

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are a class of molecules related to vitamin A (Retinol that are required for regulation of critical chordate ndocrine-mediated process, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and vision. To maintain such physiological process, chordates have a complex mechanism to regulate the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids that includes metabolic and signalling modules. Initially, retinoid modules were seen as a chordate novelty. However, emerging biochemical and genomic evidences have challenged this view, clearly pointing to a more basal ancestry than previously thought. However, for the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages a clearly characterization of the main enzymatic/molecular players is still missing. Despite limited, the available evidence supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. In order to enhance our insights on retinoid biology, evolution, and its putative disruption by environmental chemicals, the isolation and functional characterization of key retinoid metabolic players in marine invertebrates has been carried out.

  18. Iliopsoas and Gluteal Muscles Are Asymmetric in Tennis Players but Not in Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Dorado, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of iliopsoas (IL) and gluteal muscles (GL) in tennis and soccer players. Methods IL and GL volumes were determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in male professional tennis (TP) and soccer players (SP), and in non-active control subjects (CG) (n = 8, 15 and 6, respectively). Results The dominant and non-dominant IL were hypertrophied in TP (24 and 36%, respectively, Psoccer players had similar volumes in both sides (P = 0.87). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry decreased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in TP (r = −0.97, PSoccer and CG had similar GL volumes in both sides (P = 0.11 and P = 0.19, for the dominant and contralateral GL, respectively). GL was asymmetrically hypertrophied in TP. The non-dominant GL volume was 20% greater in TP than in CG (Psoccer is associated to a symmetric hypertrophy of IL. Gluteal muscles are asymmetrically hypertrophied in TP, while SP display a similar size to that observed in controls. It remains to be determined whether the different patterns of IL and GL hypertrophy may influence the risk of injury. PMID:21829539

  19. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  20. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  1. Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, Claudia; Lubatschofski, Annelie; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Kotzerke, Joerg; Buchmann, Inga; Reske, Sven N.

    2003-01-01

    Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukaemia and lymphoma. In bone marrow-selective radioimmunotherapy, beta-irradiation is applied using iodine-131, yttrium-90 or rhenium-188 labelled radioimmunoconjugates. However, the mechanisms by which beta-irradiation induces cell death are not understood at the molecular level. Here, we report that beta-irradiation induced apoptosis and activated apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells depending on doses, time points and dose rates. After beta-irradiation, upregulation of CD95 ligand and CD95 receptor was detected and activation of caspases resulting in apoptosis was found. These effects were completely blocked by the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In addition, irradiation-mediated mitochondrial damage resulted in perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation and cytochrome c release. Bax, a death-promoting protein, was upregulated and Bcl-x L , a death-inhibiting protein, was downregulated. We also found higher apoptosis rates and earlier activation of apoptosis pathways after gamma-irradiation in comparison to beta-irradiation at the same dose rate. Furthermore, irradiation-resistant cells were cross-resistant to CD95 and CD95-resistant cells were cross-resistant to irradiation, indicating that CD95 and irradiation used, at least in part, identical effector pathways. These findings demonstrate that beta-irradiation induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells using both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Understanding the timing, sequence and molecular pathways of beta-irradiation-mediated apoptosis may allow rational adjustment of chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  2. Estimation of player's preference for cooperative RPGs using multi-strategy Monte-Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Kokolo; Wada, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    In many video games such as role playing games(RPGs) or sports games, computer players act not only as the opponents of the human player but also as team-mates. But computer players as team-mates often behave in a way that human players do not expect, and such mismatches cause bigger dissatisfaction than in the case of computer players as opponents. One of the reasons for such mismatches is that there are several types of sub-goals or play-styles in these games and the Ai players act without ...

  3. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process.

  4. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for c...

  5. Prevalence of Os Styloideum in National Hockey League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greditzer, Harry G.; Hutchinson, Ian D.; Geannette, Christian S.; Hotchkiss, Robert N.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Os styloideum describes an accessory carpal ossicle between the trapezoid, the capitate, and the second and third metacarpals. Injuries to this tissue have been described as part of the carpal boss syndrome. While the etiology of os styloideum remains uncertain, it may represent a physiologic response to altered loading forces in the wrist, similar to the development of cam-type deformity in the hips of ice hockey players or the Bennett lesion in the shoulders of baseball pitchers. Hypothesis: Professional hockey players will have a higher prevalence of os styloideum compared with the general population. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of 16 professional hockey players from 4 different National Hockey League (NHL) teams who underwent unilateral imaging of the wrist was performed. Seventeen wrists were reviewed for the presence of os styloideum. Results: Thirteen of 16 players (81%) had an os styloideum, representing an increased prevalence compared with the general population. Previous clinical and cadaveric studies estimated a general prevalence of up to 19% (P < 0.001). For the 10 players who had their leading wrist scanned, 9 had an os styloideum (90%). Ten of 11 (91%) players demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern within the metacarpal and the os styloideum on magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant association between the presence of an os styloideum and the player’s position, leading wrist, or years in the league. Conclusion: There appears to be an increased prevalence of os styloideum among NHL players, and team physicians should consider this finding while formulating a differential diagnosis for dorsal wrist pain. Clinical Relevance: This study identified NHL players as having an increased prevalence of os styloideum compared with the general population. By doing so, these findings represent an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the etiology, clinical significance

  6. A short caspase-3 isoform inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis by blocking apoptosome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Végran

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of caspase-3 produces a short isoform caspase-3s that antagonizes caspase-3 apoptotic activity. However, the mechanism of apoptosis inhibition by caspase-3s remains unknown. Here we show that exogenous caspase-3 sensitizes MCF-7 and HBL100 breast cancers cells to chemotherapeutic treatments such as etoposide and methotrexate whereas co-transfection with caspase-3s strongly inhibits etoposide and methotrexate-induced apoptosis underlying thus the anti-apoptotic role of caspase-3s. In caspase-3 transfected cells, lamin-A and α-fodrin were cleaved when caspase-3 was activated by etoposide or methotrexate. When caspase-3s was co-transfected, this cleavage was strongly reduced. Depletion of caspase-3 by RNA interference in HBL100 containing endogenous caspase-3s caused reduction in etoposide and methotrexate-induced apoptosis, whereas the depletion of caspase-3s sensitized cells to chemotherapy. In the presence of caspase-3s, a lack of interaction between caspase-3 and caspase-9 was observed. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that caspase-3s binds the pro-forms of caspase-3. This result suggested that the absence of interaction with caspase-9 when both variants of caspase-3 are present contribute to block the apoptosome assembly and inhibit apoptosis. These data support that caspases-3s negatively interferes with caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in breast cancer, and that it can play key roles in the modulation of response to chemotherapeutic treatments.

  7. Phosphoinositides: Key modulators of energy metabolism☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Dave; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are key players in many trafficking and signaling pathways. Recent advances regarding the synthesis, location and functions of these lipids have dramatically improved our understanding of how and when these lipids are generated and what their roles are in animal physiology. In particular, phosphoinositides play a central role in insulin signaling, and manipulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels in particular, may be an important potential therapeutic target for the alleviation of insulin resistance associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In this article we review the metabolism, regulation and functional roles of phosphoinositides in insulin signaling and the regulation of energy metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25463477

  8. Three-player conflicting interest games and nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    We outline the general construction of three-player games with incomplete information which fulfil the following conditions: (i) symmetry with respect to the permutations of players; (ii) the existence of an upper bound for total payoff resulting from Bell inequalities; (iii) the existence of both fair and unfair Nash equilibria saturating this bound. Conditions (i)-(iii) imply that we are dealing with conflicting interest games. An explicit example of such a game is given. A quantum counterpart of this game is considered. It is obtained by keeping the same utilities but replacing classical advisor by a quantum one. It is shown that the quantum game possesses only fair equilibria with strictly higher payoffs than in the classical case. This implies that quantum nonlocality can be used to resolve the conflict between the players.

  9. Shoulder pain -- a common problem in world-class badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, Martin; Yeap, Joo Seng; Alfredson, Håkan; Söderman, Kerstin

    2006-06-01

    Badminton is a sport that requires a lot of over-shoulder motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation. This questionnaire study on 188 international top-level badminton players during the World Mixed Team Championships showed that previous or present shoulder pain on the dominant side was reported by 52% of the players. Previous shoulder pain was reported by 37% of the players and on-going shoulder pain by 20% of the players. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of shoulder pain between men and women. The majority of the shoulder pain had started gradually. The pain was usually associated with shoulder activity, and stiffness was a common, associated symptom. Furthermore, the shoulder pain was associated with consequences such as sleeping disturbances, changes in training and competition habits, and it also affected activities of daily living. The majority of the players had sought medical advice and had been given different kinds of treatment. The study showed that shoulder pain is a common and significant problem in world-class badminton players, and the consequences are most likely of importance for their training and playing capacity.

  10. Nutrient consumption pattern of male soccer players in Shiraz/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Najafpour Bushehry

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and nutrition have a significant impact on health. To evaluate nutrient consumption pattern of soccer players in city of Shiraz, 323 players were selected by proportional multi-stage cluster random sampling from 11 clubs in Shiraz. Anthropometric indices, socioeconomic status, 24 hours dietary recall and food frequency data were collected. Protein, carbohydrate and fat intake of the players were 73.73 gr (10.8%, 493.3 gr (72.4% and 50.8 gr (16.7%, respectively. Calcium (689.6 mg, phosphorus (734.4 mg, iron (20.3 mg, vitamin B1 (2 mg, vitamin B2 (1.6 mg, vitamin C (107.5 mg and vitamin A (962.4 mcg RE intake were lower than the desirable levels. The mean energy consumption of the players was 2723 Kcal per day. In conclusion, protein and micronutrients intakes are not desirable in Iranian soccer players in Shiraz.

  11. Communication aspects of a three-player Prisoner's Dilemma quantum game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M; Khan, M K

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantization scheme for a three-player Prisoner's Dilemma game. It is shown that entanglement plays a dominant role in the three-player quantum game. Four different types of payoffs are identified on the basis of different combinations of initial state and measurement basis entanglement parameters. A relation among these different payoffs is also established. We also study the communication aspects of the three-player game. By exploiting different combinations of initial state and measurement basis entanglement parameters, we establish a relationship for the information shared among the parties. It is seen that the strategies of the players act as carriers of information in quantum games

  12. A dynamic game of a transboundary pollutant with asymmetric players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Patrick, R.H.; Tolwinski, B.

    1993-01-01

    Modeling transboundary pollutants in a dynamic game framework provides a foundation for analyzing the impact of various policy options. The focus of this analysis is on the results of a tax/subsidy scheme used to address the transboundary problem of global climate change. A nonzero-sum dynamic game with asymmetric players is used to evaluate the policy impact of the tax/subsidy scheme on the respective player's value functions and strategies as determined by a Nash equilibrium feedback solution. The asymmetry of the players is reflected in their respective attitudes toward global climate change with one player benefiting from the change and the other losing. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Mammalian follicular development and atresia: role of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, E; Xiao, C W; Wang, Y F; Tsang, B K

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of follicular development and atresia is a complex process and involves interactions between endocrine factors (gonadotropins) and intraovarian regulators (sex steroids, growth factors and cytokines) in the control of follicular cell fate (i.e. proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death). Granulosa and theca cells are key players in this fascinating process. As atresia is the fate of most follicles, understanding of how these physiological regulators participate in determining the destiny of the follicle (to degenerate or to ovulate) at cellular and subcellular levels is fundamental. This short review summarizes the role of intraovarian modulators of programmed cell death in the induction of atresia during follicular development. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect Rat Corneal Epithelial Cells against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis by Attenuating the Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibiting JNK Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs have been shown to play a key role in protecting the eyes by reducing the apoptosis induced by certain types of damage. However, it is not known whether LBPs can protect damaged corneal cells from apoptosis. Moreover, no reports have focused on the role of LBPs in guarding against ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of LBPs against UVB-induced apoptosis in rat corneal epithelial (RCE cells. The results showed that LBPs significantly prevented the loss of cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis induced by UVB in RCE cells. LBPs also inhibited UVB-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2, and upregulation of Bax and caspase-3. Finally, LBPs attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK triggered by UVB. In summary, LBPs protect RCE cells against UVB-induced damage and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism involves the attenuation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation.

  15. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  16. Regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis in regularly dividing cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribal S Darwish

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ribal S DarwishDepartment of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USAAbstract: The balance between cell survival and death is essential for normal development and homeostasis of organisms. Apoptosis is a distinct type of cell death with ultrastructural features that are consistent with an active, inherently controlled process. Abnormalities and ­dysregulation of apoptosis contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple disease processes. Apoptosis is strictly regulated by several positive and negative feedback mechanisms that regulate cell death and determine the final outcome after cell exposure to apoptotic stimuli. Mitochondria and caspases are central components of the regulatory mechanisms of ­apoptosis. Recently, noncaspase pathways of apoptosis have been explored through the studies of ­apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. Multiple difficulties in the apoptosis research relate to apoptosis detection and imaging. This article reviews current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis.Keywords: caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor, apoptosis inhibitory proteins, cytochrome c, mitochondria 

  17. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta....... In conclusion, suppression of cytokine production by SPIR may be associated with its apoptotic potential, either directly (apoptosis is a consequence of suppressed cytokine production, or vice-versa) or indirectly (suppressed cytokine production and apoptosis are parallel but otherwise unrelated phenomena)....

  18. Nutrition review for hockey players : enhancing performance through nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Bursich, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the advancement of sports medicine in the past decade, hockey players all over the world are always trying to find a competitive edge through nutritional education and proper eating. It is very common to find young junior players looking to make the jump into the professional game always trying to find ways to get bigger and add lean muscle mass, likewise, there are always players looking to drop a few pounds while keeping their muscle mass. Research has proven that through proper educat...

  19. Authoring of Adaptive Single-Player Educational Games

    OpenAIRE

    Mehm, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Digital Educational Games, as one of the most important application areas of Serious Games, combine positive properties of digital games, such as strong motivation for players and inherent learning processes, with educational methods and technologies. Adaptive algorithms allow such games to be aligned automatically to the needs of different players, thereby increasing the learning efficacy. However, educational games are among the most complex game production endeavors, since they are often f...

  20. Sensitivity of neuroprogenitor cells to chemical-induced apoptosis using a multiplexed assay suitable for high-throughput screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druwe, Ingrid; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Wallace, Kathleen; Shafer, Timothy J.; Mundy, William R.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods are useful for rapidly screening large numbers of chemicals for biological activity, including the perturbation of pathways that may lead to adverse cellular effects. In vitro assays for the key events of neurodevelopment, including apoptosis, may be used in a battery of tests for detecting chemicals that could result in developmental neurotoxicity. Apoptosis contributes to nervous system development by regulating the size of the neuroprogenitor cell pool, and the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis during neuroprogenitor cell proliferation helps to determine the size and shape of the nervous system. Therefore, chemicals that affect apoptosis during neuronal development can have deleterious effects on the developing brain. The present study examined the utility of a high-throughput assay to detect chemical-induced apoptosis in mouse or human neuroprogenitor cells, as well as differentiated human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Apoptosis was assessed using an assay that measures enzymatic activity of caspase-3/7 in a rapid and cost efficient manner. The results show that all three commercially available models generated a robust source of proliferating neuroprogenitor cells, and that the assay was sensitive and reproducible when used in a multi-well plate format. There were differences in the response of rodent and human neuroprogenitor cells to a set of chemicals previously shown to induce apoptosis in vitro. Neuroprogenitor cells were more sensitive to chemical-induced apoptosis than differentiated neurons, suggesting that neuroprogenitor cells are one of the cell models that should be considered for use in a developmental neurotoxicity screening battery

  1. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  2. Early Sport Specialization: Effectiveness and Risk of Injury in Professional Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John

    2017-09-01

    The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players' careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players' current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specialize early to play at the professional level. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 102 current professional baseball players anonymously completed a 7-question written survey. Early sport specialization was defined as "single-sport participation prior to high school." Injury was defined as "a serious injury or surgery that required the player to refrain from sports (baseball) for an entire year." Chi-square tests were used to investigate the risk of injury in those who specialized early in baseball versus those who did not. Independent-sample t tests were used to compare injury rates based on current player position. Fifty (48%) baseball players specialized early. The mean age at initiation of sport specialization was 8.91 years (SD, 3.7 years). Those who specialized early reported more serious injuries (mean, 0.54; SD, 0.838) during their professional baseball career than those who did not (mean, 0.23; SD, 0.425) ( P = .044). Finally, 63.4% of the queried players believed that early sport specialization was not required to play professional baseball. Our study demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of serious injury during a baseball player's professional career in those players who specialized early. Most current professional baseball players surveyed believed that sport specialization was not required prior to high school to master the skills needed to play at the professional level. Our findings demonstrate an increased incidence of serious injuries in professional baseball

  3. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  4. ANTHROPOMETRIC AND MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS IN VOLLEYBALL AND BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Tahiraj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the morphological and motor status players for both teams, and then based on the results of anthropometric and motor status of this work can also do a comparative analysis between these two sports, volleyball and basketball. Therefore, the present study is in the results (achieved of the differences and their special achievement and to skills top players. In this research, we have participation 30 players (15 for each team volleyball and basketball, the teams is from Pristina. It should be noted that all players are fully able to follow regular exercise in their clubs. Those two clubs in Pristina, have the training five days a week, the clubs are in super league and the current champion in country. We as a coach interesed about the comparisons and differences of these two sports for anthropometric and motor characteristics, and in these sports, in those two sports players have a special that is characterized by height body and explosive power. We think, that this research work serves as a continuation of the way and further research on these two sports that have a significant increase from the psycho-physical and anthropometric aspects

  5. Ubiquitination in apoptosis signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kooij, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3

  6. Countermovement-Jump-Phase Characteristics of Senior and Academy Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John J; Murphy, Shannon; Rej, Sophie J E; Comfort, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Gross measures of countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance are commonly used to track maturational changes in neuromuscular function in rugby league (RL). The purpose of this study was to conduct both a gross and a more detailed temporal-phase analysis of the CMJ performances of senior and academy RL players, to provide greater insight into how neuromuscular function differs between these groups. Twenty senior and 14 academy (under-19) male RL players performed 3 maximal-effort CMJs on a force platform, with forward dynamics subsequently employed to allow gross performance measures and entire kinetic- and kinematic-time curves to be compared between groups. Jump height (JH), reactive strength index modified, concentric displacement, and relative concentric impulse (C-IMP) were the only gross measures that were greater for senior players (d = 0.58-0.91) than for academy players. The relative force- and displacement-time curves were similar between groups, but the relative power- and velocity-time curves were greater (d = 0.59-0.97) for the senior players at 94-96% and 89-100% of the total movement time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between senior and academy RL players, with seniors demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger C-IMP and thus achieving greater velocity throughout the majority of the concentric phase and at takeoff. Therefore, academy RL players should train to improve triple (ie, ankle, knee, and hip) extension velocity during the CMJ to bring their JH scores in line with those attained by senior players.

  7. Video game players show more precise multisensory temporal processing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E; Woldorff, Marty G; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2010-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. In the present study, we examined whether video game players' benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting auditory and visual stimuli within a short temporal window to video game players and non-video game players. Participants performed two discrimination tasks, both of which revealed benefits for video game players: In a simultaneity judgment task, video game players were better able to distinguish whether simple visual and auditory stimuli occurred at the same moment or slightly offset in time, and in a temporal-order judgment task, they revealed an enhanced ability to determine the temporal sequence of multisensory stimuli. These results suggest that people with extensive experience playing video games display benefits that extend beyond the visual modality to also impact multisensory processing.

  8. Special considerations in the medical management of professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingard, S A

    1993-04-01

    The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court.

  9. Player-Specific Conflict Handling Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Hondrou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology that leads the player of a serious game - regarding conflict handling - to the educative experience from which they will benefit the most. It provides a clearly defined tree of axioms that maps the player’s visually manifested affective cues and emotional stimuli from the serious game to conflict handling styles and proposes interventions. The importance of this ontology lies in the fact that it promotes natural interaction (non-invasive methods and at the same time makes the game as player-specific as it can be for its educational goal. It is an ontology that can be adapted to different educational theories and serve various educational purposes.

  10. The architecture of the chess player's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Brütsch, Karin; Siegel, Adrian M; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    The game of chess can be seen as a typical example for an expertise task requiring domain-specific training and experience. Despite intensive behavioural studies the neural underpinnings of chess performance and expertise are not entirely understood. A few functional neuroimaging studies have shown that expert chess players recruit different psychological functions and activate different brain areas while they are engaged in chess-related activities. Based on this functional literature, we predicted to find morphological differences in a network comprised by parietal and frontal areas and especially the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ), fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty expert chess players and 20 control subjects were investigated using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were reduced in chess players compared with those of control men in the OTJ and precunei. The volumes of both caudate nuclei were not different between groups, but correlated inversely with the years of chess playing experience. Mean diffusivity was increased in chess players compared with that of controls in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the Elo score (a chess tournament ranking) was inversely related to mean diffusivity within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. To the best of our knowledge we showed for the first time that there are specific differences in grey and white matter morphology between chess players and control subjects in brain regions associated with cognitive functions important for playing chess. Whether these anatomical alterations are the cause or consequence of the intensive and long-term chess training and practice remains to be shown in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-season training periodization of professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Los Arcos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal perceived respiratory and muscular training loads (i.e., sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL completed by elite-oriented young professional soccer players. Twentyfour players (20.3 ± 2.0 years belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga club participated in this study. Only the players that were available to train for a whole week with the team and also to play the weekly game were considered: Starters, players that participated in the match for at least 45 min and Non- Starters, players that did not participate or played less than 45 minutes in the match. The competitive period was analysed after the division into 5x6-8 week blocks and 35x1 week microcycles. Data were also analysed with respect to number of days before the immediate match. Weekly TL variation across the in-season blocks was trivial-small for both groups except between Block 2 and Block 3 (ES= moderate. Substantial TL differences (ES= small–very likely were found between training days, the TL pattern being a progressive increase up to MD-3 followed by a decrease until MD-1. Except for the match, sRPEres-/sRPEmus-TL was very similar between Starters and Non-Starters. In summary, perceived TL across the season displayed limited variation. Coaches periodized training contents to attain the highest weekly TL 72 hours before the match to progressively unload the players between MD-3 and the match day. The data revealed that the TL arising from the weekly game was solely responsible for the observed higher weekly TL of Starters in comparison with Non-Starters.

  12. NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced glomerular podocyte apoptosis through increased Bax expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruizhao; Zhang, Li; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Xinling; Liu, Shuangxin; Wang, Wenjian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperglycemia promotes podocyte apoptosis and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms that mediate hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis is still far from being fully understood. Recent studies reported that high glucose activate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in vascular smooth muscle or pancreatic β-cells. Here, we sought to determine if hyperglycemia activates NFAT2 in cultured podocyte and whether this leads to podocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, we also further explore the mechanisms of NFAT2 activation and NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis. Methods: Immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in media containing normal glucose (NG), or high glucose (HG) or HG plus cyclosporine A (a pharmacological inhibitor of calcinerin) or 11R-VIVIT (a special inhibitor of NFAT2). The activation of NFAT2 in podocytes was detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. The role of NFAT2 in hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis was further evaluated by observing the inhibition of NFAT2 activation by 11R-VIVIT using flow cytometer. Intracellular Ca 2+ was monitored in HG-treated podcocytes using Fluo-3/AM. The mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis gene Bax were measured by real time-qPCR and western blotting. Results: HG stimulation activated NFAT2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment with cyclosporine A (500 nM) or 11R-VIVIT (100 nM) completely blocked NFAT2 nuclear accumulation. Meanwhile, the apoptosis effects induced by HG were also abrogated by concomitant treatment with 11R-VIVIT in cultured podocytes. We further found that HG also increased [Ca 2+ ]i, leading to activation of calcineurin, and subsequent increased nuclear accumulation of NFAT2 and Bax expression in cultured podocytes. Conclusion: Our results identify a new finding that HG-induced podocyte apoptosis is mediated by calcineurin/NFAT2/Bax signaling pathway, which may

  13. NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced glomerular podocyte apoptosis through increased Bax expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruizhao, E-mail: liruizhao1979@126.com [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: Zhanglichangde@163.com [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Shi, Wei, E-mail: shiwei.gd@139.com [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Zhang, Bin, E-mail: zhangbinyes@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Liang, Xinling, E-mail: xinlingliang@yahoo.com [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Liu, Shuangxin, E-mail: mplsxi@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Wang, Wenjian, E-mail: wwjph@yahoo.com [Department of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan No. 2 Road, Guangzhou, 510080 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Hyperglycemia promotes podocyte apoptosis and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms that mediate hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis is still far from being fully understood. Recent studies reported that high glucose activate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in vascular smooth muscle or pancreatic β-cells. Here, we sought to determine if hyperglycemia activates NFAT2 in cultured podocyte and whether this leads to podocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, we also further explore the mechanisms of NFAT2 activation and NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis. Methods: Immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in media containing normal glucose (NG), or high glucose (HG) or HG plus cyclosporine A (a pharmacological inhibitor of calcinerin) or 11R-VIVIT (a special inhibitor of NFAT2). The activation of NFAT2 in podocytes was detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. The role of NFAT2 in hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis was further evaluated by observing the inhibition of NFAT2 activation by 11R-VIVIT using flow cytometer. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was monitored in HG-treated podcocytes using Fluo-3/AM. The mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis gene Bax were measured by real time-qPCR and western blotting. Results: HG stimulation activated NFAT2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment with cyclosporine A (500 nM) or 11R-VIVIT (100 nM) completely blocked NFAT2 nuclear accumulation. Meanwhile, the apoptosis effects induced by HG were also abrogated by concomitant treatment with 11R-VIVIT in cultured podocytes. We further found that HG also increased [Ca{sup 2+}]i, leading to activation of calcineurin, and subsequent increased nuclear accumulation of NFAT2 and Bax expression in cultured podocytes. Conclusion: Our results identify a new finding that HG-induced podocyte apoptosis is mediated by calcineurin/NFAT2/Bax signaling pathway

  14. Research of individual psychological particular qualities handball players 15-17 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova H.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences of individual-psychological characteristics of young handball players playing in different game roles. It is shown the relationship of certain personality characteristics of athletes with a line of attack handball players. In research took part handball players at the age of 15-17 years. It is analyzed data from questionnaires by R. Kettela and R. Rusalova. Evaluated the differences in the properties of the temperament handball players of different roles. Established that the distribution of game functions athletes must take into account their individual psychological characteristics.

  15. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out......In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  16. There is no game without a player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    on the subject matter from the catalogue of game theory. All four suggestions exclude the player from the relationship. This paper introduces a phenomenological point of view and includes the player in order to understand the relationship between structure and dressing. It argues that players constitute a bridge......This paper is a search for meaning or to be more precise a study of how meaning is produced between ontology and fiction in computer games. It sets out to investigate the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game representation (dressing) by presenting four suggestions...... or the center which establishes, upholds and renegotiate the relationship between formal game structure and game dressing. It also argues that players’ interaction with both structure and dressing produce meaning and the production of meaning is the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game...

  17. Strategic disruption of nuclear pores structure, integrity and barrier for nuclear apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Victor

    2017-08-01

    Apoptosis is a programmed cell death playing key roles in physiology and pathophysiology of multi cellular organisms. Its nuclear manifestation requires transmission of the death signals across the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). In strategic sequential steps apoptotic factors disrupt NPCs structure, integrity and barrier ultimately leading to nuclear breakdown. The present review reflects on these steps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Chappell

    Full Text Available We use the formalism of Clifford Geometric Algebra (GA to develop an analysis of quantum versions of three-player non-cooperative games. The quantum games we explore are played in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR type setting. In this setting, the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game that is obtained as a proper subset of the corresponding quantum game. Using GA we investigate the outcome of a realization of the game by players sharing GHZ state, W state, and a mixture of GHZ and W states. As a specific example, we study the game of three-player Prisoners' Dilemma.

  19. Apoptosis in unicellular organisms: mechanisms and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, A V; Labas, Y A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2004-10-01

    Data about the programmed death (apoptosis) in unicellular organisms, from bacteria to ciliates, are discussed. Firstly apoptosis appeared in lower eukaryotes, but its mechanisms in these organisms are different from the classical apoptosis. During evolution, the apoptotic process has been improving gradually, with reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ playing an essential role in triggering apoptosis. All eukaryotic organisms have apoptosis inhibitors, which might be introduced by viruses. In the course of evolution, caspases and apoptosis-inducing factor appeared before other apoptotic proteins, with so-called death receptors being the last among them. The functional analogs of eukaryotic apoptotic proteins take parts in the programmed death of bacteria.

  20. Definition and assessment of physical efficiency of students – basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminchuk Artem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assess the level of physical efficiency of students – basketball players by using the Harvard step test. Material & Methods: the analysis of scientific-methodical literature, educational testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. For determination and assessment physical efficiency of students – basketball players used the Harvard step test. In pedagogical testing for assessing special performance was attended by 14 students – basketball players (n=14 men's teams of the Medical Institute of Sumy State University. Results: the analysis of scientific and technical literature showed gaps in training basketball players, namely, to improve the physical performance. Especially these problems are when basketball training sessions combine with study in higher educational institutions. The load that caused a combination of mental and physical labor is enough to affect on the performance, develop resistance to fatigue. Still need to look for approaches that can help in conditions of single 3-4 workouts per week to maintain a high level of physical capacity of basketball players. Conclusions: analyzing the test results of basketball team players at Medical Institute of Sumy State University, we can say that the level of physical performance is satisfactory and functional status is mediocre. Players need more regular training which includes special exercises with high intensity close to competitive conditions

  1. Effect of 8 days of a hypergravity condition on the sprinting speed and lower-body power of elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Matthew J; Gabbett, Tim J; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    -Sprinting speed and lower-body power are considered to be key physical abilities for rugby players. A method of improving the lower-body power of athletes is simulated hypergravity. This method involves wearing a weighted vest at all times during the day for an extended period of time. There are no studies that have examined the effect of hypergravity on speed or the benefit for rugby players. An experimental group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 7) of national team rugby players took part in the study, which consisted of rugby, conditioning, speed, and strength sessions. The experimental group wore a weighted vest equating to 12% of their body mass for 8 days. All players were tested for speed and lower-body power before, 2 days after, and 9 days after the intervention. Speed testing involved the athletes completing 40-m sprints with timing lights and high-speed video cameras assessing acceleration and maximal velocity sprinting kinematics. Lower-body power was assessed using weighted countermovement jumps (CMJs). No group differences were found for sprinting speed at any point. The experimental group displayed a large decrease in acceleration ground contact time (-0.01 ± 0.005 s, d = 1.07) and a moderate increase in 15-kg CMJ velocity (0.07 ± 0.11 m·s, d = 0.71). Individual responses showed that players in the experimental group had both negative and positive speed and power responses to the training intervention. Simulated hypergravity for 8 days is likely ineffective at improving sprinting speed while undergoing standard rugby training.

  2. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  3. Understanding gaming floor influences on player behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to entice and retain player activity within a casino gaming environment require bringing to bear a range of sensory and physical influences. The challenge is to accomplish the operators’ objectives while at the same time ensuring any potential negative effects on the player are minimised. How casinos keep this in balance is at the heart of how the gaming floor works, and assessing such matters is becoming a necessary part of social responsibility.

  4. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  5. Sensitivity of neuroprogenitor cells to chemical-induced apoptosis using a multiplexed assay suitable for high-throughput screening*

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractHigh-throughput methods are useful for rapidly screening large numbers of chemicals for biological activity, including the perturbation of pathways that may lead to adverse cellular effects. In vitro assays for the key events of neurodevelopment, including apoptosis, may ...

  6. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  7. No association between static and dynamic postural control and ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players: a prospective study of 838 players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Krosshaug, Tron; Pasanen, Kati; Killingmo, Aleksander; Bahr, Roald

    2017-02-01

    Research on balance measures as potential risk factors for ACL injury is limited. To assess whether postural control was associated with an increased risk for ACL injuries in female elite handball and football players. Premier league players were tested in the preseason and followed prospectively for ACL injury risk from 2007 through 2015. At baseline, we recorded player demographics, playing experience, ACL and ankle injury history. We measured centre of pressure velocity in single-leg stabilisation tests and reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test. To examine the stability of postural control measures over time, we examined their short-term and long-term reproducibility. We generated logistic regression models, 1 for each of the proposed risk factors. A total of 55 (6.6%) out of 838 players (age 21±4 years; height 170±6 cm; body mass 66±8 kg) sustained a non-contact ACL injury after baseline testing (1.8±1.8 years). When comparing normalised balance measures between injured and uninjured players in univariate analyses, none of the variables were statistically associated with ACL injury risk. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of the selected variables was poor. Players with a previous ACL injury had a 3-fold higher risk of sustaining a new ACL injury compared with previously uninjured players (OR 2.9, CI 1.4 to 5.7). None of postural control measures examined were associated with increased ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players. Hence, as measured in the current investigation, the variables included cannot be used to predict ACL injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. ANTROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG MONTENEGRO BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.

  9. Apoptosis in neural crest cells by functional loss of APC tumor suppressor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Sato, Tomoyuki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Ito, Masaki; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Katsuki, Motoya; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Katamine, Shigeru; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    Apc is a gene associated with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) and its inactivation is a critical step in colorectal tumor formation. The protein product, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to down-regulate intracellular levels of β-catenin, a key signal transducer in the Wnt signaling. Conditional targeting of Apc in the neural crest of mice caused massive apoptosis of cephalic and cardiac neural crest cells at about 11.5 days post coitum, resulting in craniofacial and cardiac anomalies at birth. Notably, the apoptotic cells localized in the regions where β-catenin had accumulated. In contrast to its role in colorectal epithelial cells, inactivation of APC leads to dysregulation of β-catenin/Wnt signaling with resultant apoptosis in certain tissues including neural crest cells. PMID:11756652

  10. Iron overload promotes erythroid apoptosis through regulating HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-Qing; Zhao, You-Shan; Guo, Juan; Zhao, Si-da; Song, Lu-Xi; Fei, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2017-07-01

    Erythroid apoptosis increases significantly in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with iron overload, but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of HIF-1a/ROS on erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. We found that iron overload injured cellular functions through up-regulating ROS levels in MDS/AML cells, including inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Interestingly, overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a), which was under-expressed in iron overload models, reduced ROS levels and attenuated cell damage caused by iron overload in MDS/AML cells. And gene knockdown of HIF-1a got the similar results as iron overload in MDS/AML cells. Furthermore, iron overload caused high erythroid apoptosis was closely related with ROS in MDS patients. Importantly, the HIF-1a protein levels of erythrocytes elevated obviously after incubation with desferrioxamine (DFO) from MDS patients with iron overload, accompanied by ROS levels inhibited and erythroid apoptosis reduced. Taken together, our findings determine that the HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway plays a key role in promoting erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Apoptosis and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haanen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades it has been recognized that cell death is not the consequence of accidental injury, but is the expression of a cell suicide programme. Kerr et al. (1972 introduced the term apoptosis. This form of cell death is under the influence of hormones, growth factors and cytokines, which depending upon the receptors present on the target cells, may activate a genetically controlled cell elimination process. During apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact and the cell breaks into apoptotic bodies, which are phagocytosed. Apoptosis, in contrast to necrosis, is not harmful to the host and does not induce any inflammatory reaction. The principal event that leads to inflammatory disease is cell damage, induced by chemical/physical injury, anoxia or starvation. Cell damage means leakage of cell contents into the adjacent tissues, resulting in the capillary transmigration of granulocytes to the injured tissue. The accumulation of neutrophils and release of enzymes and oxygen radicals enhances the inflammatory reaction. Until now there has been little research into the factors controlling the accumulation and the tissue load of granulocytes and their histotoxic products in inflammatory processes. Neutrophil apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of intlamtnation. It has been assumed that granulocytes disintegrate to apoptotic bodies before their fragments are removed by local macrophages. Removal of neutrophils from the inflammatory site without release of granule contents is of paramount importance for cessation of inflammation. In conclusion, apoptotic cell death plays an important role in inflammatory processes and in the resolution of inflammatory reactions. The facts known at present should stimulate further research into the role of neutrophil, eosinophil and macrophage apoptosis in inflammatory diseases.

  12. Self-appraisal of hockey players of high class of different playing position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Mikhnov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to expose the features of display of self-appraisal for the hockey players of high class of different playing position. Material and Methods: for the exposure of level of self-appraisal for hockey players, information of sportsmen of high class, taking part in the matches of the Kontinental hockey league (KHL in a season 2013–2014 was probed sixteen hockey players, having a sporting digit MS and MSWC, took part in researches. Methods were used: pedagogical supervision, pedagogical analysis and generalization of front-rank experience, psychological testing, analysis of data of the special scientific-methodical literature, expert questioning, an analysis of data is the Internet. Results: findings allowed to set that the players of line of attack (central and extreme forward have more high level of self-appraisal for certain, than players of defence and hockey goalkeepers. This tendency is looked over both on the separate constituents of self-appraisal and on the whole on all spectrums of the studied indexes. The got results of researches rotined that the hockey players of high class had or middle or high level of self-appraisal. Among testable hockey players, players were not exposed with the low level of self-appraisal. Conclusions: the exposed distinctions in the level of self-appraisal of hockey players of high class can be used for diagnostics of playing predisposition and choice of playing line of business in a command.

  13. Knee Control and Jump-Landing Technique in Young Basketball and Floorball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, M; Pasanen, K; Kulmala, J-P; Kujala, U M; Krosshaug, T; Kannus, P; Perttunen, J; Vasankari, T; Parkkari, J

    2016-04-01

    Poor knee alignment is associated with increased loading of the joints, ligaments and tendons, and may increase the risk of injury. The study purpose was to compare differences in knee kinematics between basketball and floorball players during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task. We wanted to investigate whether basketball players, whose sport includes frequent jump-landings, exhibited better knee control compared with floorball players, whose sport involves less jumping. Complete data was obtained from 173 basketball and 141 floorball players. Peak knee valgus and flexion angles during the VDJ were analyzed by 3D motion analysis.Larger knee valgus angles were observed among basketball players (- 3.2°, 95%CI -4.5 to - 2.0) compared with floorball players (- 0.9°, 95%CI -2.3 to 0.6) (P=0.022). Basketball players landed with a decreased peak knee flexion angle (83.1°, 95%CI 81.4 to 84.8) compared with floorball players (86.5°, 95%CI 84.6 to 88.4) (P=0.016). There were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between basketball and floorball players. Female athletes exhibited significantly greater valgus angles than males. This study revealed that proper knee control during jump-landing does not seem to develop in young athletes simply by playing the sport, despite the fact that jump-landings occur frequently in practice and games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. DIFFERENCES IN TECHNICAL MOVEMENT PRECISION WITH BALL TO NEW AGES SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Sermaxhaj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this research is to compare the accuracy of the collision of the ball to players of both age groups U-17 and U-19. The research was conducted on a sample of 100 young soccer players Kosovo divided into two groups: the first group comprised of 50 young players U17 and second group comprised of 50 young soccer players U-19. To assess the precision of the attack on the ball all the players they have subjected technical demonstration testing in four tests: (T-JUGGL, T-PASI, T-KROS, T-SHOOT. Through T-test method are proven differences in favor of players U-19 to U-17 in all tests of precision technical movements with the ball, but statistically significant differences are shown in the collision test at the gateway (T-SHOOT and the test ball juggling (T-JUGGL . The results obtained show us that more experienced players U-19 have a better precision in demonstrating the technical movements with the ball, compared to U-17 players. Assuming that the training process is very important to voice learning, mastering demonstration, acquisition, and precise technical movements with the ball, because the precision peak levels is very significant.

  15. A biomechanical investigation of right-forward lunging step among badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qichang; Gu, Yaodong; Fu, Fengqin; Fernandez, Justin

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the kinematics and plantar pressure characteristics of eight elite national-level badminton athletes and eight recreational college-level badminton players while performing a right-forward lunge movement in a laboratory-simulated badminton court. The hypothesis was that recreational players would be significantly different from elite players in kinematics and plantar pressure measures. Vicon ® motion capture and Novel ® insole plantar pressure measurement were simultaneously taken to record the lower extremity kinematics and foot loading during stance. Recreational players showed significantly higher peak pressure in the lateral forefoot (P = 0.002) and force time integral in the lateral forefoot (P = 0.013) and other toes (P = 0.005). Elite athletes showed higher peak pressure in the medial forefoot (P = 0.003), hallux (P = 0.037) and force time integral in the medial forefoot (P = 0.009). The difference in landing techniques for the lunge step between elite athletes and recreational players was observed with peak ankle eversion (-38.2°±2.4° for athletes and -11.1°±3.9° for players, P = 0.015); smaller knee range of motion in the coronal and transverse planes, with differences in peak knee adduction (28.9°±6.8° for athletes and 15.7°±6.2° for players, P = 0.031); peak knee internal rotation (20.3°±1.3° for athletes and 11.8°±3.2° for players, P = 0.029) and peak hip flexion (77.3°±4.1° for athletes and 91.3°±9.3° for players, P = 0.037).

  16. Patellar tendinopathy in junior basketball players: a controlled clinical and ultrasonographic study of 268 patellar tendons in players aged 14-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J L; Khan, K M; Kiss, Z S; Griffiths, L

    2000-08-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common presenting complaint amongst adolescent athletes. We hypothesised that patellar tendinopathy may occur at a younger age than is generally recognised. Thus, we studied the patellar tendons in 134 elite 14- to 18-year-old female (n=64) and male (n=70) basketball players and 29 control swimmers (17 female, 12 male) clinically and with ultrasonography. We found that of 268 tendons, 19 (7%) had current patellar tendinopathy on clinical grounds (11% in males, 2% in females). Twenty-six percent of the basketball players' patellar tendons contained an ultrasonographic hypoechoic region. Ultrasonographic abnormality was more prevalent in the oldest tertile of players (17-18 years) than the youngest tertile (14-15.9 years). Of tendons categorised clinically as 'Never patellar tendinopathy', 22% had an ultrasonographic hypoechoic region nevertheless. This study indicates that patellar tendinopathy can occur in 14- to 18-year-old basketball players. Ultrasonographic tendon abnormality is 3 times as common as clinical symptoms.

  17. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  18. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  19. The Physiological Profile of Junior Soccer Players at SSBB Surabaya Bhakti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashirudin, M.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players are required to have good physical fitness in order to achieve optimum accomplishment; physical fitness stands as the foundation of technical and tactical proficiency as well as the mental maturity during the matches. The purpose of this study was to identify the physiological profile of junior soccer players of SSB Surabaya Bhakti age 16-17. The research was conducted at 20 junior soccer players. This research was quantitative with descriptive analysis. Data were collected by testing of physiological (anaerobic power and capacity including explosive leg power, speed, agility; aerobic capacity: cardiovascular endurance). Data was analyzed using percentage. The result showed that the percentage of explosive leg power of junior soccer players were 30% (good category), speed was 85% (average category), right agility was 90% (average category), left agility was 75% (average category). On the other hand, the aerobic power and capacity of the junior soccer players in this study was 50% (average category). The conclusion of this research is that the physiological profile of junior soccer players at SSB Surabaya Bhakti age 16-17 was majority in average category.

  20. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... tiles which can be used in both single-player and multi-player mode. We implemented simple adaptivity methods and tested these with different user groups including children and adults of both genders. The results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between children...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set...

  1. Laterality related to the successive selection of Dutch national youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Jonker, Laura; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2017-11-01

    In the general population, estimates of left-foot preference are around 20%. In soccer, specific tasks create positional demands, requiring 40% of the players to be left-footed. Whether and how this is related to the selection of players is unknown. To examine the successive selection of soccer players for Dutch national youth teams in relation to foot preference, 280 youth players (age = 16.2 ± 1.08 years) were monitored from the U16 through the U19 teams over the last 5 years. No difference in successive selection between left- and right-footed players was found (p soccer teams.

  2. Position-Specific Acceleration and Deceleration Profiles in Elite Youth and Senior Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe F; Dalgas, Ulrik; Andersen, Thomas B

    2018-04-01

    Vigh-Larsen, JF, Dalgas, U, and Andersen, TB. Position-specific acceleration and deceleration profiles in elite youth and senior soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1114-1122, 2018-The purpose of the study was to characterize and compare the position-specific activity profiles of young and senior elite soccer players with special emphasis put on accelerations and decelerations. Eight professional senior matches were tracked using the ZXY tracking system and analyzed for the number of accelerations and decelerations and running distances within different speed zones. Likewise, 4 U19 and 5 U17 matches were analyzed for comparison between youth and senior players. In senior players, the total distance (TD) was 10,776 ± 107 m with 668 ± 28 and 143 ± 10 m being high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting, respectively. Number of accelerations and decelerations were 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 3, respectively, with central defenders performing the lowest and wide players the highest number. Declines were found between first and second halves for accelerations and decelerations (11 ± 3%), HIR (6 ± 4%), and TD (5 ± 1%), whereas sprinting distance did not differ. U19 players performed a higher number of accelerations, decelerations, and TD compared with senior players. In conclusion, differences in the number and distribution of accelerations and decelerations appeared between player positions, which is of importance when monitoring training and match loads and when prescribing specific training exercises. Furthermore, youth players performed as much high-intensity activities as senior players, indicating that this is not a discriminating physiological parameter between these players.

  3. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.

  4. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players’ views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. Methods 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Results Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players’ rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players’ desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Conclusions Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport. PMID:28890801

  5. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  6. Ursolic acid mediates photosensitization by initiating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Exing; Kumar, Neeru; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2013-02-01

    The signaling pathways PI3K/Akt and MAPK play key roles in transcription, translation and carcinogenesis, and may be activated by light exposure. These pathways may be modulated or inhibited by naturally-occurring compounds, such as the triterpenoid, ursolic acid (UA). Previously, the transcription factors p53 and NF-kB, which transactivate mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, were shown to be differentially modulated by UA. Our current work indicates that UA causes these effects via the mTOR and insulin-mediated pathways. UA-modulated apoptosis, following exposure to UV radiation, is observed to correspond to differential levels of oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and skin melanoma (SM) cells. Flow cytometry analysis, DHE (dihydroethidium) staining and membrane permeability assay showed that UA pretreatment potentiated cell cycle arrest and radiation-induced apoptosis selectively on SM cells while DNA photo-oxidative damage (i.e. strand breakage) was reduced, presumably by some antioxidant activity of UA in RPE cells. The UA-mediated NF-κB activation in SM cells was reduced by rapamycin pretreatment, which indicates that these agents exert inter-antagonistic effects in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In contrast, the antagonistic effect of UA on the PI3K/Akt pathway was reversed by insulin leading to greater NF-κB and p53 activation in RPE cells. MitoTracker, a mitochondrial functional assay, indicated that mitochondria in RPE cells experienced reduced oxidative stress while those in SM cells exhibited increased oxidative stress upon UA pretreatment. When rapamycin administration was followed by UA, mitochondrial oxidative stress was increased in RPE cells but decreased in SM cells. These results indicate that UA modulates p53 and NF-κB, initiating a mitogenic response to radiation that triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  7. Cardiac dimensions and function in female handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, A; Dencker, M; Stagmo, M; Gudmundsson, P

    2015-04-01

    Long-term intensive endurance training leads to increased left ventricular mass and increased left ventricular end-diastolic and left atrial end-systolic diameters. Different types of sports tend to give rise to distinct morphological forms of the athlete's heart. However, the sport-specific aspects have not been fully investigated in female athletes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in left and right cardiac dimensions, cardiac volumes, and systolic and diastolic function in elite female handball players compared to sedentary controls. A cross-sectional study of 33 elite female handball players was compared to 33 matched sedentary controls. Mean age was 21.5±2 years. The subjects underwent echocardiography examinations, both 2-dimensional (2DE) and 3-dimensional (3DE). Cardiac dimensions and volumes were quantified using M-mode, 2DE and 3DE. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions were also evaluated. All cardiac dimensions and volumes were adjusted for body surface area (BSA). Left atrium and left ventricle volumes were significantly (Phandball players compared with sedentary controls. Even right atrium area as well as right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic area were significantly (Phandball players. Significant differences were observed in three out of five systolic parameters. Most diastolic function parameters did not differ between the two groups. The findings from the present study suggest that similar cardiac remodeling takes place in elite female handball players as it does in athletes pursuing endurance or team game sports.

  8. Psychopathology of Online Poker Players: Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Axelle; Chabrol, Henri; Chauchard, Emeline

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Online Texas Hold'em poker has become a spectacular form of entertainment in our society, and the number of people who use this form of gambling is increasing. It seems that online poker activity challenges existing theoretical concepts about problem gambling behaviors. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a current overview about the population of online poker players. Methods To be selected, articles had to focus on psychopathology in a sample of online poker players, be written in English or French, and be published before November 2015. A total of 17 relevant studies were identified. Results In this population, the proportion of problematic gamblers was higher than in other forms of gambling. Several factors predicting excessive gambling were identified such as stress, internal attribution, dissociation, boredom, negative emotions, irrational beliefs, anxiety, and impulsivity. The population of online poker players is largely heterogeneous, with experimental players forming a specific group. Finally, the validity of the tools used to measure excessive or problematic gambling and irrational beliefs are not suitable for assessing online poker activity. Discussion and conclusions Future studies need to confirm previous findings in the literature of online poker games. Given that skills are important in poker playing, skill development in the frames of excessive use of online poker should be explored more in depth, particularly regarding poker experience and loss chasing. Future research should focus on skills, self-regulation, and psychopathology of online poker players.

  9. The Astro Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Wilson, Scott; Popat, Kris; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, Paul Wilson, S., Popat, K., Griffiths, D., Beauvoir, P. (2009) The Astro Learning Design Player. This software is distributed under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation

  10. Kinanthropometric characteristics in teenager basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abella del Campo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β facilitates cell apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation through acceleration of Bax translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a critical activator of cell apoptosis induced by a diverse array of insults. However, the effects of GSK-3β on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell (ASTC-a-1) apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) are not clear. Here, we showed that GSK-3β was constantly translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and activated during HF-LPLI-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, we found that co-overexpression of YFP-GSK-3β and CFP-Bax in ASTC-a-1 cells accelerated both Bax translocations to mitochondria and cell apoptosis, compared to the cells expressed CFP-Bax only under HF-LPLI treatment, indicating that GSK-3β facilitated ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis through acceleration mitochondrial translocation of Bax. Our results demonstrate that GSK-3β exerts some of its pro-apoptotic effects in ASTC-a-1 cells by regulating the mitochondrial localization of Bax, a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade.

  12. Oxidative stress: a key regulator of leiomyoma cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Nicole M; Abusamaan, Mohammed S; Memaj, Ira; Saed, Mohammed G; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effects of attenuating oxidative stress with the use of dichloroacetate (DCA) on the expression of key redox enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as on apoptosis. Prospective experimental study. University medical center. Cells established from myometrium and uterine fibroid from the same patients. Cells were exposed to normal (20% O 2 ) or hypoxic (2% O 2 ) conditions for 24 hours with or without DCA (20 μg/mL), a metabolic modulator that shifts anaerobic to aerobic metabolism. Nitrate/nitrite (iNOS activity indicator), iNOS, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, MPO, and caspase-3 activities and levels were determined by means of Greiss assay, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and ELISA. Data were analyzed with the use of SPSS by means of one-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis and independent t tests. MPO, iNOS, and nitrate/nitrite expression were higher in leiomyoma than in myometrial cells, and they were further enhanced by hypoxia in myometrial cells. Treatment with the use of DCA decreased MPO, iNOS, and nitrate/nitrite levels and negated the effect of hypoxia in both types of cells. Leiomyoma cells showed less apoptosis, as indicated by both caspase-3 activity and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, than myometrial cells. Hypoxia further decreased apoptosis in myometrial cells with no further effect on leiomyoma cells. Treatment with DCA resulted in increased apoptosis in both types of cells, even in the presence of hypoxia. Shifting anaerobic to aerobic metabolism with the use of DCA resulted in an increase in apoptosis in leiomyoma cells and protected myometrial cells from the acquisition of the leiomyoma-like phenotype. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERSONALITY OF INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS OF BRAZIL AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the personality of the volleyball players of India. All the players of Indian team and the players of Brazil team, who came for FIVB Men Volleyball World Championship held at Pune in August 2009, were selected for the study. They were administered the Cattell’s 16 PF questionnaire. The results wereanalyzed with the help of ‘t’ test which showed that there are significant differences found between Indian volleyball players and Brazilian Volleyball players on seven factors but not on nine factors of 16 PF Questionnaire. Indian players scored high on factor ‘F’, factor ‘I’ and factor ‘M’ whereas Brazilian players have scored high on factor ‘B’, factor ‘G’, factor ‘H’ and factor ‘L’. Indian players scored low on Factor B which means that they tend to be slow to learn and grasp and they were dull as compared with Brazilian team, and gives concrete and literal interpretation. This dullness simply represents poor functioning.

  14. Inhibition of histone deacetylases protects septic mice from lung and splenic apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Mariko; Oishi, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Kumiko; Aoki, Yuta; Takashina, Michinori; Tomita, Kengo; Yokoo, Hiroki; Takano, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic programming, dynamically regulated by histone acetylation, may play a key role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We examined whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) can contribute to sepsis-associated inflammation and apoptosis. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice. An intraperitoneal injection of CG200745 (10 mg/kg), a novel broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor, or valproic acid (500 mg/kg), a predominant inhibitor of class I HDACs, was given 3 h before surgery. HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 protein levels were decreased in lungs after CLP. Furthermore, CLP-induced sepsis increased both histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels in lungs. When CG200745 was given, apoptosis induction was strongly suppressed in lungs and spleens of septic mice. This antiapoptotic effect of CG200745 was not accompanied by upregulation of antiapoptotic and downregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member proteins. Treatment with CG200745 failed to inhibit elevated levels of serum cytokines and prevent lung inflammation in septic mice. Valproic acid also showed antiapoptotic but not anti-inflammatory effects in septic mice. These findings imply that HDAC inhibitors are a unique agent to prevent cell apoptosis in sepsis at their doses that do not improve inflammatory features, indicating that septic inflammation and apoptosis may not necessarily be essential for one another's existence. This study also represents the first report that CLP-induced sepsis downregulates HDACs. Nevertheless, the data with HDAC inhibitors suggest that imbalance in histone acetylation may play a contributory role in expression or repression of genes involved in septic cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Apoptosis and Molecular Targeting Therapy in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758

  16. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase: An Emerging Key Player in Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander N R; Bittner, Zsofia; Liu, Xiao; Dang, Truong-Minh; Radsak, Markus Philipp; Brunner, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) was initially discovered as a critical mediator of B cell receptor signaling in the development and functioning of adaptive immunity. Growing evidence also suggests multiple roles for BTK in mononuclear cells of the innate immune system, especially in dendritic cells and macrophages. For example, BTK has been shown to function in Toll-like receptor-mediated recognition of infectious agents, cellular maturation and recruitment processes, and Fc receptor signaling. Most recently, BTK was additionally identified as a direct regulator of a key innate inflammatory machinery, the NLRP3 inflammasome. BTK has thus attracted interest not only for gaining a more thorough basic understanding of the human innate immune system but also as a target to therapeutically modulate innate immunity. We here review the latest developments on the role of BTK in mononuclear innate immune cells in mouse versus man, with specific emphasis on the sensing of infectious agents and the induction of inflammation. Therapeutic implications for modulating innate immunity and critical open questions are also discussed.

  17. Ion channels and beating heart: the players and the music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft gentle music accompanies us throughout our lifetime; it is the music of our heart beating. Although at times it is questionable as to who serves as conductor of the orchestra, there is little doubt that our ion channels are the main players. Whenever one of them plays too loudly, too softly or simply off key, disharmony results, sometimes leading to total disruption of the rate and rhythm. Ion channels can disrupt the music of our heart by different mechanisms. Sometimes their function is correct, but their expression is altered by underlying cardiac diseases (i.e. heart failure; sometimes the defect is in their structure, because of an underlying genetic defect, and in this case a channelopathy is present.

  18. Apoptosis in the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.

  19. Incidence and variance of foot and ankle injuries in elite college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Jost, Patrick W; Honkamp, Nicholas; Norwig, John; West, Robin; Bradley, James P

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a study on the risk for foot and ankle injuries in college football players on the basis of injury type and player position. In February 2006, we evaluated 320 intercollegiate football players at the National Football League Combine. All pathologic conditions and surgical procedures of the foot and ankle were recorded, and data were analyzed by player position to detect any trends. Seventy-two percent (n = 231) of the players had a history of foot and ankle injuries, with a total of 287 foot and ankle injuries (1.24 injuries/player injured). The most common injuries were lateral ankle sprain (n = 115), syndesmotic sprain (50), metatarsophalangeal dislocation/turf toe (36), and fibular fracture (25). Foot and ankle injuries were most common in kickers/punters (100% incidence), special teams (100%), running backs (83%), wide receivers (83%), and offensive linemen (80%). Lateral ankle sprains, the most common injuries, were treated surgically only 2.6% of the time. Offensive linemen were most likely to have had syndesmotic sprains (32%), and quarterbacks had the highest incidence of fibular fractures (16%). Foot and ankle injuries are common in collegiate football players, affecting 72% of players. Thirteen percent underwent surgical treatment. Trends are seen in the types of injuries for the different player positions.

  20. Physical and physiological profiles of Boland netball players | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The netball players were assessed for flexibility, speed, agility, power and aerobic endurance. Anthropometrical measurements were also taken. Descriptive statistics were calculated, after which Student s unpaired t-tests were used to compare results between the Boland and Australian under-21 netball players. Results.

  1. SIRT6 knockout cells resist apoptosis initiation but not progression: a computational method to evaluate the progression of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanskyi, Sergii; Nicholatos, Justin W; Schilling, Joshua E; Privman, Vladimir; Libert, Sergiy

    2017-11-01

    Apoptosis is essential for numerous processes, such as development, resistance to infections, and suppression of tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the influence of the nutrient sensing and longevity-assuring enzyme SIRT6 on the dynamics of apoptosis triggered by serum starvation. Specifically, we characterize the progression of apoptosis in wild type and SIRT6 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts using time-lapse flow cytometry and computational modelling based on rate-equations and cell distribution analysis. We find that SIRT6 deficient cells resist apoptosis by delaying its initiation. Interestingly, once apoptosis is initiated, the rate of its progression is higher in SIRT6 null cells compared to identically cultured wild type cells. However, SIRT6 null cells succumb to apoptosis more slowly, not only in response to nutrient deprivation but also in response to other stresses. Our data suggest that SIRT6 plays a role in several distinct steps of apoptosis. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of our computational model to describe stages of apoptosis progression and the integrity of the cellular membrane. Such measurements will be useful in a broad range of biological applications.

  2. Attributes of top elite team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a multidisciplinary model to predict the probability of a handball athlete to be a top elite player.

  3. Strength and Jump Biomechanics of Elite and Recreational Female Youth Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Tencer, Allan F.; Mack, Christopher D.; Levy, Marni R.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Most researchers investigating soccer injuries have studied elite athletes because they have greater athletic-exposure hours than other athletes, but most youth participate at the recreational level. If risk factors for injury vary by soccer level, then recommendations generated using research with elite youth soccer players might not generalize to recreational players. Objective To examine injury risk factors of strength and jump biomechanics by soccer level in female youth athletes and to determine whether research recommendations based on elite youth athletes could be generalized to recreational players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Seattle Youth Soccer Association. Patients or Other Participants Female soccer players (N = 92) aged 11 to 14 years were recruited from 4 randomly selected elite (n = 50; age = 12.5 years, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) = 12.3, 12.8 years; height = 157.8 cm, 95% CI = 155.2, 160.3 cm; mass = 49.9 kg, 95% CI = 47.3, 52.6 kg) and 4 randomly selected recreational (n = 42; age = 13.2 years, 95% CI = 13.0, 13.5 years; height = 161.1 cm, 95% CI = 159.2, 163.1 cm; mass = 50.6 kg, 95% CI = 48.3, 53.0 kg) soccer teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) Players completed a questionnaire about demographics, history of previous injury, and soccer experience. Physical therapists used dynamometry to measure hip strength (abduction, adduction, extension, flexion) and knee strength (flexion, extension) and Sportsmetrics to measure vertical jump height and jump biomechanics. We compared all measurements by soccer level using linear regression to adjust for age and mass. Results Elite players were similar to recreational players in all measures of hip and knee strength, vertical jump height, and normalized knee separation (a valgus estimate generated using Sportsmetrics). Conclusions Female elite youth players and recreational players had similar lower extremity strength and jump biomechanics. This suggests that recommendations generated from

  4. Teaching Beginning Trombone Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of introducing the trombone to beginning students and addresses the issue of warming-up. Provides resources for beginning trombone methods, band methods, and daily warm-up studies. Includes resources for scale studies and etudes for beginning to intermediate trombone players. (CMK)

  5. Ultrasonographic investigation of the Achilles tendon in elite badminton players using color Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Morten Ilum; Boesen, Anders; Koenig, Merete Juhl; Bliddal, Henning; Torp-Pedersen, Soren

    2006-12-01

    The most frequent injuries in badminton players are in the lower extremities, especially in the Achilles tendon. The game of badminton may be related to abnormal intratendinous flow in the Achilles tendon as detected by color Doppler ultrasound. To a certain extent, this blood flow might be physiological, especially when examined after match. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. Seventy-two elite badminton players were interviewed regarding Achilles tendon pain (achillodynia) in the preceding 3 years. Color Doppler was used to examine the tendons of 64 players before their matches and 46 players after their matches. Intratendinous color Doppler flow was graded from 0 to 4. The Achilles tendon was divided into dominant (eg, right side for right-handed players and vice versa) and nondominant side and classified as midtendon, preinsertional, and calcaneal areas. Of 72 players, 26 had experienced achillodynia in 34 tendons, 18 on the dominant side and 16 on the nondominant side. In 62% of the players with achillodynia, the problems had begun slowly, and the median duration of symptoms was 4 months (range, 0-36 months). Thirty-five percent had ongoing pain in their tendons for a median duration of 12 months (range, 0-12 months). Achillodynia was not associated with the self-reported training load or with sex, age, weight, singles or doubles players, or racket side. Forty-six players were scanned before and after match. At baseline, color Doppler flow was present in the majority of players, and only 7 (16%) players had no color Doppler flow in either tendon. After match, all players had some color Doppler flow in 1 or both tendons. Achillodynia and color Doppler flow were related in the nondominant Achilles tendon (chi-square, P = .008). The grades of Doppler flow also increased significantly after match in the preinsertional area in both the nondominant (P = .0002) and dominant (P = .005) side tendons. A large proportion of the players had experienced

  6. An Optimized Player Taxonomy Model for Mobile MMORPGs with Millions of Users

    OpenAIRE

    You, Fang; Liu, Jianping; Guan, Xinjian; Wang, Jianmin; Zheng, Zibin; Tam, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have great potential as sites for research within the social and human-computer interaction. In the MMORPGs, a stability player taxonomy model is very important for game design. It helps to balance different types of players and improve business strategy of the game. The players in mobile MMORPGs are also connected with social networks; many studies only use the player's own attributes statistics or questionnaire survey method to predi...

  7. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  8. Kinematics of Shooting in High School and Collegiate Lacrosse Players With and Without Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Joseph G; Chen, Cong; Vincent, Heather K

    2016-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and motion alterations can occur in athletes who engage in high-speed throwing motions. The relationship between LBP and shooting motion in lacrosse players is not yet known. To quantify the effects of LBP on key kinematic parameters of the lacrosse shot and determine the contribution of the severity of LBP on specific kinematic parameters of the shooting motion. Controlled laboratory study. High school and collegiate players (N = 24) were stratified into 2 groups based on back pain symptoms (LBP or no pain). Three-dimensional motion capture of overhead throws was used to collect data on knee, pelvis, trunk, and shoulder kinematics as well as crosse stick (the stick capped with a strung net) and ball speed. Mean low back numeric pain rating scale (NRSpain) score was 2.9. Knee flexion at ball release was greater in the LBP than no pain group, indicating a more bent knee (P = .04). The LBP group demonstrated less angular velocity transfer from pelvis to trunk than the no pain group (P = .05). Total range of motion of the pelvis and shoulders during the shot and follow-through were less in the LBP group than the no pain group (83.6° ± 24.5° vs 75.9° ± 24.5°, P = .05). Age- and sex-adjusted regression analyses revealed that the low back NRSpain rating contributed 6.3% to 25.0% of the variance to the models of shoulder transverse rotation range of motion, trunk and shoulder rotation angular velocities, and knee flexion angle (P core training and prehabilitation programs for high school and collegiate players may reduce pain in affected players as well as help them to attain appropriate motion parameters and avoid secondary musculoskeletal injuries. This research identified a prehabilitation need in the understudied lacrosse population. Therapeutic strategies can be developed to strengthen the throwing motion, which could control mechanical loading patterns on the low back and minimize pain symptoms in players with chronic LBP.

  9. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  10. Relative age effect and selection of young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.

  11. The Non-structural Protein of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Disrupts the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Induces Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, Bhaskar; Karlberg, Helen; Mirazimi, Ali; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Viruses have developed distinct strategies to overcome the host defense system. Regulation of apoptosis in response to viral infection is important for virus survival and dissemination. Like other viruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is known to regulate apoptosis. This study, for the first time, suggests that the non-structural protein NSs of CCHFV, a member of the genus Nairovirus, induces apoptosis. In this report, we demonstrated the expression of CCHFV NSs, which contains 150 amino acid residues, in CCHFV-infected cells. CCHFV NSs undergoes active degradation during infection. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of CCHFV NSs induces apoptosis, as reflected by caspase-3/7 activity and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, in different cell lines that support CCHFV replication. Using specific inhibitors, we showed that CCHFV NSs induces apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The minimal active region of the CCHFV NSs protein was determined to be 93–140 amino acid residues. Using alanine scanning, we demonstrated that Leu-127 and Leu-135 are the key residues for NSs-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, CCHFV NSs co-localizes in mitochondria and also disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential. We also demonstrated that Leu-127 and Leu-135 are important residues for disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential by NSs. Therefore, these results indicate that the C terminus of CCHFV NSs triggers mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, leading to activation of caspases, which, ultimately, leads to apoptosis. Given that multiple factors contribute to apoptosis during CCHFV infection, further studies are needed to define the involvement of CCHFV NSs in regulating apoptosis in infected cells. PMID:26574543

  12. Ultra-Short-Term Heart Rate Variability is Sensitive to Training Effects in Team Sports Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fabio Y; Flatt, Andrew A; Pereira, Lucas A; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Loturco, Irineu; Esco, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (measured in 1-min post-1-min stabilization period) to detect training induced adaptations in futsal players. Twenty-four elite futsal players underwent HRV assessments pre- and post-three or four weeks preseason training. From the 10-min HRV recording period, lnRMSSD was analyzed in the following time segments: 1) from 0-5 min (i.e., stabilization period); 2) from 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and; 3) from 5-10 min (i.e., criterion period). The lnRMSSD was almost certainly higher (100/00/00) using the magnitude-based inference in all periods at the post- moment. The correlation between changes in ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (i.e., 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min) and lnRMSSDCriterion ranged between 0.45-0.75, with the highest value (p = 0.75; 90% CI: 0.55 - 0.85) found between ultra-short-term lnRMDSSD at 1-2 min and lnRMSSDCriterion. In conclusion, lnRMSSD determined in a short period of 1-min is sensitive to training induced changes in futsal players (based on the very large correlation to the criterion measure), and can be used to track cardiac autonomic adaptations. Key pointsThe ultra-short-term (1 min) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD) is sensitive to training effects in futsal playersThe ultra-short-term lnRMSSD may simplify the assessment of the cardiac autonomic changes in the field compared to the traditional and lengthier (10 min duration) analysisCoaches are encouraged to implement the ultra-short-term heart rate variability in their routines to monitor team sports athletes.

  13. A comparison of two conative characteristics of top basketball and recreational table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindik, Josko; Missoni, Sasa

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt imported instruments for measuring multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations and perceived group cohesion, in terms of construct validity and reliability, as well as from the aspect of interpretability, addressed on Croatian samples of athletes. Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) and Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MSSP) are applied. The sample of 223 male Croatian athletes comprises of N1 = 107 top basketball players from nine teams in A-1 Croatian Basketball League and N2 = 116 recreational table tennis players who play in Table Tennis Organization of Clubs and Actives in Zagreb. Principal Components Analyses at both instruments showed two-component structures: combined social-task cohesion and friendship were latent dimensions of perceived group cohesion, while the internalized standards and externalized standards revealed two aspects of multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations. In perceived group cohesion, basketball players achieved higher average results than table tennis players in the friendship, while the table tennis players showed higher combined social and task orientation than basketball players. In multidimensional sport perfectionism, basketball players have higher average result than table tennis players in the dimension of internalized perfectionism, but in externalized perfectionism there is no statistical significant difference. Younger players showed higher average results than older players in the dimension of friendship, while older players showed higher combined social and task orientation than younger players. Younger players have higher average scores in internalized perfectionism. The main importance of the research is adjustment of multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations and perceived group cohesion to Croatian athletes, providing additional possibility of cross-cultural adjustment of both concepts, psychometrically and theoretically.

  14. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  15. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  16. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  17. An Analysis of Futsal Players' Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-esteem levels of futsal players according to certain variables. The samples of the study constituted 119 females and 96 males; a total of 215 players with an average age of 21.57 ± 2.20 years. The research was carried out with the end of "Rosenberg self-esteem Scale" developed by…

  18. miR-326 targets antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and mediates apoptosis in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifang Yu

    Full Text Available Platelets play crucial roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastases. Because they are anucleated blood cells, platelets lack nuclear DNA, but they do contain mitochondrial DNA, which plays a key role in regulating apoptosis. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs are also involved in regulating gene expression and apoptosis in platelets. Our previous study showed that the expression of miR-326 increased visibly when apheresis platelets were stored in vitro. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family regulator Bcl-xL has been identified as a putative target of miR-326. In the present study, dual reporter luciferase assays were used to characterize the function of miR-326 in the regulation of the apoptosis of platelet cells. These assays demonstrated that miR-326 bound to the 3'-translated region of Bcl-xL. To directly assess the functional effects of miR-326 expression, levels of Bcl-xL and the apoptotic status of stored apheresis platelets were measured after transfection of miR-326 mimic or inhibitor. Results indicated that miR-326 inhibited Bcl-xL expression and induced apoptosis in stored platelets. Additionally, miR-326 inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression and enhanced Bak expression, possibly through an indirect mechanism, though there was no effect on the expression of Bax. The effect of miR-326 appeared to be limited to apoptosis, with no significant effect on platelet activation. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms affecting differential platelet gene regulation, which may increase understanding of the role of platelet apoptosis in multiple diseases.

  19. Utilization of cues in action anticipation in table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Lu, Yingzhi; Jaquess, Kyle J; Zhou, Chenglin

    2018-04-11

    By manipulating the congruency between body kinematics and subsequent ball trajectory, this study investigated the anticipation capabilities of regional-level, college-level, and novice table tennis players using a full video simulation occluder paradigm. Participants watched footage containing congruent, incongruent, or no ball trajectory information, to predict the landing point of the ball. They were required to choose between two potential locations to make their prediction. Percent accuracy and relevant indexes (d-prime, criterion, effect size) were calculated for each condition. Results indicated that experienced table tennis players (both regional and college players) were superior to novices in the ability to anticipate ball trajectory using kinematic information, but no difference was found between regional-level and college-level players. The findings of this study further demonstrate the superior anticipation ability of experienced table tennis players. Furthermore, the present result suggests that there may be a certain "baseline" level of motor experience in racquet sports for effective action anticipation, while the addition of further motor experience does not appear to assist direction anticipation.

  20. Doubly Disadvantaged? The Relative Age Effect in Poland's Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubajczyk, Krystian; Świerzko, Kamil; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE) in young Polish male (n = 3849) and female (n = 3419) basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players' match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0.25, p born in the first half of a calendar year. The research results show the impact of the RAE on the success of youth basketball teams in Poland. The month of birth, body height and sex may determine sporting achievements in youth basketball. Coaches should consider the chronological age and pubertal growth acceleration (APHV-age at peak height velocity) of players to optimize the process of identifying gifted basketball players, especially among boys of 14 years of age.

  1. Microcystin-LR Induces Apoptosis via NF-κB /iNOS Pathway in INS-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial toxins, especially the microcystins, are found in eutrophied waters throughout the world, and their potential to impact on human and animal health is a cause for concern. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR is one of the common toxic microcystin congeners and occurs frequently in diverse water systems. Recent work suggested that apoptosis plays a major role in the toxic effects induced by MC-LR in hepatocytes. However, the roles of MC-LR in pancreatic beta cells have not been fully established. The aim of the present study was to assess possible in vitro effects of MC-LR on cell apoptosis in the rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1. Our results demonstrated that MC-LR promoted selectively activation of NF-κB (increasing nuclear p50/p65 translocation and increased the mRNA and protein levels of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. The chronic treatment with MC-LR stimulated nitric oxide (NO production derived from iNOS and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in INS-1 cells. Meanwhile, this effect was inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, which reversed the apoptosis induced by MC-LR. Our observations indicate that MC-LR induced cell apoptosis via an iNOS-dependent pathway. A well-known nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB, is activated and mediates intracellular nitric oxide synthesis. We suggest that the apoptosis induced by chronic MC-LR in vivo presents a possible cause of β-cell dysfunction, as a key environmental factor in the development of diabetes mellitus.

  2. TNF/TNFR1 pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress are involved in ofloxacin-induced apoptosis of juvenile canine chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fu-Tao; Ding, Yi; Shah, Zahir; Xing, Dan; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Dong Ming; Ding, Ming-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Quinolones cause obvious cartilaginous lesions in juvenile animals by chondrocyte apoptosis, which results in the restriction of their use in pediatric and adolescent patients. Studies showed that chondrocytes can be induced to produce TNFα, and the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in quinolone-treated chondrocytes become dilated. We investigated whether TNF/TNFR 1 pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) are involved in ofloxacin (a typical quinolone)-induced apoptosis of juvenile canine chondrocytes. Experimental approach: Canine juvenile chondrocytes were treated with ofloxacin. Cell survival and apoptosis rates were determined with MTT method and flow cytometry, respectively. The gene expression levels of the related signaling molecules (TNFα, TNFR 1 , TRADD, FADD and caspase-8) in death receptor pathways and main apoptosis-related molecules (calpain, caspase-12, GADD153 and GRP78) in ERs were measured by qRT-PCR. The gene expression of TNFR 1 was suppressed with its siRNA. The protein levels of TNFα, TNFR 1 and caspase-12 were assayed using Western blotting. Key results: The survival rates decreased while apoptosis rates increased after the chondrocytes were treated with ofloxacin. The mRNA levels of the measured apoptosis-related molecules in death receptor pathways and ERs, and the protein levels of TNFα, TNFR 1 and caspase-12 increased after the chondrocytes were exposed to ofloxacin. The downregulated mRNA expressions of TNFR 1 , Caspase-8 and TRADD, and the decreased apoptosis rates of the ofloxacin-treated chondrocytes occurred after TNFR 1 –siRNA interference. Conclusions and implications: Ofloxacin-induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. TNF/TNFR 1 pathway and ERs are involved in ofloxacin-induced apoptosis of juvenile canine chondrocytes in the early stage. - Highlights: • Chondrocyte apoptosis is induced by ofloxacin in a time- and concentration-dependent manners.

  3. Autophagy capacity and sub-mitochondrial heterogeneity shape Bnip3-induced mitophagy regulation of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Sehyo Charley; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Brady, Nathan Ryan

    2015-08-08

    Mitochondria are key regulators of apoptosis. In response to stress, BH3-only proteins activate pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family proteins Bax and Bak, which induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). While the large-scale mitochondrial release of pro-apoptotic proteins activates caspase-dependent cell death, a limited release results in sub-lethal caspase activation which promotes tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) targets dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation by lysosomes, and undergoes extensive crosstalk with apoptosis signaling, but its influence on apoptosis remains undetermined. The BH3-only protein Bnip3 integrates apoptosis and mitophagy signaling at different signaling domains. Bnip3 inhibits pro-survival Bcl2 members via its BH3 domain and activates mitophagy through its LC3 Interacting Region (LIR), which is responsible for binding to autophagosomes. Previously, we have shown that Bnip3-activated mitophagy prior to apoptosis induction can reduce mitochondrial activation of caspases, suggesting that a reduction to mitochondrial levels may be pro-survival. An outstanding question is whether organelle dynamics and/or recently discovered subcellular variations of protein levels responsible for both MOMP sensitivity and crosstalk between apoptosis and mitophagy can influence the cellular apoptosis decision event. To that end, here we undertook a systems biology analysis of mitophagy-apoptosis crosstalk at the level of cellular mitochondrial populations. Based on experimental findings, we developed a multi-scale, hybrid model with an individually adaptive mitochondrial population, whose actions are determined by protein levels, embedded in an agent-based model (ABM) for simulating subcellular dynamics and local feedback via reactive oxygen species signaling. Our model, supported by experimental evidence, identified an emergent regulatory structure within canonical apoptosis signaling. We show that the extent of mitophagy is

  4. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Aouacheria, Abdel; Nouvion, Anne-Laure; Ronot, Xavier; Gillet, Germain

    2005-01-01

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 v-src tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 v-src , we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 v-src inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 v-src inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells

  5. Modeling attacking of high skills volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gamaliy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the model indicators of technical and tactical actions in the attack highly skilled volleyball players. Material and Methods: the study used statistical data of major international competitions: Olympic Games – 2012 World Championships – 2010, World League – 2010–2014 European Championship – 2010–2014. A total of 130 analyzed games. Methods were used: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, analysis of competitive activity highly skilled volleyball players, teacher observation, modeling technical and tactical actions in attacking highly skilled volleyball players. Results: it was found that the largest volume application of technical and tactical actions in the attack belongs to the group tactics «supple movement», whose indicator is 21,3%. The smallest amount of application belongs to the group tactics «flight level» model whose indicators is 5,4%, the efficiency of 3,4%, respectively. It is found that the power service in the jump from model parameters used in 51,6% of cases, the planning targets – 21,7% and 4,4% planning to reduce. Attacks performed with the back line, on model parameters used in the amount of 20,8% efficiency –13,7%. Conclusions: we prove that the performance of technical and tactical actions in the attack can be used as model in the control system of training and competitive process highly skilled volleyball players

  6. Heart Rate Variability Discriminates Competitive Levels in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.