Full Text Available Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells still constitutes a huge problem that frequently impairs the efficacy of both conventional and novel molecular therapies. Chemotherapy usually acts to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; therefore, the investigation of apoptosis control and of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis could be translated in an improvement of therapies. Among many tools acquired by cancer cells to this end, the de-regulated synthesis and metabolism of sphingolipids have been well documented. Sphingolipids are known to play many structural and signalling roles in cells, as they are involved in the control of growth, survival, adhesion, and motility. In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8αNeu5Ac(2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. In light of this evidence, the employment of chemical or genetic approaches specifically targeting sphingolipid dysregulations appears a promising tool for the improvement of current chemotherapy efficacy.
Sudipta Sarangi; Emre Unlu
This paper contributes to the literature on centrality measures in economics by defining a team game and identifying the key players in the game. As an illustration of the theory we create a unique data set from the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament. To capture the interaction between players we create the passing network of each team. This all allows us to identify the key player and key groups of players for both teams in each game. We then use our measure to explain player ratings by experts and t...
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) must maintain the integrity of their genomes or risk passing potentially deleterious mutations on to numerous tissues. Thus, ESCs have a unique genome surveillance system and easily undergo apoptosis or differentiation when DNA damage is detected. The protein p53 is known to promote differentiation in mouse ESCs (mESCs), but its role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis (DIA) is unclear. p53 may have a pro-apoptotic function since it can regulate apoptotic genes in embryonal cells. Given that ESCs have a distinct transcriptional program, Jing Huang, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, and his colleagues wondered whether p53 might regulate DIA in ESCs by utilizing the ESC-specific expression program.
Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya; Antonsson, Bruno
he abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefore...... the mechanical effect of the presence of CL in model bilayer membranes was investigated by a combination of micromechanical deformation studies and differential calorimetry (DSC). The calorimetry data are not easy to interpret due to the continuous chemical decay of the system upon hydrolysis. The induction...... of hexagonal phases was not observed in the low contents regime (CLdiagram could be constructed (CL
Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya; Antonsson, Bruno
he abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefore...... and absence of CL. We interpret this as a formation of patches of protein-lipid clusters that in effect reduce the amount of expandable fluid membrane area. The rupture tension falls significantly as soon as tBid is present on the outer vesicle membrane....
Nazarieh, Maryam; Wiese, Andreas; Will, Thorsten; Hamed, Mohamed; Helms, Volkhard
Identifying the gene regulatory networks governing the workings and identity of cells is one of the main challenges in understanding processes such as cellular differentiation, reprogramming or cancerogenesis. One particular challenge is to identify the main drivers and master regulatory genes that control such cell fate transitions. In this work, we reformulate this problem as the optimization problems of computing a Minimum Dominating Set and a Minimum Connected Dominating Set for directed graphs. Both MDS and MCDS are applied to the well-studied gene regulatory networks of the model organisms E. coli and S. cerevisiae and to a pluripotency network for mouse embryonic stem cells. The results show that MCDS can capture most of the known key player genes identified so far in the model organisms. Moreover, this method suggests an additional small set of transcription factors as novel key players for governing the cell-specific gene regulatory network which can also be investigated with regard to diseases. To this aim, we investigated the ability of MCDS to define key drivers in breast cancer. The method identified many known drug targets as members of the MDS and MCDS. This paper proposes a new method to identify key player genes in gene regulatory networks. The Java implementation of the heuristic algorithm explained in this paper is available as a Cytoscape plugin at http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/mcds . The SageMath programs for solving integer linear programming formulations used in the paper are available at https://github.com/maryamNazarieh/KeyRegulatoryGenes and as supplementary material.
Full Text Available 16027039 TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Schroder M, Bowie AG.... Trends Immunol. 2005 Sep;26(9):462-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key pl...ayer or bystander? PubmedID 16027039 Title TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Authors Schr
Maddaluno, Luigi; Urwyler, Corinne; Werner, Sabine
Tissue injury initiates a complex repair process, which in some organisms can lead to the complete regeneration of a tissue. In mammals, however, the repair of most organs is imperfect and results in scar formation. Both regeneration and repair are orchestrated by a highly coordinated interplay of different growth factors and cytokines. Among the key players are the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which control the migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival of different cell types. In addition, FGFs influence the expression of other factors involved in the regenerative response. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the roles of endogenous FGFs in regeneration and repair in different organisms and in different tissues and organs. Gaining a better understanding of these FGF activities is important for appropriate modulation of FGF signaling after injury to prevent impaired healing and to promote organ regeneration in humans. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Murtala B. Abubakar
Full Text Available Propolis (a bee product which has a long history of medicinal use by humans has attracted a great deal of research interest in the recent time; this is due to its widely reported biological activities such as antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Crude form of propolis and its phenolic contents have both been reported to exhibit antileukaemic effects in various leukaemia cell lines. The ability of the polyphenols found in propolis to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis and differentiation in addition to inhibition of cell growth and proliferation makes them promising antileukaemic agents, and hence, they are believed to be a key to the antileukaemic effects of propolis in different types of leukaemia. This paper reviews the molecular bases of antileukaemic activity of both crude propolis and individual polyphenols on various leukaemia cell lines, and it indicates that propolis has the potential to be used in both treatment and prevention of leukaemia. This however needs further evaluation by in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies as well as clinical trials.
Full Text Available Tomas Koltai Gerencia de Efectores Sanitarios Propios, Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social para Jubilados y Pensionados, Buenos Aires, República Argentina Abstract: Clusterin is a heterodimeric disulfide-linked glycoprotein (449 amino acids isolated in the rat prostate after castration. It is widely distributed in different tissues and highly conserved in species. There are two isoforms (1 and 2 with antagonistic actions regarding apoptosis. Clusterin is implicated in a number of biological processes, including lipid transport, membrane recycling, cell adhesion, programmed cell death, and complement cascade, representing a truly multifunctional protein. Isoform 2 is overexpressed under cellular stress conditions and protects cells from apoptosis by impeding Bax actions on the mitochondrial membrane and exerts other protumor activities, like phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway activation, modulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling and matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression, increased angiogenesis, modulation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, among others. Its overexpression should be considered as a nonspecific cellular response to a wide variety of tissue insults like cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, excess of free oxygen radicals, androgen or estrogen deprivation, etc. A review of the recent literature strongly suggests potential roles for custirsen in particular, and proapoptosis treatments in general, as novel modalities in cancer management. Inhibition of clusterin is known to increase the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents, and custirsen, a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that blocks clusterin, is being tested in a Phase III clinical trial after successful results were achieved in Phase II studies. A major issue in cancer evolution that remains unanswered is whether clusterin represents a driving force of tumorigenesis or a late phenomenon after chemotherapy. This
Yoshihama, Sayuri; Vijayan, Saptha; Sidiq, Tabasum; Kobayashi, Koichi S.
Cancer cells need to escape immune surveillance for successful tumor growth. Loss of MHC class I has been described as a major immune evasion strategy in many cancers. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), NLRC5, has found to be a key transcription coactivator of MHC class I genes. Recent genetic studies revealed that NLRC5 is a major target for cancer immune evasion mechanism. The reduced expression or activity of NLRC5 caused by promoter methylation, copy number loss, or somatic mutations is a...
Yoshihama, Sayuri; Vijayan, Saptha; Sidiq, Tabasum; Kobayashi, Koichi S.
Cancer cells need to escape immune surveillance for successful tumor growth. Loss of MHC class I has been described as a major immune evasion strategy in many cancers. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), NLRC5, has found to be a key transcription coactivator of MHC class I genes. Recent genetic studies revealed that NLRC5 is a major target for cancer immune evasion mechanism. The reduced expression or activity of NLRC5 caused by promoter methylation, copy number loss, or somatic mutations is associated with defective MHC class I expression, impaired cytotoxic T cell activation and poor patient prognosis. Here we review the role of NLRC5 in cancer immune evasion and the future prospects for cancer research. PMID:28718425
Bahar, Entaz; Kim, Hyongsuk; Yoon, Hyonok
The proper functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for multiple cellular activities and survival. Disturbances in the normal ER functions lead to the accumulation and aggregation of unfolded proteins, which initiates an adaptive response, the unfolded protein response (UPR), in order to regain normal ER functions. Failure to activate the adaptive response initiates the process of programmed cell death or apoptosis. Apoptosis plays an important role in cell elimination, which is essential for embryogenesis, development, and tissue homeostasis. Impaired apoptosis can lead to the development of various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, cancer, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Calcium (Ca(2+)) is one of the key regulators of cell survival and it can induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis in response to various conditions. Ca(2+) regulates cell death both at the early and late stages of apoptosis. Severe Ca(2+) dysregulation can promote cell death through apoptosis. Action potential, an electrical signal transmitted along the neurons and muscle fibers, is important for conveying information to, from, and within the brain. Upon the initiation of the action potential, increased levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) (depolarization) lead to the activation of the ER stress response involved in the initiation of apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the involvement of Ca(2+) and action potential in ER stress-mediated apoptosis.
Dumas, Christian; Gaude, Thierry
For many years, the physiological significance of Ca(2+) oscillations has been a matter of debate, but the potential to encode and transduce information in the pattern of an oscillation is obvious. In this review, we only consider transients and oscillations observed during fertilization in plants with the major focus on flowering plants. After presenting data related to algae, fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants are defined as a multi-step phenomenon, starting with pollination during which calcium plays a key role, especially during pollen-stigma interactions (compatible and incompatible reactions). The pollen tube serves as a guide and a pathway for the sperm cells on their course towards their female target cells. For many years, the pollen tube has also been studied as an easily accessible in vitro model to elucidate the role of calcium on tip growth. Finally, in flowering plants, a unique double fertilization system is present. Interesting data obtained from an in vitro fertilization system in maize are presented and discussed. In addition, the new approaches made possible by Arabidopsis and Torenia and their potential limitations are covered.
Schoenberg, Nancy E; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L
Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, "key players" often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.
Wasi Haider Butt
attraction of researchers and practitioners to design systems which can detect main members which are actually responsible for such kind of events. In this paper, we present a novel method to predict key players from a covert network by applying a hybrid framework. The proposed system calculates certain centrality measures for each node in the network and then applies novel hybrid classifier for detection of key players. Our system also applies anomaly detection to predict any terrorist activity in order to help law enforcement agencies to destabilize the involved network. As a proof of concept, the proposed framework has been implemented and tested using different case studies including two publicly available datasets and one local network.
Butt, Wasi Haider; Akram, M Usman; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, Muhammad Younus
National security has gained vital importance due to increasing number of suspicious and terrorist events across the globe. Use of different subfields of information technology has also gained much attraction of researchers and practitioners to design systems which can detect main members which are actually responsible for such kind of events. In this paper, we present a novel method to predict key players from a covert network by applying a hybrid framework. The proposed system calculates certain centrality measures for each node in the network and then applies novel hybrid classifier for detection of key players. Our system also applies anomaly detection to predict any terrorist activity in order to help law enforcement agencies to destabilize the involved network. As a proof of concept, the proposed framework has been implemented and tested using different case studies including two publicly available datasets and one local network.
Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are enterprise wide systems that, because of their integration, automate all of a company's business processes. They have rapidly become the de facto industry standard for replacement of legacy systems. In this paper I analyze using an information theory approach the temporal aspects of key players and activities specific to Romanian SME's ERP implementations with focus on both generic and unique aspects
Jordán, Ferenc; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Praveen, Paurush; Morine, Melissa; Priami, Corrado
Coexisting bacteria form various microbial communities in human body parts. In these ecosystems they interact in various ways and the properties of the interaction network can be related to the stability and functional diversity of the local bacterial community. In this study, we analyze the interaction network among bacterial OTUs in 11 locations of the human body. These belong to two major groups. One is the digestive system and the other is the female genital tract. In each local ecosystem we determine the key species, both the ones being in key positions in the interaction network and the ones that dominate by frequency. Beyond identifying the key players and discussing their biological relevance, we also quantify and compare the properties of the 11 networks. The interaction networks of the female genital system and the digestive system show totally different architecture. Both the topological properties and the identity of the key groups differ. Key groups represent four phyla of prokaryotes. Some groups appear in key positions in several locations, while others are assigned only to a single body part. The key groups of the digestive and the genital tracts are totally different.
Full Text Available Rap, a member of the Ras-like small G-protein family, is a key node among G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, ion channels and many other downstream pathways. Rap plays a unique role in cell morphogenesis, adhesion, migration, exocytosis, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. The complexity and diversity of Rap functions are tightly regulated by Rap-interacting proteins such as GEFs, GAPs, Rap effectors and scaffold proteins. These interacting proteins decide the subcellular localization of Rap, the interaction modes with downstream Rap effectors and tune Rap as an atypical molecular conductor, coupling extra- and intracellular signals to various pathways. In this review, we summarize four groups of Rap-interacting proteins, highlight their distinctions in Rap-binding properties and interactive modes and discuss their contribution to the spatiotemporal regulation of Rap as well as the implications of targeting Rap-interacting proteins in human cancer therapy.
Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that belongs to the uncoupling protein family and plays an important role in lowering mitochondrial membrane potential and dissipating metabolic energy with prevention of oxidative stress accumulation. In the present article, we will review the evidence that UCP2, as a consequence of its roles within the mitochondria, represents a critical player in the predisposition to vascular disease development in both animal models and in humans, particularly in relation to obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. The deletion of the UCP2 gene contributes to atherosclerosis lesion development in the knockout mice, also showing significantly shorter lifespan. The UCP2 gene downregulation is a key determinant of higher predisposition to renal and cerebrovascular damage in an animal model of spontaneous hypertension and stroke. In contrast, UCP2 overexpression improves both hyperglycemia- and high-salt diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and ameliorates hypertensive target organ damage in SHRSP. Moreover, drugs (fenofibrate and sitagliptin and several vegetable compounds (extracts from Brassicaceae, berberine, curcumin, and capsaicin are able to induce UCP2 expression level and to exert beneficial effects on the occurrence of vascular damage. As a consequence, UCP2 becomes an interesting therapeutic target for the treatment of common human vascular diseases.
Karrie Mei-Yee Kiang
Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS, will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed.
Kiang, Karrie Mei-Yee; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China)
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS), will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed.
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently discovered phenomenon in 1971, some 15 years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earths space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the 1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of CME research following the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission in 1995, resulting in the establishment of a full picture of CMEs.
Gheita, T A; Abaza, N M; Sayed, S; El-Azkalany, G S; Fishawy, H S; Eissa, A H
Objectives The aim of the present work was to study the clinical characteristics of cutaneous vasculitis (CV) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and find possible potential key players in its development and implicated associations with the disease manifestations. Patients and methods Fifty adult female SLE patients underwent full history taking, thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and accumulated damage using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR DI) were assessed. Results The mean age of the patients was 29.1 ± 6.1 years and was significantly lower in those with CV ( p = 0.018). The disease duration was 4.9 ± 3.7 years. CV was present in 30% of the patients. Musculoskeletal manifestations and hypocomplementemia were present in all patients with CV. The SLEDAI and SLICC/ACR DI tended to be higher in those with CV. Complement (C3 and C4) was significantly consumed in CV patients ( p Lupus nephritis, cardiovascular manifestations and Sjögren syndrome were significantly linked to the development of CV ( p = 0.025, p = 0.023 and p lupus nephritis, musculoskeletal manifestations and Sjögren syndrome.
Laloi, Christophe; Havaux, Michel
The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence of oxygenic photosynthesis. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) is a highly reactive species to which has been attributed a major destructive role during the execution of ROS-induced cell death in photosynthetic tissues exposed to excess light. The study of the specific biological activity of (1)O2 in plants has been hindered by its high reactivity and short lifetime, the concurrent production of other ROS under photooxidative stress, and limited in vivo detection methods. However, during the last 15 years, the isolation and characterization of two (1)O2-overproducing mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, flu and ch1, has allowed the identification of genetically controlled (1)O2 cell death pathways and a (1)O2 acclimation pathway that are triggered at sub-cytotoxic concentrations of (1)O2. The study of flu has revealed the control of cell death by the plastid proteins EXECUTER (EX)1 and EX2. In ch1, oxidized derivatives of β-carotene, such as β-cyclocitral and dihydroactinidiolide, have been identified as important upstream messengers in the (1)O2 signaling pathway that leads to stress acclimation. In both the flu and ch1 mutants, phytohormones act as important promoters or inhibitors of cell death. In particular, jasmonate has emerged as a key player in the decision between acclimation and cell death in response to (1)O2. Although the flu and ch1 mutants show many similarities, especially regarding their gene expression profiles, key differences, such as EXECUTER-independent cell death in ch1, have also been observed and will need further investigation to be fully understood.
Full Text Available Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821 and countries (n = 59 in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05, and also between countries (p < .05. The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent.
Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie
Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying
Vanessa De Vooght
Full Text Available T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are key players in allergic asthma, with B-lymphocytes producing antigen-specific immunoglobulins E (IgE. We used a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma and transferred B-lymphocytes from sensitized animals into naïve wild type mice, B-lymphocyte knock-out (B-KO mice or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. On days 1 and 8, BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized with 0.3% toluene diisocyanate (TDI (20 µl/ear. On day 15, mice were euthanized and the auricular lymph nodes isolated. B-lymphocytes (CD19(+ were separated from the whole cell suspension and 175,000 cells were injected in the tail vein of naïve wild type, B-KO or SCID mice. Three days later, the mice received a single oropharyngeal challenge with 0.01% TDI (20 µl or vehicle (acetone/olive oil (AOO (controls. Airway reactivity to methacholine and total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were measured 24 hours after challenge. B-lymphocytes of AOO or TDI-sensitized mice were characterized for the expression of surface markers and production of cytokines. We found that transfer of B-cells obtained from mice dermally sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI into naïve wild type mice, B-KO mice or SCID mice led, within three days, to an acute asthma-like phenotype after an airway challenge with TDI. This response was specific and independent of IgE. These B-lymphocytes showed antigen presenting capacities (CD80/CD86 and CD40 and consisted of B effector (Be2- (IL-4 and Be1-lymphocytes (IFN-γ. The transferred B-lymphocytes were visualized near large airways, 24 hours after TDI challenge. Thus, B-lymphocytes can provoke an asthmatic response without the action of T-lymphocytes and without major involvement of IgE.
An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…
Kaina, Bernd; Christmann, Markus; Naumann, Steffen; Roos, Wynand P
O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) plays a crucial role in the defense against alkylating agents that generate, among other lesions, O(6)-alkylguanine in DNA (collectively termed O(6)-alkylating agents [O(6)AA]). The defense is highly important, since O(6)AA are common environmental carcinogens, are formed endogenously during normal cellular metabolism and possibly inflammation, and are being used in cancer therapy. O(6)AA induced DNA damage is subject to repair, which is executed by MGMT, AlkB homologous proteins (ABH) and base excision repair (BER). Although this review focuses on MGMT, the mechanism of repair by ABH and BER will also be discussed. Experimental systems, in which MGMT has been modulated, revealed that O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)MeG) and O(6)-chloroethylguanine are major mutagenic, carcinogenic, recombinogenic, clastogenic and killing lesions. O(6)MeG-induced clastogenicity and cell death require MutS alpha-dependent mismatch repair (MMR), whereas O(6)-chloroethylguanine-induced killing occurs independently of MMR. Extensive DNA replication is required for O(6)MeG to provoke cytotoxicity. In MGMT depleted cells, O(6)MeG induces apoptosis almost exclusively, barely any necrosis, which is presumably due to the remarkable ability of secondarily formed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to trigger apoptosis via ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and p73. Depending on the cellular background, O(6)MeG activates both the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The inter-individual expression of MGMT in human lymphocytes is highly variable. Given the key role of MGMT in cellular defense, determination of MGMT activity could be useful for assessing a patient's drug sensitivity. MGMT is expressed at highly variable amounts in human tumors. In gliomas, a correlation was found between MGMT activity, MGMT promoter methylation and response to O(6)AA. Although the human MGMT gene is inducible by glucocorticoids and genotoxins such as radiation and
Denton, Jon J.
This paper examines how selected characteristics of a program and attributes of key actors affected a particular collaborative effort to increase the supply of secondary math and science teachers. A funded grant created the need for collaborative linkage between schools and a university which had no prior experience with joint efforts. Elements of…
De Keyser, Jacques; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.
Once considered little more than the glue that holds neurons in place, astrocytes are now becoming appreciated for the key roles they play in central nervous system functions. They supply neurons and oligodendrocytes with substrates for energy metabolism, control extracellular water and electrolyte
Oliva-Taravilla, Alfredo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Demuez, Marie; González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes
Phenols are known as inhibitors for cellulases and fermentative microorganisms in bioethanol production processes. The addition of laccases removes the phenolic compounds and subsequently reduces the lag phase of the fermentative microorganism. However, the application of laccases diminishes glucose release during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study a model cellulosic substrate (Sigmacell) together with lignin extract, whole steam-pretreated wheat straw (slurry) and its water insoluble solid fraction (WIS) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the effects of laccase treatment in presence of lignin and phenols. The presence of laccase in enzymatic hydrolysis of Sigmacell with lignin extract reduced glucose yield by 37% compared with assays without laccase. Furthermore, this reduction was even more marked in presence of phenols (55% reduction). Interestingly, when hydrolyzing WIS, the addition of phenols coupled with laccase treatment did not show a reduction when compared with only laccase addition. This fact suggests the key role of lignin in the hydrolysis inhibition since in WIS the ratio cellulase per gram of lignin was much lower than in Sigmacell experiments. Finally, the lower cellobiose and xylose recoveries point out that phenolic oligomers formed by laccase oxidation play important roles in the inhibition of endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases. To conclude, the proportion of lignin and the composition of phenols are key players in the inhibition of cellulases when the enzymatic hydrolysis is combined with laccases detoxification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Kiilerich, Kristian
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, 12 young, healthy male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained before and after. In six of the subjects, muscle biopsies were taken from both...... than before bed rest. This bed rest-induced insulin resistance occurred together with reduced muscle GLUT4, hexokinase II, protein kinase B/Akt1, and Akt2 protein level, and a tendency for reduced 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. The ability of insulin to phosphorylate Akt and activate....... The present findings demonstrate that physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in muscle is associated with lower content/activity of key proteins in glucose transport/phosphorylation and storage....
Arnaud, Claire; Bouyon, Sophie; Recoquillon, Sylvain; Brasseur, Sandrine; Lemarié, Emeline; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Gonthier, Brigitte; Toral, Marta; Faury, Gilles; Martinez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Pepin, Jean-Louis
Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapses during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH), the main contributor of obstructive sleep apnea-related cardiovascular morbidity. In patients and rodents with obstructive sleep apnea exposed to IH, vascular inflammation and remodeling, endothelial dysfunction, and circulating inflammatory markers are linked with IH severity. The nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) isoform contributes to vascular inflammation and oxidative stress in different cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Thus, in the present study, we hypothesized that nmMLCK plays a key role in the IH-induced vascular dysfunctions and inflammatory remodeling. Twelve-week-old nmMLCK +/+ or nmMLCK -/- mice were exposed to 14-day IH or normoxia. IH was associated with functional alterations characterized by an elevation of arterial blood pressure and stiffness and perturbations of NO signaling. IH caused endothelial barrier dysfunction (ie, reduced transendothelial resistance in vitro) and induced vascular oxidative stress associated with an inflammatory remodeling, characterized by an increased intima-media thickness and an increased expression and activity of inflammatory markers, such as interferon-γ and nuclear factor-κB, in the vascular wall. Interestingly, nmMLCK deletion prevented all IH-induced functional and structural alterations, including the restoration of NO signaling, correction of endothelial barrier integrity, and reduction of both oxidative stress and associated inflammatory response. nmMLCK is a key mechanism in IH-induced vascular oxidative stress and inflammation and both functional and structural remodeling. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Cobec, Ionut Marcel; Sas, Ioan; Pirtea, Laurențiu; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Moatar, Aurica Elisabeta; Ceaușu, Raluca Amalia; Raica, Marius
Podoplanin plays a key role in tumor progression and metastasis. We evaluated lymphatics proliferation rate and podoplanin expression in tumor cells of ovarian carcinoma. Seventy-five paraffin-embedded specimens of ovarian cancer were immunohistochemically assessed in order to quantify peritumoral (LMVDP) and intratumoral (LMVDT) lymphatic microvessel density of proliferating lymphatics and for podoplanin variability in tumor cells. LMVDT correlated with proliferating tumor vessels located in the peritumoral area (p=0.024) and with the number of mature vessels located in the intratumoral area (p<0.0001), while LMVDP correlated with peritumoral mature vessels (p<0.000l). Proliferating tumor cells at the invasive front were highly positive for podoplanin. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first assessment of lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation correlated with podoplanin expression in tumor cells from ovarian cancer. Our data support podoplanin as a potential target that may help reduce ovarian cancer dissemination and lymphatic metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Passeron, Thierry; Valencia, Julio C; Bertolotto, Corine; Hoashi, Toshihiko; Le Pape, Elodie; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Ballotti, Robert; Hearing, Vincent J
SOX (SRY type HMG box) proteins are transcription factors that are predominantly known for their roles during development. During melanocyte development from the neural crest, SOX10 regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which controls a set of genes critical for pigment cell development and pigmentation, including dopachrome tautomerase and tyrosinase. We report here that another SOX factor, SOX9, is expressed by melanocytes in neonatal and adult human skin and is up-regulated by UVB exposure. We demonstrate that this regulation is mediated by cAMP and protein kinase. We also show that agouti signal protein, a secreted factor known to decrease pigmentation, down-regulates SOX9 expression. In adult and neonatal melanocytes, SOX9 regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, dopachrome tautomerase, and tyrosinase promoters, leading to an increase in the expression of these key melanogenic proteins and finally to a stimulation of pigmentation. SOX9 completes the complex and tightly regulated process leading to the production of melanin by acting at a very upstream level. This role of SOX9 in pigmentation emphasizes the poorly understood impact of SOX proteins in adult tissues.
Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens include all viruses, many bacteria and parasites capable of invading and surviving within host cells. Key to survival is the subversion of host cell pathways by the pathogen for the purpose of propagation and evading the immune system. The intracellular bacterium Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades host cells in a vacuole that is subsequently ruptured to allow growth of the pathogen within the host cytoplasm. S. flexneri invasion has been classically described as a macropinocytosis-like process, however the underlying details and the role of macropinosomes in the intracellular bacterial lifestyle have remained elusive. We applied dynamic imaging and advanced large volume correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM to study the highly transient events of S. flexneri's early invasion into host epithelial cells and elucidate some of its fundamental features. First, we demonstrate a clear distinction between two compartments formed during the first step of invasion: the bacterial containing vacuole and surrounding macropinosomes, often considered identical. Next, we report a functional link between macropinosomes and the process of vacuolar rupture, demonstrating that rupture timing is dependent on the availability of macropinosomes as well as the activity of the small GTPase Rab11 recruited directly to macropinosomes. We go on to reveal that the bacterial containing vacuole and macropinosomes come into direct contact at the onset of vacuolar rupture. Finally, we demonstrate that S. flexneri does not subvert pre-existing host endocytic vesicles during the invasion steps leading to vacuolar rupture, and propose that macropinosomes are the major compartment involved in these events. These results provide the basis for a new model of the early steps of S. flexneri epithelial cell invasion, establishing a different view of the enigmatic process of cytoplasmic access by invasive bacterial
Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Pereira, Marina Ayres; Al Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Lee, Sherry; Ørum-Madsen, Maj Sofie; Christensen, Anders Riis; El-Naggar, Amal; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Grem, Jean L.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Holst, Peter J.; Theander, Thor; Sorensen, Poul H.; Daugaard, Mads; Salanti, Ali
Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2CSA protein (rVAR2) derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate that ofCS plays a key role in tumor cell motility by affecting canonical integrin signaling pathways. Binding of rVAR2 to tumor cells inhibited the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which correlated with decreased phosphorylation of Src kinase. Moreover, rVAR2 binding decreased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in vitro. Mass spectrometry of ofCS-modified proteoglycan complexes affinity purified from tumor cell lines on rVAR2 columns, revealed an overrepresentation of proteins involved in cell motility and integrin signaling, such as integrin β1 (ITGB1) and integrin α4 (ITGA4). Saturating concentrations of rVAR2 inhibited downstream integrin signaling, which was mimicked by knockdown of the core CS synthesis enzymes Beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) and Chondroitin Sulfate N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1). The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and pre-incubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor cells in mice. This was associated with a significant increase in survival of the animals. These data functionally link ofCS modifications with cancer cell motility and further highlights ofCS as a novel therapeutic cancer target. Implications The cancer specific expression of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate aids in metastatic phenotypes and is a candidate target for therapy. PMID:27655130
the first to demonstrate that upregulation of NOXA by HCPT plays a key role in inducing fibroblast apoptosis and in reducing epidural fibrosis. These findings might provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing epidural fibrosis following laminectomy.
Dell'Oste, Valentina; Gatti, Deborah; Giorgio, Alessandro G; Gariglio, Marisa; Landolfo, Santo; De Andrea, Marco
IFI16, a member of the IFN-inducible PYHIN-200 gene family, displays multifaceted activity due to its ability to bind to various target proteins and, in turn, modulate a variety cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis/pyroptosis, senescence, and in? ammation. The last few year have seen major advances in our knowledge of IFI16 antiviral activity and its role in the immune response. Indeed, a wealth of evidence now supports a key role of IFI16 in the activation of innate immunity and viral restriction against Herpesviruses and Lentiviruses, such that the definition of IFI16 as a "restriction factor" is now widely accepted. However, most viruses have developed their own unique strategy to antagonize IFI16, leading to a modification or disruption of its function. This review summarizes our current understanding of how viral replication is sensed and then inhibited by IFI16 protein and the viral strategies employed to defeat this host defense mechanism. We will focus mainly on Herpesviruses, although recent discoveries on the role of IFI16 in lentiviral infection will also be considered.
Nicole Footen Bromfield
Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.
Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K
Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals.
Medina, Fernando; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)
This article aims to state a strategic game devised in Theory Game, regarding some aspects present in a highly competitive oil market. A set of strategies for two key players of the world oil industry is created. Both of them are in a conflict of economic interest and make decisions based on rational and conservative principles. Pure and mixed strategies, the minimax optimizing method and the concept of Nash Equilibrium among optimum strategies are used to calculate the expected value for decision for each actor in the game. (author)
Otero-Esquina, Carlos; de Hoyo Lora, Moisés; Gonzalo-Skok, Óliver; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Sánchez, Hugo
The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a combined strength-training programme (full-back squat, YoYo TM leg curl, plyometrics and sled towing exercises) on performance in elite young soccer players and to examine the effects when this training programme was performed one or two days per week. Thirty-six male soccer players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to experimental groups (EXP1: 1 s w -1 ; EXP2: 2 s w -1 ) or a control group (CON). Performance was assessed through a countermovement jump (CMJ) test (relative peak power [CMJ PP ] and CMJ height [CMJ H ]), a 20-m linear sprint test with split-times at 10-m, and a change of direction test (V-cut test) 1 week before starting the training programme and also 1 week after performing such training programme. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in CMJ variables (ES: 0.39-0.81) and COD (ES: 0.70 and 0.76) in EXP1 and EXP2, while EXP2 also showed substantial enhancements in all linear sprinting tests (ES: 0.43-0.52). Between-group analysis showed substantially greater improvements in CMJ variables (ES: 0.39-0.68) in experimental groups in comparison to CON. Furthermore, EXP2 achieved a substantial better performance in 20-m (ES: 0.48-0.64) than EXP1 and CON. Finally, EXP2 also showed greater enhancements in 10-m (ES: 0.50) and V-cut test (ES: 0.52) than EXP1. In conclusion, the combined strength-training programme improved jumping ability, independently of training frequency, though the achievement of two sessions per week also enhanced sprinting abilities (linear and COD) in young soccer players.
Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens
Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.
Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S
This paper reports the views of participants from key multilaterals and related agencies in the evolving global negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda on the strategic location of sexual and reproductive health and rights. The research was carried out in June and July 2013, following the release of the report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, and comprised 40 semi-structured interviews with 57 participants and two e-mail respondents. All respondents were responsible for the post-2015 health and development agenda, or the post-2015 agenda more broadly, within their organisations. The interviews provide an insight into the intention to ensure that sexual and reproductive health and rights are integrated into the post-2015 trajectory by key players who sit at the interface of UN and Member State interaction. They reveal both an awareness of the shortcomings of the Millennium Development Goal process and its impact on advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights in early post-2015 engagement, as well as the vulnerability of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the remaining phases of post-2015 negotiations. Recent events bear these concerns out. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health and rights are included in the final post-2015 outcome document in the time remaining for negotiations, will be anything but a "doddle". Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C Ap
Professionals examine various aspects of girls' and boys' drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children's drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children's drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint.
Park, Jin Mo; Greten, Florian R; Wong, Athena; Westrick, Randal J; Arthur, J Simon C; Otsu, Kinya; Hoffmann, Alexander; Montminy, Marc; Karin, Michael
Certain microbes evade host innate immunity by killing activated macrophages with the help of virulence factors that target prosurvival pathways. For instance, infection of macrophages with the TLR4-activating bacterium Bacillus anthracis triggers an apoptotic response due to inhibition of p38 MAP kinase activation by the bacterial-produced lethal toxin. Other pathogens induce macrophage apoptosis by preventing activation of NF-kappaB, which depends on IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta). To better understand how p38 and NF-kappaB maintain macrophage survival, we searched for target genes whose products prevent TLR4-induced apoptosis and a p38-dependent transcription factor required for their induction. Here we describe key roles for transcription factor CREB, a target for p38 signaling, and the plasminogen activator 2 (PAI-2) gene, a target for CREB, in maintenance of macrophage survival.
Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Figge, Marc Thilo; Straub, Rainer H
Healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit circadian rhythms of the neuroendocrine-immune system. Understanding circadian dynamics is complex due to the nonlinear behavior of the neuroendocrine-immune network. This study was undertaken to seek and test a mathematical model for studying this network. We established a quantitative computational model to simulate nonlinear interactions between key factors in the neuroendocrine-immune system, such as plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF), plasma cortisol (and adrenal cholesterol store), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) (and presynaptic NA store). The model was nicely fitted with measured reference data on healthy subjects and RA patients. Although the individual circadian pacemakers of cortisol, NA, and TNF were installed without a phase shift, the relative phase shift between these factors evolved as a consequence of the modeled network interactions. Combined long-term and short-term TNF increase (the "RA model") increased cortisol plasma levels for only a few days, and cholesterol stores started to become markedly depleted. This nicely demonstrated the phenomenon of inadequate cortisol secretion relative to plasma TNF levels, as a consequence of adrenal deficiency. Using the RA model, treatment with glucocorticoids between midnight and 2:00 AM was found to have the strongest inhibitory effect on TNF secretion, which supports recent studies on RA therapy. Long-term reduction of TNF levels by simulation of anti-TNF therapy normalized cholesterol stores under "RA" conditions. These first in silico studies of the neuroendocrine-immune system in rheumatology demonstrate that computational biology in medicine, making use of large collections of experimental data, supports understanding of the pathophysiology of complex nonlinear systems.
Harald F. Krug
Full Text Available Tributyltin (TBT is one of the most toxic compounds produced by man and distributed in the environment. A multitude of toxic activities have been described, for example, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, and endocrine disruptive effects. Moreover, it has been shown for many cell types that they undergo apoptosis after treatment with TBT and the cell death of immune cells could be the molecular background of its immunotoxic effect. As low as 200 nM up to 1 μM of TBT induces all signs of apoptosis in Jurkat T cells within 1 to 24 hrs of treatment. When compared to Fas-ligand control stimulation, the same sequence of events occurs: membrane blebbing, phosphatidylserine externalisation, the activation of the “death-inducing signalling complex,” and the following sequence of cleavage processes. In genetically modified caspase-8-deficient Jurkat cells, the apoptotic effects are only slightly reduced, whereas, in FADD-negative Jurkat cells, the TBT effect is significantly diminished. We could show that caspase-10 is recruited by the TRAIL-R2 receptor and apoptosis is totally prevented when caspase-10 is specifically inhibited in all three cell lines.
Sudipta Sarangi; Colin Cannonier; Bibhudutta Panda
Using data for 2008-2009, we determine winning strategies for the game in two different formats: 50-over one-day internationals and 20-over games from the Indian Premier League and Twenty20 Internationals. We find that attacking batting and defensive bowling outperform all other strate- gies in determining the probability of winning in both formats despite the thirty over difference between them. Moreover, in both versions of the game, good fielding turns out to be an important complement to ...
Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.
Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337
promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players - and thereby attempt to close the affective loop in games - is to automatically tailor the game content in real-time. To realize player-driven procedural content generation one needs to specify the aspects of the game...... content, player behavior and affect, how can we generate game content that is tailored to particular player needs and style, how often game content should be adapted, and how the adaptation mechanism can be tested? We focus on 2D platform game genre as a testbed for our player-driven procedural content...... with artificial agents and humans players. The key findings of the thesis demonstrate the ability of the player-driven procedural content generation framework to recognize playing behavior differences and to generate player-centered content that optimizes particular aspects of player experience....
Stutzin, A; Hoffmann, E K
Cell volume regulation is one of the most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms and essential for normal cellular function. At the same time, however, many physiological mechanisms are associated with regulatory changes in cell size meaning that the set point for cell volume regulation is under phys...... as key players in the maintenance of normal steady-state cell volume, with particular emphasis on the intracellular signalling pathways responsible for their regulation during hypotonic stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis....
Charununtakorn, Savitree T; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon
The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is known as a key player in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. The proposed mechanism for apoptosis is the activation of two main apoptotic signaling pathways (the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways), which lead to cell death. As the rate and amount of cardiomyocyte loss is the most important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality, novel treatment strategies targeting apoptosis are crucial. Recently, Humanin has been shown to exert protective effects against cellular apoptosis in both experimental and clinical studies. The potential cardioprotective mechanisms of Humanin have been shown to involve both the extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, the current knowledge and the mechanisms inhibiting cellular apoptosis by Humanin during cardiac injury are comprehensively summarized. In addition, both research and clinical findings regarding the effects of Humanin on the heart and vasculature are also presented and discussed. Currently available information suggests that Humanin may exert cardioprotective benefits and could potentially be used as a novel pharmacological intervention against cellular apoptosis during myocardial injury. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon
Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Yuan, Zhu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xinyu; Qiu, Ji; Nie, Chunlai; Wei, Yuquan
Background Chemo-resistance to cisplatin-centered cancer therapy is a major obstacle to the effective treatment of human ovarian cancer. Previous reports indicated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces cell apoptosis in both drug-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cells. Principal Findings In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of ATO-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Our data demonstrated that ATO induced cell apoptosis by decreasing levels of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. Importantly, BIM played a critical role in ATO-induced apoptosis. The inhibition of BIM expression prevented AKT dephosphorylation and inhibited caspase-3 activation during cell apoptosis. However, surprisingly, gene silencing of AKT or FOXO3A had little effect on BIM expression and phosphorylation. Moreover, the activation of caspase-3 by ATO treatment improved AKT dephosphorylation, not only by cleaving the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), but also by increasing its activation. Furthermore, our data indicated that the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway is involved in the regulation of BIM expression. Conclusions We demonstrated the roles of BIM in ATO-induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms of BIM expression regulated by ATO during ovarian cancer cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that BIM plays an important role in regulating p-AKT by activating caspase-3 and that BIM mediates the level of AKT phosphorylation to determine the threshold for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:21655183
Full Text Available A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR, a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model.
Choi, Eun-Sun; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Jin-Seok; Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae
Mithramycin A (Mith) is a natural polyketide that has been used in multiple areas of research including apoptosis of various cancer cells. Here, we examined the critical role of Mith in apoptosis and its molecular mechanism in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells and tumor xenografts. Mith decreased cell growth and induced apoptosis in DU145 and PC-3 cells. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) was over-expressed in both cell lines compared to RWPE1 cells. Mith inhibited Mcl-1 protein expression in both cells, but only altered Mcl-1 mRNA levels in PC-3 cells. We also found that Mith reduced Mcl-1 protein levels through both proteasome-dependent protein degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis in DU145 cells. Studies using siRNA confirmed that the knockdown of Mcl-1 induced apoptosis. Mith significantly suppressed TPA-induced neoplastic cell transformation through the down-regulation of the Mcl-1 protein in JB6 cells, and suppressed the transforming activity of both cell types. Mith also inhibited tumor growth and Mcl-1 levels, in addition to inducing apoptosis, in athymic nude mice bearing DU145 cell xenografts without affecting five normal organs. Therefore, Mith inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis by suppressing Mcl-1 in both prostate cancer cells and xenograft tumors, and thus is a potent anticancer drug candidate for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mestre, María Belén; Colombo, María Isabel
Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that causes serious diseases in the human being. This microorganism is able to escape the phagolysosomal pathway, increasing intracellular bacterial survival and killing the eukaryotic host cell to spread the infection. One of the key features of S. aureus infection is the production of a series of virulence factors, including secreted enzymes and toxins. We have shown that the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (Hla) is the S. aureus–secreted factor responsible for the activation of the autophagic pathway and that this response occurs through a PI3K/Beclin1-independent form. In the present report we demonstrate that cAMP has a key role in the regulation of this autophagic response. Our results indicate that cAMP is able to inhibit the autophagy induced by Hla and that PKA, the classical cAMP effector, does not participate in this regulation. We present evidence that EPAC and Rap2b, through calpain activation, are the proteins involved in the regulation of Hla-induced autophagy. Similar results were obtained in cells infected with different S. aureus strains. Interestingly, in this report we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that both EPAC and Rap2b are recruited to the S. aureus–containing phagosome. We believe that our findings have important implications in understanding innate immune processes involved in intracellular pathogen invasion of the host cell. PMID:22654658
María Belén Mestre
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that causes serious diseases in the human being. This microorganism is able to escape the phagolysosomal pathway, increasing intracellular bacterial survival and killing the eukaryotic host cell to spread the infection. One of the key features of S. aureus infection is the production of a series of virulence factors, including secreted enzymes and toxins. We have shown that the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (Hla is the S. aureus-secreted factor responsible for the activation of the autophagic pathway and that this response occurs through a PI3K/Beclin1-independent form. In the present report we demonstrate that cAMP has a key role in the regulation of this autophagic response. Our results indicate that cAMP is able to inhibit the autophagy induced by Hla and that PKA, the classical cAMP effector, does not participate in this regulation. We present evidence that EPAC and Rap2b, through calpain activation, are the proteins involved in the regulation of Hla-induced autophagy. Similar results were obtained in cells infected with different S. aureus strains. Interestingly, in this report we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that both EPAC and Rap2b are recruited to the S. aureus-containing phagosome. We believe that our findings have important implications in understanding innate immune processes involved in intracellular pathogen invasion of the host cell.
Herold, Christina; Bidmon, Hans-Jürgen; Pannek, Heinz W; Hans, Volkmar; Gorji, Ali; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Zilles, Karl
The molecular basis for onset, maintenance and propagation of excitation along neuronal networks in epilepsy is still poorly understood. Besides different neurotransmitter receptors that control signal transfer at the synapse, one key regulator involved in all of these processes is the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF). Therefore, we analyzed receptor subunits and NSF levels in tissues from the medial temporal gyrus (MTG) of patients with pharmaco-resistant focal temporal lobe epilepsy resected during epilepsy surgery and autopsy controls. The resected tissues were further characterized by field potential recordings into tissues with and without spontaneous sharp wave activity. We detected increased levels of NSF, NMDA 1.1, 2A and GABA A γ 2 receptor subunits associated with spontaneous sharp wave spiking activity. We further identified correlations between NSF, AMPA receptor subunit, metabotropic glutamate receptor and adenosine 1 receptor levels in the spontaneous sharp wave spiking tissues. Our findings suggest that NSF plays a key role in controlling spontaneous network excitation in epilepsy by two mechanisms of action: (1) directly via controlling transmitter release at the presynaptic side, and (2) indirectly via altering the function of possible receptor crosstalk and directing/integrating specific receptor compounds through/into the postsynaptic membrane. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marques, C; Oliveira, C S F; Alves, S; Chaves, S R; Coutinho, O P; Côrte-Real, M; Preto, A
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. Short-chain fatty acids secreted by dietary propionibacteria from the intestine, such as acetate, induce apoptosis in CRC cells and may therefore be relevant in CRC prevention and therapy. We previously reported that acetic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells involves partial vacuole permeabilization and release of Pep4p, the yeast cathepsin D (CatD), which has a protective role in this process. In cancer cells, lysosomes have emerged as key players in apoptosis through selective lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and release of cathepsins. However, the role of CatD in CRC survival is controversial and has not been assessed in response to acetate. We aimed to ascertain whether LMP and CatD are involved in acetate-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. We showed that acetate per se inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. More importantly, we uncovered that acetate triggers LMP and CatD release to the cytosol. Pepstatin A (a CatD inhibitor) but not E64d (a cathepsin B and L inhibitor) increased acetate-induced apoptosis of CRC cells, suggesting that CatD has a protective role in this process. Our data indicate that acetate induces LMP and subsequent release of CatD in CRC cells undergoing apoptosis, and suggest exploiting novel strategies using acetate as a prevention/therapeutic agent in CRC, through simultaneous treatment with CatD inhibitors.
Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang
Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577
Full Text Available Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set.
Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L.; Narula, J.
Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)
Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)
Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein ROP18 (TgROP18 is a key virulence factor secreted into the host cell during invasion, where it modulates the host cell response by interacting with its host targets. However, only a few TgROP18 targets have been identified. In this study, we applied a high-throughput protein–protein interaction (PPI screening in human cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC to identify the targets of Type I strain ROP18 (ROP18I and Type II strain ROP18 (ROP18II. From a pool of more than 18,000 human proteins, 492 and 141 proteins were identified as the targets of ROP18I and ROP18II, respectively. Gene ontology, search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins PPI network, and Ingenuity pathway analyses revealed that the majority of these proteins were associated with immune response and apoptosis. This indicates a key role of TgROP18 in manipulating host’s immunity and cell apoptosis, which might contribute to the immune escape and successful parasitism of the parasite. Among the proteins identified, the immunity-related proteins N-myc and STAT interactor, IL20RB, IL21, ubiquitin C, and vimentin and the apoptosis-related protein P2RX1 were further verified as ROP18I targets by sensitized emission-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SE-FRET and co-immunoprecipitation. Our study substantially contributes to the current limited knowledge on human targets of TgROP18 and provides a novel tool to investigate the function of parasite effectors in human cells.
Tanaka, Yukie; Komatsu, Takayuki; Shigemi, Hiroko; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Fujii, Yutaka
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is reported to be an effective therapeutic agent in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) through inducing apoptotic cell death. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidative stress pathway modulator, is suggested as a potential combination therapy for ATO-insensitive leukemia. However, the precise mechanism of BSO-mediated augmentation of ATO-induced apoptosis is not fully understood. In this study we compared the difference in cell death of HL60 leukemia cells treated with ATO/BSO and ATO alone, and investigated the detailed molecular mechanism of BSO-mediated augmentation of ATO-induced cell death. HL60 APL cells were used for the study. The activation and expression of a series of signal molecules were analyzed with immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Apoptotic cell death was detected with caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. Generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using a redox-sensitive dye. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization was observed with a confocal microscopy using NIR dye and cytochrome c release was determined with immunoblotting. Small interfering (si) RNA was used for inhibition of gene expression. HL60 cells became more susceptible to ATO in the presence of BSO. ATO/BSO-induced mitochondrial injury was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, cytochrome c release and caspase activation. ATO/BSO-induced mitochondrial injury was inhibited by antioxidants. Addition of BSO induced phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic BCL2 protein, BIM EL , and anti-apoptotic BCL2 protein, MCL1, in treated cells. Phosphorylated BIM EL was dissociated from MCL1 and interacted with BAX, followed by conformational change of BAX. Furthermore, the knockdown of BIM EL with small interfering RNA inhibited the augmentation of ATO-induced apoptosis by BSO. The enhancing effect of BSO on ATO-induced cell death was characterized at the molecular level for clinical use
Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s , and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals .[...
apoptosis include those that cause DNA damage such as radiation and anticancer drugs, those that are mediated by the TNF receptor and Fas receptor (the so-called "death signal receptors"), and the deprivation of cytokines that supply survival signals such as IL-3 and erythropoietin. The tumor suppressor gene p53 plays a very important role in apoptosis induced by damage to DNA. This has been demonstrated by studying resistance to apoptosis of cells derived from p53 knockout mice . Other than the irritations that induce apoptosis, molecules that have been strongly implicated as major players in the drama of apoptosis include the Bcl-2 family proteins and the IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE) and its homolog proteases (caspase family). Both groups of proteins show homology with proteins that affect cell death in nematodes. It is believed that molecules that contribute to cell death have been well conserved in multicellular organisms all the way from the relatively primitive nematodes to mammals including humans. It was discovered that Bcl-2 suppressed apoptosis induced in IL-3 dependent cells by deprivation of IL-3 . It has since become the gene around which apoptosis research revolves. Recently, it has become clear that cell death involving the Bcl-2 protein is under the control of similar proteins from the same family . It is interesting that the phenomenon of cell death may be regulated by the balance of the molecules involved in it. APOPTOSIS ABNORMALITIES AND DISEASE: Physiological cell death plays a major role in the growth and permanent maintenance of the human body . In the process of forming the nervous system, neurons that do not form proper connections die. Physiological cell death also accompanies the removal of virus-infected cells by cytotoxic T cells, the elimination of autoreactive immune cells, the formation of the gut, the reconstitution of cartilage and bone, etc. When physiological cell death that normally should occur is inhibited, inappropriate
Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P; Ghosh, Utpal
High linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion beam (CIB) is becoming very promising tool for various cancer treatments and is more efficient than conventional low LET gamma or X-rays to kill malignant or radio-resistant cells, although detailed mechanism of cell death is still unknown. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key player in DNA repair and its inhibitors are well-known as radio-sensitizer for low LET radiation. The objective of our study was to find mechanism(s) of induction of apoptosis by CIB and role of PARP-1 in CIB-induced apoptosis. We observed overall higher apoptosis in PARP-1 knocked down HeLa cells (HsiI) compared with negative control H-vector cells after irradiation with CIB (0-4 Gy). CIB activated both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via caspase-9 and caspase-8 activation respectively, followed by caspase-3 activation, apoptotic body, nucleosomal ladder formation and sub-G1 accumulation. Apoptosis inducing factor translocation into nucleus in H-vector but not in HsiI cells after CIB irradiation contributed caspase-independent apoptosis. Higher p53 expression was observed in HsiI cells compared with H-vector after exposure with CIB. Notably, we observed about 37 % fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and mild activation of caspase-8 without any detectable apoptotic body formation in un-irradiated HsiI cells. We conclude that reduction of PARP-1 expression activates apoptotic signals via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in un-irradiated cells. CIB irradiation further intensified both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis synergistically along with up-regulation of p53 in HsiI cells resulting overall higher apoptosis in HsiI than H-vector.
Loubna Abdel Hadi
Full Text Available The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC. Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC.
Sousa, Maria João; Azevedo, Flávio; Azevedo, Flávìa; Pedras, Andreia; Pedras, Ana; Marques, Carolina; Coutinho, Olga P; Preto, Ana; Gerós, Hernâni; Chaves, Susana R; Côrte-Real, Manuela
The yeast apoptosis field emerged with the finding that key components of the apoptotic machinery are conserved in these simple eukaryotes. Thus it became possible to exploit these genetically tractable organisms to improve our understanding of the intricate mechanisms of cell death in higher eukaryotes and of severe human diseases associated with apoptosis dysfunctions. Early on, it was recognized that a mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway showing similarities to the mammalian intrinsic pathway was conserved in yeast. Recently, lysosomes have also emerged as central players in mammalian apoptosis. Following LMP (lysosomal membrane permeabilization), lysosomal proteases such as cathepsins B, D and L are released into the cytosol and can trigger a mitochondrial apoptotic cascade. CatD (cathepsin D) can also have anti-apoptotic effects in some cellular types and specific contexts. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying LMP and the specific role of cathepsins after their release into the cytosol remain poorly understood. We have recently shown that yeast vacuoles, membrane-bound acidic organelles, which share many similarities to plant vacuoles and mammalian lysosomes, are also involved in the regulation of apoptosis and that the vacuolar protease Pep4p, orthologue of the human CatD, is released from the vacuole into the cytosol in response to acetic acid. Here, we discuss how the conservation of cell-death regulation mechanisms in yeast by the lysosome-like organelle and mitochondria may provide new insights into the understanding of the complex interplay between the mitochondria and lysosome-mediated signalling routes during mammalian apoptosis.
Full Text Available Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism of programmed cell death, in contrast to necrosis, without eliciting an inflammatory response. It plays the key role in the functioning of different tissues and organs. The balance between proliferation and apoptosis of keratinocytes is important for epidermal maintenance of homeostasis. Dysfunctional apoptosis plays an important role in the development of several skin disorders. Diseases with an increase of apoptosis are usually acute, while those with inhibited apoptosis tend to be chronic. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease. It is characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation. Psoriatic keratinocytes are resistant to apoptosis and this phenomenon can be the key event in psoriatic hyperplasia. Apoptosis disturbances can also affect immune cells involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this review, we describe the basic concept of apoptosis and its relevance in psoriatic pathogenesis.
Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony
This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in
Hundreds of billions of cells undergo apoptosis in our body everyday and are removed by immunologically silent phagocytosis to maintain tissue homeostasis. Impairments in phagocytosis result in autoimmune and/or degenerative diseases. Eat-me signals are the key to the recognition of extracellular cargos and the initiation of the phagocytosis process by activating phagocytic receptors and signaling cascades, and are convenient targets for therapeutic modulation. Despite their importance, eat-me signals and other phagocytosis players are mostly identified on case-by-case basis with daunting challenges. This Commentary focuses on our latest knowledge of the extracellular players, highlights our approaches to systematically map unknown pathways by functional genetic and proteomic technologies, and discusses future direction to unravel the mystery of molecular phagocyte biology. PMID:21520079
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".
Rezaei, P Fathi; Fouladdel, Sh; Cristofanon, Silvia; Ghaffari, S M; Amin, G R; Azizi, E
It is now widely accepted that dietary phytochemicals inhibit cancer progression and enhance the effects of conventional chemotherapy. In this report, we comparatively studied the cellular and molecular aspects of apoptosis induction by the methanolic extract of Baneh fruit skin in comparison to Doxorubicin (Dox), a well-known anticancer drug, in human breast cancer T47D cells. The MTT assay was used to determine the antiproliferative effects. The flow cytometric and microscopic analyses were done to evaluate the apoptosis induction. Furthermore, western blot analyses have been done to study the role of key molecular players of apoptosis including caspase 3 and PARP. The Baneh extract showed strong antiproliferative activity against T47D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner that was comparable to and even stronger than Dox in certain concentrations. Analysis of Baneh-treated cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy indicated strong apoptosis induction and nuclear morphological alterations similar to or greater than Dox. Finally, molecular analysis of apoptosis by western blotting proved activation of caspase 3 followed by poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage more efficiently in Baneh than in Dox treated cancer cells. These findings indicate that Baneh extract contains phytochemicals which act as inhibitor of cell proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human breast cancer T47D cells that makes it a potentially good candidate for new anticancer drug development.
Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.; Calleja, P.; Hamers, H.
Two classes of one machine sequencing situations are considered in which each job corresponds to exactly one player but a player may have more than one job to be processed, so called RP(repeated player) sequencing situations. In max-RP sequencing situations it is assumed that each player's cost
The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Alexandru, N.; Georgescu, A.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and include all diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels. The main cause of most CVD is atherosclerosis, which is an abnormal build-up of fat and other substances which form plaque inside the arteries. Atherosclerosis is most serious when it leads to reduced or blocked blood supply to the heart (causing angina or heart attack) or to the brain (causing a stroke). The majority of CVD is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified. Microparticles (MPs) are now recognized as potential biomarkers and key elements in the development of CVD. Although MP generation is a physiological phenomenon, their shedding from a variety of cell types into body fluid is intensified in response to cellular activation, high shear stress, as well as cellular apoptosis. In this review we outline distinct aspect of MP generation and their side as players n the CVD development.
Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping
Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.
Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wolf, Stefan
on the common OTP and only partial local knowledge of how many key bits have already been used by each other player, the goal is to commonly consume as many key bits as possible without any overlap. In this paper, we consider a related problem with immediate implications to the previous model. We consider n...... players to share the same k keys of length ` bits. The goal is to assign a key sequence to each player such that, for as many keys as possible and independently of which player uses how many of them, it is guaranteed that all used keys are independent. Such an assignment is called loss-free if k keys can...... always be consumed independently. Note that, in contrast to the previous model, the players are ignorant of each other’s key consumptions. We first observe a simple loss-free solution for the case that the key is of certain (small) minimal length `. Furthermore, for the case of key length ` = 1 (the most...
Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad
Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...
Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1 is widely expressed throughout the nervous system, while its biological role remains unclear. In this study, we showed that TRPC1 deletion caused striatal neuronal loss and significantly increased TUNEL-positive and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG staining in the striatum. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS revealed a total of 51 differentially expressed proteins (26 increased and 25 decreased in the stratum of TRPC1 knockout (TRPC1−/− mice compared to that of wild type (WT mice. Bioinformatics analysis showed these dysregulated proteins included: oxidative stress-related proteins, synaptic proteins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related proteins and apoptosis-related proteins. STRING analysis showed these differential proteins have a well-established interaction network. Based on the proteomic data, we revealed by Western-blot analysis that TRPC1 deletion caused ER stress as evidenced by the dysregulation of GRP78 and PERK activation-related signaling pathway, and elevated oxidative stress as suggested by increased 8-OHdG staining, increased NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone flavoprotein 2 (NDUV2 and decreased protein deglycase (DJ-1, two oxidative stress-related proteins. In addition, we also demonstrated that TRPC1 deletion led to significantly increased apoptosis in striatum with concurrent decrease in both 14–3–3Z and dynamin-1 (D2 dopamine (DA receptor binding, two apoptosis-related proteins. Taken together, we concluded that TRPC1 deletion might cause striatal neuronal apoptosis by disturbing multiple biological processes (i.e., ER stress, oxidative stress and apoptosis-related signaling. These data suggest that TRPC1 may be a key player in the regulation of striatal cellular survival and death.
Yang, Shaojun; Li, Fake; Jia, Shuangrong; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbing; Shang, Ya; Chang, Kai; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming
The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB (LTB). ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background: The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Methods: Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB and latent TB (LTB. Conclusion: ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.
, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...
Fallis, Todd L.
Discusses the process of introducing the trombone to beginning students and addresses the issue of warming-up. Provides resources for beginning trombone methods, band methods, and daily warm-up studies. Includes resources for scale studies and etudes for beginning to intermediate trombone players. (CMK)
Janssen, Joris H.; van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja
We introduce and test an affective music player (AMP) that selects music for mood enhancement. Through a concise overview of content, construct, and ecological validity, we elaborate five considerations that form the foundation of the AMP. Based on these considerations, computational models are
Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can be maintained in a fully defined niche on extracellular matrix substrates, to which they attach through integrin receptors. However, the underlying integrin signaling mechanisms, and their contribution to hESC behavior, are largely unknown. Here, we show that focal adhesion kinase (FAK transduces integrin activation and supports hESC survival, substrate adhesion, and maintenance of the undifferentiated state. After inhibiting FAK kinase activity we show that hESCs undergo cell detachment-dependent apoptosis or differentiation. We also report deactivation of FAK downstream targets, AKT and MDM2, and upregulation of p53, all key players in hESC regulatory networks. Loss of integrin activity or FAK also induces cell aggregation, revealing a role in the cell-cell interactions of hESCs. This study provides insight into the integrin signaling cascade activated in hESCs and reveals in FAK a key player in the maintenance of hESC survival and undifferentiated state.
Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas
Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.
Takenaga, Tetsuya; Goto, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Katsumasa; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Fukuyoshi, Masaki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Nozaki, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Otsuka, Takanobu
It is known that the humeral retroversion of baseball players is greater in the throwing arm than in the nonthrowing arm. An investigation measuring dry bone specimens also showed that the right humerus had greater retroversion than the left. Considering these facts, it was hypothesized that humeral retroversion would differ between right- and left-handed players. This study aimed to compare the bilateral humeral retroversion between right- and left-handed skeletally mature baseball players. We investigated 260 (196 right-handed and 64 left-handed) male baseball players who belonged to a college or amateur team. Bilateral humeral retroversion was assessed using an ultrasound-assisted technique (humeral torsion angle [HTA]) as described by previous studies. Analysis of covariance, adjusted for handedness and baseball position, assessed the effect of throwing arm dominance on HTA. In comparison of the throwing arm, HTA was significantly smaller in left-handed (left humerus) than in right-handed (right humerus) players (77° vs. 81°; P left-handed (right humerus) than in right-handed (left humerus) players (73° vs. 69°; P left-handed than in right-handed players (3° vs. 12°; P left-handed skeletally mature baseball players was significantly smaller in the throwing arm, greater in the nonthrowing arm, and smaller in side-to-side differences than that of right-handed players. These findings may be key to understanding some of the biomechanical differences between right- and left-handed baseball players. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Urtica dioica inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis by targeting Ornithine decarboxylase and Adenosine deaminase as key regulatory enzymes in adenosine and polyamines homeostasis in human breast cancer cell lines.
Fattahi, Sadegh; Ghadami, Elham; Asouri, Mohsen; Motevalizadeh Ardekanid, Ali; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease with variable disease progression risk, and treatment response. Urtica dioica is a traditional herb used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) gene expression in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, two breast cancer cell lines being estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative, respectively. Cell lines were cultured in suitable media. After 24 h, different concentrations of the extract were added and after 72 h, ADA and ODC1 gene expression as well as BCL2 and BAX apoptotic genes were assessed by Taqman real time PCR assay. Cells viability was assessed by MTT assay, and apoptosis was also evaluated at cellular level. The intra and extracellular levels of ODC1 and ADA enzymes were evaluated by ELISA. Results showed differential expression of ADA and ODC1 genes in cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cell line, the expression level of ADA was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner but its expression did not change in MDA-MB cell line. ODC1 expression was increased in both examined cell lines. Also, increased level of the apoptotic BAX/BCL-2 ratio was detected in MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrated that Urtica dioica induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by influencing ODC1 and ADA genes expression, and estrogen receptors. The different responses observed with these cell lines could be due to the interaction of Urtica dioica as a phytoestrogen with the estrogen receptor.
Macha, Muzafar A; Matta, Ajay; Chauhan, SS; Siu, KW Michael; Ralhan, Ranju
The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies. Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP). GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing
Full Text Available Cell death with morphological and molecular features of apoptosis has been detected in osteoarthritic (OA cartilage, which suggests a key role for chondrocyte death/survival in the pathogenesis of OA. Identification of biomarkers of chondrocyte apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapies that may eliminate the cause or, at least, slow down the degenerative processes in OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signals that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords chondrocyte death, apoptosis, osteoarthritis, autophagy and biomarker. Several molecules considered to be markers of chondrocyte apoptosis will be discussed in this brief review. Molecular markers and signalling pathways associated with chondroycte apoptosis may turn out to be therapeutic targets in OA and approaches aimed at neutralizing apoptosis-inducing molecules may at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA.
Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Al-Wasiyah, Mohammad K; Alqahtani, Mohammed H; Mobasheri, Ali
Cell death with morphological and molecular features of apoptosis has been detected in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, which suggests a key role for chondrocyte death/survival in the pathogenesis of OA. Identification of biomarkers of chondrocyte apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapies that may eliminate the cause or, at least, slow down the degenerative processes in OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signals that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords chondrocyte death, apoptosis, osteoarthritis, autophagy and biomarker. Several molecules considered to be markers of chondrocyte apoptosis will be discussed in this brief review. Molecular markers and signalling pathways associated with chondroycte apoptosis may turn out to be therapeutic targets in OA and approaches aimed at neutralizing apoptosis-inducing molecules may at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA.
Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Schmidt, Oliver I; Oberholzer, Andreas; Bührer, Christoph; Stahel, Philip F
Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18), which is cleaved into its functionally active form by caspase-1. Resident cells of the CNS express IL-18 and caspase-1 constitutively, thus providing a local IL-18-dependent immune response. Recent studies have highlighted a crucial role for IL-18 in mediating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the CNS under pathological conditions, such as bacterial and viral infection, autoimmune demyelinating disease, and hypoxic-ischemic, hyperoxic and traumatic brain injuries. This review provides a synopsis of the current knowledge of IL-18-dependent mechanisms of action during acute neurodegeneration in immature and adult brains.
Kikkawa, Toshiko; Crookall, David
This issue of S&G is devoted to people--to the gamers who have made and are making the exciting discipline of simulation gaming possible. All disciplines that hope for a bright future must record their origins and development. This is particularity the case for a field as fuzzy and interdisciplinary as simulation/gaming. The symposium dedicated to…
Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge
This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…
Flores-Méndez, Marco; Mendez-Flores, Orquidia G; Ortega, Arturo
Glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid in the central nervous system, elicits its functions through the activation of specific membrane receptors that are expressed in neurons and glial cells. The re-cycling of this amino acid is carried out mostly through a continuous interplay between neurons and glia cells, given the fact that the removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft depends mainly on glial glutamate transporters. Therefore, a functional and physical interaction between membrane transporters links glutamate uptake, transformation to glutamine and its release to the extra-synaptic space and its uptake to the pre-synaptic terminal. This sequence of events, best known as the glutamate/glutamine shuttle is central to glutamatergic transmission. In this sense, the uptake process triggers a complex series of biochemical cascades that modify the physiology of glial cells in the immediate, short and long term so as to be capable to take up, transform and release these amino acids in a regulated amount and in an appropriate time frame to sustain glutamatergic neurotransmission. Among the signaling cascades activated in glial cells by glutamate transporters, a sustained Na(+) and Ca(2+) influx, protein posttranslational modifications and gene expression regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels are present. Therefore, it is clear that the pivotal role of glial cells in the context of excitatory transmission has been constantly underestimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive type of common cancers, and in 2014, nearly 40000 patients died from the disease in the United States. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which accounts for the majority of PC cases, is characterized by an intense stromal desmoplastic reaction...... surrounding the cancer cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main effector cells in the desmoplastic reaction, and pancreatic stellate cells are the most important source of CAFs. However, other important components of the PC stroma are inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. The aim...
Timmeren, Mirjan Miranda van
A decline in renal function is associated with the degree of proteinuria and with histological findings of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Proteinuria is not only a marker of renal damage, but ultrafiltered proteins can be toxic to the kidney, thereby contributing to
Martinez, Elizabeth; Ulanoff, Sharon H.
This narrative study examines how Latino parents and teachers in the Boyle Heights/East Los Angeles community create and appropriate social capital to increase student achievement. Specifically, the study explores how parents and teachers participate in two community organizations to extend resources that have the potential to positively impact…
Full Text Available The major obstacle in the clinical use of the antitumor drug cisplatin is inherent and acquired resistance. Typically, cisplatin resistance is not restricted to a single mechanism demanding for a systems pharmacology approach to understand a whole cell’s reaction to the drug. In this study, the cellular transcriptome of untreated and cisplatin-treated A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells and their cisplatin-resistant sub-line A549rCDDP2000 was screened with a whole genome array for relevant gene candidates. By combining statistical methods with available gene annotations and without a previously defined hypothesis HRas, MAPK14 (p38, CCL2, DOK1 and PTK2B were identified as genes possibly relevant for cisplatin resistance. These and related genes were further validated on transcriptome (qRT-PCR and proteome (Western blot level to select candidates contributing to resistance. HRas, p38, CCL2, DOK1, PTK2B and JNK3 were integrated into a model of resistance-associated signalling alterations describing differential gene and protein expression between cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells in reaction to cisplatin exposure.
Witkamp, R.F.; Meijerink, J.
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to illustrate the expanding view of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in relation to its roles in inflammation. Recent findings: According to the formal classification, the ECS consists of two cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous fatty acid-derived
Full Text Available Abstract Circular RNAs (circRNAs are a class of endogendous RNAs that form a covalently closed continuous loop and exist extensively in mammalian cells. Majority of circRNAs are conserved across species and often show tissue/developmental stage-specific expression. CircRNAs were first thought to be the result of splicing error; however, subsequent research shows that circRNAs can function as microRNA (miRNA sponges and regulate splicing and transcription. Emerging evidence shows that circRNAs possess closely associated with human diseases, especially cancers, and may serve as better biomarkers. After miRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA, circRNAs are becoming a new hotspot in the field of RNA of cancer. Here, we review biogenesis and metabolism of circRNAs, their functions, and potential roles in cancer.
Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Moura Neto, Vivaldo; Mentlein, Rolf
An outstanding characteristic of gliomas is their infiltration into brain parenchyma, a property that impairs complete surgical resection; consequently, these tumors might recur, resulting in a high mortality rate. Gliomas invade along preferential routes, such as those along white matter tracts and in the perineuronal and perivascular spaces. Brain extracellular components and their partners and modulators play a crucial role in glioma cell invasion. This review presents an extensive survey of the literature, showing how the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is modulated during the glioma infiltration process. We explore aspects of ECM interaction with glioma cells, reviewing the main glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. We discuss the roles of ECM-binding proteins, including CD44, RHAMM, integrins and axonal guidance molecules, and highlight the role of proteases and glycosidases in glioma infiltration; in binding and release chemokines, cytokines and growth factors; and in generating new bioactive ECM fragments. We also consider the roles of cytoskeletal signaling, angiogenesis, miRNAs and the glial-to-mesenchymal transition linked to glioma invasion. We closely discuss therapeutic approaches based on the modulation of the extracellular matrix, targeting the control of glioma infiltration, its relative failure in clinical trials, and potential means to overcome this difficulty. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schink, Bernhard; Montag, Dominik; Keller, Anja; Müller, Nicolai
Hydrogen and formate are important electron carriers in methanogenic degradation in anoxic environments such as sediments, sewage sludge digestors and biogas reactors. Especially in the terminal steps of methanogenesis, they determine the energy budgets of secondary (syntrophically) fermenting bacteria and their methanogenic partners. The literature provides considerable data on hydrogen pool sizes in such habitats, but little data exist for formate concentrations due to technical difficulties in formate determination at low concentration. Recent evidence from biochemical and molecular biological studies indicates that several secondary fermenters can use both hydrogen and formate for electron release, and may do so even simultaneously. Numerous strictly anaerobic bacteria contain enzymes which equilibrate hydrogen and formate pools to energetically equal values, and recent measurements in sewage digestors and biogas reactors indicate that - beyond occasional fluctuations - the pool sizes of hydrogen and formate are indeed energetically nearly equivalent. Nonetheless, a thermophilic archaeon from a submarine hydrothermal vent, Thermococcus onnurineus, can obtain ATP from the conversion of formate to hydrogen plus bicarbonate at 80°C, indicating that at least in this extreme environment the pools of formate and hydrogen are likely to be sufficiently different to support such an unusual type of energy conservation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fayyaz Ali Shah
Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed.
Green Patrick L
Full Text Available Abstract Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and is also associated with a variety of lymphocyte-mediated diseases. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (HBZ gene, found to be consistently expressed in ATL, has recently been the subject of intensive research efforts. In this review, we summarize recent findings about HBZ and discuss its roles and functions not only in the virus life cycle, but also in HTLV-1 disease pathogenesis.
Ali Shah, Fayyaz; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Ahmad Asad, Saeed
Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed. PMID:24701142
Mehra, Mrigaya; Chauhan, Ranjit
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major malignancy in the liver and has emerged as one of the main cancers in the world with a high mortality rate. However, the molecular mechanisms of HCC are still poorly understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently come to the forefront as functional non–protein-coding RNAs that are involved in a variety of cellular processes ranging from maintaining the structural integrity of chromosomes to gene expression regulation in a spatiotemporal manner. Many recent studies have reported the involvement of lncRNAs in HCC which has led to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms operating in HCC. Long noncoding RNAs have been shown to regulate development and progression of HCC, and thus, lncRNAs have both diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. In this review, we present an overview of the lncRNAs involved in different stages of HCC and their potential in clinical applications which have been studied so far. PMID:29147078
Eight papers presented at a workshop for senior executives of utility companies has been made available in CD-ROM format. The workshop took place in Washington in January 1996. It was the fifth in a series of annual workshops jointly sponsored by the US and Canadian industry associations to explore the concerns of the electric industry. The survey of industry executives revealed growing concern about mergers, acquisitions, customer loss, falling earning, the effects of too rapid movement toward deregulation, direct access and consolidation. These, and related issues were explored, and answers were sought to the most pressing of these problems, these being how to prevent loss of industrial customers, improve earnings and revenue, and deal with stranded assets. The urgent need to cutting operating and maintenance costs, the techniques of forming strategic alliances, unbundling and mergers and acquisitions also received attention. A paper entitled 'Blueprint for customer choice' was included with the other papers for discussion purposes only
Preeclampsia (PE) is an important, common, and dangerous complication of pregnancy; it causes maternal and perinatal illness and is responsible for a high proportion of maternal and infant deaths. PE is associated with increased blood pressure and proteinuria, with a whole host of other potentially serious complications in the mother and fetus. The maternal syndrome in PE is primarily that of generalized dysfunction of the maternal endothelium, and this generalized endothelial dysfunction appears to be part of an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response that involves maternal leukocytes and proinflammatory cytokines. This review examines evidence that points to a significant role for the maternal immune system; inadequate trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries initiates ischemia and hypoxia in the placenta, resulting in an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Placental ischemia and hypoxia also cause the enhanced release of trophoblast microparticles into the maternal circulation which stimulates increased induction of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of maternal endothelial cells. This activation results in a systemic, diffuse endothelial cell dysfunction which is the fundamental pathophysiological feature of this syndrome. Recent evidence also supports important roles for proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension, proteinuria, and edema which are characteristic features of PE. PMID:23949305
Conway's theory of partizan games is both a theory of games and a theory of numbers. We present here an extension such a theory to classify three-player partisan games. We apply this extension to solve a restricted version of three-player hackenbush.
Leanderson, J; Nemeth, G; Eriksson, E
We carried out a retrospective study of the frequency of ankle sprains in basketball players. A questionnaire about previous ankle injuries, time off after such injuries, current ankle problems, personal data, number of practice hours and the use of prophylactic measures was sent out to 102 basketball players in a second division league in Sweden. Ninety-six players answered. 92% of them had suffered an ankle sprain while playing basketball, and of these 83% reported repeated sprains of one ankle. In the last two seasons, 78% of the players had injured at least one ankle. The injury frequency in the investigation was 5.5 ankle injuries per 1000 activity hours. 22% of the players used some kind of prophylactic support of their ankle joints. Because of the great number of ankle sprains and the disability in terms of time away from sports that they cause, prevention of these injuries is essential.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and stress, pancreatic cancer (PanCa risk factors, stimulate nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and catecholamines production respectively. NNK and catecholamine bind the β-adrenoceptors and induce PanCa cell proliferation; and we have previously suggested that β-adrenergic antagonists may suppress proliferation and invasion and stimulate apoptosis in PanCa. To clarify the mechanism of apoptosis induced by β2-adrenergic antagonist, we hypothesize that blockage of the β2-adrenoceptor could induce G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis and Ras may be a key player in PanCa cells. Results The β1 and β2-adrenoceptor proteins were detected on the cell surface of PanCa cells from pancreatic carcinoma specimen samples by immunohistochemistry. The β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI118,551 significantly induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis compared with the β1-adrenergic antagonist metoprolol, which was determined by the flow cytometry assay. β2-adrenergic antagonist therapy significantly suppressed the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E and induced the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax by Western blotting. Additionally, the β2-adrenergic antagonist reduced the activation of NFκB in vitro cultured PanCa cells. Conclusions The blockage of β2-adrenoceptor markedly induced PanCa cells to arrest at G1/S phase and consequently resulted in cell death, which is possibly due to that the blockage of β2-adrenoceptor inhibited NFκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways. Therefore, their upstream molecule Ras may be a key factor in the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in PanCa cells. The new pathway discovered in this study may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for PanCa.
Villanova, Lidia; Careccia, Silvia; De Maria, Ruggero; Fiori, Micol E
In the last few years, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been a hot topic in cancer research. Many ncRNAs were found to regulate the apoptotic process and to play a role in tumor cell resistance to treatment. The apoptotic program is on the frontline as self-defense from cancer onset, and evasion of apoptosis has been classified as one of the hallmarks of cancer responsible for therapy failure. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family members are key players in the regulation of apoptosis and mediate the activation of the mitochondrial death machinery in response to radiation, chemotherapeutic agents and many targeted therapeutics. The balance between the pro-survival and the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins is strictly controlled by ncRNAs. Here, we highlight the most common mechanisms exerted by microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs on the main mediators of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade with particular focus on their significance in cancer biology.
Differences regarding the psychological skill levels of soccer, basketball, rugby union and American football players in different playing positions have been reported. These differences are ... The results are discussed with reference to their implications for psychological skills training programmes. Key words: Playing ...
Arantes-Gonçalves, Filipe; Coelho, Rui
Depression's neurobiology begins to be better understood. The last decade data considers neuroplasticity and stress as implicated factors on the pathophisiology of depression. Because antidepressants have a lag-time on their action it is possible that inhibition of neurotransmitters recaptation is not sufficient to explain long term changes. For that purpose, neurogenesis increase, nervous fibers sprouting, new synapses and stabilization of the old ones can be responsible for those changes. AMPc-MAPcinases-CREB-BDNF cellular cascade can play a significant role in the mechanisms of dendritic restructuration, hippocampal neurogenesis increase and nervous cells survival. The aim of this article is to discuss if apoptosis could play a key role as an ethiopathogenic factor on the patogenesis of depression. It was done a medline search for references with apoptosis, stress, neuroplasticity, depression and antidepressants key-words. It were found 101 original or review references about these subjects. Stress plays a key role in the etiopathogeny of depression. Its deletery effects on apoptosis and neuroplasticity can be changed by antidepressants. Neurogenesis' increase is necessary for their action. This increase is reached with chronic antidepressant treatment and not with other psychotropic drugs which means some pharmacological specificity of antidepressants. AMPc, CREB, BDNF and Bcl-2 can be considered as target genes in antidepressant synthesis. At the level of this neurotrophic factors apoptosis might be included in the neuroplastic model of depression and play a prominent role in etiopathogeny of depression. To confirm that, we need more research on the field to know which are the mechanisms that trigger apoptosis and its biological significance. In relation to the last one, we can say that is possible to be physiological apoptosis in deteriorated neurons death which cannot make strong connections and pathological apoptosis because of stress via, namely, HPA axis.
T cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V/PI double-staining. Oxidative stress was evaluated by examining changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Total superoxide ... Key words: Ulinastatin, T cell, Apoptosis, Severe acute pancreatitis, Mitochondrion. Tropical ..... finally affect its structure and function.
Apoptosis plays a key role in the homeostatic regulation of the hematopoietic system4. Apoptosis ... significant decrease in ∆Ψm in the peripheral T lymohocytes of DS children when compared to the controls. Conclusion: The ..... engagement of the human body with invading microbial agents (viral or bacterial) 22,23,24.
Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J.; van Zoelen, Marieke A.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F.; de Boer, Anita; Schultz, Marcus J.; Hooibrink, Berend; de Jonge, Evert; van der Poll, Tom
Introduction: Sepsis is associated with a dysregulation of apoptosis in immune cells, which has been implicated in both immunosuppression and multiple organ failure. We describe the expression profiles of genes encoding key regulators of apoptosis in highly purified monocytes, granulocytes and CD4+
Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew
Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p amateur players. A significant difference (p amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key pointsAcute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer playersProfessional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur playersIsometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results
Mathur, D. N.; Salokun, S. O.; Uyanga, D. P.
The study investigated the common types and sites of injuries which were sustained by male soccer, basketball and field hockey players during a period of 8 weeks of intensive training and competition. In all, 170 soccer players, 127 basketball players and 212 hockey players drawn from various clubs in Nigeria formed the subjects of the study, a total of 509 patients.
Full Text Available The most widely used classification of mammalian cell death recognizes two types: apoptosis and necrosis. Autophagy, which has been proposed as a third mode of cell death allows a starving cell, or in situations when cell is deprived of growth factors, to survive. Apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis, a particular mode of cell death may predominate, depending of the injury and the type of cell.  One very important characteristic of all multicellular organisms is apoptosis, the controlled death of cells. In necrosis, early loss of integrity of the plasma membrane resultant with swelling of the cell and its organelles. A key morphologic feature of apoptosis is collapses of cell and its subcellular components. The distinction between apoptosis and necrosis is due in part to differences in how the plasma membrane participates in these processes. In apoptosis, plasma membrane integrity persists until late in the process. In necrosis, early loss of integrity of the plasma membrane allows an influx of extracellular ions and fluid, with resultant swelling of the cell and its organelles. During that time, on the inside of cell there occurs the cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins by aspartate specific proteases, which thereby collapses subcellular components. Other characteristic features are chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and the formation of plasma membrane blebs. The type and intensity of noxious signals, ATP concentration, cell type, and other factors determine how cell death occurs. Acute myocardial ischemia induces necrosis (because the ischemia precipitates rapid and profound decreases of ATP, whereas chronic congestive heart failure induces apoptosis (with more modest and chronic decreases of ATP. The blockade of a particular pathway of cell death may not prevent the destruction of the cell but may instead recruit an alternative path: antiapoptotic caspase inhibitors cause hyperacute necrosis of hepatocytes and kidney tubular cells
Maianski, N. A.; Maianski, A. N.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Roos, D.
Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defense and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Alterations of neutrophil apoptosis are associated with a number of diseases. As do other cell types,
van de Kooij, L.W.
The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3
This thesis describes a number of studies that investigated several aspects of heat-induced apoptosis in human lymphoid malignancies. Cells harbour both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and the balance between these proteins determines whether a cell is susceptible to undergo apoptosis. In this
Past efforts to classify impartial three-player combinatorial games (the theories of Li and Straffin) have made various restrictive assumptions about the rationality of one's opponents and the formation and behavior of coalitions. One may instead adopt an agnostic attitude towards such issues, and seek only to understand in what circumstances one player has a winning strategy against the combined forces of the other two. By limiting ourselves to this more modest theoretical objective, and by ...
Tapan Kumar Palai
Full Text Available The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy - dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is a widely conserved phenomenon helping many processes, including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone dependent atrophy etc. Inappropriate apoptosis (either low level or high level leads to many developmental abnormalities like, neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. To use cells for therapeutic purposes through generating cell lines, it is critical to study the cell cycle machinery and signalling pathways that controls cell death and apoptosis. Apoptotic pathways provide a fundamental protective mechanism that decreases cellular sensitivity to damaging events and allow proper developmental process in multi-cellular organisms. Major mediator of apoptosis is a family of proteins known as caspases. There are mainly fourteen types of caspases but out of them only ten caspasese have got essential role in controlling the process of apoptosis. These ten caspases have been categorized into either initiator caspases (caspase 2, 8, 9, 10 or executioner caspases (caspase 3, 6, 7. Although various types of caspases have been identified so far, the exact mechanisms of action of these groups of proteins is still to be fully understood. The aim of this review is to provide a detail overview of role of different caspases in regulating the process of apoptosis.
Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.
Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, Doris; Brolund, Thea
This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...... and character personality were assessed using the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ) and further questionnaires administered to measure player enjoyment and the player-character relationship. Results include a high level of player enjoyment across all formats, a high correlation between enjoyment...... and player engagement with their character and no correlation between enjoyment and similarity between player and character personality....
Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas
A multi-player Dynkin game is a sequential game in which at every stage one of the players is chosen, and that player can decide whether to continue the game or to stop it, in which case all players receive some terminal payoff. We study a variant of this model, where the order by which players are chosen is deterministic, and the probability that the game terminates once the chosen player decides to stop may be strictly less than one. We prove that a subgame-perfect e-equilibrium in Markovia...
Reinout A. Bem
Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.
Reaper is a central regulator of apoptosis in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster. At the start of this proposal our laboratory identified what was believed to be a pro-apoptotic human homolog of Reaper...
Roulston, A; Marcellus, R C; Branton, P E
Successful viral replication requires not only the efficient production and spread of progeny, but also evasion of host defense mechanisms that limit replication by killing infected cells. In addition to inducing immune and inflammatory responses, infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis or programmed cell death of the infected cell. This cell response often results as a compulsory or unavoidable by-product of the action of critical viral replicative functions. In addition, some viruses seem to use apoptosis as a mechanism of cell killing and virus spread. In both cases, successful replication relies on the ability of certain viral products to block or delay apoptosis until sufficient progeny have been produced. Such proteins target a variety of strategic points in the apoptotic pathway. In this review we summarize the great amount of recent information on viruses and apoptosis and offer insights into how this knowledge may be used for future research and novel therapies.
Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Colin, Jessie; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle
It is now well established that the mitochondrion is a central regulator of mammalian cell apoptosis. However, the importance of this organelle in non-mammalian apoptosis has long been regarded as minor, mainly because of the absence of a crucial role for cytochrome c in caspase activation. Recent results indicate that the control of caspase activation and cell death in Drosophila occurs at the mitochondrial level. Numerous proteins, including RHG proteins and proteins of the Bcl-2 family that are key regulators of Drosophila apoptosis, constitutively or transiently localize in mitochondria. These proteins participate in the cell death process at different levels such as degradation of Diap1, a Drosophila IAP, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or stimulation of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Here, we review these mitochondrial events that might have their counterpart in human.
Chen, Chuanxiang; Qincao, Litao; Xu, Jingtao; Du, Sihao; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun
Exposure to methamphetamine (METH), a widely used illicit drug, has been shown to cause neuron apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a key mediator in neuronal apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of PUMA in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis. We determined PUMA protein expression in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells after METH exposure using western blot. We also observed the effect of METH on neuronal apoptosis after silencing PUMA expression with siRNA using TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Additionally, to investigate possible mechanisms of METH-induced PUMA-mediated neuronal apoptosis, we measured the protein expression of apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (cyto c), after METH treatment with or without PUMA knockdown. Results showed that METH exposure induced cell apoptosis, increased PUMA protein levels, activated caspase-3 and PARP, elevated Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression, as well as increased the release of cyto c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm in both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. All these effects were attenuated or reversed after silencing PUMA. A schematic depicting the role of PUMA in METH-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was proposed. Our results suggest that PUMA plays an important role in METH-triggered apoptosis and it may be a potential target for ameliorating neuronal injury and apoptosis caused by METH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a major killer in cancer related human death. Its therapeutic intervention requires superior efficient molecule(s as it often becomes resistant to present chemotherapy options. Here we report that vapor of volatile oil compounds obtained from Litsea cubeba seeds killed human NSCLC cells, A549, through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Vapor generated from the combined oils (VCO deactivated Akt, a key player in cancer cell survival and proliferation. Interestingly VCO dephosphorylated Akt at both Ser(473 and Thr(308; through the suppression of mTOR and pPDK1 respectively. As a consequence of this, diminished phosphorylation of Bad occurred along with the decreased Bcl-xL expression. This subsequently enhanced Bax levels permitting the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol which concomitantly activated caspase 9 and caspase 3 resulting apoptotic cell death. Impairment of Akt activation by VCO also deactivated Mdm2 that effected overexpression of p53 which in turn upregulated p21 expression. This causes enhanced p21 binding to cyclin D1 that halted G1 to S phase progression. Taken together, VCO produces two prong effects on lung cancer cells, it induces apoptosis and blocked cancer cell proliferation, both occurred due to the deactivation of Akt. In addition, it has another crucial advantage: VCO could be directly delivered to lung cancer tissue through inhalation.
Borensztajn, Keren S.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Brueggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold
Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we show that coagulation factor (F)Xa drives tumor cells of epithelial origin, but not endothelial cells or monocytes, into apoptosis, whereas it even enhances fibroblast survival. FXa signals through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to activate extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38. This activation is associated with phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, and in tumor cells with up-regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim, leading to caspase-3 cleavage, the main hallmark of apoptosis. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant negative forms of CREB or siRNA for either PAR-1, Bim, ERK1 and/or p38 inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of FXa. In fibroblasts, FXa-induced PAR-1 activation leads to down-regulation of Bim and pre-treatment with PAR-1 or Bim siRNA abolishes proliferation. We thus provide evidence that beyond its role in blood coagulation, FXa plays a key role in cellular processes in which Bim is the central player in determining cell survival
Koos, Björn; Christmann, Jens; Plettenberg, Sandra; Käding, Domenic; Becker, Julia; Keteku, Melody; Klein, Christian; Imtiaz, Sarah; Janning, Petra; Bastiaens, Philippe I H; Wehner, Frank
Na + conducting hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) are key players in the volume restoration of osmotically shrunken cells and, under isotonic conditions, considered as mediators of proliferation - thereby opposing apoptosis. In an siRNA screen of ion channels and transporters in HepG2 cells, with the regulatory volume increase (RVI) as read-out, δENaC, TRPM2 and TRPM5 were identified as HICCs. Subsequently, all permutations of these channels were tested in RVI and patch-clamp recordings and, at first sight, HICCs were found to operate in an independent mode. However, there was synergy in the siRNA perturbations of HICC currents. Accordingly, proximity ligation assays showed that δENaC was located in proximity to TRPM2 and TRPM5 suggesting a physical interaction. Furthermore, δENaC, TRPM2 and TRPM5 were identified as mediators of HepG2 proliferation - their silencing enhanced apoptosis. Our study defines the architecture of HICCs in human hepatocytes as well as their molecular functions. Hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) are a substantial element in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of osmotically shrunken cells. Under isotonic conditions, they are key effectors in the volume gain preceding proliferation; HICC repression, in turn, significantly increases apoptosis rates. Despite these fundamental roles of HICCs in cell physiology, very little is known concerning the actual molecular architecture of these channels. Here, an siRNA screening of putative ion channels and transporters was performed, in HepG2 cells, with the velocity of RVI as the read-out; in this first run, δENaC, TRPM2 and TRPM5 could be identified as HICCs. In the second run, all permutations of these channels were tested in RVI and patch-clamp recordings, with special emphasis on the non-additivity and additivity of siRNAs - which would indicate molecular interactions or independent ways of channel functioning. At first sight, the HICCs in HepG2 cells appeared to
Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul
Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation
Charles F. Babbs
Full Text Available To better understand the risk and safety of heading a soccer ball, the author created a set of simple mathematical models based upon Newton�s second law of motion to describe the physics of heading. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head. The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Safety is greatly improved when players head the ball with greater effective body mass, which is determined by a player�s size, strength, and technique. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls. Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Lower pressure balls also have greater “touch” and “playability”, measured in terms of contact time and contact area between foot and ball during a kick. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls.
Muzaffar, Suhail; Chattoo, Bharat B
Anacardic acid is a medicinal phytochemical that inhibits proliferation of fungal as well as several types of cancer cells. It induces apoptotic cell death in various cell types, but very little is known about the mechanism involved in the process. Here, we used budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to study the involvement of some key elements of apoptosis in the anacardic acid-induced cell death. Plasma membrane constriction, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) indicated that anacardic acid induces apoptotic cell death in S. cerevisiae. However, the exogenous addition of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or deletion of the yeast caspase Yca1 showed that the anacardic acid-induced cell death is caspase independent. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF1) deletion mutant was resistant to the anacardic acid-induced cell death, suggesting a key role of Aif1. Overexpression of Aif1 made cells highly susceptible to anacardic acid, further confirming that Aif1 mediates anacardic acid-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, instead of the increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally observed during apoptosis, anacardic acid caused a decrease in the intracellular ROS levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed downregulation of the BIR1 survivin mRNA expression during the anacardic acid-induced apoptosis.
Kelly M. Hastings
Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.
Morita, Akinori; Suzuki, Norio; Hosoi, Yoshio
Radiation protection by apoptosis control is the suppression of cell death in highly radiosensitive tissues. This paper describes the outline of radiation-induced apoptosis framework, apoptosis-concerned target molecules possibly related to apoptosis by radiation and their inhibitors. Although there are intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptor) pathways in apoptosis, this review mainly mentions the former which is more important in radiation-induced apoptosis. Those molecules known at present in the apoptosis are caspase, Bcl-2 family and p53. Caspase, a group of cystein proteases, initiates apoptosis but its inhibition is known not always to result in apoptosis suppression, suggesting the existence of caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 family involves apoptosis-suppressing (possessing BH domains) and -promoting (lacking BH domains or possessing BH3 domain alone/BH3-only protein) groups. Two p53-transcription-dependent and one -independent pathways in p53-induced apoptosis are known and p53 can be a most possible target molecule since it positions at the start of apoptosis. Authors have found a vanadate inactivates p53. Inhibitors affecting upstream molecules of apoptosis will be the most useful candidate for apoptosis suppression/radiation protection. (S.I.) 106 refs
Ichiki, Albert T.; Gibson, Linda A.; Allebban, Zuhair
Lymphoid tissues have been shown to atrophy in rats flown on Russian spaceflights. Histological examination indicated evidence for cell degradation. Lymphoid tissues from rats flown on Spacelab Life Sciences-2 mission were analyzed for apoptosis by evidence of fragmented lymphocytes, which could be engulfed by macrophages, or DNA strand breaks using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Apoptosis was not detected in the thymus and spleen collected inflight or from the synchronous ground rats but was detected in the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph node of the flight animals on recovery. These results indicate that the apoptosis observed in the lymphatic tissues of the rats on recovery could have been induced by the gravitational stress of reentry, corroborating the findings from the early space-flight observations.
Stig Arve Sæther1
Full Text Available Identification of the most talented youth players is regarded as a key part of the talent development process in football. The basis for the criteria is naturally affected by the characteristics of the early-detected talented players. Nonetheless, earlier research has found limited evidenced for different criteria in this process. This study has examined whether professional and non-professional football players showed differences in player and coach characteristics as talented youth-level players eight years earlier. A total of 103 players selected for Norwegian youth national teams (age cohorts 1991–1993 participated in this study. Based on player and coach characteristics, the results showed that non-professional players had the most playing time and felt more successful in comparison to the professional players. The professional players, however, reported higher ambitions and a higher number of weekly-organized training sessions. No differences between the professional and non-professional players showed in terms of their relationship to their coaches were found. The study concludes that we need more research on identification criteria to be able to predict which abilities and skills should be sought in the identification process for youth-level players. As in earlier research, this study also found a poor relationship between youth performance and senior performance.
Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida
A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also...
van Raam, B. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Kuijpers, T. W.
Central in the regulation of the short life span of neutrophils are their mitochondria. These organelles hardly contribute to the energy status of neutrophils but play a vital role in the apoptotic process. Not only do the mitochondria contain cytotoxic proteins that are released during apoptosis
Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos
With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...
While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret......, MPC can be based on arbitrary finite rings. This is in sharp contrast to the literature where essentially all MPC protocols require a much stronger mathematical structure, namely a field. Apart from its theoretical value, this can lead to efficiency improvements since it allows a greater freedom...... of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. (4) We construct a new unconditionally secure VSS scheme with minimized reconstruction complexity in the setting of a dishonest minority. This improves...
Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró
The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576
Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C.; Villodre, Emilly Schlee; Zamin, Lauren L.; Lenz, Guido
Prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains very poor, thus making the development of new drugs urgent. Resveratrol (Rsv) is a natural compound that has several beneficial effects such as neuroprotection and cytotoxicity for several GBM cell lines. Here we evaluated the mechanism of action of Rsv on human GBM cell lines, focusing on the role of autophagy and its crosstalk with apoptosis and cell cycle control. We further evaluated the role of autophagy and the effect of Rsv on GBM Cancer Stem Cells (gCSCs), involved in GBM resistance and recurrence. Glioma cells treated with Rsv was tested for autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, cell cycle and phosphorylation or expression levels of key players of these processes. Rsv induced the formation of autophagosomes in three human GBM cell lines, accompanied by an upregulation of autophagy proteins Atg5, beclin-1 and LC3-II. Inhibition of Rsv-induced autophagy triggered apoptosis, with an increase in Bax and cleavage of caspase-3. While inhibition of apoptosis or autophagy alone did not revert Rsv-induced toxicity, inhibition of both processes blocked this toxicity. Rsv also induced a S-G2/M phase arrest, accompanied by an increase on levels of pCdc2(Y15), cyclin A, E and B, and pRb (S807/811) and a decrease of cyclin D1. Interestingly, this arrest was dependent on the induction of autophagy, since inhibition of Rsv-induced autophagy abolishes cell cycle arrest and returns the phosphorylation of Cdc2(Y15) and Rb(S807/811), and levels of cyclin A, and B to control levels. Finally, inhibition of autophagy or treatment with Rsv decreased the sphere formation and the percentage of CD133 and OCT4-positive cells, markers of gCSCs. In conclusion, the crosstalk among autophagy, cell cycle and apoptosis, together with the biology of gCSCs, has to be considered in tailoring pharmacological interventions aimed to reduce glioma growth using compounds with multiple targets such as Rsv. PMID:21695150
Juan José Rodríguez Soler
Full Text Available Online Channels in financial institutions allows customers with disabilities to access services in a convenient way for them.However, one of the current challenges of this sector is to improve web accessibility and to incorporate technological resources to provide access to multimedia and video content, which has become a new form of internet communication.The present work shows in detail the strategy followed when designing and developing the new video player used by Bankinter for these purposes.
Full Text Available During the last few decades it has been recognized that cell death is not the consequence of accidental injury, but is the expression of a cell suicide programme. Kerr et al. (1972 introduced the term apoptosis. This form of cell death is under the influence of hormones, growth factors and cytokines, which depending upon the receptors present on the target cells, may activate a genetically controlled cell elimination process. During apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact and the cell breaks into apoptotic bodies, which are phagocytosed. Apoptosis, in contrast to necrosis, is not harmful to the host and does not induce any inflammatory reaction. The principal event that leads to inflammatory disease is cell damage, induced by chemical/physical injury, anoxia or starvation. Cell damage means leakage of cell contents into the adjacent tissues, resulting in the capillary transmigration of granulocytes to the injured tissue. The accumulation of neutrophils and release of enzymes and oxygen radicals enhances the inflammatory reaction. Until now there has been little research into the factors controlling the accumulation and the tissue load of granulocytes and their histotoxic products in inflammatory processes. Neutrophil apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of intlamtnation. It has been assumed that granulocytes disintegrate to apoptotic bodies before their fragments are removed by local macrophages. Removal of neutrophils from the inflammatory site without release of granule contents is of paramount importance for cessation of inflammation. In conclusion, apoptotic cell death plays an important role in inflammatory processes and in the resolution of inflammatory reactions. The facts known at present should stimulate further research into the role of neutrophil, eosinophil and macrophage apoptosis in inflammatory diseases.
Alfonso Martínez Moreno
Full Text Available In the sport context, elite category, it is necessary to know all the factors, which in one way or another, affect the athletes throughout the different competitions. The object of study is to know the motivational profile of elite handball players. The sample consisted of 495 players, of whom 47.8% were boys and 52.2% girls, their ages ranged from 12 to 16 years, with an average of 13.8 years (dt = 1.0. Descriptive statistical analyzes of the sample, absolute and relative frequencies were performed for the qualitative variables and for the quantitative values minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha. Correlation between variables, with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The MANCOVA test was performed to determine if there were differences between the dimensions of the questionnaire, according to age and years of practice. The results reveal that handball players elite category of the sample object of study have mainly intrinsic motivation, achieving high scores on general motivation, motivation achievement and motivation stimulation. In addition to moderately high values in introjected regulation and very low values in demotivation.
Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos
With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...... playware, and allow the playware to adapt to the user´s level of competency in multi-player games. The games are physically interactive games where users may have different levels of competencies due to different physical abilities e.g. between age groups and genders. Indeed, the work gives evidence...
Micael S. Couceiro
Full Text Available The game of football demands new computational approaches to measure individual and collective performance. Understanding the phenomena involved in the game may foster the identification of strengths and weaknesses, not only of each player, but also of the whole team. The development of assertive quantitative methodologies constitutes a key element in sports training. In football, the predictability and stability inherent in the motion of a given player may be seen as one of the most important concepts to fully characterise the variability of the whole team. This paper characterises the predictability and stability levels of players during an official football match. A Fractional Calculus (FC approach to define a player’s trajectory. By applying FC, one can benefit from newly considered modeling perspectives, such as the fractional coefficient, to estimate a player’s predictability and stability. This paper also formulates the concept of attraction domain, related to the tactical region of each player, inspired by stability theory principles. To compare the variability inherent in the player’s process variables (e.g., distance covered and to assess his predictability and stability, entropy measures are considered. Experimental results suggest that the most predictable player is the goalkeeper while, conversely, the most unpredictable players are the midfielders. We also conclude that, despite his predictability, the goalkeeper is the most unstable player, while lateral defenders are the most stable during the match.
Vincent, Heather K; Chen, Cong; Zdziarski, Laura A; Montes, Jonathan; Vincent, Kevin R
The purposes of this research were to quantify the kinematics of the lacrosse shot, based on arm dominance and player experience level. Male players (N = 39; 14-30 years; high school [n = 24], collegiate [n = 9], professional [n = 6]), performed overhead shots using dominant and non-dominant sides. Motion was captured using a high-speed, 12-camera optical system and high-speed filming. Body segment rotational velocities and joint angles were determined at key points in the shot cycle from foot contact (0% of shot) to ball release (100% of shot). All players shot with less anterior trunk lean, less transverse shoulder rotation, and slower trunk-shoulder rotational velocities with the non-dominant side than the dominant side (all p school or collegiate players (p < 0.05). Transverse shoulder rotation range of motion on both dominant and non-dominant and trunk rotation sides was highest in the professional players (p < 0.05). These kinematic features enable professional players to produce faster ball speeds than younger players (138 ± 7 km/h vs. 112 ± 15 km/h, respectively; p < 0.05). Less anterior lean or suboptimal rotation sequence could increase proximal shoulder forces that could contribute to injury as in other throwing sports.
Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.
Full Text Available Fatty acid synthase (FASN, a key player in the de novo synthetic pathway of long-chain fatty acids, has been shown to contribute to the tumorigenesis in various types of solid tumors. We here report that FASN is highly and consistently expressed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL, an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoid malignancy. Specifically, the expression of FASN was detectable in all four MCL cell lines and 15 tumors examined. In contrast, benign lymphoid tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal donors were negative. Treatment of MCL cell lines with orlistat, a FASN inhibitor, resulted in significant apoptosis. Knockdown of FASN expression using siRNA, which also significantly decreased the growth of MCL cells, led to a dramatic decrease in the cyclin D1 level. β-catenin, which has been previously reported to be upregulated in a subset of MCL tumors, contributed to the high level of FASN in MCL cells, Interesting, siRNA knock-down of FASN in turn down-regulated β-catenin. In conclusion, our data supports the concept that FASN contributes to the pathogenesis of MCL, by collaborating with β-catenin. In view of its high and consistent expression in MCL, FASN inhibitors may hold promises for treating MCL.
Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka
In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours
Ding, Ying; Nguyen, Thu Annelise
Apoptosis, a programmed cell death, is an important control mechanism of cell homeostasis. Deficiency in apoptosis is one of the key features of cancer cells, allowing cells to escape from death. Activation of apoptotic signaling pathway has been a target of anti-cancer drugs in an induction of cytotoxicity. PQ1, 6-methoxy-8-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]-4-methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy)quinoline, has been reported to decrease the viability of cancer cells and attenuate xenograft tumor growth. However, the mechanism of the anti-cancer effect is still unclear. To evaluate whether the cytotoxicity of PQ1 is related to induction of apoptosis, the effect of PQ1 on apoptotic pathways was investigated in T47D breast cancer cells. PQ1-treated cells had an elevation of cleaved caspase-3 compared to controls. Studies of intrinsic apoptotic pathway showed that PQ1 can activate the intrinsic checkpoint protein caspase-9, enhance the level of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and release cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol; however, PQ1 has no effect on the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Further studies also demonstrated that PQ1 can activate the key extrinsic player, caspase-8. Pre-treatment of T47D cells with caspase-8 or caspase-9 inhibitor suppressed the cell death induced by PQ1, while pre-treatment with caspase-3 inhibitor completely counteracted the effect of PQ1 on cell viability. This report provides evidence that PQ1 induces cytotoxicity via activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9 in T47D breast cancer cells. PMID:23677255
Ding, Ying; Nguyen, Thu Annelise
Apoptosis, a programmed cell death, is an important control mechanism of cell homeostasis. Deficiency in apoptosis is one of the key features of cancer cells, allowing cells to escape from death. Activation of apoptotic signaling pathway has been a target of anti-cancer drugs in an induction of cytotoxicity. PQ1, 6-methoxy-8-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]-4-methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy)quinoline, has been reported to decrease the viability of cancer cells and attenuate xenograft tumor growth. However, the mechanism of the anti-cancer effect is still unclear. To evaluate whether the cytotoxicity of PQ1 is related to induction of apoptosis, the effect of PQ1 on apoptotic pathways was investigated in T47D breast cancer cells. PQ1-treated cells had an elevation of cleaved caspase-3 compared to controls. Studies of intrinsic apoptotic pathway showed that PQ1 can activate the intrinsic checkpoint protein caspase-9, enhance the level of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and release cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol; however, PQ1 has no effect on the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Further studies also demonstrated that PQ1 can activate the key extrinsic player, caspase-8. Pre-treatment of T47D cells with caspase-8 or caspase-9 inhibitor suppressed the cell death induced by PQ1, while pre-treatment with caspase-3 inhibitor completely counteracted the effect of PQ1 on cell viability. This report provides evidence that PQ1 induces cytotoxicity via activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9 in T47D breast cancer cells.
Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S
Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury.
Full Text Available Following the trends of IT use in education we propose four main principles of educational application development: anytime-anywhere access (including access for mobile devices; user-generated content; assigning users an active role inside the platform; creating a correlation between natural activities and educational activities – adding fun into the equation. With these principles in mind we developed a small Educational Player – a movie player that connects to a database to show information relevant to the events in the movie, more specific to the exact key-frame (in the movie time-line at the moment of the request. Though the application is still in a conceptual form, its possibilities make us confident in its future success either as an informal way of learning, or by using it in a formal educational context either as an e-learning tool, either as interactivity tool in a traditional classroom setting.
Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is one of the monogenic inherited diseases. In PKD, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and disruption of the mechanisms controlling tubular diameter may all lead to cyst formation. Current evidence has demonstrated that intracellular calcium ion and cAMP imbalance drive both abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway. The present paper summarized the evidence implicating calcium ion and cAMP as central players in the signaling pathway of cell proliferation and apoptosis in PKD, and considered the potential therapeutic approaches targeted to slow cyst growth in PKD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.13
Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...
M. A. Orlova
Full Text Available Fullerene derivatives superfamily attracts a serious attention as antiviral and anticancer agents and drug delivery carriers as well. A large number of such fullerene С60 derivatives obtained to date. However, there is an obvious deficit of information about causes and mechanisms of immediately and long-term consequences of their effects in vivo which is a true obstacle on the way leading to practical medical use of them. First, this concerns their impact on the proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis regulation. Fullerene nanoparticle functionalization type, their sizes and surface nanopathology are of great importance to further promoting of either cytoprotective or cytotoxic effects. This lecture provides modern concept analysis regarding fullerenes effects on apoptosis pathway in normal and tumor cells.
Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.
Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…
Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael
Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study...
Morley, D; Morgan, G; McKenna, J; Nicholls, AR
Player profiling can reap many benefits; through reflective coach-athlete dialogue that produces a profile the athlete has a raised awareness of their own development, while the coach has an opportunity to understand the athlete's viewpoint. In this study, we explored how coaches and players perceived the development features of an elite academy footballer and the contexts in which these features are revealed, in order to develop a player profile to be used for mentoring players. Using a Delp...
Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona
Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.
Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah
, third) as an indication of the relationship between player and character. Results indicate that the presence of story and information about the player character had no effect on identification with the plater character. However, characteristics of the players, particularly gender and general experience...
Schwebel, David C; McDaniel, McCall; Banaszek, Mark M
Youth soccer (football) injuries occur for a wide range of reasons, but the most frequent cause of injury is via player-to-player contact. This study was designed to study the ecology of collisions between players during youth soccer play. Six teams of 11- and 12-year-old male players were followed over the course of a full season. Games were videotaped and reviewed to address three primary questions: how frequently do player-to-player collisions occur; when and where on the field do those collisions occur; and what is the rate of falls and injuries as a result of player-to-player contact. A total of 1,279 player-to-player collisions was observed, or an average of 65.59 collisions per game. Nearly half of the observed collisions resulted in one or both players falling to the ground, and about one-tenth resulted in the referee calling a foul, but very few of the collisions (less than 1%) resulted in an injury. Collisions occurred relatively consistently throughout the games, no matter what the score was. They occurred most frequently in the midfield area, when the ball was on or near the ground, and when players were attempting to retrieve a loose, uncontrolled ball. Results are discussed with respect to implications for injury prevention.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Martinelli, Nicolò; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Even though soccer is the most popular sport of the world, no review is available at present to resume the available data on shoulder injuries in soccer. The aim of this review is to report the available epidemiological data on shoulder specific injuries in soccer players and to describe the common mechanisms of shoulder injuries in soccer. Studies published through September 15, 2011, were identified by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, Pub-Med, Web of Science, and the full Cochr...
Apoptosis occurs at a low level spontaneously in the small intestine (SI). The levels can be raised by a variety of cytotoxic agents including radiation. The apoptosis induced by radiation, and some drugs and the spontaneous apoptosis, show some specificity for the stem cells in the small intestinal crypt. In the colon, these agents target transit cells in the mid crypt. p53 expression is elevated at the same time as apoptosis in the SI but not in the cells undergoing apoptosis. The expression of bcl-2, a survival gene, is largely absent in the SI, but is expressed, albeit weakly, in the stem cells in the colon. Spontaneous apoptosis is observed in p53 null mice which also develop normally suggesting that spontaneous and developmental apoptosis are p53 independent and that spontaneous apoptosis is part of the homeostatic mechanisms maintaining stem cell numbers. Radiation induced apoptosis is completely absent at these early times post-irradiation in p53 nulls. In bel-2 null mice, the levels of spontaneous and radiation induced apoptosis are elevated in the colon. Bax, a death gene, is expressed on the villus and inter-crypt table in the colon suggesting that cells at the end of their lifespan initiate apoptosis. It has been suggested that apoptosis in the SI is a protective mechanism against carcinogenesis in the stem cells of the SI which rarely develops cancer. Cells that possess genetic damage detected. In the large bowel, this mechanism is not effective due to the action of bcl-2. Thus stem cells may persist in this tissue with genetic damage resulting in a higher cancer risk. Furthermore, the lack of spontaneous apoptosis in the colon may result in a gradual increase of the stem cells with time resulting in more ells at risk. (author)
Ceramide is synthesized upon stimuli, and induces apoptosis in renal tubular cells (RTCs). Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) functions as a survival factor. Thus, the balance of ceramide/S1P determines ceramide-induced apoptosis. Mitochondria play a key role for ceramide-induced apoptosis by altered mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP). Ceramide enhances oligomerization of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, ceramide channel, and reduces anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in the MOM. This process alters MOMP, resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome C release into the cytosol, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Ceramide regulates apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-dependent and -independent pathways. Conversely, MAPKs alter ceramide generation by regulating the enzymes involving ceramide metabolism, affecting ceramide-induced apoptosis. Crosstalk between Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS, and many signaling pathways regulates ceramide-induced apoptosis. Growth factors rescue ceramide-induced apoptosis by regulating the enzymes involving ceramide metabolism, S1P, and signaling pathways including MAPKs. This article reviews evidence supporting a role of ceramide for apoptosis and discusses a role of mitochondria, including MOMP, Bcl-2 family proteins, ROS, and signaling pathways, and crosstalk between these factors in the regulation of ceramide-induced apoptosis of RTCs. A balancing role between ceramide and S1P and the strategy for preventing ceramide-induced apoptosis by growth factors are also discussed. PMID:25751724
Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.
A path player game is an innovative type of game which considers network flow problems from the viewpoint of network owners. This strategy enables modeling real-world problems and has many practical applications. This book presents an exposition of the theoretical foundations of the concept of a path player game
van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.
Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In
Oct 5, 2011 ... induced apoptosis at the single cell level. Key words: Two-photon laser scanning microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, human skin squamous carcinoma cells (Colo-16 cells), arsenic trioxide, apoptosis. INTRODUCTION. Although arsenic is poisonous and chronic arsenic exposure from ...
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Meng, Huan X.; Hackett, James A.; Nestor, Colm; Dunican, Donncha S.; Madej, Monika; Reddington, James P.; Pennings, Sari; Harrison, David J.; Meehan, Richard R.
Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG
In a context of growing dependence on extra-European sources, a growth potential in gas use for power generation and the acceleration of the liberalization process, the 2008 Edition of 'The Players on the European Gas Market' offers a unique detailed review of the positioning of players in both the upstream (production, reserves) and downstream (wholesale and retail supply) sectors of the gas chain. This 140-pages report, includes 55 tables and 29 figures, and presents an in-depth description of the European gas industry by country. The Survey 'The Players on the European Gas Market' provides: - The analysis of new upstream areas and production growth prospects, - Company rankings in terms of reserve and production volumes, - The complete overview of the whole European gas market (market characteristics, supply sources, consuming outlets, effective competition), - Strategies and key facts of the wholesale suppliers to Europe, - An in-depth review of national market structures, - The detailed positioning and analysis of national market power of the numerous companies involved in gas supply
Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.
Kamiński, Dominik; Miekisz, Jacek; Zaborowski, Marcin
Animal behavior and evolution can often be described by game-theoretic models. Although in many situations the number of players is very large, their strategic interactions are usually decomposed into a sum of two-player games. Only recently were evolutionarily stable strategies defined for multi-player games and their properties analyzed [Broom, M., Cannings, C., Vickers, G.T., 1997. Multi-player matrix games. Bull. Math. Biol. 59, 931-952]. Here we study the long-run behavior of stochastic dynamics of populations of randomly matched individuals playing symmetric three-player games. We analyze the stochastic stability of equilibria in games with multiple evolutionarily stable strategies. We also show that, in some games, a population may not evolve in the long run to an evolutionarily stable equilibrium.
Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin
On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.
Jiang, Rui; Deng, Hui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Yong-Hong; Wu, Qing-Song
This paper extends traditional two-player prisoners’ dilemma (PD) to three-player PD. We have studied spatial patterns of cooperation behaviors, growth patterns of cooperator clusters and defector clusters, and cooperation frequency of the players. It is found while three-player PD exhibits many properties similar to two-player PD, some new features arise. Specifically, (i) a new region appears, in which neither a 3×3 cooperator cluster nor a 3×3 defector cluster could grow; (ii) more growth patterns of cooperator clusters and defector clusters are identified; (iii) multiple cooperation frequencies exist in the region that exhibits dynamic chaos. Some theoretical analysis of these features is presented.
In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.
Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan
Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735
Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.
Broekman, Henrike C H; Eiwegger, Thomas; Upton, Julia
Food allergy is a growing problem worldwide, presently affecting 2-4% of adults and 5-8% of young children. IgE is a key player in food allergy. Consequently huge efforts have been made to develop tests to detect either the presence of IgE molecules, their allergen binding sites...... or their functionality, in order to provide information regarding the patient's food allergy. The ultimate goal is to develop tools that are capable of discriminating between asymptomatic sensitization and a clinically relevant food allergy, and between different allergic phenotypes in an accurate and trustworthy manner...
Law, Jennifer; Yu, Victor C.; Baksh, Shairaz
Modulator of apoptosis 1 (MOAP-1) is a BH3-like protein that plays key roles in both the intrinsic and extrinsic modes of cell death or apoptosis. MOAP-1 is part of the Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A)/MOAP-1 pro-apoptotic extrinsic signaling pathway that regulates apoptosis by utilizing death receptors such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α ) or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to inhibit abnormal growth. RASSF1A is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene that is epigenetica...
Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo
A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for
Waters, Andrew J; Gobet, Fernand; Leyden, Gerv
The extent to which the acquisition of expertise in knowledge-rich domains, such as chess, can be influenced by general individual characteristics, such as intelligence, has remained unclear. Some previous studies with children have documented significant correlations between chess skill and performance on some psychometric tests, such as performance IQ. However, we found no evidence for a correlation between chess skill and visual memory ability in a group of adult chess players (N = 36, age = 28.4 years). This finding, together with other data in the literature, suggests that there is surprisingly little evidence that chess skill and visuospatial ability are associated in adults. Thus, visual memory ability, and perhaps visuospatial intelligence, may be relatively unimportant factors in the long-term acquisition of chess skill.
These inflammatory markers play a vital role in the pathology of diseases associated with inflammation. As shown in Fig. 3, oxLDL induced the upregulation of MCP-1 and IL-6 mRNAs in M2 macrophages after 24 hours incubation. oxLDL Induced Apoptosis in M2 macrophage: Caspase -3 and -7 has been shown to play key ...
were positively correlated with positive progesterone receptor. In Conclusion; oxidative stress, NO and apoptosis are highly detected in breast cancer tissues especially with advanced grade and stage. Key words: Breast cancer, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Total Antioxidants
Warmelink, H.J.G.; Siitonen, M.
Numerous researchers have written about the social dynamics of player communities in multiplayer online games. Following a systematic review of refereed empirical research publications from 2000-2010, this article synthesizes the key methods and concepts researchers have used to study and
Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C; Falz, Mark; Chalfant, Victor; Hasan, Mohammad Kamrul; Espinoza-Derout, Jorge; Lee, Desean L; Sims, Carl; Tran, Peter; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P
Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be aggravated by obesity. Smoking might also trigger cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. Given that CM apoptosis has been implicated as a potential mechanism in the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, we characterize the key signaling pathways in nicotine plus high-fat diet (HFD)-induced CM apoptosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD and received twice-daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight [BW]) or saline for 16 weeks. An additional group of nicotine-treated mice on HFD received twice-daily IP injections of mecamylamine (1 mg/kg BW), a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, for 16 weeks. Nicotine when combined with HFD led to a massive increase in CM apoptosis that was fully prevented by mecamylamine treatment. Induction of CM apoptosis was associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, nicotine treatment significantly (P nicotine, when combined with HFD, triggers CM apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress and inactivation of AMPK together with the activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling independently of FGF21 and SIRT1.
Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.
Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436
Kannekens, R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.
Talent identification and development implicate recognizing youth players who will be successful in the future and guiding them to the top. A major determinant of this success is tactical skills. To identify possible key factors that help in predicting success over time, this study assesses the
Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.
To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing
Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.
In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...... be efficiently profiled in dissimilar clusters according to camera control as part of their game- play behaviour....
Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian
Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation......-driven content generation....
A-team players were significantly heavier and taller than players in lower teams in most playing positions in most age groups. Although A-team players were more likely to participate in pre-season endurance or strength training, fewer than 40% of players overall trained adequately in the pre-season. Less than 30 minutes ...
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and
Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A
This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.
Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G
There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.
Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V
The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.
... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/hotkeys.html Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts To use the sharing features ... of accessible keyboard shortcuts for our latest Health videos on the MedlinePlus site. These shortcuts allow you ...
Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian
Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation....... Specifying the aspects of the game that have the major influence on the gameplay experience, identifying the relationship between these aspect and each individual experience and defining a mechanism for tailoring the game content according to each individual needs are important steps towards player...
Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J
Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.
Efforts to entice and retain player activity within a casino gaming environment require bringing to bear a range of sensory and physical influences. The challenge is to accomplish the operators’ objectives while at the same time ensuring any potential negative effects on the player are minimised. How casinos keep this in balance is at the heart of how the gaming floor works, and assessing such matters is becoming a necessary part of social responsibility.
Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.
Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)
Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Yizhou; El-nasr, Magy Seif; Nguyen, Truong-Huy D.
Successful analysis of player skills in video games has important impacts on the process of enhancing player experience without undermining their continuous skill development. Moreover, player skill analysis becomes more intriguing in team-based video games because such form of study can help discover useful factors in effective team formation. In this paper, we consider the problem of skill decomposition in MOBA (MultiPlayer Online Battle Arena) games, with the goal to understand what player...
Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern
This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respec...
Coulter, Tristan J; Mallett, Clifford J; Gucciardi, Daniel F
We explored mental toughness in soccer using a triangulation of data capture involving players (n = 6), coaches (n = 4), and parents (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews, based on a personal construct psychology (Kelly, 1955/1991) framework, were conducted to elicit participants' perspectives on the key characteristics and their contrasts, situations demanding mental toughness, and the behaviours displayed and cognitions employed by mentally tough soccer players. The results from the research provided further evidence that mental toughness is conceptually distinct from other psychological constructs such as hardiness. The findings also supported Gucciardi, Gordon, and Dimmock's (2009) process model of mental toughness. A winning mentality and desire was identified as a key attribute of mentally tough soccer players in addition to other previously reported qualities such as self-belief, physical toughness, work ethic/motivation, and resilience. Key cognitions reported by mentally tough soccer players enabled them to remain focused and competitive during training and matches and highlighted the adoption of several forms of self-talk in dealing with challenging situations. Minor revisions to Gucciardi and colleagues' definition of mental toughness are proposed.
Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J
Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players' performance at the elite level.
Cummins, Craig Anthony; Messer, Terry M; Schafer, Michael F
Infraspinatus muscle atrophy has been observed in athletes who stress their upper extremities in an overhead fashion. The majority of such case reports have been in volleyball players, with far fewer cases reported in baseball players. Infraspinatus muscle atrophy occurs to a notable degree in professional baseball players. Retrospective cohort study. At the end of the 1999 baseball season, data were collected from all Major League Baseball teams in regards to players affected with infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Twelve of the 1491 major league professional baseball players were identified as having appreciable infraspinatus muscle atrophy. There was an increased prevalence of the muscle atrophy in professional pitchers (10 of 494, 4%) compared to position players (2 of 997, 0.2%) (P relief pitchers (2 of 10) (P = 0.036), pitchers who had played for more years at the major league level (8.7 +/- 4.9 versus 5.2 +/- 4.0) (P = 0.017), and pitchers who had thrown for more innings at the major league level (971.4 +/- 784.4 versus 485.0 +/- 594.6) (P <0.001). Infraspinatus atrophy was identified in 4.4% of major league starting pitchers and occurred in those pitchers who pitched for more years and innings during their major league career.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effect of characteristics of various games and players on the proportion of retired tennis matches in the Open Era of tennis. The data included over 420,000 matches played among 17,553 tennis players in the period from 1968 to the end of 2010. The influence of the surface type was clearly confirmed, with the proportion of retired matches being higher on hard and clay courts compared to grass and carpet surfaces. Similarly, more retired matches were observed in outdoor venues than in indoor ones. The impact of other variables, tournament types, rounds at which the game was played and both players' ranks, is more ambiguous. Our interpretation of the obtained results is presented in the paper. Network analytic methods were applied to extract players with the most retired matches in their careers. Eventually, we defined a group of top tennis players and gave a more precise insight into retired matches in that group. Correspondence analysis was used to visually display the two-mode network of top players and the proportion of retired matches by surface type
S.A. Brands (Stefan)
textabstractThe notion of secret-key certificate schemes is introduced and formalized. As with public-key certificates, triples consisting of a secret key, a corresponding public key, and a secret-key certificate on the public key can only be retrieved by engaging in an issuing protocol with the
Chen, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Cai, Tie Cheng; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Shuangbiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Ma, Shiwei; Tang, Ronghua; Varshney, Rajeev K; Zhuang, Weijian
Calcium is a universal signal in the regulation of wide aspects in biology, but few are known about the function of calcium in the control of early embryo development. Ca(2+) deficiency in soil induces early embryo abortion in peanut, producing empty pods, which is a general problem; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, embryo abortion was characterized to be caused by apoptosis marked with cell wall degradation. Using a method of SSH cDNA libraries associated with library lift (SSHaLL), 62 differentially expressed genes were isolated from young peanut embryos. These genes were classified to be stress responses, catabolic process, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, embryo morphogenesis, regulation, etc. The cell retardation with cell wall degradation was caused by up-regulated cell wall hydrolases and down-regulated cellular synthases genes. HsfA4a, which was characterized to be important to embryo development, was significantly down-regulated under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions from 15 days after pegging (DAP) to 30 DAP. Two AhCYP707A4 genes, encoding abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylases, key enzymes for ABA catabolism, were up-regulated by 21-fold under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions upstream of HsfA4a, reducing the ABA level in early embryos. Over-expression of AhCYP707A4 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a phenotype of low ABA content with high numbers of aborted embryos, small pods and less seeds, which confirms that AhCYP707A4 is a key player in regulation of Ca(2+) deficiency-induced embryo abortion via ABA-mediated apoptosis. The results elucidated the mechanism of low Ca(2+) -induced embryo abortion and described the method for other fields of study. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...
The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...
The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...
The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of PCa cells by methyl selenium (Se)/selenol...
The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of PCa cells by methyl selenium (Se...
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Trindade, Dário; Pereira, Clara; Chaves, Susana R; Manon, Stéphen; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Sousa, Maria J
Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization is a key event in apoptosis processes leading to the release of lethal factors. We have previously shown that absence of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) proteins (yeast orthologues of mammalian ANT proteins) increased the resistance of yeast cells to acetic acid, preventing MOMP and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria during acetic acid - induced apoptosis. On the other hand, deletion of POR1 (yeast voltage-dependent anion channel - VDAC) increased the sensitivity of yeast cells to acetic acid. In the present work, we aimed to further characterize the role of yeast VDAC in acetic acid - induced apoptosis and assess if it functionally interacts with AAC proteins. We found that the sensitivity to acetic acid resulting from POR1 deletion is completely abrogated by the absence of AAC proteins, and propose that Por1p acts as a negative regulator of acetic acid - induced cell death by a mechanism dependent of AAC proteins, by acting on AAC - dependent cytochrome c release. Moreover, we show that Por1p has a role in mitochondrial fusion that, contrary to its role in apoptosis, is not affected by the absence of AAC, and demonstrate that mitochondrial network fragmentation is not sufficient to induce release of cytochrome c or sensitivity to acetic acid - induced apoptosis. This work enhances our understanding on cytochrome c release during cell death, which may be relevant in pathological scenarios where MOMP is compromised.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Mihalik, Jason P; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Comstock, R Dawn
Little research has examined concussion outcomes in terms of impact location (ie, the area on the head in which the impact occurred). This study describes the epidemiology of concussions resulting from player-to-player collision in high school football by impact location. National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study data (2008/2009-2012/2013) were analyzed to calculate rates and describe circumstances of football concussion (eg, symptomology, symptom resolution time, return to play) resulting from player-to-player collisions by impact location (ie, front-, back-, side-, and top-of-the-head). Most concussions resulting from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head (44.7%) and side-of-the-head (22.3%) impacts. Number of symptoms reported, prevalence of reported symptoms, symptom resolution time, and length of time to return to play were not associated with impact location. However, a larger proportion of football players sustaining concussions from top-of-the-head impacts experienced loss of consciousness (8.0%) than those sustaining concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (3.5%) (injury proportion ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.2; P = .008). Players had their head down at the time of impact in a higher proportion of concussions caused by top-of-the-head impacts (86.4%) than concussions from impacts to other areas of the head (24.0%) (injury proportion ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.0; P concussions due to player-to-player collisions, concussion outcomes were generally independent of impact location. Recommended strategies for reducing the proportion of top-of-the-head impacts include improved education regarding tackling with proper "head-up" technique. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Khandelwal, Risha; Sipani, Rashmi; Govinda Rajan, Sriivatsan; Kumar, Raviranjan; Joshi, Rohit
Hox mediated neuroblast apoptosis is a prevalent way to pattern larval central nervous system (CNS) by different Hox genes, but the mechanism of this apoptosis is not understood. Our studies with Abdominal-A (Abd-A) mediated larval neuroblast (pNB) apoptosis suggests that AbdA, its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh), and Notch signaling transcriptionally contribute to expression of RHG family of apoptotic genes. We find that Grh, AbdA, and Exd function together at multiple motifs on the apoptotic enhancer. In vivo mutagenesis of these motifs suggest that they are important for the maintenance of the activity of the enhancer rather than its initiation. We also find that Exd function is independent of its known partner homothorax in this apoptosis. We extend some of our findings to Deformed expressing region of sub-esophageal ganglia where pNBs undergo a similar Hox dependent apoptosis. We propose a mechanism where common players like Exd-Grh-Notch work with different Hox genes through region specific enhancers to pattern respective segments of larval central nervous system.
Full Text Available Hox mediated neuroblast apoptosis is a prevalent way to pattern larval central nervous system (CNS by different Hox genes, but the mechanism of this apoptosis is not understood. Our studies with Abdominal-A (Abd-A mediated larval neuroblast (pNB apoptosis suggests that AbdA, its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh, and Notch signaling transcriptionally contribute to expression of RHG family of apoptotic genes. We find that Grh, AbdA, and Exd function together at multiple motifs on the apoptotic enhancer. In vivo mutagenesis of these motifs suggest that they are important for the maintenance of the activity of the enhancer rather than its initiation. We also find that Exd function is independent of its known partner homothorax in this apoptosis. We extend some of our findings to Deformed expressing region of sub-esophageal ganglia where pNBs undergo a similar Hox dependent apoptosis. We propose a mechanism where common players like Exd-Grh-Notch work with different Hox genes through region specific enhancers to pattern respective segments of larval central nervous system.
Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun
Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis
Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang, E-mail: email@example.com; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun
Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.
Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas
In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.
Roser, Pia; Wehrhahn, Tatiana; Krogmann, Henry; Riedel, Nina; Marshall, Robert Percy; Gille, Justus; Flitsch, Jörg; Aberle, Jens
Background and objective Soccer is associated with repetitive head trauma, which, as it is known from sports like football and boxing, can result in hypopituitarism. Gonadotropins and GH are the most common pituitary hormones to become deficient. GH deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and has negative influence on body mass index, visceral fat mass, insulin resistance and sensitivity, bone mineral density and inflammatory markers. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the somatotrope pituitary function in professional soccer players. Research design and methods This clinical study included 15 male, professional soccer players with at least 10 years of professional training. Basal hormonal parameters of the pituitary axis were obtained from the participants. To assess GH-IGF-I axis, glucagon stimulation tests were used. Rise in growth hormone during glucagon test was analyzed and the prevalence of newly diagnosed hormone deficiencies was evaluated. Results Mean age of all participants was 31±10 years. None of the 15 soccer players had GH deficiency. Mean rising factor of GH after stimulation with glucagon was 100 in all participants. We did not find signs of ACTH, TSH or LH/FSH deficiency in any player. Conclusions In this small collective of soccer players we did not find playing soccer to be a risk factor for the development of GH-deficiency. According to our data screening for somatotrope deficiency is not necessary. Further investigations in larger cohorts are needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Onody, Roberto N.; de Castro, Paulo A.
Although being a very popular sport in many countries, soccer has not received much attention from the scientific community. In this paper, we study soccer from a complex network point of view. First, we consider a bipartite network with two kinds of vertices or nodes: the soccer players and the clubs. Real data were gathered from the 32 editions of the Brazilian soccer championship, in a total of 13411 soccer players and 127 clubs. We find a lot of interesting and perhaps unsuspected results. The probability that a Brazilian soccer player has worked at N clubs or played M games shows an exponential decay while the probability that he has scored G goals is power law. Now, if two soccer players who have worked at the same club at the same time are connected by an edge, then a new type of network arises (composed exclusively by soccer player nodes). Our analysis shows that for this network the degree distribution decays exponentially. We determine the exact values of the clustering coefficient, the assortativity coefficient and the average shortest path length and compare them with those of the Erdös-Rényi and configuration model. The time evolution of these quantities are calculated and the corresponding results discussed.
Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J
Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872
Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.
Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel
The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).
Medeiros, Alexandre; Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao, José Manuel
This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players' role (blocker vs. defender specialist) in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19), 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21), and 1480 rallies from senior (senior) (Men's Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011) were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams' competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as "balanced", "moderate balanced" and "unbalanced" games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies) and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers) characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player's role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a) balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19) and U21; b) moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c) unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players' performances according to age group and players' role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics. Key PointsPlayer roles, quality of opposition
Bensoussan, A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: email@example.com; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)
In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.
Larsen, Lasse Juel
on the subject matter from the catalogue of game theory. All four suggestions exclude the player from the relationship. This paper introduces a phenomenological point of view and includes the player in order to understand the relationship between structure and dressing. It argues that players constitute a bridge......This paper is a search for meaning or to be more precise a study of how meaning is produced between ontology and fiction in computer games. It sets out to investigate the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game representation (dressing) by presenting four suggestions...... or the center which establishes, upholds and renegotiate the relationship between formal game structure and game dressing. It also argues that players’ interaction with both structure and dressing produce meaning and the production of meaning is the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game...
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the gross motor coordination performance levels of junior tennis players and (2) to analyse the effects of age and gender. Participants were junior male (n = 50) and female (n = 51) tennis players aged 6-14. Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) was used to assess the gross motor coordination of the participants. Results revealed that none of the participants performed lower than normal level in motor coordination. Besides, 40.6% of the participants performed above normal level. No gender differences were found on all subtests of KTK and also on total motor quotient. Although older players performed better on each test than their younger counterparts for the raw scores, no significant age effect was observed on motor quotient scores among different age groups.
Full Text Available In the provided research, some of the Big Data most prospective usage domains connect with distinguished player groups found in the business ecosystem. Literature analysis is used to identify the state of the art of Big Data related research in the major domains of its use-namely, individual marketing, health treatment, work opportunities, financial services, and security enforcement. System theory was used to identify business ecosystem major player types disrupted by Big Data: individuals, small and mid-sized enterprises, large organizations, information providers, and regulators. Relationships between the domains and players were explained through new Big Data opportunities and threats and by players’ responsive strategies. System dynamics was used to visualize relationships in the provided model.
McNoe, Bronwen M; Chalmers, David J
To adapt and pilot test a method for undertaking routine surveillance of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer. Surveillance system using a cohort design. Simple random samples were drawn from the player registration databases of two soccer federations. All players aged 13 years or over who intended to play in a school or club competition during the 2006 winter season were eligible. The cohort consisted of 687 male and 193 female players. The players were contacted each week and asked about their adherence to nationally recommended injury prevention measures. No more than 20% of players completed any form of pre-season screening. Almost all players warmed-up for player-matches (97%) and player-training sessions (93%). Eighty-one percent of players undertook some form of physical conditioning on at least one occasion in the off-season. Very few players (13%) reported receiving instruction on tackling technique pre-season. Shin-guards were worn in 99% of matches. For 61% of match injury events, the injured player continued to play after the injury occurred and in 65% of these cases, the player reported that in hindsight they should not have returned to play. The results provide a baseline measure of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players. Future research, employing comparable surveillance methods, could be used to monitor progress on adherence to the injury prevention measures canvassed in this study. Copyright Â© 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinsault, Nicolas; Anxionnaz, Marion; Vuillerme, Nicolas
To determine whether cervical joint position sense is modified by intensive rugby practice. A group-comparison study. University Medical Bioengineering Laboratory. Twenty young elite rugby players (10 forwards and 10 backs) and 10 young non-rugby elite sports players. Participants were asked to perform the cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) that is, to reposition their head on their trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active left and right cervical rotation. Rugby players were asked to perform the CRT to NHP before and after a training session. Absolute and variable errors were used to assess accuracy and consistency of the repositioning for the three groups of Forwards, Backs and Non-rugby players, respectively. The 2 groups of Forwards and Backs exhibited higher absolute and variable errors than the group of Non-rugby players. No difference was found between the two groups of Forwards and Backs and no difference was found between Before and After the training session. The cervical joint position sense of young elite rugby players is altered compared to that of non-rugby players. Furthermore, Forwards and Backs demonstrated comparable repositioning errors before and after a specific training session, suggesting that cervical proprioceptive alteration is mainly due to tackling and not the scrum.
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise
Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to
Plancher, K D; Litchfield, R; Hawkins, R J
The tennis player places unique demands on the shoulder by creating a high risk for overuse and overloading of the soft tissues. Tennis requires concentric work to position and move the arm, eccentric work to stabilize the shoulder, effective depression of the humeral head to avoid impingement in the overhead position, and normal stability to prevent secondary impingement. The tennis serve produces enormous angular velocities about the shoulder joint. A comprehensive rehabilitation program has been described in which the therapist, trainer, player, and physician alike need to have an understanding of the basic biomechanics of this sport. This program can be used to treat the painful shoulder, prevent injury, and enhance performance.
Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz
Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Miseric?rdia, S?o Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of...
M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal
Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor
Optical disc players such as CD-players have problems playing certain discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The problem is to be found in the servo controller which positions the optical pick-up, such that the laser beam is focused on the information track. A scheme handling ...... of the feature based control scheme, such that a prediction step is included. The proposed scheme is compared with the feature based control scheme, in the perspective of handling surface faults, by simulations. These simulations show the improvements given by the proposed algorithm....
Milic, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katic, Ratko
A set of 18 test for assessing anthropometric characteristics and 12 tests for assessing motor abilities was used on a sample of 183 young female volleyball players (average age of 13.11 ± 1.07 years). The main goal of this research was to determine the latent structure of biomotor status, as well as relations of that status to situational efficiency in female volleyball players. Situational efficiency of young volleyball players was assessed on a five-point Likert scale, in relation to each ...
Tarek A. Atia
Full Text Available Apoptosis is an interactive and dynamic biological process involved in all phases of embryogenesis. We aimed to study the effect of placental apoptosis on recurrent miscarriage (RM. Placental tissue samples were collected from 40 women with RM (study group and 30 women with sporadic spontaneous abortion (control group. Samples were prepared and stained immunohistochemically with markers for both the apoptotic protein (p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 antibodies. Our results showed that expression of the apoptotic (p53 protein was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the RM group (p = 0.003. By contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 antibodies was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the control group (p = 0.025. We concluded that placental apoptosis plays a crucial role in pregnancy continuation. However, increased p53 expression in placental tissue in early pregnancy could negatively affect pregnancy continuation.
Full Text Available The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism.
Minguez, Laëtitia; Brulé, Nelly; Sohm, Bénédicte; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure
The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455
Shvarts, D. A.
In the division problem for two players it is assumed that one of them is honest and informs his true preferences. The second player knows in advance the preferences of the first player and he tends to use this information in the maximum beneficial way for himself. In essence, this article is the
Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng
The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…
Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick
The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…
The physique of rugby players has evolved over the course of the Twentieth Century. A novel morphological dataset was constructed of all Springbok rugby players until 2014. Although most of the change in body structure, particularly body weight, occurs during the era of professionalism, white Springbok rugby players ...
Jun 13, 2011 ... Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in ...
This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...
Brink, Michel S.; Kersten, Anna W.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.
A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players'
The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…
Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...
Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.
Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…
Olde Loohuis, L.; Venema, Y.
We study a generalization of the standard syntax and game-theoretic semantics of logic, which is based on a duality between two players, to a multiplayer setting. We define propositional and modal languages of multiplayer formulas, and provide them with a semantics involving a multiplayer game. Our
... turn, has significant relationships self-confidence, task orientation and ego orientation. In future research, a longitudinal study would be particularly useful to observe the model changes from one phase of footballers or any other sports performance by applying the model. Keywords: psychological strength; football players; ...
This article offers suggestions on how to assess the abilities of young soccer athletes and ways to educate parents or guardians on how to maintain an attitude that most benefits and supports the players. The abilities of young athletes on a team vary, and the expectations of both team members and parents are high, thus presenting a major…
van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.
Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of
For example, a school-leaving rugby player, with the required physical attributes and necessary skill set to further his playing career (ERE) for rugby, needs the right psychological tools. (goal setting, imagery skills, coping strategies) and social support from coaches and parents to reach his full potential. Sport specificity.
Dunlap, Patricia; Berne, Linda A.
The PRECEDE model (an acronym for predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling causes in education diagnosis and evaluation) emphasizes outcomes rather than inputs. The model was used in assessing the health needs of nationally ranked junior tennis players. The objective was to reduce stress illness in high-level competition. (JD)
Maria Abella del Campo
Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle
In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Humoral Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 455-471 ...
Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios
Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995
Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios
Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Prospective cohort study. Eighteen professional basketball facilities. We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players.
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine
There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.
The European gas industry has embarked on a new era, driven by new Community regulations as well as the growth of gas demand due to the undeniable and economic and environmental advantages offered by this energy source, as well as the dynamism of the main players. The year 2000 will remain marked by the vigour and steady growth of the European gas market: production (278.5 Bcm), trade (248.1 Bcm) and consumption (414.3 Bcm), setting new records. And besides, the growth forecasts for gas demand in Europe, while masking differences between countries, remain highly optimistic for the coming decade. In this context of sweeping upheavals of the European gas market, combined with sharply growing demand, this report aims to describe the principal players of the market in 2000, as well as the developments registered by them since 1996, the date of the first report on The European Gas Market Players. A special effort has been made to place the European results of the different players in perspective with respect to their worldwide activities. Who produces natural gas in Europe*, who holds the reserves, who imports it, who exports, who sells it, how are the different European markets organized, who are the shareholders of the merchant gas companies, and what are the current holdings of these companies? These are the questions that this report addresses. A final chapter is dedicated to the principal transformations that have affected the European gas industry in recent years. By this synthetic and transverse view of the European gas market, the study details the evolution, role and positioning of the leading players. This document also proposes a precise view of the organization of the different domestic markets in 2000. (author)
Matalová, Eva; Dubská, Lenka; Míšek, Ivan
Roč. 72, č. 7 (2003), s. 18-19 ISSN 0001-7213. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists/24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : apoptosis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry
Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven
For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.
Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.
This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.
parties had an interest in controlling access and copying technologies. Examples include: player piano rolls early in the 20th century  and video tape...0001, Task BC-5-2283, “ Architecture , Design of Services for Air Force Wide Distributed Systems,” for USAF HQ USAF SAF/CIO A6. The views, opinions...an approach that relies on high-assurance architectures and the protection elements they provide through PKI. The distribution of private keys is a
Chrysomali, E; Lozada-Nur, F; Dekker, N P; Papanicolaou, S I; Regezi, J A
Cell death was evaluated in oral erythema multiforme to test the hypothesis that apoptosis may be a mechanism by which keratinocytes die in this condition. Ten erythema multiforme and five control oral mucosa biopsy specimens were evaluated in immunohistochemically stained sections for apoptosis-regulating proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax, p53, Fas, and Fas-ligand. Apoptotic keratinocytes, determined by a detection method for DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) and by conventional morphologic criteria were counted per high power field. Keratinocyte staining for Bcl-2 protein was comparable in erythema multiforme and controls. Bcl-x expression was reduced in five erythema multiforme cases. Staining for Bax protein differed in six erythema multiforme cases and showed variable intensity in layers under the parakeratin. Only slight differences in staining patterns of Fas and Fas-ligand proteins were noted between erythema multiforme and controls. The number of apoptotic keratinocytes evaluated by morphologic examination was significantly higher in erythema multiforme (mean per high power field, 0.90 +/- 0.2; controls, 0.06 +/- 0.04; p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test) and was limited in significance by the TUNEL method (erythema multiforme, 0.43 +/- 0.1; controls, 0.02 +/- 0.02). Overexpression of p53 protein was seen in basal keratinocytes in five erythema multiforme specimens (mean, 17.5 +/- 4.03 per high power field; controls 1.2 +/- 0.3). There is evidence that cell death in erythema multiforme is at least in part due to apoptosis. The apoptotic mechanism may be related to an altered expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins. Although measurable alterations in the phenotypic expression of Fas and Fas-ligand proteins were not apparent, activation of Fas/Fas-ligand system could still be involved in the induction of apoptosis in erythema multiforme.
Full Text Available The exact mechanisms and enzymes involved in caries progression are largely unclear. Apoptosis plays a key role in dentin remodelling related to damage repair; however, it is unclear whether apoptosis in decayed teeth is activated through the extrinsic or the intrinsic pathway. This ex vivo immunohistochemical study explored the localization of TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax, the main proteins involved in apoptosis, in teeth with advanced caries. To evaluate TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax immunoexpressions twelve permanent carious premolars were embedded in paraffin and processed for immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TRAIL and DR5 were overexpressed in dentin and in pulp vessels and mononuclear cells; strong Bax immunostaining was detected in dilated dentinal tubules close to the lesion, and Bcl-2 staining was weak in some dentin areas under the cavity or altogether absent. These findings suggest that both apoptosis pathways are activated in dental caries. Further studies are required to gain insights into its biomolecular mechanisms.
Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Muqbil, Irfana; Lowe, Leroy; Yedjou, Clement; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Siegelin, Markus David; Fimognari, Carmela; Kumar, Nagi B.; Dou, Q. Ping; Yang, Huanjie; Samadi, Abbas K.; Russo, Gian Luigi; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Ray, Swapan K.; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Morre, James D.; Coley, Helen M.; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S. Salman; Helferich, William G.; Yang, Xujuan; Boosani, Chandra S.; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Keith, W. Nicol; Bilsland, Alan; Halicka, Dorota; Nowsheen, Somaira; Azmi, Asfar S.
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is natural way of removing aged cells from the body. Most of the anti-cancer therapies trigger apoptosis induction and related cell death networks to eliminate malignant cells. However, in cancer, de-regulated apoptotic signaling, particularly the activation of an anti-apoptotic systems, allows cancer cells to escape this program leading to uncontrolled proliferation resulting in tumor survival, therapeutic resistance and recurrence of cancer. This resistance is a complicated phenomenon that emanates from the interactions of various molecules and signaling pathways. In this comprehensive review we discuss the various factors contributing to apoptosis resistance in cancers. The key resistance targets that are discussed include (1) Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins; (2) autophagy processes; (3) necrosis and necroptosis; (4) heat shock protein signaling; (5) the proteasome pathway; (6) epigenetic mechanisms; and (7) aberrant nuclear export signaling. The shortcomings of current therapeutic modalities are highlighted and a broad spectrum strategy using approaches including (a) gossypol; (b) epigallocatechin-3-gallate; (c) UMI-77 (d) triptolide and (e) selinexor that can be used to overcome cell death resistance is presented. This review provides a roadmap for the design of successful anti-cancer strategies that overcome resistance to apoptosis for better therapeutic outcome in patients with cancer. PMID:25936818
Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....
Biernat, Ryszard; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Trzaskoma, Lukasz; Czaprowski, Dariusz
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of rehabilitation protocol applied during competitive period for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A total of 28 male volleyball players were divided into two groups. Fifteen from experimental group (E) and 13 from control group (C) fulfilled the same tests 3 times: before the training program started (first measurement), after 12 weeks (second measurement) and after 24 weeks (third measurement). The above-mentioned protocol included the following: USG imagining with color Doppler function, clinical testing, pain intensity evaluation with VISA-P questionnaire, leg muscle strength and power and jumping ability measurements. The key element of the rehabilitation program was eccentric squat on decline board with additional unstable surface. The essential factor of the protocol was a set of preventive functional exercises, with focus on eccentric exercises of hamstrings. Patellar tendinopathy was observed in 18% of the tested young volleyball players. Implementation of the presented rehabilitation protocol with eccentric squat on decline board applied during sports season lowered the pain level of the young volleyball players. Presented rehabilitation protocol applied without interrupting the competitive period among young volleyball players together with functional exercises could be an effective method for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy.
Coutinho, Diogo; Santos, Sara; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime
Understanding how youth football players base their game interactions may constitute a solid criterion for fine-tuning the training process and, ultimately, to achieve better individual and team performances during competition. The present study aims to explore how passing networks and positioning variables can be linked to the match outcome in youth elite association football. The participants included 44 male elite players from under-15 and under-17 age groups. A passing network approach within positioning-derived variables was computed to identify the contributions of individual players for the overall team behaviour outcome during a simulated match. Results suggested that lower team passing dependency for a given player (expressed by lower betweenness network centrality scores) and high intra-team well-connected passing relations (expressed by higher closeness network centrality scores) were related to better outcomes. The correlation between the dyads’ positioning regularity and the passing density showed a most likely higher correlation in under-15 (moderate effect), indicating a possible more dependence of the ball position rather than in the under-17 teams (small/unclear effects). Overall, this study emphasizes the potential of coupling notational analyses with spatial-temporal relations to produce a more functional and holistic understanding of teams’ sports performance. Also, the social network analysis allowed to reveal novel key determinants of collective performance. PMID:28141823
Gonçalves, Bruno; Coutinho, Diogo; Santos, Sara; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime
Understanding how youth football players base their game interactions may constitute a solid criterion for fine-tuning the training process and, ultimately, to achieve better individual and team performances during competition. The present study aims to explore how passing networks and positioning variables can be linked to the match outcome in youth elite association football. The participants included 44 male elite players from under-15 and under-17 age groups. A passing network approach within positioning-derived variables was computed to identify the contributions of individual players for the overall team behaviour outcome during a simulated match. Results suggested that lower team passing dependency for a given player (expressed by lower betweenness network centrality scores) and high intra-team well-connected passing relations (expressed by higher closeness network centrality scores) were related to better outcomes. The correlation between the dyads' positioning regularity and the passing density showed a most likely higher correlation in under-15 (moderate effect), indicating a possible more dependence of the ball position rather than in the under-17 teams (small/unclear effects). Overall, this study emphasizes the potential of coupling notational analyses with spatial-temporal relations to produce a more functional and holistic understanding of teams' sports performance. Also, the social network analysis allowed to reveal novel key determinants of collective performance.
Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches. Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category
Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra
Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches.Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category
Ana Concepci\\u00F3n Jim\\u00E9nez S\\u00E1nchez
Full Text Available Decision-making play a very important role in basketball. While the game is taking place, players are constantly choosing what to do. In order to carry out this research work, two questions have been formulated: 1 how do high level female basketball players make a decision while they are competing? 2 which key components do they use to make the best decisions? The twelve players who make up the Spanish female basketball team have taken part in this project. They all participated in the 2008 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament, which took place in Madrid. This tournament allowed them to qualify and take part in the 2008 Olympic Games, where they finished in fifth place. A questionnaire and an interview have been used to make this research possible. The matches of the 2008 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament have also been analyzed. Those aspects in terms of the team's performance in 1x1 and 2x2 attack situations, and more specifically in pick actions, have been recorded and analyzed. In order to include these data, a system of specific categories and variables has been established. The results show that players are expert on making decisions during the competition. In order to come to this conclusion, their opinions, style of decision-making, as well as the way they move in 1x1 and 2x2 situations, were very useful. This research has also confirmed that decisions made by playmakers, forwards and centers are different.
Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O
The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.
von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K
Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, P<.01). Diastolic untwisting rate (UTWR) was higher in players (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both P<.05). Untwisting/twisting ratio (-1.48±0.05 vs -1.11±0.08; P<.001) and untwisting performance (=UTR/TW; -9.25±0.34 vs -7.38±0.40 s -1 , P<.01) were increased in players. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko
With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.
Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included
Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay
This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has im...
Locks and Keys Service
The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group
Lin, Shaoli; Zhang, Yan-Jin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases that have been a consistent problem for human health, leading to more than one million deaths every year worldwide. A large proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases across the world are closely associated with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and is frequently altered in cancer development. HBV infection interferes with the apoptosis signaling to promote HCC progression and viral proliferation. The HBV-mediated alteration of apoptosis is achieved via interference with cellular signaling pathways and regulation of epigenetics. HBV X protein (HBX) plays a major role in the interference of apoptosis. There are conflicting reports on the HBV interference of apoptosis with the majority showing inhibition of and the rest reporting induction of apoptosis. In this review, we described recent studies on the mechanisms of the HBV interference with the apoptosis signaling during the virus infection and provided perspective.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases that have been a consistent problem for human health, leading to more than one million deaths every year worldwide. A large proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases across the world are closely associated with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and is frequently altered in cancer development. HBV infection interferes with the apoptosis signaling to promote HCC progression and viral proliferation. The HBV-mediated alteration of apoptosis is achieved via interference with cellular signaling pathways and regulation of epigenetics. HBV X protein (HBX) plays a major role in the interference of apoptosis. There are conflicting reports on the HBV interference of apoptosis with the majority showing inhibition of and the rest reporting induction of apoptosis. In this review, we described recent studies on the mechanisms of the HBV interference with the apoptosis signaling during the virus infection and provided perspective. PMID:28820498
Magnussen, Rikke; Misfeldt, Morten
are used for formal education. In this paper we argue that player transformation of educational games can, however, be the basis of exciting and unconventional learning of valuable things, such as how to transform information technology to better accommodate social interaction.......Children's great interest in multiplayer games has led to attempts to design educational multiplayer games. In this study, we have studied a test of an educational multiplayer game designed for mathematics education for children aged nine to twelve. In our observations, it became clear that pupils...... transformed the game to accommodate social interaction. With these transformed ways of playing the game, they managed to get to the top of the high score list while avoiding the educational parts of the game. Players transforming educational games to escape learning elements can be a problem when these games...
Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.
Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen
The technological development within personal stereo systems, such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High......-level low-distortion music is produced by minimal devices which can play for long periods. In this paper, the existing literature on effects of personal stereo systems is reviewed, incl. studies of exposure levels, and effects on hearing. Generally, it is found that the levels being used are of concern......, which in one study is demonstrated to relate to the specific use in situations with high levels of background noise. Another study demonstrates that the effect of using personal stereo is comparable to that of being exposed to noise in industry. The results are discussed in view of the measurement...
Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen
The technological development within personal stereo systems,such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High......-level low-distortion music is produced by minimal devices which can play for long periods. In this paper, the existing literature on effects of personal stereo systems is reviewed, incl. studies of exposure levels, and effects on hearing. Generally, it is found that the levels being used are of concern......, which in one study is demonstrated to relate to the specific use in situations with high levels of background noise. Another study demonstrates that the effect of using personal stereo is comparable to that of being exposed to noise in industry. The results are discussed in view of the measurement...
Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja
In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.
Xia, Jue; Shim, Simon; Wang, Ying; Lee, Yen-Jen
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) is a recommendation developed by the Synchronized Multimedia Working Group in the World Wide Web Consortium. SMIL is a simple and standard way to specify a timeline based synchronized multimedia presentation over the Internet. It is a declarative authoring language based on a Extensible Markup Language to define language-specific data types and tags. A SMIL player schedules presentation in a SMIL file, and retrieves media objects on the Web using URLs described in the field. The SMIL file is a plain text file and can be edited using a simple text editor. We present the approaches of implementing a SMIL player within the desktop system constraints. The reference implementation is a Java applet, which follows a platform-neutral programming paradigm and makes use of Java Media Framework. The applet can run in any main stream web browser.
OFarrell, Zachary L.
Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor
Optical disc players such as CD-players have problems playing certain discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The problem is to be found in the servo controller which positions the optical pick-up, such that the laser beam is focused on the information track. A scheme handling...... this problem, called feature based control, has been presented in an other publications of the first author. This scheme is based on an assumption that the surface faults do not change from encounter to encounter. This assumption is unfortunately not entirely true. This paper proposes an improvement...... of the feature based control scheme, such that a prediction step is included. The proposed scheme is compared with the feature based control scheme, in the perspective of handling surface faults, by simulations. These simulations show the improvements given by the proposed algorithm....
Rudy, Anita; López-Antón, Nancy; Dirsch, Verena M; Vollmar, Angelika M
The cephalostatins, bis-steroidal natural products from the marine tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, were isolated by Dr. G. R. Pettit and his group. These compounds show a unique cytotoxicity profile in the in vitro screen of the National Cancer Institute, suggesting a novel mechanism of action. Indeed, cephalostatin 1 ( 1) is an extremely powerful agent that acts via an unusual apoptosis pathway. It induces selective Smac/DIABLO, but no cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Nevertheless, caspase-9 is required for apoptosis induction. Interestingly, caspase-9 is activated without the participation of the apoptosome, leading to the question of its mechanism of activation. We found that endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated caspase-4 contributes to nonclassical cephalostatin-mediated caspase-9 activation, additionally pointing out the unusual pathway used by this substance. Cephalostatin 1 ( 1), therefore, provides a very good tool to discover novel apoptotic pathways, which might be important in the understanding and treatment of chemo-resistant cancer.
Schiff, Melissa A
A cross-sectional survey of injuries among female youth soccer players found 44.6% (95% confidence interval 34.9%-54.8%) had ever been injured. The injury incidence rate for the current season was 2.2/1000 soccer exposure hours (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Future studies should evaluate modifiable risk factors in youth to identify injury prevention strategies.
Janu?rio, Nuno; Rosado, Ant?nio; Mesquita, Isabel; Gallego, Jos?; Aguilar-Parra, Jos? M.
Abstract This study analyzed soccer players? retention of coaches? feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes? personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level), the quantity of information included in coach?s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy), athletes? perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes? motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted...
Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz
To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. 14 of the 55 players evaluated were pitchers, and 20 reported pain during the pitching motion. The mean values for lateral and medial rotation and range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder were, respectively, 110 °, 61 ° and 171 °, with a statistically significant difference in relation to the non-dominant limb. Pitchers had greater gains in lateral rotation and deficits in medial rotation than did non-pitchers. Pain presented a statistically significant correlation with diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of "shoulder at risk". Statistically significant differences in dominant shoulder mobility were found, with increased lateral rotation, diminished medial rotation and smaller ROM, in relation to the contralateral limb. There was a statistically significant relationship between the pitcher's position and greater gain in lateral rotation and diminished medial rotation. There were statistically significant correlations between pain and diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of "shoulder at risk". There was a statistical tendency suggesting that players with diminished medial rotation of the dominant shoulder presented a relationship with pain.
Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko
A set of 18 test for assessing anthropometric characteristics and 12 tests for assessing motor abilities was used on a sample of 183 young female volleyball players (average age of 13.11 +/- 1.07 years). The main goal of this research was to determine the latent structure of biomotor status, as well as relations of that status to situational efficiency in female volleyball players. Situational efficiency of young volleyball players was assessed on a five-point Likert scale, in relation to each individual player's contribution to the performance of her team, and with regard to the result of that team achieved in the competition. By factor analysis, 3 anthropometric ("endo-mesomorphy", "longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton" and "transverse dimensionality of the skeleton") and 4 motor factors ("explosive power of legs and agility", "precision", "explosive power of arms and flexibility" and "balance") were obtained. Significant impact of morphological-motor factors on situational efficiency of young female volleyball players was obtained by regression analysis. Set of predictor variables accounts for 40% of the total variance of the system. On a univariate level, all extracted factors, except precision and balance, had a significant impact on situational efficiency. Factors named "longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton" and "explosive power of legs and agility" had the greatest partial contribution in explaining the criteria. Obtained results confirmed previous findings about the importance of individual dimensions of biomotor status for efficiency in volleyball.
miethylselenol generated in cell-culture medium by described previously [12,15]. All cell-culture workwas performed without antibiotics . L-methionine-cL-deamino...Thompson HJ. Effect of 16. Datta SR, Brunet A, Greenberg ME. Cellular survival: A play an aqueous extract of selenium enriched garlic on in vitro in three... garlic on in vitro markers and relationship to caspase-mediated apoptosis execution. The in vivo efficacy in cancer prevention. Carcinogenesis (Lond.), 17
Mlynarek, Ryan A; Coleman, Struan H
To discuss the clinical significance of the most common hip and groin injuries in baseball players, as well as an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. (a) Limitations in throwing velocity, pitch control, and bat swing speed may be secondary to decreased mobility and strength within the proximal kinetic chain, which must harness power from the lower extremities and core. (b) Approximately 5.5% of all baseball injuries per year involve the hip/groin and may lead to a significant amount of time spent on the disabled list. Injuries involving the hip and groin are relatively common in baseball players. Our knowledge of the mechanics of overhead throwing continues to evolve, as does our understanding of the contribution of power from the lower extremities and core. It is paramount that the team physician be able to accurately diagnose and treat injuries involving the hip/groin, as they may lead to significant disability and inability to return to elite levels of play. This review focuses on hip- and groin-related injuries in the baseball player, including femoroacetabular impingement, core muscle injury, and osteitis pubis.
Full Text Available Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of reovirus encephalitis. Reovirus outer-capsid protein mu1, which functions to penetrate host cell membranes during viral entry, is the primary regulator of apoptosis following reovirus infection. Ectopic expression of full-length and truncated forms of mu1 indicates that the mu1 phi domain is sufficient to elicit a cell death response. To evaluate the contribution of the mu1 phi domain to the induction of apoptosis following reovirus infection, phi mutant viruses were generated by reverse genetics and analyzed for the capacity to penetrate cell membranes and elicit apoptosis. We found that mutations in phi diminish reovirus membrane penetration efficiency by preventing conformational changes that lead to generation of key reovirus entry intermediates. Independent of effects on membrane penetration, amino acid substitutions in phi affect the apoptotic potential of reovirus, suggesting that phi initiates apoptosis subsequent to cytosolic delivery. In comparison to wild-type virus, apoptosis-defective phi mutant viruses display diminished neurovirulence following intracranial inoculation of newborn mice. These results indicate that the phi domain of mu1 plays an important regulatory role in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease.
Yang, Qiaohong; Gupta, Romi
UV is one of the major causes of DNA damage induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells adopt alternative mechanisms to evade UV-induced apoptosis. To identify factors that protect cancer cells from UV-induced apoptosis, we performed a genome wide short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, which identified Zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as a key regulator of UV-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UV irradiation transcriptionally upregulates ZNF598 expression. Additionally, ZNF598 knockdown in cancer cells inhibited UV-induced apoptosis. In our study, we observe that ELK1 mRNA level as well as phosphorylated ELK1 levels was up regulated upon UV irradiation, which was necessary for UV irradiation induced upregulation of ZNF598. Cells expressing ELK1 shRNA were also resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, and phenocopy ZNF598 knockdown. Upon further investigation, we found that ZNF598 knockdown inhibits UV-induced apoptotic gene expression, which matches with decrease in percentage of annexin V positive cell. Similarly, ectopic expression of ZNF598 promoted apoptotic gene expression and also increased annexin V positive cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZNF598 is a UV irradiation regulated gene and its loss results in resistance to UV-induced apoptosis.
Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng
This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.
Jarrah, Andrew A; Schwarskopf, Martina; Wang, Edward R; LaRocca, Thomas; Dhume, Ashwini; Zhang, Shihong; Hadri, Lahouria; Hajjar, Roger J; Schecter, Alison D; Tarzami, Sima T
Chemokines are small secreted proteins with chemoattractant properties that play a key role in inflammation. One such chemokine, Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, are expressed and functional in cardiac myocytes. SDF-1 both stimulates and enhances the cellular signal which attracts potentially beneficial stem cells for tissue repair within the ischemic heart. Paradoxically however, this chemokine is known to act in concert with the inflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response which contributes to cellular injury through the recruitment of inflammatory cells during ischemia. In the present study, we have demonstrated that SDF-1 has dose dependent effects on freshly isolated cardiomyocytes. Using Tunnel and caspase 3-activation assays, we have demonstrated that the treatment of isolated adult rat cardiac myocyte with SDF-1 at higher concentrations (pathological concentrations) induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ELISA data demonstrated that the treatment of isolated adult rat cardiac myocyte with SDF-1 at higher concentrations upregulated TNF-α protein expression which directly correlated with subsequent apoptosis. There was a significant reduction in SDF-1 mediated apoptosis when TNF-α expression was neutralized which suggests that SDF-1 mediated apoptosis is TNF-α-dependent. The fact that certain stimuli are capable of driving cardiomyocytes into apoptosis indicates that these cells are susceptible to clinically relevant apoptotic triggers. Our findings suggest that the elevated SDF-1 levels seen in a variety of clinical conditions, including ischemic myocardial infarction, may either directly or indirectly contribute to cardiac cell death via a TNF-α mediated pathway. This highlights the importance of this receptor/ligand in regulating the cardiomyocyte response to stress conditions.
Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Hu, Jin-Ju; Liu, Rui-Zhi
Abstract This study constructed a technique effectiveness evaluation formula for table tennis players based on the relationship between the scoring rate and usage rate of techniques and established evaluation criteria through the examination of 224 matches of the world's top 35 players. It also built a competition performance formula with the score difference theory for the exploration of the correlation between player technique effectiveness and competition performance. The results showed the three indices - the technique effectiveness of the first and third strokes (TE₁,₃), the second and fourth strokes (TE₂,₄) and the after fourth strokes (TE>₄) - could help better evaluate the technique effectiveness of elite players. The comparative analysis of Chinese elite table tennis players and players from other countries and regions revealed that Chinese players as a whole were 'excellent' in all the examined techniques except in the male's 'first and third strokes'; while players from other countries and regions were overall 'general'. The case analysis of two of the world's top players further indicated that correlation analysis of technique effectiveness and competition performance could help identify the technique indices highly correlated with player competition performance.
Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Soylu, Abdullah Ruhi
The aims of the present study were to compare the consistency in the lower limb acceleration patterns during inside and instep kicks performed by players with different skill levels, and to investigate the correlation between subjective rating scores for skill level relative to their kicking performance and knee acceleration repeatability. Thirteen club-level male soccer players of ages between 15-16 years participated in this study. Skill levels of individual players were quantified previously by evaluating shooting performance as a numerical value ranging from 1 to 10. Further evaluations were held through tri-axial acceleration data recorded at proximal tibial tuberosity beneath each patella on the players' knees, in a procedure in which players were asked to complete four randomly ordered shooting trials of inside and instep kicks with 2-minute resting intervals. Hence, the mainstream data used in consistency calculations are in the form 4 by 1200 matrices (acceleration vs. time) per subject. In order to evaluate the consistency of acceleration data, the mean of the standard deviations (mSD) were calculated, and the associated Pearson-r correlation coefficients were incorporated to obtain mSD vs. skill correlations. As a result, repeatability was found to increase with skill level at z-axis acceleration for instep kicks only. However, it is possible to find the most appropriate orientation (for the two kicks) for meaningful correlations using vector rotations on the 3 orthogonal acceleration data, and this study shows that, after such suitable vector rotations, positive repeatability results could also be acquired for the inside kicks. Key pointsThe repeatability of the acceleration waveforms are well correlated with the skill level of the subjects.Accelerometry might be used as an objective and cost effective assessment that allows interpreting consistency of the action.
Full Text Available Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA, and (ii describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230. The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.
Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling i del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas
Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams. PMID:26171606
Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L
Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.
Ramji, Dipak P.; Davies, Thomas S.
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the arteries, is responsible for most deaths in westernized societies with numbers increasing at a marked rate in developing countries. The disease is initiated by the activation of the endothelium by various risk factors leading to chemokine-mediated recruitment of immune cells. The uptake of modified lipoproteins by macrophages along with defective cholesterol efflux gives rise to foam cells associated with the fatty streak in the early phase of the disease. As the disease progresses, complex fibrotic plaques are produced as a result of lysis of foam cells, migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and continued inflammatory response. Such plaques are stabilized by the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells and destabilized by matrix metalloproteinase from macrophages. Rupture of unstable plaques and subsequent thrombosis leads to clinical complications such as myocardial infarction. Cytokines are involved in all stages of atherosclerosis and have a profound influence on the pathogenesis of this disease. This review will describe our current understanding of the roles of different cytokines in atherosclerosis together with therapeutic approaches aimed at manipulating their actions. PMID:26005197
Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A; Robling, Alexander G
The development and maintenance of skeletal muscle and bone mass is critical for movement, health and issues associated with the quality of life. Skeletal muscle and bone mass are regulated by a variety of factors that include changes in mechanical loading. Moreover, bone mass is, in large part, regulated by muscle-derived mechanical forces and thus by changes in muscle mass/strength. A thorough understanding of the cellular mechanism(s) responsible for mechanotransduction in bone and skeletal muscle is essential for the development of effective exercise and pharmaceutical strategies aimed at increasing, and/or preventing the loss of, mass in these tissues. Thus, in this review we will attempt to summarize the current evidence for the major molecular mechanisms involved in mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle and bone. By examining the differences and similarities in mechanotransduction between these two tissues, it is hoped that this review will stimulate new insights and ideas for future research and promote collaboration between bone and muscle biologists.(1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benton, Timothy; Wilkin, Jerzy; Bengtsson, Jan; Settele, Josef; Kearney, John; Hartel, Tibor; Nurzynska, Iwona; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Antonio
La Universidad de Córdoba se ha sumado, a través de su departamento de Agronomía, a la Declaración de Varsovia sobre el papel de Europa como garante de la seguridad alimentaria mundial y sostenible. La rúbrica del profesor Juan Antonio Rodríguez Díaz se sumó a la de un grupo de destacados académicos, de los ámbitos de la agricultura, economía, sociología, medio ambiente, ecología, conservación, consumo de agua y alimentos, de toda Europa, reunidos en la Academia de Ciencias de Polonia el pasa...
van der Meijde, M.; Fadel, I.; Paulssen, H.
The 3D crustal and upper mantle structure of Botswana is a major gap in our knowledge about the tectonic evolution of Africa. We will present a new model for crust and upper mantle structure. Our model is based on data from the NARS Botswana and AfricaArray networks, broadband temporary networks in southern Africa (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia). The NARS-Botswana seismic network was established to provide broadband recordings in Botswana, covering one of the least studied regions in the world. It is an area that is for a large part covered by the Kalahari sands but also covers the southwestern most branch of the African Rift under the Okavango delta. The goal is to understand how the rifting process and cratonic provinces influence crustal thickness and couple to the underlying mantle. Crust and upper mantle structure, down to the bottom of the mantle transition zone, will be based on receiver function analysis. We observe crustal thicknesses between 35 and 46 km, strongly linked to basins and cratons in the region. The central Kalahari part, which has been previously unstudied, showed some anomalous structure, possibly suggesting melt in the lower crust. The deeper mantle structure shows a discontinuity between 100-150 km depth for a large number of the stations. The mantle transition zone varies in thickness and sharpness of the bounding discontinuities suggesting active dynamical processes underneath Botswana.
Basaranoglu, Metin; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Sentürk, Hakan
We aimed to investigate whether increased consumption of fructose is linked to the increased prevalence of fatty liver. The prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is 3% and 20% in nonobese and obese subjects, respectively. Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory condition and obesity-related cytokines such as interleukin-6, adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α may play important roles in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the prevalence of NASH associated with both cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was reported to be high among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without obesity. Our research group previously showed that consumption of fructose is associated with adverse alterations of plasma lipid profiles and metabolic changes in mice, the American Lifestyle-Induced Obesity Syndrome model, which included consumption of a high-fructose corn syrup in amounts relevant to that consumed by some Americans. The observation reinforces the concerns about the role of fructose in the obesity epidemic. Increased availability of fructose (e.g., high-fructose corn syrup) increases not only abnormal glucose flux but also fructose metabolism in the hepatocyte. Thus, the anatomic position of the liver places it in a strategic buffering position for absorbed carbohydrates and amino acids. Fructose was previously accepted as a beneficial dietary component because it does not stimulate insulin secretion. However, since insulin signaling plays an important role in central mechanisms of NAFLD, this property of fructose may be undesirable. Fructose has a selective hepatic metabolism, and provokes a hepatic stress response involving activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and subsequent reduced hepatic insulin signaling. As high fat diet alone produces obesity, insulin resistance, and some degree of fatty liver with minimal inflammation and no fibrosis, the fast food diet which includes fructose and fats produces a gene expression signature of increased hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipoapoptosis. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis) is increased in patients with NAFLD. Stable-isotope studies showed that increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in patients with NAFLD contributed to fat accumulation in the liver and the development of NAFLD. Specifically, DNL was responsible for 26% of accumulated hepatic triglycerides and 15%-23% of secreted very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides in patients with NAFLD compared to an estimated less than 5% DNL in healthy subjects and 10% DNL in obese people with hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, understanding the underlying causes of NAFLD forms the basis for rational preventive and treatment strategies of this major form of chronic liver disease.
Rawat, Swati; Stemmler, Timothy L
Iron-sulfur clusters are multifaceted iron-containing cofactors coordinated and utilized by numerous proteins in nearly all biological systems. Fe-S-cluster-containing proteins help direct pathways essential for cell viability and participate in biological applications ranging from nucleotide biosynthesis and stability, protein translation, enzyme catalysis, and mitochondrial metabolism. Fe-S-containing proteins function by utilizing the unique electronic and chemical properties inherent in the Fe containing cofactor. Fe-S clusters are constructed of inorganic iron and sulfide arranged in a distinct caged structural makeup ranging from [Fe(2) -S(2) ], [Fe(3) -S(4) ], [Fe(4) -S(4) ], up to [Fe(8) -S(8) ] clusters. In eukaryotes, cluster activity is controlled in part at the assembly level and the major pathway for cluster production exists within the mitochondria. Recent insight into the pathway of mitochondrial cluster assembly has come from new in vivo and in vitro reports that provided direct insight into how all protein partners within the assembly pathway interact. However, we are only just beginning to understand the role of each protein within this complex pageant that is mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly. In this report we present results, using the yeast model for mitochondrial assembly, to describe the molecular details of how important proteins in the pathway coordinate for cluster assembly. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Li, Tong; Oloyede, Adekunle; Gu, Y. T.
Filopodial protrusion initiates cell migration, which decides the fate of cells in biological environments. In order to understand the structural stability of ultra-slender filopodial protrusion, we have developed an explicit modeling strategy that can study both static and dynamic characteristics of microfilament bundles. Our study reveals that the stability of filopodial protrusions is dependent on the density of F-actin crosslinkers. This cross-linkage strategy is a requirement for the optimization of cell structures, resulting in the provision and maintenance of adequate bending stiffness and buckling resistance while mediating the vibration. This cross-linkage strategy explains the mechanical stability of filopodial protrusion and helps understand the mechanisms of mechanically induced cellular activities.
A review team established by the Department of Energy conducted an assessment of the US biomass power industry. The review team visited with more than 50 organizations representing all sectors of the biomass power industry including utilities, independent power producers, component manufacturers, engineering and construction contractors, agricultural organizations, industrial users, and regulatory organizations. DOE solicited industry input for the development of the Biomass Power Division`s Five Year Plan. DOE believed there was a critical need to obtain industry`s insight and working knowledge to develop the near- and long-term plans of the program. At the heart of this objective was the desire to identify near-term initiatives that the program could pursue to help accelerate the further development of biomass power projects.
SITI ZUBAIDAH HASHIM; INTAN BAYANI ZAKARIA; NADIRA AHZAHAR; MOHD FADZIL YASIN; ABDUL HAKIM AZIZ
A Green Building Index (GBI) is a pioneer in a building grading system to promote sustainability and increase awareness upon environmental issue in Malaysia. The GBI was first established by Malaysia Architect Association (PAM) and Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia (ACEM) in February 2009. As a green building contribution on sustainable development and energy efficiency, government has introduced incentives to parties who involve in obtaining Green Building Index Certificate to inc...
Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia
The main function of the immune system is to protect the host against pathogens. However, unlike the systemic immune system, the gut immune system does not eliminate, but instead nourishes complex bacterial communities and establishes advanced symbiotic relationships. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype in mammals, produced mainly in the gut. The primary function of IgA is to maintain homeostasis at mucosal surfaces, and studies in mice have demonstrated that IgA diversification has an essential role in the regulation of gut microbiota. Dynamic diversification and constant adaptation of IgA responses to local microbiota require expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase by B cells and control from T follicular helper and Foxp3(+) T cells in germinal centers (GCs). We discuss the finely tuned regulatory mechanisms for IgA synthesis in GCs of Peyer's patches and emphasize the roles of CD4(+) T cells for IgA selection and the maintenance of appropriate gut microbial communities required for immune homeostasis.
This report reviews the status of the US biomass power industry. The topics of the report include current fuels and the problems associated with procuring, transporting, preparing and burning them, competition from natural gas projects because of the current depressed natural gas prices, need for incentives for biomass fueled projects, economics, market potential and expansion of US firms overseas
Menoni, Hervé; Di Mascio, Paolo; Cadet, Jean; Dimitrov, Stefan; Angelov, Dimitar
Genomic DNA is prone to a large number of insults by a myriad of endogenous and exogenous agents. The base excision repair (BER) is the major mechanism used by cells for the removal of various DNA lesions spontaneously or environmentally induced and the maintenance of genome integrity. The presence of persistent DNA damage is not compatible with life, since abrogation of BER leads to early embryonic lethality in mice. There are several lines of evidences showing existence of a link between deficient BER, cancer proneness and ageing, thus illustrating the importance of this DNA repair pathway in human health. Although the enzymology of BER mechanisms has been largely elucidated using chemically defined DNA damage substrates and purified proteins, the complex interplay of BER with another vital process like transcription or when DNA is in its natural state (i.e. wrapped in nucleosome and assembled in chromatin fiber is largely unexplored. Cells use chromatin remodeling factors to overcome the general repression associated with the nucleosomal organization. It is broadly accepted that energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors disrupt histones-DNA interactions at the expense of ATP hydrolysis to favor transcription as well as DNA repair. Importantly, unlike transcription, BER is not part of a regulated developmental process but represents a maintenance system that should be efficient anytime and anywhere in the genome. In this review we will discuss how BER can deal with chromatin organization to maintain genetic information. Emphasis will be placed on the following challenging question: how BER is initiated within chromatin? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Espín-Palazón, Raquel; Traver, David
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family is a crucial transcription factor group known mainly for its role in the regulation of the immune system and its response to infection in vertebrates. The signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation and translocation to the nucleus to exert its function as a transcription factor is well conserved among Kingdom Animalia, which has helped to elucidate other roles that NF-κB plays in other biological contexts such as developmental biology. The manipulation of NF-κB members in a diverse range of animal models results in severe developmental defects during embryogenesis, very often leading to embryonic lethality. Defects include dorsal-ventral patterning and limb, liver, skin, lung, neural, notochord, muscle, skeletal, and hematopoietic defects. Here, we recapitulate the research that has been done to address the role that NF-κB plays during embryonic development, in particular to emphasize its recently discovered role in the specification of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the foundation of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suvi E. Heinonen
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong, incapacitating metabolic disease associated with chronic macrovascular complications (coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease and microvascular disorders leading to damage of the kidneys (nephropathy and eyes (retinopathy. Based on the current trends, the rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide will lead to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, novel means to prevent and treat these complications are needed. Under the auspices of the IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative, the SUMMIT (SUrrogate markers for Micro- and Macrovascular hard end points for Innovative diabetes Tools consortium is working on the development of novel animal models that better replicate vascular complications of diabetes and on the characterization of the available models. In the past years, with the high level of genomic information available and more advanced molecular tools, a very large number of models has been created. Selecting the right model for a specific study is not a trivial task and will have an impact on the study results and their interpretation. This review gathers information on the available experimental animal models of diabetic macrovascular complications and evaluates their pros and cons for research purposes as well as for drug development.
Barriga, Elias H; Mayor, Roberto
Cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, adult tissue remodeling, wound healing, and cancer cell migration. Cells can migrate as individuals or groups. When cells migrate in groups, cell-cell interactions are crucial in order to promote the coordinated behavior, essential for collective migration. Interestingly, recent evidence has shown that cell-cell interactions are also important for establishing and maintaining the directionality of these migratory events. We focus on neural crest cells, as they possess extraordinary migratory capabilities that allow them to migrate and colonize tissues all over the embryo. Neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition at the same time than perform directional collective migration. Cell-cell adhesion has been shown to be an important source of planar cell polarity and cell coordination during collective movement. We also review molecular mechanisms underlying cadherin turnover, showing how the modulation and dynamics of cell-cell adhesions are crucial in order to maintain tissue integrity and collective migration in vivo. We conclude that cell-cell adhesion during embryo development cannot be considered as simple passive resistance to force, but rather participates in signaling events that determine important cell behaviors required for cell migration. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a principal example of diphenic development. Excess feeding of female larvae results in queens (large reproductives. Moderate diet yields workers (small helpers. The signaling pathway that links provisioning to female developmental fate is not understood, yet we reasoned that it could include TOR (target of rapamycin, a nutrient- and energy-sensing kinase that controls organismal growth.Here, the role of Apis mellifera TOR (amTOR in caste determination is examined by rapamycin/FK506 pharmacology and RNA interference (RNAi gene knockdown. We show that in queen-destined larvae, the TOR inhibitor rapamycin induces the development of worker characters that are blocked by the antagonist FK506. Further, queen fate is associated with elevated activity of the Apis mellifera TOR encoding gene, amTOR, and amTOR gene knockdown blocks queen fate and results in individuals with worker morphology.A much-studied insect dimorphism, thereby, can be governed by the TOR pathway. Our results present the first evidence for a role of TOR in diphenic development, and suggest that adoption of this ancestral nutrient-sensing cascade is one evolutionary pathway for morphological caste differentiation in social insects.
Nicola Catherine Reading; Nicola Catherine Reading; Dennis L. Kasper; Dennis L. Kasper
The complexity of microbiota inhabiting the intestine is increasingly apparent. Delicate balance of numerous bacterial species can affect development of the immune system, how susceptible a host is to pathogenic organisms, and the auto-inflammatory state of the host. In the last decade, with the increased use of germ-free mice, gnotobiotic mice, and animal models in which a germ-free animal has been colonized with a foreign microbiota such as humanized mice, it has been possible to deline...
Neasta, Jeremie; Barak, Segev; Hamida, Sami Ben; Ron, Dorit
The mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is a serine and threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, survival, and proliferation. mTORC1 is a master controller of the translation of a subset of mRNAs. In the central nervous system mTORC1 plays a crucial role in mechanisms underlying learning and memory by controlling synaptic protein synthesis. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that the mTORC1 signaling pathway promotes neuroadaptations following exposure to a diverse group of drugs of abuse including stimulants, cannabinoids, opiates, and alcohol. We further describe potential molecular mechanisms by which drug-induced mTORC1 activation may alter brain functions. Finally, we propose that mTORC1 is a focal point shared by drugs of abuse to mediate drug-related behaviors such as reward seeking and excessive drug intake, and offer future directions to decipher the contribution of the kinase to mechanisms underlying addiction. Recent studies suggesting that exposure to diverse classes of drugs of abuse as well as exposure to drug-associated memories lead to mTORC1 kinase activation in the limbic system. In turn, mTORC1 controls the onset and the maintenance of pathological neuroadaptions that underlie several features of drug addiction such as drug seeking and relapse. Therefore, we propose that targeting mTORC1 and its effectors is a promising strategy to treat drug disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR, a master sensor for growth factors and nutrition availability in eukaryotic species, is a specific target protein of rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibits TOR kinase activity via FK506 binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12 in all examined heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, several independent studies have shown that AtFKBP12 is non-functional under aerobic condition, but one study suggests that AtFKBP12 is functional during anaerobic growth. However, the functions of AtFKBP12 have never been examined in parallel under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions so far. To this end, we cloned the FKBP12 gene of humans, yeast, and Arabidopsis, respectively. Transgenic plants were generated, and pharmacological examinations were performed in parallel with Arabidopsis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. ScFKBP12 conferred plants with the strongest sensitivity to rapamycin, followed by HsFKBP12, whereas AtFKBP12 failed to generate rapamycin sensitivity under aerobic condition. Upon submergence, yeast and human FKBP12 can significantly block cotyledon greening while Arabidopsis FKBP12 only retards plant growth in the presence of rapamycin, suggesting that hypoxia stress could partially restore the functions of AtFKBP12 to bridge the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. To further determine if communication between TOR and auxin signaling exists in plants, yeast FKBP12 was introduced into DR5::GUS homozygous plants. The transgenic plants DR5/BP12 were then treated with rapamycin or KU63794 (a new inhibitor of TOR. GUS staining showed that the auxin content of root tips decreased compared to the control. DR5/BP12 plants lost sensitivity to auxin after treatment with rapamycin. Auxin-defective phenotypes, including short primary roots, fewer lateral roots, and loss of gravitropism, occurred in DR5/BP12 plants when seedlings were treated with rapamycin+KU63794. This indicated that the combination of rapamycin and KU63794 can significantly inhibit TOR and auxin signaling in DR5/BP12 plants. These studies demonstrate that TOR is essential for auxin signaling transduction in Arabidopsis.
Full Text Available Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is an oncogenic human retrovirus that has infected 10–15 million people worldwide. After a long latency, 3–5% of infected individuals will develop either a severe malignancy of CD4+ T cells, known as Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL or a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system designated Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM/TSP. The precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. Two viral regulatory proteins, Tax-1 and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ are thought to play a critical role in HTLV-1-associated diseases. Tax-1 is mainly involved in the onset of neoplastic transformation and in elicitation of the host’s inflammatory responses; its expression may be lost during cell clonal proliferation and oncogenesis. Conversely, HBZ remains constantly expressed in all patients with ATL, playing a role in the proliferation and maintenance of leukemic cells. Recent studies have shown that the subcellular distribution of HBZ protein differs in the two pathologies: it is nuclear with a speckled-like pattern in leukemic cells and is cytoplasmic in cells from HAM/TSP patients. Thus, HBZ expression and distribution could be critical in the progression of HTLV-1 infection versus the leukemic state or the inflammatory disease. Here, we reviewed recent findings on the role of HBZ in HTLV-1 related diseases, highlighting the new perspectives open by the possibility of studying the physiologic expression of endogenous protein in primary infected cells.
Pauly, Nicolas; Pucciariello, Chiara; Mandon, Karine; Innocenti, Gilles; Jamet, Alexandre; Baudouin, Emmanuel; Hérouart, Didier; Frendo, Pierre; Puppo, Alain
Several reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are continuously produced in plants as by-products of aerobic metabolism or in response to stresses. Depending on the nature of the ROS and RNS, some of them are highly toxic and rapidly detoxified by various cellular enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Whereas plants have many mechanisms with which to combat increased ROS/RNS levels produced during stress conditions, under other circumstances plants appear to generate ROS/RNS as signalling molecules to control various processes encompassing the whole lifespan of the plant such as normal growth and development stages. This review aims to summarize recent studies highlighting the involvement of ROS/RNS, as well as the low molecular weight thiols, glutathione and homoglutathione, during the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants. This compatible interaction initiated by a molecular dialogue between the plant and bacterial partners, leads to the formation of a novel root organ capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen under nitrogen-limiting conditions. On the one hand, ROS/RNS detection during the symbiotic process highlights the similarity of the early response to infection by pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria, addressing the question as to which mechanism rhizobia use to counteract the plant defence response. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that ROS are needed to establish the symbiosis fully. On the other hand, GSH synthesis appears to be essential for proper development of the root nodules during the symbiotic interaction. Elucidating the mechanisms that control ROS/RNS signalling during symbiosis could therefore contribute in defining a powerful strategy to enhance the efficiency of the symbiotic interaction.
Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Vogt, Carsten
Biodegradation of anthropogenic pollutants in shallow aquifers is an important microbial ecosystem service which is mainly brought about by indigenous anaerobic microorganisms. For the management of contaminated sites, risk assessment and control of natural attenuation, the assessment of in situ biodegradation and the underlying microbial processes is essential. The development of novel molecular methods, "omics" approaches, and high-throughput techniques has revealed new insight into complex microbial communities and their functions in anoxic environmental systems. This review summarizes recent advances in the application of molecular methods to study anaerobic microbial communities in contaminated terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. We focus on current approaches to analyze composition, dynamics, and functional diversity of subsurface communities, to link identity to activity and metabolic function, and to identify the ecophysiological role of not yet cultured microbes and syntrophic consortia. We discuss recent molecular surveys of contaminated sites from an ecological viewpoint regarding degrader ecotypes, abiotic factors shaping anaerobic communities, and biotic interactions underpinning the importance of microbial cooperation for microbial ecosystem services such as contaminant degradation.
Thobe, Megan N.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.
Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies
Chung, Liam; Maestas, David R; Housseau, Franck; Elisseeff, Jennifer H
The compatibility of biomaterials is critical to their structural and biological function in medical applications. The immune system is the first responder to tissue trauma and to a biomaterial implant. The innate immune effector cells, most notably macrophages, play a significant role in the defense against foreign bodies and the formation of a fibrous capsule around synthetic implants. Alternatively, macrophages participate in the pro-regenerative capacity of tissue-derived biological scaffolds. Research is now elucidating the role of the adaptive immune system, and T cells in particular, in directing macrophage response to synthetic and biological materials. Here, we review basic immune cell types and discuss recent research on the role of the immune system in tissue repair and its potential relevance to scaffold design. We will also discuss new emerging immune cell types relevant to biomaterial responses and tissue repair. Finally, prospects for specifically targeting and modulating the immune response to biomaterial scaffolds for enhancing tissue repair and regeneration will be presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Stoppel, Rhea; Meurer, Jörg
Chloroplast biogenesis requires constant adjustment of RNA homeostasis under conditions of on-going developmental and environmental change and its regulation is achieved mainly by post-transcriptional control mechanisms mediated by various nucleus-encoded ribonucleases. More than 180 ribonucleases are annotated in Arabidopsis, but only 17 are predicted to localize to the chloroplast. Although different ribonucleases act at different RNA target sites in vivo, most nucleases that attack RNA are thought to lack intrinsic cleavage specificity and show non-specific activity in vitro. In vivo, specificity is thought to be imposed by auxiliary RNA-binding proteins, including members of the huge pentatricopeptide repeat family, which protect RNAs from non-specific nucleolytic attack by masking otherwise vulnerable sites. RNA stability is also influenced by secondary structure, polyadenylation, and ribosome binding. Ribonucleases may cleave at internal sites (endonucleases) or digest successively from the 5' or 3' end of the polynucleotide chain (exonucleases). In bacteria, RNases act in the maturation of rRNA and tRNA precursors, as well as in initiating the degradation of mRNAs and small non-coding RNAs. Many ribonucleases in the chloroplasts of higher plants possess homologies to their bacterial counterparts, but their precise functions have rarely been described. However, many ribonucleases present in the chloroplast process polycistronic rRNAs, tRNAs, and mRNAs. The resulting production of monocistronic, translationally competent mRNAs may represent an adaptation to the eukaryotic cellular environment. This review provides a basic overview of the current knowledge of RNases in plastids and highlights gaps to stimulate future studies.
Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Petranovic, D.; Nielsen, Jens
Heme biosynthesis is a highly conserved pathway which is present in all kingdoms, from Archaea to higher organisms such as plants and mammals. The heme molecule acts as a prosthetic group for different proteins and enzymes involved in energy metabolism and reactions involved in electron transfer....
Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a highly aggressive cancer related to asbestos or erionite exposure and resistant to current therapies. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF and its tyrosine kinase receptor Met regulate cell growth, survival, motility/migration, and invasion. HGF and Met are expressed in MM cells, suggesting that the HGF/Met signaling plays a role in development and progression of this tumor, by autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. Upregulation and ligand-independent activation of Met, which is under suppressive control of miR-34 family members, correlate with enhanced invasion, migration and metastatic potential in several cancers, including MM. Moreover, Simian Virus 40 (SV40 Tag expression also induces a HGF autocrine circuit in an Rb-dependent manner in human mesothelial cells (HM and possibly other cell types, enhancing cell adhesion, invasion and angiogenesis. The resulting activation of Met causes HM transformation and cell cycle progression, and contributes to virus particle assembling and infection of adjacent cells. The constitutive activation of Met, frequently occurring in MM, has been successfully targeted in preclinical models of MM. In conclusion, Met expression, activation state, subcellular localization and also HGF co-receptors expression, such as CD44, have clinical relevance for novel targeted therapies in a cancer for which no effective treatment is currently available.
Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Bento Ayres Pereira, Marina Maria; Al Nakouzi, Nader
Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2...
Small RNAs are important transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Many classes of small RNAs have been discovered, each carrying out specialized functions. siRNAs and miRNAs are best studies. siRNAs function in the process of RNAi and are thought to defend the genome
Alsing, Anne; Pedersen, Margit; Sneppen, Kim
the bistable genetic switch of bacteriophage TP901-1 through experiments and statistical mechanical modeling. We examine the activity of the lysogenic promoter Pr at different concentrations of the phage repressor, CI, and compare the effect of CI on Pr in the presence or absence of the phage-encoded MOR...
Topham, Caroline H; Taylor, Stephen S
Anti-mitotic agents are used extensively during cancer chemotherapy. These agents target microtubules and thus block mitotic progression by activating the spindle assembly checkpoint. Following a prolonged mitotic arrest, cells either die in mitosis via apoptosis, or exit mitosis without dividing and survive, a process known as slippage. What dictates the balance between these two fates is unclear, but recent advances highlight the importance of the pro-survival Bcl2 family, with Mcl1 degradation emerging as a key determinant of mitotic cell fate. Here we review these advances, with a view towards identifying how the balance between apoptosis and slippage can be tipped in favour of death. This in turn may open up new opportunities to sensitize cancer cells to anti-mitotic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Kangdi; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Chengxi; Tan, Weijun; Mei, Wenjie
Herein, the development of ruthenium complexes as potential apoptosis inducers, as well as their underlying mechanism has been reviewed. In recent years, various ruthenium complexes have been designed and their in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities against various types of tumor cells have been evaluated extensively. It's demonstrated that ruthenium complexes can induce apoptosis of tumor cells through the signal pathway of mitochondria-mediated, death receptor-mediated, and/or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Alternately, the binding behavior of these ruthenium(II) complexes with DNA, especially with Gquadruplex DNA may play a key role in the DNA damage of tumor cells, and thus provides a versatile tool to rational design novel ruthenium complexes with high activity and selectivity.
Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yarigholi, Mohammad R
A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game) were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon). Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m(-2) and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities. Key PointsThat the ability of a champion depends on many sensory, motor and perceptual factors.Visual factors such as facility of accommodation and visual acuity in reduced lumination should be considered in table tennis players.Visual training may be useful for novice and also for experts.
Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh
The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.
In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.
Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios
The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p game condition (p games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key pointsThree-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games.In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals compared with the six-a-side games.Impairment in endurance and field test performance was observed mainly after three-a-side games.The use of the three-a-side games to develop physical fitness and technique in young soccer players is recommended.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to research the differences of genotype polymorphism between the elite male and elite female basketball player, volleyball player and control group. Material and Methods: 58 basketball players (ages 24.25±4.99 years, height 188.22±12.31 cm and weight 80.62±16.34 kg, 64 volleyball players (ages 22.82±5.40 years, height 188.67±9.69 cm and weight 77.82±12.14 kg and 122 sedentary subjects (control group were participated randomly in the study. 5cc blood was taken control and control groups for measuring the ACE gene polymorphism. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA, Levene’s Tests, and frequencies of allele were used for statistical evaluation at significance level p0.05, basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, male basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, female basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05 and male and female athletes (p>0.05 respectively. There were no significance differences in male athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=1.31, vertical jump (F=0.22, and 20m sprint test (F=0.44. There were also no significance differences in female athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=2.03, vertical jump (F=0.10, and 20m sprint test (F=1.17. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism genotype distribution in terms of elite female and male volleyball players with elite female and male basketball players are the same.
Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben; Read, Dale B; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Weakley, Jonathon J S; Rock, Andrew; Till, Kevin
The aim of this study was to compare the physical and movement demands between training and match-play in schoolboy and academy adolescent rugby union (RU) players. Sixty-one adolescent male RU players (mean ± SD; age 17.0 ± 0.7 years) were recruited from four teams representing school and regional academy standards. Players were categorised into four groups based on playing standard and position: schoolboy forwards (n = 15), schoolboy backs (n = 15), academy forwards (n = 16) and academy backs (n = 15). Global positioning system and accelerometry measures were obtained from training and match-play to assess within-group differences between conditions. Maximum data were analysed from 79 match files across 8 matches (1.3 ± 0.5 matches per participant) and 152 training files across 15 training sessions (2.5 ± 0.5 training sessions per participant). Schoolboy forwards were underprepared for low-intensity activities experienced during match-play, with schoolboy backs underprepared for all movement demands. Academy forwards were exposed to similar physical demands in training to matches, with academy backs similar to or exceeding values for all measured variables. Schoolboy players were underprepared for many key, position-specific aspects of match-play, which could place them at greater risk of injury and hinder performance, unlike academy players who were better prepared.
Erčulj, Frane; Blas, Mateja; Bračič, Mitja
The aim of the study was to determine and analyze the level of certain motor abilities (acceleration and agility, the explosive strength of arms, and take-off power) of young elite European female basketball players. We also wanted to establish whether there were any differences between 3 groups of female basketball players who differed in terms of their playing performance. The sample of subjects consists of 65 female basketball players aged 14.49 (± 0.61) years who were divided into 3 groups (divisions A, B, and C of the European Championships). We compare the groups by using 8 motor tests. p Values training status, this is also 1 of the key reasons for these players' lower playing efficiency compared to those from divisions A and B. We hope the findings of this study will enable the generation of model values, which can assist basketball coaches for this age category in basketball clubs, high schools, national teams, and basketball camps.
Feairheller, Deborah L.; Aichele, Kristin R.; Oakman, Joyann E.; Neal, Michael P.; Cromwell, Christina M.; Lenzo, Jessica M.; Perez, Avery N.; Bye, Naomi L.; Santaniello, Erica L.; Hill, Jessica A.; Evans, Rachel C.; Thiele, Karla A.; Chavis, Lauren N.; Getty, Allyson K.; Wisdo, Tia R.; McClelland, JoAnna M.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Chlad, Pam
Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3 ± 0.5 mm versus 3.7 ± 0.6 mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2 ± 6.4 mmHg versus 122.4 ± 6.8 mmHg), submaximal exercise (150.4 ± 18.8 mmHg versus 137.3 ± 9.5 mmHg), maximal exercise (211.3 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 191.4 ± 19.2 mmHg), and 24-hour BP (124.9 ± 6.3 mmHg versus 109.8 ± 3.7 mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6 ± 6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 5.8 mg/dL), lower HDL (36.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1 ± 14.8 mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (29.2 ± 7.9% versus 23.2 ± 7.0%). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26904291
Deborah L. Feairheller
Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.
Colleen Joy Stieler-Hunt
Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitising game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken.
Thiago D. Gonçalves Côelho
Full Text Available The suprascapular nerve originates from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or less frequently from the root of C5. It runs a short way and crosses the suprascapular notch. It innervates the supraspinatus muscle and the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Then, it crosses the lateral edge of the spine of the scapula passing through the spinoglenoid notch, and innervates the infraspinatus muscle. These are potential sites of injury to the suprascapular nerve. Three cases of suprascapular nerve entrapment causing an isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy in volleyball players were studied. It is suggested the hypothesis that the nature of the smash, in which the athlete uses the arm violently, more than does in volleyball service or in the art of reception, is the key to the pathogenesis of the lesion in volleyball players.
characteristics or aerobic capacitymeasures across the football player positions in female elite football players when we apply traditional laboratory tests (i.e. VO2max and anaerobic threshold). We speculate whether this may be caused by the parameters not being sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... laboratory tests of physical fitness of football players are not suitable to detect physical differences between elite female football players in different playing positions. This indicates that they are not sufficiently related to the relevant physical parameters of each playing position (i.e. low...
Teng, Ching-I; Lo, Shao-Kang; Wang, Pe-Cheng
This study investigated how different adolescent players acquire game information and the criteria they use in choosing online games and found that (1) current players generally use comprehensive information sources more than potential players do; (2) current players rely on free trials and smooth display of motion graphics as choice criteria more than potential players do; (3) potential players rely on the look of advertisements more than current players do; (4) both current and potential players most likely use word-of-mouth and gaming programs on TV as information sources; and (5) endorser attractiveness is ranked the least important among six choice criteria by both current and potential players.
Truong-Tran, A Q; Ho, L H; Chai, F; Zalewski, P D
The maintenance of discrete subcellular pools of zinc (Zn) is critical for the functional and structural integrity of cells. Among the important biological processes influenced by Zn is apoptosis, a process that is important in cellular homeostasis (an important cellular homeostatic process). It has also been identified as a major mechanism contributing to cell death in response to toxins and in disease, offering hope that novel therapies that target apoptotic pathways may be developed. Because Zn levels in the body can be increased in a relatively nontoxic manner, it may be possible to prevent or ameliorate degenerative disorders that are associated with high rates of apoptotic cell death. This review begins with brief introductions that address, first, the cellular biology of Zn, especially the critical labile Zn pools, and, second, the phenomenon of apoptosis. We then review the evidence relating Zn to apoptosis and address three major hypotheses: (1) that a specific pool or pools of intracellular labile Zn regulates apoptosis; (2) that systemic changes in Zn levels in the body, due to dietary factors, altered physiological states or disease, can influence cell susceptibility to apoptosis, and (3) that this altered susceptibility to apoptosis contributes to pathophysiological changes in the body. Other key issues are the identity of the molecular targets of Zn in the apoptotic cascade, the types of cells and tissues most susceptible to Zn-regulated apoptosis, the role of Zn as a coordinate regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and the apparent release of tightly bound intracellular pools of Zn during the later stages of apoptosis. This review concludes with a section highlighting areas of priority for future studies.
Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo
The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...
Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H
Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...
Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard
Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic ...
The results are guidelines for game developers to improve their game design. Through using the guidelines of the paper, developers know how to implement appealing online game elements which appeal to the player and draw them in. The result of the thesis are socializing, achievements and immersion are motivated the player to play online games, as well as the way online games stimulate the player's brain.
Myers, Natalie L; Sciascia, Aaron D; Kibler, W Ben; Uhl, Tim L
A sport-specific conditioning program can help tennis players train for competition or return to play from injury. This study determined the actual tennis serve volume in elite play and used these data to construct an interval training program based on stroke volume. There will be no differences in serve volume between male and female tennis players at the professional and junior levels. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. Game day statistic scorecards were provided to the research team from the 2013 and 2014 United States Open and the 2014 Metropolia Orange Bowl International Tennis Championships. Serve volume data for both male and female players were extracted from the scorecards. Data included serves per match and per set. These data were used to construct a sport-specific tennis program to meet the demands of the serve. Professional male players serve 63 more serves per match than junior male players because of the greater number of sets played ( P < 0.01). Professional female players serve 10 more serves per match than junior female players playing the same number of sets ( P = 0.01). All male players hit 2 more total serves per set than all female players ( P < 0.01). Regardless of sex, professional players serve 4 more serves per set than junior players ( P < 0.01). The typical number of serves per set was 40 in elite-level tennis players, resulting in a 3:1 ratio of first to second serves. These data establish the "unit dose" of serves per match and/or per set for each group. Coaches and health care providers may use these data in estimating loads per tournament/season and to prepare tennis athletes for individual competition and/or as they return to play after an injury.
Kim, Young Bin; Kang, Shin Jin; Lee, Sang Hyeok; Jung, Jang Young; Kam, Hyeong Ryeol; Lee, Jung; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Joonsoo; Kim, Chang Hun
In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise. The proposed method detects such outlying behavior based on the game players’ characteristics. These characteristics are captured non-invasively in a general game environment. In this paper, cameras were used to analyze observed data such as facial expressions and player movements. M...
Title: Quality of life of visually impaired goalball players Purpose: Main objective of this study is to characterize a goalball game, to find out and compare quality of life of visually impaired active goalball players. Methods: 30 respondents participated in this study. They are players of the game for visually impaired called goalball. Age of respondents ranged from 18 to 60 years. It was a quantitative research of methodological type of observation. The SQUALA questionnaire method was use...
This article reports on role player expectations regarding the education of nursing research. The importance of the role player expectations are two-fold: firstly as a factor in the external environment influencing and guiding the formulation phase of the development of standards and secondly, due to the clear indications of problems regarding nursing research in the nursing profession in literature. The role player expectations were elicited using a qualitative, exploratory and contextual de...
Decroos, Tom; Bransen, Lotte; Van Haaren, Jan; Davis, Jesse
Assessing the impact of the individual actions performed by soccer players during games is a crucial aspect of the player recruitment process. Unfortunately, most traditional metrics fall short in addressing this task as they either focus on rare events like shots and goals alone or fail to account for the context in which the actions occurred. This paper introduces a novel advanced soccer metric for valuing any type of individual player action on the pitch, be it with or without the ball. Ou...
Vestberg, Torbjörn; Gustafson, Roland; Maurex, Liselotte; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag
While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD), Lower Division players (LD) and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.
Bauckhage, Christian; Kersting, Kristian; Sifa, Rafet
Analyzing telemetry data of player behavior in computer games is a topic of increasing interest for industry and research, alike. When applied to game telemetry data, pattern recognition and statistical analysis provide valuable business intelligence tools for game development. An important problem...... introduce methods from random process theory into game data mining in order to draw inferences about player engagement. Given large samples (over 250,000 players) of behavioral telemetry data from five different action-adventure and shooter games, we extract information as to how long individual players...
Kaye, Linda K; Gresty, Claire E; Stubbs-Ennis, Natasha
Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established. Overall, player competence was perceived to be highest when male avatars were used, specifically when female players were depicted in this way. Study 2 explored the relationships between male social identity and gender-role beliefs, with sexist attitudes in gaming, and whether this varied by gaming context (massively multiplayer online [MMO] vs. first-person shooter [FPS]). Male online gamers (N = 193) were recruited, of which 112 were MMO players, and 81 were FPS players. It was found that identifying as male social identity was not related to sexist attitudes in either gaming context. However, more general gender-role beliefs were related to sexist attitudes. The findings indicate that although certain stereotypes exist (e.g., competence perceptions), these are not necessarily harvested by players' identities within communities, but may derive through more operational functions such as avatar gender.
Vestberg, Torbjörn; Gustafson, Roland; Maurex, Liselotte; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag
While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD), Lower Division players (LD) and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players. PMID:22496850
Full Text Available While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD, Lower Division players (LD and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.
Playing computer games consists of an interplay between the player's body movements in the physical world and the agency of game characters in the game's virtual environment with the controller as a mediator remediating the movements of the player in physical space into the actions of the avatar...... hands and fingers and how these systems create a man-machine symbiotic game experience of agency and sense of control beyond the limits of the player's physical body. The Weemote thus becomes an extension of the player's body into the computer game world in a complex way: The Weemote not only controls...
Brink, Michel S; Kersten, Anna W; Frencken, Wouter G P
A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' perceptions has not been explained. To determine the relation between intended and observed training exertion by the coach and perceived training exertion by the players and establish whether on-field training characteristics, intermittent endurance capacity, and maturity status explain the mismatch. During 2 mesocycles of 4 wk (in November and March), rating of intended exertion (RIE), rating of observed exertion (ROE), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored in 31 elite young soccer players. External and internal training loads were objectively quantified with accelerometers (PlayerLoad) and heart-rate monitors (TRIMPmod). Results of an interval shuttle-run test (ISRT) and age at peak height velocity (APHV) were determined for all players. RIE, ROE, and RPE were monitored in 977 training sessions. The correlations between RIE and RPE (r = .58; P base their intended and observed exertion on what they expect players will do and what they actually did on the field. When doing this, they consider the intermittent endurance capacity of individual players.
Ostojic, Sergej M; Mazic, Sanja; Dikic, Nenad
The purpose of this study was to describe structural and functional characteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have different physical and physiological profiles. Five men's basketball teams participated in the study and competed in the professional First National League. Physiological measurements were taken of 60 players during the final week of their preparatory training for competition. According to positional roles, players were categorized as guards (n = 20), forwards (n = 20), and centers (n = 20). Guards were older (p Vertical jump power was significantly higher in centers (p basketball.
Harper, Mario Yuuji
This project has taken data on the performance and price of trumpet players in the USU Caine college of performing arts. We analyzed this to see the instrument preferences of aspiring professional trumpet players. We have chosen two primary variables to determine this from. First, we find the sound signature produced by the instrument and the player. Second, we look at the type of music that the player is interested in. This is a seemingly simple relationship, but we have found it to be fraug...
Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren Tvorup
Chromatin condensation and degradation of DNA into internucleosomal DNA fragments are key hallmarks of apoptosis. The phosphorylation of protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and histone H2A.X was recently shown to occur concurrently with apoptotic DNA fragmentation. We have used...... independently of DNA damage signaling pathways during the very early stages of apoptosis....
Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla
This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.
González-Estévez, Cristina; Saló, Emili
Adult planarians are capable of undergoing regeneration and body remodelling in order to adapt to physical damage or extreme environmental conditions. Moreover, most planarians can tolerate long periods of starvation and during this time, they shrink from an adult size to, and sometimes beyond, the initial size at hatching. Indeed, these properties have made them a classic model to study stem cells and regeneration. Under such stressful conditions, food reserves from the gastrodermis and parenchyma are first used up and later the testes, copulatory organs and ovaries are digested. More surprisingly, when food is again made available to shrunken individuals, they grow back to adult size and all their reproductive structures reappear. These cycles of growth and shrinkage may occur over long periods without any apparent impairment to the individual, or to its future maturation and breeding capacities. This plasticity resides in a mesoderm tissue known as the parenchyma, which is formed by several differentiated non-proliferating cell types and only one mitotically active cell type, the neoblasts, which represent approximately 20-30% of the cells in the parenchyma. Neoblasts are generally thought to be somatic stem-cells that participate in the normal continuous turnover of all cell types in planarians. Hence, planarians are organisms that continuously adapt their bodies (morphallaxis) to different environmental stresses (i.e.: injury or starvation). This adaptation involves a variety of processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy, all of which are perfectly orchestrated and tightly regulated to remodel or restore the body pattern. While neoblast biology and body re-patterning are currently the subject of intense research, apoptosis and autophagy remain much less studied. In this review we will summarize our current understanding and hypotheses regarding where and when apoptosis and autophagy occur and fulfil an essential role in
Martin, Lee J
.... Neuronal cell death in the form of apoptosis or necrosis occurs after exposure to neurotoxins, chemical warfare agents, radiation, viruses, and after seizures, trauma, limb amputation, and hypoxic...
Wong Rebecca SY
Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.
Full Text Available Mitochondria participate in a variety of physiologic processes, such as ATP production, lipid metabolism, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and calcium buffering. The morphology of mitochondria changes dynamically due to their frequent fusion and division in response to cellular conditions, and these dynamics are an important constituent of apoptosis. The discovery of large GTPase family proteins that regulate mitochondrial dynamics, together with novel insights into the role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in apoptosis, has provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular apoptosis. In this paper, we briefly summarize current knowledge of the role of mitochondrial dynamics in apoptosis and cell pathophysiology in mammalian cells.
Otera, Hidenori; Mihara, Katsuyoshi
Mitochondria participate in a variety of physiologic processes, such as ATP production, lipid metabolism, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and calcium buffering. The morphology of mitochondria changes dynamically due to their frequent fusion and division in response to cellular conditions, and these dynamics are an important constituent of apoptosis. The discovery of large GTPase family proteins that regulate mitochondrial dynamics, together with novel insights into the role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in apoptosis, has provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular apoptosis. In this paper, we briefly summarize current knowledge of the role of mitochondrial dynamics in apoptosis and cell pathophysiology in mammalian cells.
Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki
Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758
Titton, Adriano; Franchini, Emerson
The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 16 different combinations to cause the postactivation potentiation (PAP) in elite young soccer players. Squat exercise in 4 different intensities (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) was performed and its effects were evaluated in the performance of countermovement jump (CMJ), after 4 different recovery times (1, 3, 5, and 10 min). For this purpose, 25 young soccer players, underwent five experimental sessions. At the first session the control to determine 1RM in half-squat was carried out. The following four experimental sessions were comprised of four intensity combinations with four different recovery intervals in order to perform the CMJ test later, randomly determined and with 30-min interval between each combination. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measurements, followed by Bonferroni test, using 5% significance level (P<0.05). The different intensities investigated did not provide significant increases in CMJ height, but significant differences were noted in recovery time, where, at CMJ maximum height, 1-min interval was better than after 3 min (P<0.05), 5, and 10 min (P<0.001). On the average jump performances, 1-min interval resulted in better results (P<0.001) compared to other intervals. The 10-min recovery resulted in poorer performances compared to the other intervals (P<0.001). Our results indicate that regardless the intensity used in the half-squat exercise with elite young soccer players, the 1-min recovery time was more appropriate to promote an increase in vertical jump. PMID:28503527
Otaka, Machiko; Chen, Shu-Man; Zhu, Yong; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Fogt, Donovan L; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua
Scientific data on the performance of collegiate female tennis players during the menstrual phases are scarce. Double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover trials were conducted to examine whether tennis performance was affected during menstruation, with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) supplementation. Ten Division 1 collegiate tennis players (aged 18-22 years) were evenly assigned into placebo-supplemented and DHEA-supplemented (25 mg/day) trials. Treatments were exchanged among the participants after a 28-day washout. Tennis serve performance was assessed on the first day of menstrual bleeding (day 0/28) and on days 7, 14 and 21. Mood state was unaltered during the menstrual cycles in both trials. The lowest tennis serve performance score (speed times accuracy) occurred on day 14 (P=0.06 vs day 0; P=0.01 vs day 21) in both placebo and DHEA trials. Decreased performance on day 14 was explained by decreased accuracy (P=0.03 vs day 0/28; P=0.01 vs day 21), but not velocity itself. Isometric hip strength, but not quadriceps strength, was moderately lower on day 14 (P=0.08). Increasing plasma DHEA-S (by ~65%) during the DHEA-supplemented trial had no effects on mood state, sleep quality or tennis serve performance. We have shown that menses does not affect serve performance of collegiate tennis players. However, the observed decrement in the accuracy of serve speed near ovulation warrants further investigation.
Axelrod, Beth; Handfield-Jones, Helen; Michaels, Ed
It's a big driver of business success, but one that executives are loath to talk about: upgrading the talent pool by weeding out "C" players from management. These aren't the incompetent or unethical managers whom organizations dismiss without a backward glance; C performers deliver results that are acceptable--barely--but they fail to innovate or to inspire the people they lead. The authors of The War for Talent have studied what it takes to upgrade an organization's talent pool. In this article, they explore the hidden costs of tolerating under-performance and acknowledge the reasons why executives may shy away from dealing decisively with C players. They recommend that organizations take an "iron hand in a velvet glove" approach to managing subpar performers. That is, companies should establish rigorous, disciplined processes for assessing and dealing with low-performing managers but still treat them with respect. The authors outline three ironhanded steps. First, executives must identify C players by evaluating their talents and distributing employee performances along an assessment curve. Second, executives must agree on explicit action plans that articulate the improvements or changes that C performers must achieve within six to 12 months. And third, executives should hold managers accountable for carrying out the action plans. Without such discipline, procrastination, rationalization, and inaction will prevail. The authors also emphasize the need for the "velvet glove." Executives must ensure that low performers are treated with dignity, so they should offer candid feedback, instructive coaching, and generous severance packages and outplacement support. The authors' approach isn't about being tough on people; it's about being relentlessly focused on performance.
Wong Zhen Feng
Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common reason for patients to seek medical help in any healthcare center. Shoulder pain is influenced by a few factors such as gender, posture during daily activities, aging and psychological factors. Based on the study of Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers, shoulder pain due to shoulder injuries can be reduced by strengthening the shoulder muscle. Badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, especially in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine if badmintonis able to strengthen the shoulder muscle group. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic experimental study was conducted on September 2015 at Lodaya Badminton Training Center and Bale Padjadjaran of Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were 30 healthy male routinely trained badminton players and 30 non-badminton players who voluntarily follow the rstudy procedures. Strength measurement procedures were provided to the subjects after getting informed consent. Data analysis was performed using T-test. Results: The shoulder strength in routinely trained badminton players was significantly different from non-badminton players (P<0.05. Conclusions: Shoulder strength can be improved through routine training of badminton to reduce risk of shoulder injury. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1083
Bray, A E; Lewis, W A
Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player is described. The typical features of a delayed and difficult diagnosis of an external iliac artery stenosis were found. The noninvasive diagnostic protocol used to investigate this young patient with a minimal arterial lesion enabled accurate localization and angioplasty to be performed at the same time as diagnostic angiography. The patient was symptom free with normal arterial pressures on follow-up. It is suggested that appropriate noninvasive investigations should be performed before angiography in young people with minimal lesions.
Hadiji, Fabian; Sifa, Rafet; Drachen, Anders
Free-to-Play or "freemium" games represent a fundamental shift in the business models of the game industry, facilitated by the increasing use of online distribution platforms and the introduction of increasingly powerful mobile platforms. The ability of a game development company to analyze...... and derive insights from behavioral telemetry is crucial to the success of these games which rely on in-game purchases and in-game advertising to generate revenue, and for the Company to remain competitive in a global marketplace. The ability to model, understand and predict future player behavior has...
Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.
Sidorenko, A V; Mikhaĭlova, O N
This review article is devoted to the issues of international cooperation on ageing. It aims at describing the basic areas of cooperation and introducing its major players. Within the limited length of a journal article it is hardly possible to offer an exhaustive presentation of all available information; thus the article strives to provide a general orientation within the selected themes. The authors are hopeful that the presented materials will be of interest to the policy oriented researchers, policy makers and professionals working in the field of ageing and related areas such as social security, health and social services etc., as well as to the activists of non-governmental organizations.
possible in the concentric phase, was performed. The participants showed the highest peak power output with loads of 45% of 1RM. These results differ from the wide literature, which shows values ranged between 30% and 70% of 1RM; this can be due to: a the analyzed sample; b the experience of the participants; and c the methodology used for the record. Therefore, we concluded that, the basketball players studied present values of peak power output, in competitive period, near to 45% of 1RM in the half squat exercise.
Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.
Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor...
Monsson, Christian Kjær
Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...
Bartolom\\u00E9 J. Almagro
Full Text Available The motivation of an athlete is determinant for the athletic engagement of the adolescent. The present study attempts to analyze the motivation of adolescent basketball and football players from the perspectives of Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1989 and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985. The study's sample was composed of 248 athletes from 12 to 17 years of age. Half were from basketball and half were from football. The instruments that were utilized were: the Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS (Núñez, Martín-Albo, Navarro, & González, 2006, the Spanish version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMSCQ-2 (Balaguer, Mayo, Atienza, & Duda, 1997, and the adapted Spanish translation (Moreno, Moreno, & Cervelló, 2007 of the Intention to be Physically Active Scale (IPAS by Hein, Müür, and Koka (2004. The comparison of the means of the variables between football and basketball players was done utilizing the student t-test for independent samples. Significant differences were found for variables such as: intrinsic motivation (IM toward accomplishment, external regulation, amotivation, task, ego, and Self-Determination Index (SDI. Basketball players obtained higher values in the SDI, in task, and in IM toward accomplishment than football players. The search for premature performance in football and coaches' educations can help to explain these differences. The importance of these differences reside in the relationship between these motivational variables and the adherence to athletic practice. In conclusion, basketball demonstrated better values in motivational variables, which demonstrates that training sessions are more oriented toward task than ego, that players have more intrinsic and self-determined motivation, and therefore, the adherence of the young athletes will be greater in this sport.
Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.
Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball
Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin
Context: Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. Objective: To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Results: Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. Conclusions: In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male
Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin
Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk
Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike
Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.
Full Text Available Essentials of apoptosis - A guide for basic and clinical researchSecond edition, 2009. Xiao-Ming Yin and Zheng Dong (Eds; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Pages: 730; €92.95; ISBN: 978-1-60327-380-0When a book get a second edition in a six-year period, it means that the usually employed words praising the unbounded qualities of the underselling book (a key technical reference; comprehensive and cutting-edge; for beginners and experienced researchers; step-by-step readily reproducible protocols; notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls; etc. etc. have been checked by the scientific comunity...
Johnson, C D; McHugh, M P; Wood, T; Kibler, B
To quantify the performance demands in professional male tennis. Games from three grand slam tournaments were analysed by an elite tennis player from video recordings. Game related data were collected on 22 players (French Open, 8 (186 games); Wimbledon, 11 (206 games); US Open, 9 (224 games)). Total number of strokes per game was quantified separately for service and return games. Strokes were categorised by type and designated as forehand or backhand. Differences in the types of strokes in a game were analysed using one factor (type of stroke) repeated measures analysis of variance. Differences in total strokes and stroke distributions between playing surfaces were analysed by analysis of variance (surface type) with Tukey's post hoc pairwise comparisons. For service games there were more serves per game than any other type of stroke (pgame. For return games there were more forehand and backhand returns and topspin forehands and backhands than other types of stroke (pgame was greater in the French Open than Wimbledon (pgame in the US Open were not different from the other two tournaments. The serve was the predominant stroke accounting for 45% (French Open) to 60% (Wimbledon) of strokes during service games. The greater number of strokes per game on clay v grass may contribute to earlier fatigue.
Noelia Belando Pedreño
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.
Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.
Juan Antonio Palop
Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element involved in different physiological functions of the human body and plays a role in cancer prevention and treatment. Induction of apoptosis is considered an important cellular event that can account for the cancer preventive effects of Se. The mechanisms of Se-induced apoptosis are associated with the chemical forms of Se and their metabolism as well as the type of cancer studied. So, some selenocompounds, such as SeO2 involve the activation of caspase-3 while sodium selenite induces apoptosis in the absence of the activation of caspases. Modulation of mitochondrial functions has been reported to play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis and also to be one of the targets of Se compounds. Other mechanisms for apoptosis induction are the modulation of glutathione and reactive oxygen species levels, which may function as intracellular messengers to regulate signaling pathways, or the regulation of kinase, among others. Emerging evidence indicates the overlaps between the apoptosis and other types of cell death such as autophagy. In this review we report different processes of cell death induced by Se compounds in cancer treatment and prevention.
Full Text Available The survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on its capacity to manipulate multiple host defense pathways, including the ability to actively inhibit the death by apoptosis of infected host cells. The genetic basis for this anti-apoptotic activity and its implication for mycobacterial virulence have not been demonstrated or elucidated. Using a novel gain-of-function genetic screen, we demonstrated that inhibition of infection-induced apoptosis of macrophages is controlled by multiple genetic loci in M. tuberculosis. Characterization of one of these loci in detail revealed that the anti-apoptosis activity was attributable to the type I NADH-dehydrogenase of M. tuberculosis, and was mainly due to the subunit of this multicomponent complex encoded by the nuoG gene. Expression of M. tuberculosis nuoG in nonpathogenic mycobacteria endowed them with the ability to inhibit apoptosis of infected human or mouse macrophages, and increased their virulence in a SCID mouse model. Conversely, deletion of nuoG in M. tuberculosis ablated its ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis and significantly reduced its virulence in mice. These results identify a key component of the genetic basis for an important virulence trait of M. tuberculosis and support a direct causal relationship between virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and their ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis.
rity and tissue homeostasis in multicellular organisms. (Vaux and Strasser 1996). Apoptosis characteristically occurs in isolated single cells. Inappropriate apoptosis is linked to a number of parasitic infections as well as the cause and progression of diseases such as neurodegenera- tive disorders, aging and cancer.
Westra, Marijke Marianne
In this thesis the role of several apoptosis regulating proteins in the development of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque stability is investigated. Apoptosis of different cell types in atherosclerotic plaques, such as macrophages and smooth muscle cells may inhibit or promote plaque
deprivation in animals, including man11. Factor of apoptosis signal (Fas) induces apoptosis in activated T cells when they are repeatedly stimulated by antigen and functions to maintain T cell tolerance by deleting auto reactive cells12. The functional role of Fas (CD95) in the immune system has been examined in a variety ...
Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.
The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)
Taking into consideration the long term developmental models, and the requirements to succeed in rugby, this review aims to prescribe the trainability of junior rugby players using a scientifically evidence based long-term player development approach. As there have been several recent and comprehensive reviews of the ...
This paper explores the subjectively perceived performance success of top-class tennis players, largely in an effort to supplement the massive body of purely cognitive, psychophysiological sport psychology literature that already exists. Indepth, semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with nine players at ...
Hasan, A A; Reilly, T; Cable, N T; Ramadan, J
Handball has increased in status as a sport since its introduction in 1972 into the Summer Olympic Games. Whereas anthropometric profiles of female athletes have been reported for certain sports, data for elite handball players are limited. The current study was based on anthropometric measurements of 60 female Asian handball players competing in the continental championship, the aim being to identify any differences between countries and between playing positions. The setting was the 12(th) Asian Games in Hiroshima, Japan. Anthropometric data were obtained from 60 players including teams from China, Japan, Kazakhstan and South Korea. Measurements included height, mass, skinfold thicknesses: from these measures percent body fat and muscle mass were estimated. Profiles were compared between 4 nations and 4 positional roles by means of ANOVA. Overall, mean (SD) values were 1.708 (0.068) m, 64.6 (7.7) kg, 20.8% (4.4%), 39.6% (5.2%) for stature, mass, percent body fat and percent muscle mass, respectively. There were small differences between players from different countries but no significant (P>0.05) influence of playing position. Players from Japan were shortest, lightest and lowest in adiposity. The Chinese players were tallest and had the greatest muscle mass. These female international handball players differed in some respects in anthropometric characteristics according to their country of origin. The Asian players were found to be relatively homogeneous across the different positions.
Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...
Contemporary personal stereo players are compact, easy to use, and provide intense, high-quality sound that can be heard anywhere anytime. The players are reasonable in price, and have become very popular among children and adolescents. Little is known about listening habits among children and ad...
P. Chen (Po-An); B. de Keijzer (Bart); D. Kempe; G. Schäfer (Guido)
htmlabstractWe study the inefficiency of equilibria for various classes of games when players are (partially) altruistic. We model altruistic behavior by assuming that player i's perceived cost is a convex combination of 1-\\beta_i times his direct cost and \\beta_i times the social cost. Tuning the
Hubacek, Pavel; Park, Sunoo
In this work we apply methods from cryptography to enable mutually distrusting players to implement broad classes of mediated equilibria of strategic games without trusted mediation. Our implementation uses a pre-play 'cheap talk' phase, consisting of non- binding communication between players pr...
Conditions are described which guarantee that the control strategies adopted by N players constitute an efficient solution, an equilibrium, or a core solution. The system dynamics are described by an Ito equation, and all players have perfect information. It was found that when the set of instantaneous joint costs and velocity vectors is convex, the conditions are necessary.
Grappiolo, C.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Togelius, J.
We present a technology demonstrator for an adaptive serious game for teaching conflict resolution and discuss the research questions associated with the project. The prototype is a single-player 3D mini-game which simulates a resource management conflict scenario. In order to teach the player how...
Sadeghi, Hassan; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd-Sofian; Jamalis, Marjohan; Ab-Latif, Rozita; Cheric, Majid Chahrdah
The purpose of this study is to identify the kind of mental skills training needed most by the university soccer players. Eight male university football players (aged 25 to 36) from one large university in Kuala Lumpur agreed to participate in this study. On average, they have 10 years of playing experience. All of them have signed the informed…
Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.
Objective. To establish the previous rugby experience, the knowledge and the use of injury prevention techniques by South African schoolboy rugby players. Design. Before the first full-contact match of the 1991 rugby season, 2 330 players completed a detailed questionnaire. Setting. I-!igh schools in the Cape Province.
Abstract. In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influ- enced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval ...
Bontchev, Boyan; Vassileva, Dessislava
Detection of learning curves of player metrics is very important for the serious (or so called applied) games, because it provides an indicator representing how players master the game tasks by acquiring cognitive abilities, knowledge, and necessary skills for solving the game challenges. Real
A statistical significant difference exists between the coaches and players' perception regarding the respective coaches' total coaching effectiveness. In view of the inconsistent pattern found between the coaches and players perceptions on coaching effectiveness, coaches and clubs need to be more aware of the impact ...
The aim of this study was to determine the most significant of physical fitness, anthro-energy intake and psychological variables in identifying the talented male youth field hockey players. 40 male players (age, 14.6 ± 1.2 years) from Terengganu sport academy were evaluated in different tests and measurements.
Rugby players often sustain high-impact collisions and are therefore at risk of significant traumatic thoracic injuries. Injury to the thoracic cage may be associated with potentially life-threatening sequelae. Player management is often based on the accuracy of the imaging report. The author suggests a combination of ...
Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn
The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.
Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos
The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…
In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influenced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval numbers.
Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous experiments have shown that humans do not always behave so as to maximize their material payoff. Cooperative behavior when non-cooperation is a dominant strategy (with respect to the material payoffs is particularly puzzling. Here we propose a novel approach to explain cooperation, assuming what Halpern and Pass call translucent players. Typically, players are assumed to be opaque, in the sense that a deviation by one player in a normal-form game does not affect the strategies used by other players. But a player may believe that if he switches from one strategy to another, the fact that he chooses to switch may be visible to the other players. For example, if he chooses to defect in Prisoner's Dilemma, the other player may sense his guilt. We show that by assuming translucent players, we can recover many of the regularities observed in human behavior in well-studied games such as Prisoner's Dilemma, Traveler's Dilemma, Bertrand Competition, and the Public Goods game.
This study was carried out in order to determine the relevance of sport vision testing and visual skills training in soccer players. This study also seeks to determine the visual skills of soccer players by assessing depth perception, accommodation flexibility, eye tracking, eye jumps, peripheral awareness and visual memory of ...
The perceptions of coaches and athletes/players of motivation. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... reward for achievement; self-confidence in players; praise; individual attention; effective coaching methods and techniques; competition; and being intrinsically motivated.
Systematically researched evidence for the effects and role of colour in gambling environments has yet to be undertaken; but there are sufficient supportive studies that provide an insight into how that would likely affect the player's mood, emotion and behaviour. That, of course, has also to be seen as a design component in the gaming floor layout that helps shape player interest and attentiveness.
Background. Exposure to competitive football is increasing among male youth football players in Nigeria. However, medical support to abate the impact of injuries appears inadequate and there is limited literature to show whether youth football players are knowledgeable about, and practise effective measures for injury ...
The following factors were identified as important motivational factors in sport: encouragement to perform better; goal setting; enjoyment and pleasure in sport; activation; self-efficacy; communication between coaches/players; reward for achievement; self-confidence in players; praise; individual attention; effective coaching ...
Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; P.J. Vuijk; S.C. te Wierike; C. Visscher; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; E.J. Tromp
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were
The netball players were assessed for flexibility, speed, agility, power and aerobic endurance. Anthropometrical measurements were also taken. Descriptive statistics were calculated, after which Student s unpaired t-tests were used to compare results between the Boland and Australian under-21 netball players. Results.
The purpose of this study was to establish the fitness profile of the elite junior badminton players in South Africa through the measurement and description of their body composition, aerobic power, muscular characteristics, speed, flexibility and agility. Eight elite male and seven elite female badminton players between the ...
The current study aims to investigate the explanatory power of social support and coping in relation to a competitive sport event between male and female table tennis players. 246 university students table tennis players (120 men and 126 women) from different region and part of Turkey were invited to participate in a survey study included the…
Bilir, Fatma Pervin; Sirin, Yeliz
The aim of this study is to figure out profiles of bridge players and analyzing them according to their intelligence areas. The sample of the study is consist of 100 volunteers out of 200 bridge players who have attended "Çukurova open double bridge championship" in Adana, Turkey at February 2016. Data have been collected via…
Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George
regarding proper training and injury prevention in relation to professional experience in soccer. Key pointsMuscle strength increased from the low (5-7 years) to the intermediate professional training age (8-10 years) and stabilized thereafter.Soccer practicing and competition at the professional level induces critical strength adaptations (asymmetries) regarding the function of the knee and ankle musculature.Soccer players with long professional training age showed a tendency for lower isokinetic strength asymmetries than players with intermediate and short professional training age.
Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George
regarding proper training and injury prevention in relation to professional experience in soccer. Key points Muscle strength increased from the low (5-7 years) to the intermediate professional training age (8-10 years) and stabilized thereafter. Soccer practicing and competition at the professional level induces critical strength adaptations (asymmetries) regarding the function of the knee and ankle musculature. Soccer players with long professional training age showed a tendency for lower isokinetic strength asymmetries than players with intermediate and short professional training age. PMID:24149628
Full Text Available Dysregulation of apoptosis is a major hallmark in cancer biology that might equip tumors with a higher malignant potential and chemoresistance. The anti-cancer activities of lectin, defined as a carbohydrate-binding protein that is not an enzyme or antibody, have been investigated for over a century. Recently, galectin-9, which has two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker peptide, was noted to induce apoptosis in thymocytes and immune cells. The apoptosis of these cells contributes to the development and regulation of acquired immunity. Furthermore, human recombinant galectin-9, hG9NC (null, which lacks an entire region of the linker peptide, was designed to resist proteolysis. The hG9NC (null has demonstrated anti-cancer activities, including inducing apoptosis in hematological, dermatological and gastrointestinal malignancies. In this review, the molecular characteristics, history and apoptosis-inducing potential of galectin-9 are described.
Full Text Available Apoptosis, or controlled cell death, is a normal part of cellular lifespan. Cell death of cochlear hair cells causes deafness; an apoptotic process that is not well understood. Worldwide, 1.3 billion humans suffer some form of hearing loss, while 360 million suffer debilitating hearing loss as a direct result of the absence of these cochlear hair cells (Worldwide Hearing, 2014. Much is known about apoptosis in other systems and in other cell types thanks to studies done since the mid-20th century. Here we review current literature on apoptosis in general, and causes of deafness and cochlear hair cells loss as a result of apoptosis. The family of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl proteins are among the most studied and characterized. We will review current literature on the Bcl2 and Bcl6 protein interactions in relation to apoptosis and their possible roles in vulnerability and survival of cochlear hair cells.
Grégory Hallé Petiot
Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this research is to identify the mechanisms that lead soccer players to make quality tactical decisions, and how these mechanisms evolve over time. Methods Ninety male youth players training in a professional club in Brazil were submitted to a soccer video test which consists in making tactical decisions when the image freezes. These participants were divided in five groups with 18 players in each of following age levels: Under-11, Under-13, Under-15, Under-17 and Under-20. The dominant statements of verbal reports were distributed in categories that reflect key mechanisms. The frequency of correct tactical answers was calculated for each statement types and Standard Residuals (e were calculated to verify the influence of the mechanisms on the quality of tactical decision for each age level. Results Results revealed that evaluation statement was related to accurate tactical decisions from Under-15 age level. Conclusion In conclusion, evaluation of perceived information makes better decision makers.
Zagatto, Alessandro M; Papoti, Marcelo; Gobatto, Claudio A
The aim of the present study was to verify the applicability of anaerobic work capacity (AWC) determined from the critical power model in elite table tennis players. Eight male international level table tennis players participated in the study. The tests undertaken were: 1) A critical frequency test used to determinate the anaerobic work capacity; 2) Wingate tests were performed using leg and arm ergometers. AWC corresponded to 99.5 ± 29.1 table tennis balls. AWC was not related to peak (r = -0.25), mean (r = -0.02), relative peak (r = -0.49) or relative mean power (r = 0.01), nor fatigue index (r = -0.52) (Wingate leg ergometer). Similar correlations for peak (r = -0.34), mean (r = -0.04), relative peak (r = -0.49), relative mean power (r = -0.14) and peak blood lactate concentration (r = -0.08) were determined in the Wingate arm ergometer test. Based on these results the AWC determined by a modified critical power test was not a good index for measurement of anaerobic capacity in table tennis players. Key pointsAnaerobic work capacity (AWC) was not good index of anaerobic capacity in table tennis.AWC determined using the table tennis ergometer showed low correlations with the Wingate test measures for cycle and arm ergometry.A sport-specific protocol is required for measuring anaerobic capacity in table tennis.
Bane, Michael Kenneth; Reid, Machar; Morgan, Stuart
Tennis federations are regularly faced with decisions regarding which athletes should be supported in financial terms, and for how long. The financial investments can be considerable, given the cost of competing on tour has been estimated at a minimum $121,000 per year and only the top 130 professionally ranked athletes earned enough prize money to cover this cost in 2012. This study investigates key points of progression in tennis players' careers, to determine how these have changed over time and how that evolution may inform talent development. Approximately 400,000 weekly rankings for 273 male professional tennis players between 1985 and 2010 were compiled, and historical trends in the time taken to reach career milestones were investigated by least-squares regression. The time between earning a first professional ranking point and entry into the Top 100 significantly increased over time for all considered athletes. This was at the detriment of time spent within the Top 100 for some athletes. Career peak Top 50-100 athletes have shown an increase in longevity. These results assist tennis federations in assessing the progress of developing athletes and highlight the evolving nature of the competition for top players.
Full Text Available Dynamic balance is a key component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in sports. Training the core muscles has been hypothesized as an intervention for improving balance. However, there is a lack of current scientific evidence to support this claim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a core stability program on dynamic balance of volleyball players as measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Thirty healthy participants were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise groups. All participants performed the SEBT before and after 8-week exercise time. During the 8-week time, the exercise group performed a core stability program, whereas the control group abstained from any new exercise. These results also illustrated there was significant differences in the scores for pre-test and post-test of all direction according SEBT in the experimental group. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare experimental and control group (F=43.573, Sig=0.000. These results were a significant difference in the scores for control and experimental groups. Maximum excursion distances improved for the exercise group, compared with the control group. This result justifies the hypothesis that core strengthening can improve dynamic postural control during landing of volleyball players significantly. Keywords: Core stabilization; volleyball player; dynamic balance; SEBT
Parton, Marina; Krajewski, Stanislaw; Smith, Ian; Krajewska, Maryla; Archer, Caroline; Naito, Mihikito; Ahern, Roger; Reed, John; Dowsett, Mitchell
Induction of apoptosis is a key factor in the response of tumors to chemotherapy. Laboratory studies have established many of the factors that regulate and execute apoptosis, but the significance of these in human tumors is poorly understood. Therefore, the relationship between key components of this machinery was examined in primary human breast carcinomas before and 24 h after the initiation of chemotherapy. Apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay, and proliferation was assessed using the anti-Ki67 antibody MIB-1. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies were used for immunohistochemical detection of Bcl-2, Bax, XIAP, activated (cleaved) caspase 3 and 6, and cleaved DNA Fragmentation Factor-40 (DFF40) using paraffin-embedded tissues. Before treatment, a significant correlation was found between apoptosis and proliferation (r = 0.64, P apoptosis protein, XIAP, also correlated positively with cleaved caspase 3 (r = 0.64, P apoptosis and decreases in proliferation were observed, with the degree of increase in apoptosis inversely associated with decrease in proliferation. Chemotherapy-induced increases in Bax were correlated with increases in cleaved DFF40 (r = 0.54, P = 0.0008), but no other variables showed significant change at 24 h after initiation of chemotherapy. The pretreatment biomarker relationships suggest parallel cleavage and activation of these executioner proteins in breast cancer and that XIAP may maintain cell survival in the face of caspase activation. The findings provide in vivo evidence in human breast cancer that chemotherapy induces an apoptotic program characterized by up-regulation of Bax and cleavage of caspase substrate DFF40.
Holmgård, Christoffer; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian
This paper presents a method for modeling player decision making through the use of agents as AI-driven personas. The paper argues that artificial agents, as generative player models, have properties that allow them to be used as psyhometrically valid, abstract simulations of a human player......’s internal decision making processes. Such agents can then be used to interpret human decision making, as personas and playtesting tools in the game design process, as baselines for adapting agents to mimic classes of human players, or as believable, human-like opponents. This argument is explored...... in a crowdsourced decision making experiment, in which the decisions of human players are recorded in a small-scale dungeon themed puzzle game. Human decisions are compared to the decisions of a number of a priori defined “archetypical” agent-personas, and the humans are characterized by their likeness...
Ak, Emre; Koçak, Settar
The purpose of this study was to compare the coincidence-anticipation timing and reaction times (RT) of 10- to 14-year-old tennis and table tennis players and examine possible sex differences. 107 (51.4%) tennis and 101 (48.6%) table tennis players participated in this study. Players were compared on coincidence-anticipation timing and reaction time. Tennis players performed with less error in the coincidence-anticipation timing task than table tennis players, whereas table tennis players had lower mean reaction time than tennis players. It was also found that male players made fewer errors in the coincidence-anticipation timing task than their female counterparts.
Ravasco, Paula; Aranha, Márcia M; Borralho, Pedro M; Moreira da Silva, Isabel B; Correia, Luís; Fernandes, Afonso; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Camilo, Maria
NF-kappaB may promote carcinogenesis by altering cell cycle, inflammatory responses and apoptosis-related gene expression, though cell mechanisms relating diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unveiled in humans. This study in patients with CRC aimed to explore potential interactions between the dietary pattern, nutrient intake, expression of NF-kappaB, apoptosis and tumour histological aggressiveness. Usual diet was assessed by diet history; nutrient composition was determined by DIETPLAN software. Histologically classified patient tissue samples (adenoma, adenocarcinoma and normal surrounding mucosa) were obtained via biopsies during colonoscopy (n=16) or surgery (n=8). NF-kappaB expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis were higher in tumours (p<0.01), greater along with histological aggressiveness (p<0.01). Highest intake terciles of animal protein, refined carbohydrates, saturated fat, n-6 fatty acids and alcohol were associated with higher NF-kappaB, apoptosis and histological aggressiveness (p<0.01); the opposite tissue characteristics were associated with highest intake terciles of n-3 fatty acids, fibre, vitamin E, flavonoids, isoflavones, beta-carotene and selenium (p<0.002). Additionally, higher n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 26:1) was associated with higher NF-kappaB (p<0.006) and apoptosis (p<0.01), and more aggressive histology (p<0.01). Conversely, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 6:1) was associated with lower NF-kappaB (p<0.002) and apoptosis (p<0.002), and less aggressive histology (p<0.002). NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis increased from adenoma to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. This degenerative transition, recognized as key in carcinogenesis, appear to have been influenced by a diet promoting a pro-inflammatory milieu that can trigger NF-kappaB. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important links between air pollution and asthma. Amongst these pollutants, environmental cigarette smoke is a risk factor both for asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. As the barrier to the inhaled environment, the bronchial epithelium is a key structure that is exposed to cigarette smoke.Since primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis, we hypothesized that they would be susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cell death.PBECs from normal and asthmatic donors were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; cell survival and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and protective effects of antioxidants evaluated. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated using caspase inhibitors and immunofluorescent staining for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF.Exposure of PBEC cultures to CSE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell death. At 20% CSE, PBECs from asthmatic donors exhibited significantly more apoptosis than cells from non-asthmatic controls. Reduced glutathione (GSH, but not ascorbic acid (AA, protected against CSE-induced apoptosis. To investigate mechanisms of CSE-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 or -9 inhibitors were tested, but these failed to prevent apoptosis; in contrast, CSE promoted nuclear translocation of AIF from the mitochondria. GSH reduced the number of nuclear-AIF positive cells whereas AA was ineffective.Our results show that PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to CSE-induced apoptosis. This response involves AIF, which has been implicated in DNA damage and ROS-mediated cell-death. Epithelial susceptibility to CSE may contribute to the impact of environmental tobacco smoke in asthma.
Fanning, N F
Iodinated contrast media (ICM) can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in renal, myocardial and endothelial cells. Following intravascular injection, circulating immune cells are exposed to high concentrations of ICM. As neutrophils constitutively undergo apoptosis we hypothesized that ICM may adversely affect neutrophil survival. Our aim was to investigate the effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophils were isolated from healthy subjects and cultured in vitro with ionic (diatrizoate and ioxaglate) and non-ionic (iohexol and iotrolan) ICM. The effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils was determined by annexin V flow cytometry. The influence of physicochemical properties of the different ICM on apoptosis of neutrophils was also studied. We further investigated the effects of ICM on key intracellular signal pathways, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by Western blotting, and mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activity by flow cytometry. Isoiodine concentrations (20 mg ml(-1)) of ionic (diatrizoate 69.6+\\/-2.9%; ioxaglate 58.9+\\/-2.0%) and non-ionic (iohexol 57.3+\\/-2.9%; iotrolan 57.1+\\/-2.6%) ICM significantly induced neutrophil apoptosis over control levels (47.7+\\/-1.4%). The apoptotic effect of ICM was influenced by their chemical structure, with ionic ICM having a more significant (p<0.01) apoptotic effect than non-ionic ICM (p<0.05). Furthermore, ICM reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of lipopolysaccharide (1000 ng ml(-1)) treated neutrophils to control levels (23.0+\\/-3.5% to 61.2+\\/-5.3%; n=4; p<0.05). These agents induce apoptosis through a p38 MAPK independent pathway that results in mitochondrial depolarization, and is dependent on caspase activation. As neutrophils play a central role in host response to infection and injury, ICM, through induction of neutrophil apoptosis, could have a significant deleterious effect on host immune defence and
The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.
Reams, Nicole; Hayward, Rodney A; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Burke, James F
Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury. Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007-2010. Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders' calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player's contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player's baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models. The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report. On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.
Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna
Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.
Hung, Aaron Chia Yuan
The paper uses actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the sociotechnical networks of three groups of adolescents who played online games in different physical and social contexts. These include: an internet café, which allowed the players to be co-present; a personal laptop, which gave the player more control over how he played; and at home through…
McGuigan, Michael R; Winchester, Jason B
Previous research has demonstrated the importance of both dynamic and isometric maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD) in athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between measures of isometric force (PF), RFD, jump performance and strength in collegiate football athletes. The subjects in this study were twenty-two men [(mean ± SD):age 18.4 ± 0.7 years; height 1.88 ± 0.07 m; mass 107.6 ± 22.9 kg] who were Division I college football players. They were tested for PF using the isometric mid thigh pull exercise. Explosive strength was measured as RFD from the isometric force-time curve. The one repetition maximum (1RM) for the squat, bench press and power clean exercises were determined as measures of dynamic strength. The two repetition maximum (2RM) for the split jerk was also determined. Vertical jump height and broad jump was measured to provide an indication of explosive muscular power. There were strong to very strong correlations between measures of PF and 1RM (r = 0. 61 - 0.72, p football players. RFD does not appear to correlate as well with other measures. The isometric mid thigh pull provides an efficient method for assessing isometric strength in athletes. This measure also provides a strong indication of dynamic performance in this population. Key pointsIn Division I college football players the isometric mid thigh pull test correlates well with 1RM testing.Rate of Force Development does not appear to be as closely related to dynamic and isometric strength in college football players.The isometric mid thigh pull provides a quick and efficient method for assessing isometric strength in athletes.
This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without
This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.
The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333
First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Key Features of oxypnictides. Metal –insulator boundary. Quasi 2D structure. Doping important. Charge transfer (redox behaviour). Normal resistivity : mohms (little higher in oxypnictides). Near antiferromagnetic ground state. Superexchange through Fe-As-Fe (Cu-O-Cu) ...
Verheul, E. R.; Lenstra, Arjen K.
In this article we offer guidelines for the determination of key sizes for symmetric cryptosystems, RSA, and discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems both over finite fields and over groups of elliptic curves over prime fields. Our recommendations are based on a set of explicitly formulated parameter settings, combined with existing data points about the cryptosystems.
Randers, M B; Andersen, T. Bull; Rasmussen, L S
and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168......The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8...... game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.
Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.
Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for promoting creativity in individual and collective levels with the respect to player types.Design/methodology/approach – This research serves as a general review/viewpoint which seeks to examine collective creativity as a phenomenon and gamification as the tool for promoting individual and collective creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from game design, psychology, business and entertainment.Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering individual and collective creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified content is to raise the engagement into activities in non-game contexts. The objective of creative work is to come up with some ideas, methods or tools which would be significantly new and innovative in the case of a certain issue. The theory of “flow” is used widely in explaining the working principles of gamification. In this state, the information absorption rates are increased and the group or individual is immersed into performed activities. This may lead to prolonged periods while accumulating knowledge, and thus, improving creative capabilities in the specific domain. However, creative performance in different fields has various approaches. It is also related to personal characteristics. The success of gamification is also dependent on the types of “players” which participate in the activity. Having the common picture of personality type in creative performance and in game based tasks may allow creating gamification strategy for optimal engagement into creative work according to the features of a person.Research limitations/implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. The idea of unified