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Sample records for apollo number space

  1. The Apollo Number: space suits, self-support, and the walk-run transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Carr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g, running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The walk-run transition (denoted * correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v(2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L. Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (approximately 0.5 with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below approximately 0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g or completely (lunar-g support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap = Fr/M as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0 and run (1, yielding Fr* (0.36+/-0.11, mean+/-95% CI and Ap* (0.68+/-0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars.

  2. The Apollo Number: Space Suits, Self-Support, and the Walk-Run Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Christopher E.; McGee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Background: How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (,0.5 g), running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. Methodology/Principal Findings: The walk-run transition (denoted *) correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L). Human unsu...

  3. Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described this simulator in his paper , 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' (Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.) 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the

  4. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of

  5. Rocket ranch the nuts and bolts of the Apollo Moon program at Kennedy Space Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Jonathan Ward takes the reader deep into the facilities at Kennedy Space Center to describe NASA’s first computer systems used for spacecraft and rocket checkout and explain how tests and launches proceeded. Descriptions of early operations include a harrowing account of the heroic efforts of pad workers during the Apollo 1 fire. A companion to the author’s book Countdown to a Moon Launch: Preparing Apollo for Its Historic Journey, this explores every facet of the facilities that served as the base for the Apollo/Saturn missions. Hundreds of illustrations complement the firsthand accounts of more than 70 Apollo program managers and engineers. The era of the Apollo/Saturn missions was perhaps the most exciting period in American space exploration history. Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center were buzzing with activity. Thousands of workers came to town to build the facilities and launch the missions needed to put an American on the Moon before the end of the decade. Work at KSC involved much more than j...

  6. Apollo experience report: Simulation of manned space flight for crew training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodling, C. H.; Faber, S.; Vanbockel, J. J.; Olasky, C. C.; Williams, W. K.; Mire, J. L. C.; Homer, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Through space-flight experience and the development of simulators to meet the associated training requirements, several factors have been established as fundamental for providing adequate flight simulators for crew training. The development of flight simulators from Project Mercury through the Apollo 15 mission is described. The functional uses, characteristics, and development problems of the various simulators are discussed for the benefit of future programs.

  7. Apollo Surface Panoramas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Apollo Surface Panoramas is a digital library of photographic panoramas that the Apollo astronauts took while exploring the Moon's surface. These images provide a...

  8. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  9. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth’s protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth’s magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4–5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  10. Apollo Metrology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. A.; Ransom, D. G.; Gardner, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    This paper introduces the metrology requirements in the recently published Apollo Program handbook, NHB 5400.2, entitled, 'Apollo Metrology Requirements Manual.' The major elements and control practices required for a comprehensive metrology system are identified. The elements are presented to you with sufficient detail of control practices to provide the scope of a total metrology program. The Manual is for implementation by the Apollo Space Flight Centers, their testing sites and contractors. The benefits of implementing these requirements are equally applicable to any Government or industry standards and calibration laboratory operations.

  11. Estimating Nielsen Numbers on Wedge Product Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seung Won

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a self-map of a finite polyhedron that is an aspherical wedge product space . In this paper, we estimate the Nielsen number of . In particular, we study some algebraic properties of the free products and then estimate Nielsen numbers on torus wedge surface with boundary, Klein bottle wedge surface with boundary, and torus wedge torus.

  12. EXTENSION OF THE PROJECTION THEOREM ON HILBERT SPACE TO FUZZY HILBERT SPACE OVER FUZZY NUMBER SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. DEEPA; Dr.S.Chenthur Pandian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the projection theorem on Hilbert space to its fuzzy version over fuzzy number space embedded with fuzzy number mapping. To prove this we discuss the concepts of fuzzy Hilbert space over fuzzy number space with fuzzy number mapping. The fuzzy orthogonality, fuzzy orthonormality, fuzzy complemented subset property etc. of fuzzy Hilbert space over fuzzy number space using fuzzy number mapping also been discussed.

  13. An annotated bibliography of the Apollo program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, Roger D.; Hunley, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The topics presented include the following: general works, the space race, decisions, Apollo technology, operations, popular culture and promotion, science, astronauts, the management of the Apollo Program, and juvenile literature.

  14. APOLLO2 YEAR 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the most important developments implemented in the APOLLO2 spectral code since its last general presentation at the 1999 M and C conference in Madrid. APOLLO2 has been provided with new capabilities in the domain of cross section self-shielding, including mixture effects and transfer matrix self-shielding, new or improved flux solvers (CPMfor RZ geometry, heterogeneous cells for short MOC and the linear-surface scheme for long MOC), improved acceleration techniques (DP1), that are also applied to thermal and external iterations, and a number of sophisticated modules and tools to help user calculations. The method of characteristics, which took over the collision probability method as the main flux solver of the code, allows for whole core two-dimensional heterogeneous calculations. A flux reconstruction technique lead sto fast albeit accurate solutions used for industrial applications. The APOLLO2 code has been integrated (APOLLO2-A)within the ARCADIA reactor code system of AREVA as cross section generator for PWR and BWR fuel assemblies. APOLLO2 is also extensively used by Electricite de France within its reactor calculation chain. A number of numerical examples are presented to illustrate APOLLO2 accuracy by comparison to Monte Carlo reference calculations. Results of the validation program are compared to the measured values on power plants and critical experiments

  15. Apollo 15 Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the Apollo 15 Moon landing mission logo. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. It was the first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions. The mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn Five rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. The heterogeneous nature of number space interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe evan Dijck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the mental representation of numerical magnitude consists of a spatial ‘mental number line’ with smaller quantities on the left and larger quantities on the right. However, the amount of dissociations between tasks that were believed to tap onto this representational medium is accumulating, questioning the universality of this model. The aim of the present study was to unravel the functional relationship between the different tasks and effects that are typically used as evidence for the mental number line. For this purpose, a group of right brain damaged patients (with and without neglect and healthy controls were subjected to physical line bisection, number interval bisection, parity judgment and magnitude comparison. Using principal component analysis, different orthogonal components were extracted. We discuss how this component structure captures the dissociations reported in the literature and how it can be considered as a first step towards a new unitary framework for understanding the relation between numbers and space.

  17. The Apollo Lightcraft Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The overall goal for this NASA/USRA-sponsored 'Apollo Lightcraft Project' is to develop a revolutionary launch vehicle technology that can reduce payload transport costs by a factor of 1000 below the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The RPI design team proposes to utilize advanced, highly energetic, beamed-energy sources (laser, microwave) and innovative combined-cycle (airbreathing/rocket) engines to accomplish this goal. This second year focused on systems integration and analysis of the 'Apollo Lightcraft'. This beam-powered, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is envisioned as the globe-trotting family shuttlecraft of the 21st century. Detailed investigations of the Apollo Lightcraft Project during the second year of study helped evolve the propulsion system design, while focusing on the following areas: (1) man/machine interface; (2) flight control systems; (3) power beaming system architecture; (4) reentry aerodynamics; (5) shroud structural dynamics; and (6) optimal trajectory analysis.

  18. Examples of Mori dream spaces with Picard number two

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we give a sufficient condition such that a projective variety with Picard number two is a Mori dream space. Using this condition, we obtain examples of Mori dream spaces with Picard number two.

  19. Apollo 13 emblem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This is the insignia of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing how the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means 'From the Moon, Knowledge'.

  20. On the Squeezed Number States and their Phase Space Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Albano, L; Stephany, J

    2002-01-01

    We compute the photon number distribution, the Q distribution function and the wave functions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state. We discuss the oscillations which appear in the photon number distribution of squeezed number states for high values of the squeezing parameter. We compare our results with the formalism based on the interference in phase space.

  1. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Hamish

    2001-01-01

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  2. Apollo Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  3. Apollo Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  4. Metrics on Noncompact Fuzzy Number Space (E^)n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉瑚

    2004-01-01

    The theory of metric spaces of fuzzy numbers has been established and found very convenient in many research fields on fuzzy analysis such as fuzzy integrals and differentials, fuzzy differential equations, fuzzy random variables and fuzzy stochastic processes etc.. But, a large part of this theory heavily depends on the condition that fuzzy number has to have compact support set and so fails to analyze and apply noncompact fuzzy numbers. The purpose of this paper is to introduce three classes of metrics on noncompact fuzzy number space and to discuss their basic properties, completeness and separability in detail.

  5. Vertical view Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed by Apollo 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An almost vertical view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed from the Apollo 14 spacecraft. Overlays are provided to point out extravehicular activity (EVA), Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) travers routes and the nicknames of features. The Roman numerals indicate the EVA numbers and the Arabic numbers point out stations or traverse stops.

  6. LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY ARA V NEFIAN*, TAEMIN KIM, MICHAEL BROXTON, AND ZACH MORATTO Abstract. Generating accurate three...

  7. Linear Mapping of Numbers onto Space Requires Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anobile, Giovanni; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Burr, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of number onto space is fundamental to mathematics and measurement. Previous research suggests that while typical adults with mathematical schooling map numbers veridically onto a linear scale, pre-school children and adults without formal mathematics training, as well as individuals with dyscalculia, show strong compressive,…

  8. Evaluation report for toggle switches: Texas Instruments, Inc., Apollo-type, and Daven Measurements part number 45000-XXX, job order 32-139

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labberton, D.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental capabilities was undertaken on toggle switches and on Apollo-type toggle switches. The purpose of this evaluation was to take a first look at their tested capabilities for the purpose of determining whether the candidate hardware appears to have a good chance of successfully completing a detailed envrionmental qualification test program.

  9. Apollo 16 neutron stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, G. P., III

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soils have the largest low-energy neutron fluences yet observed in lunar samples. Variations in the isotopic ratios Gd-158/Gd-157 and Sm-150/Sm-149 (up to 1.9 and 2.0%, respectively) indicate that the low-energy neutron fluence in the Apollo 16 drill stem increases with depth throughout the section sampled. Such a variation implies that accretion has been the dominant regolith 'gardening' process at this location. The data may be fit by a model of continuous accretion of pre-irradiated material or by models involving as few as two slabs of material in which the first slab could have been deposited as long as 1 b.y. ago. The ratio of the number of neutrons captured per atom by Sm to the number captured per atom by Gd is lower than in previously measured lunar samples, which implies a lower energy neutron spectrum at this site. The variation of this ratio with chemical composition is qualitatively similar to that predicted by Lingenfelter et al. (1972). Variations are observed in the ratio Gd-152/Gd-160 which are fluence-correlated and probably result from neutron capture by Eu-151.

  10. Training the equidistant principle of number line spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackermann, Tanja; Fischer, Ursula; Huber, Stefan; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-08-01

    The characteristics of effective numerical trainings are still under scientific debate. Given the importance of number line estimation due to the strong relation between task performance and arithmetic abilities, the current study aimed at training one important number line characteristic: the equidistant spacing of adjacent numbers. Following an embodied training approach, second-graders were trained using a randomized crossover design to divide a presented line into different numbers of equal segments by walking the line with equally spaced steps. Performance was recorded, and feedback as to the correct equidistant spacing was provided using the Kinect sensor system. Training effects were compared to a control training with no involvement of task-specific whole-body movements. Results indicated more pronounced specific training effects after the embodied training. Moreover, transfer effects to number line estimation and arithmetic performance were partially observed. In particular, differential training effects for bounded versus unbounded number line estimation corroborate the assumption that not only bodily experiences but also the need for a flexible adaption of the perspective on the training material might influence training success. Hence, more pronounced training effects of the embodied training might stem from different cognitive processes involved. PMID:27075185

  11. Generating functions for intersection numbers on moduli spaces of curves

    OpenAIRE

    Okounkov, Andrei

    2001-01-01

    Using the connection between intersection theory on the Deligne-Mumford spaces and the edge scaling of the GUE matrix model (see math.CO/9903176, math.AG/0101147), we express the n-point functions for the intersection numbers as n-dimensional error-function-type integrals and also give a derivation of Witten's KdV equations using the higher Fay identities of Adler, Shiota, and van Moerbeke.

  12. The rational variability of all empty space by prime numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This mathematics manuscript has no conjecture, and the values of the half-line prime number are absolute and of simple pure mathematics by dual spiral cords that clearly spell out the distributive form of Prime numbers. The very clear half-line values for each prime numbers are made indirectly by using our continuous sieve of prime numbers ( Den otter/Hope research sieve or any other risky prime sieve .Half-line values for each prime number are constant by an ascension order ( 19=16 for instance. This is also done directly using the quadratic base to derive the variability, and the values of sets are constant. We have shown the characteristics of Prime numbers genesis and distribution, by clear sublime mathematics, that no living mathematician can question as the values are absolutely clear and that this is the way the creator created the prime numbers Now the concepts of current mathematics with regards to prime numbers are passé and in the authors opinion they are convoluted. The orientation of prime number distribution of the curved spiral is “warped variable constant” by spiral sets of fixed prime number distribution. The coordinates are fixed at 1:3 and the spiral sets are fixed; the orientation is however twisted and warped from each position as shown herein. The coordinates of the Chan point prime numbers 5:7 (14:16 19:23 are at the base and un-warped and this is evident topologically in any flat paper rendition of prime numbers, but after that the midline rotates by set orientation and topologically the spiral ascension has variable orientations but predictable dimension from any given point. This is the numbers theorem of space orientation, and dimension where all numbers represent their relationship to the half-line. Proof of this also is in the patent 1:3 diagram by topology shown below, and the “Chan point” by quadratic base and spiral orientation. 

  13. Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This is the flight insignia, or logo, for the Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar landing mission. Descending on the lunar surface, the eagle in the logo depicts the Lunar Module (LM), named 'Eagle''. Carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, the 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. Aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand upon the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V launch vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  14. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue wit......: where does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  15. Apollo Lightcraft Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Atonison, Mark A. (Editor); Chen, Sammy G. (Editor); Decusatis, Casimer (Editor); Kusche, Karl P. (Editor); Minucci, Marco A. (Editor); Moder, Jeffrey P. (Editor); Morales, Ciro (Editor); Nelson, Caroline V. (Editor); Richard, Jacques C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate goal for this NASA/USRA-sponsored Apollo Lightcraft Project is to develop a revolutionary manned launch vehicle technology which can potentially reduce payload transport costs by a factor of 1000 below the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The Rensselaer design team proposes to utilize advanced, highly energetic, beamed-energy sources (laser, microwave) and innovative combined-cycle (airbreathing/rocket) engines to accomplish this goal. The research effort focuses on the concept of a 100 MW-class, laser-boosted Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD) drone. The preliminary conceptual design of this 1.4 meter diameter microspacecraft involved an analytical performance analysis of the transatmospheric engine in its two modes of operation (including an assessment of propellant and tankage requirements), and a detailed design of internal structure and external aeroshell configuration. The central theme of this advanced propulsion research was to pick a known excellent working fluid (i.e., air or LN sub 2), and then to design a combined-cycle engine concept around it. Also, a structural vibration analysis was performed on the annular shroud pulsejet engine. Finally, the sensor satellite mission was examined to identify the requisite subsystem hardware: e.g., electrical power supply, optics and sensors, communications and attitude control systems.

  16. Forward and backward galaxy evolution in comoving number density space

    CERN Document Server

    Torrey, Paul; Ma, Chung-Pei; Hopkins, Philip F; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy comoving number density is commonly used to forge progenitor/descendant links between observed galaxy populations at different epochs. However, this method breaks down in the presence of galaxy mergers, or when galaxies experience stochastic growth rates. We present a simple analytic framework to treat the physical processes that drive the evolution and diffusion of galaxies within comoving number density space. The evolution in mass rank order of a galaxy population with time is influenced by the galaxy coagulation rate and galaxy "mass rank scatter" rate. We quantify the relative contribution of these two effects to the mass rank order evolution. We show that galaxy coagulation is dominant at lower redshifts and stellar masses, while scattered growth rates dominate the mass rank evolution at higher redshifts and stellar masses. For a galaxy population at $10^{10} M_\\odot$, coagulation has been the dominant effect since $z=2.2$, but a galaxy population at $10^{11} M_\\odot$ was dominated by mass rank s...

  17. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  18. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  19. Apollo experience report: Spacecraft pyrotechnic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, M. J.; Robinson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Pyrotechnic devices were used successfully in many systems of the Apollo spacecraft. The physical and functional characteristics of each device are described. The development, qualification, and performance tests of the devices and the ground-support equipment are discussed briefly. Recommendations for pyrotechnic devices on future space vehicles are given.

  20. Erection of the Apollo Service Module in High Bay #3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Erection of the Apollo Service module in High Bay #3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This view is of the aft bulkhead showing the high-gain antenna and engine bell.

  1. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  2. Apollo management: A key to the solution of the social-economical dilemma - The transferability of space-travel managerial techniques to the civil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkamer, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis has been conducted to find out whether the management techniques developed in connection with the Apollo project could be used for dealing with such urgent problems of modern society as the crisis of the cities, the increasing environmental pollution, and the steadily growing traffic. Basic concepts and definitions of program and system management are discussed together with details regarding the employment of these concepts in connection with the solution of the problems of the Apollo program. Principles and significance of a systems approach are considered, giving attention to planning, system analysis, system integration, and project management. An application of the methods of project management to the problems of the civil sector is possible if the special characteristics of each particular case are taken into account.

  3. Looking for the answer: the mind's eye in number space

    OpenAIRE

    Loetscher, T; Bockisch, C J; Brugger, P

    2008-01-01

    Human subjects' answer to questions like "what number is halfway between 2 and 8" provides insights into spatial attention mechanisms involved in numerical processing. Here we show that mental numerical bisections are accompanied by a systematic pattern of horizontal eye movements: processing of a large number followed by a small number is accompanied with leftward eye movements, a tendency less pronounced or even reversed for the processing of a small number followed by a large number. The e...

  4. Natural Numbers and Quantum States in Fock Space

    OpenAIRE

    Raffa, Francesco A.; Rasetti, Mario

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the expression of natural numbers in any base from a quantum point of view. In particular, resorting to the one-to-one correspondence between natural numbers and Fock states, we construct a set of multiboson operators and a set of translation operators, whose action on the Fock states leads to the coefficients identifying a natural number in any base.

  5. On the squeezed number states and their phase space representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the photon-number distribution, the Q(α) distribution function and the wavefunctions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state using generating functions which allow one to obtain any matrix element in the squeezed number state representation from the matrix elements in the squeezed coherent state representation. For highly squeezed number states we discuss the previously unnoted oscillations which appear in the Q(α) function. We also note that these oscillations can be related to the photon-number distribution oscillations and to the momentum representation of the wavefunction

  6. Betti numbers and stability for configuration spaces via factorization homology

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Using factorization homology, we realize the rational homology of the unordered configuration spaces of an arbitrary manifold $M$, possibly with boundary, as the homology of a Lie algebra constructed from the compactly supported cohomology of $M$. By locating the homology of each configuration space within the Chevalley-Eilenberg complex of this Lie algebra, we extend theorems of B\\"{o}digheimer-Cohen-Taylor and F\\'{e}lix-Thomas and give a new, combinatorial proof of the homological stability...

  7. Apollo premeeris lugejate lemmikautoreid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Raamatupood Apollo kuulutas välja lugejate lemmikraamatud 2010: Mihkel Raua romaan "Sinine on sinu taevas", tõlketeostest Mika Waltari "Sinuhe : egiptlane", aja- ja elulooraamatutest Mart Laari "101 Eesti ajaloo sündmust", lasteraamatutest Andrus Kivirähki "Kaka ja kevad" ning luuleraamatutest Asko Künnapi, Jürgen Rooste ja Karl Martin Sinijärve "Eesti haiku"

  8. APOLLO 16 ASTRONAUTS UNDERGO SIMULATED LUNAR TRAVERSE DURING TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 flight crew, astronauts Charles M. Duke, Jr., and John W. Young, prepare to undergo a simulated lunar traverse in the training area. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Apollo 16, the eighth Apollo Lunar landing, is scheduled to land in the mountainous highland region near the crater Descartes to explore the area for a three day period collecting surface material. Making geological observations, and deploying the fourth geophysical station on the Moon. The flight crew of the mission are: John W. Young, commander; Charles M. Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot; and Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot.

  9. Apollo: Learning from the past, for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabois, Michael R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle, and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006, a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was started to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning answers to the question "how did we do this during Apollo?"

  10. Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Kevin B.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.

  11. Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Dust Grain Charging in Space Environments: Measurements on Apollo 11 and 17 Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10- 400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of approximately 0.2 to 13 microns diameters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  12. Generalized difference Cesaro sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers defined by Orlicz functions

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPATHY, Binod Chandra; Borgohain, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduced the generalized difference Cesaro sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers defined by Orlicz function. We study some topological properties of these spaces. We obtain some inclusion relations involving these sequence spaces. These notions generalize many notions on difference Cesaro sequence spaces.

  13. Some Additions to the Fuzzy Convergent and Fuzzy Bounded Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Şengönül; Zararsız, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Some properties of the fuzzy convergence and fuzzy boundedness of a sequence of fuzzy numbers were studied in Choi (1996). In this paper, we have consider, some important problems on these spaces and shown that these spaces are fuzzy complete module spaces. Also, the fuzzy α-, fuzzy β-, and fuzzy γ-duals of the fuzzy module spaces of fuzzy numbers have been computeded, and some matrix transformations are given.

  14. Apollo Anniversary: Moon Landing "Inspired World"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Roach; 李然

    2004-01-01

    @@ On July 20, 1969, at 10:56 p.m. ET, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the moon and said, "That' s one small step for man,one giant leap for mankind." Thirty-five years later, Steven Dick, NASA's chief historian at the space agency's headquarters in Washington, D.C. , said that a thousand years from now, that step may be considered the crowning① achievement of the 20th century.

  15. The APOLLO assembly spectrum code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APOLLO code was originally developed as a design tool for HTR's, later it was aimed at the calculation of PWR lattices. APOLLO is a general purpose assembly spectrum code based on the multigroup integral transport equation; refined collision probability modules allow the computation of 1D geometries with linearly anisotropic scattering and two term flux expansion. In 2D geometries modules based on the substructure method provide fast and accurate design calculations and a module based on a direct discretization is devoted to reference calculations. The SPH homogenization technique provides corrected cross sections performing an equivalence between coarse and refined calculations. The post processing module of APOLLO generate either APOLLIB to be used by APOLLO or NEPLIB for reactor diffusion calculation. The cross section library of APOLLO contains data and self-shielding data for more than 400 isotopes. APOLLO is able to compute the depletion of any medium accounting for any heavy isotope or fission product chain. 21 refs

  16. Apollo 11 Commemorative 20th Anniversary Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. This logo represents the Commemorative 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Lunar mission. Housed inside the zero of the numeral twenty is the original flight insignia in which an Eagle descending upon the lunar surface depicts the LM, named 'Eagle''.

  17. The middle range of the number line orients attention to the left side of visual space

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Silvanto, Juha; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella

    2009-01-01

    Mental representation of numbers is believed to be spatial in nature, with small numbers occupying the left and large numbers the right side of a putative mental number line. Consistent with this, presentation of numbers from the low and high ends of the mental number line induces covert shifts of spatial attention to the left and right side of visual space, respectively. However, the effect of the presentation of the middle range (containing numbers below and above the midpoint) of the numbe...

  18. New properties of BK-spaces defined by using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sinan; Bektaş, ćiǧdem A.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we studied the new properties of BK-spaces which were defined using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers in [1]. We computed alpha-, beta-, gamma- duals of these spaces and obtained Schauder basis. We also derived some topological properties of these spaces.

  19. Some multiordered difference sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers defined by modulus function

    OpenAIRE

    Manmohan Das; Bipul Sarma

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce some new multi ordered difference operator on sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers by using modulus function and study their some algebraic and topological properties. Also we study some statistical convergent sequence space of fuzzy real numbers defined by modulus function.

  20. On some generalised I-convergent sequence spaces of double interval numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Esi Esi; Vakael Khan; Yasmeen Yasmeen; Hira Fatima

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce and study some spaces of I-convergent sequences of double interval numbers with the help of a double sequence F=(f_{i,j}) of modulii and double bounded sequence p=(p_{i,j}) of positive real numbers. We study some topological and algebraic properties, prove the decomposition theorem and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.

  1. From Apollo to Cognac

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Shell Oil Company started oil and gas production from a new offshore platform called Cognac located in the Gulf of Mexico. It is the world's tallest oil platform, slightly taller than the Empire State Building. The highly complex job of installing Cognac's support "jacket" under water more than a thousand feet deep was directed from a barge-based control center. To enable crews to practice in advance difficult tasks never before accomplished, Honeywell, adapting NASA's Apollo technology, developed a system for simulating the various underwater operations. In training sessions, displays and controls reacted exactly as they would in real operation.

  2. What's the Big Idea? Seeking to Top Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Human space flight has struggled to find its soul since Apollo. The astounding achievements of human space programs over the 40 years since Apollo have failed to be as iconic or central to society as in the 1960s. The paper proffers a way human space flight could again be associated with a societal Big Idea. It describes eight societal factors that have irrevocably changed since Apollo; then analyzes eight other factors that a forward HSF Big Idea would have to fit. The paper closes by assessing the four principal options for HSF futures against those eight factors. Robotic and human industrialization of geosynchronous orbit to provide unlimited, sustainable electrical power to Earth is found to be the best candidate for the next Big Idea.

  3. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  4. An index formula for the self-linking number of a space curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Given an embedded closed space curve with non-vanishing curvature, its self-linking number is defined as the linking number between the original curve and a curve pushed slightly off in the direction of its principal normals. We present an index formula for the self-linking number in terms of the...

  5. Results of the Apollo 15 and 16 X-ray experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodget, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Podwysocki, M.; Weidner, J. R.; Bickel, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Except for some minor modifications the Apollo 16 X-ray fluorescence experiment was similar to that flown aboard Apollo 15. The Apollo 16 provided data for a number of features not previously covered such as Mare Cognitum, Mare Nubium, Ptolemaeus, Descartes, Mendeleev, and other areas. Many data points were obtained by the X-ray experiments, so that comparisons could be drawn between Apollo 15 and 16 flights. The agreement was generally within about 10%. Al/Si concentration ratios ranged from 0.38% in Mare Cognitum to 0.67% in the Descartes area highlands. A comparison of the Apollo 16 data Al/Si values with optical albedo values along the ground tracks showed the same positive correlation as in the Apollo 15 flight. A reexamination of the detector and collimator geometries showed that the spatial resolution was better by almost a factor of two than the initial estimates.

  6. On the Space bvp(F) of Sequences of p-bounded Variation of Fuzzy Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)zer TALO; Feyzi BASAR

    2008-01-01

    Recently,the space bvp of real or complex numbers consisting of all sequences whose differences are in the space lp has been studied by Basar,Altay [Ukrainian Math.J.55(1)(2003),136-147],where 1 ≤ p ≤∞.The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce the space bvp(F) of sequences of p-bounded variation of fuzzy numbers.Moreover,it is proved that the space bvp(F) includes the space lp(F) and also shown that the spaces bvp(F) and lp(F) are isomorphic for 1 ≤ p ≤∞ .Furthermore,some inclusion relations have been given.

  7. Some Double Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers of Paranormed Type

    OpenAIRE

    Bipul Sarma

    2013-01-01

    We study different properties of convergent, null, and bounded double sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers like completeness, solidness, sequence algebra, symmetricity, convergence-free, and so forth. We prove some inclusion results too.

  8. SOME DOUBLE SEQUENCE SPACES OF FUZZY NUMBERS DEFINED BY ORLICZ FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binod Chandra Tripathy; Bipul Sarma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we introduce some double sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers defined by Orlicz function, study some of their properties like solidness, symmetricity,completeness etc, and prove some inclusion results.

  9. Some Double Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers of Paranormed Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Sarma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study different properties of convergent, null, and bounded double sequence spaces of fuzzy real numbers like completeness, solidness, sequence algebra, symmetricity, convergence-free, and so forth. We prove some inclusion results too.

  10. On some generalised I-convergent sequence spaces of double interval numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esi Esi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce and study some spaces of I-convergent sequences of double interval numbers with the help of a double sequence F=(f_{i,j} of modulii and double bounded sequence p=(p_{i,j} of positive real numbers. We study some topological and algebraic properties, prove the decomposition theorem and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.

  11. Some Classes of Difference Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers Defined by Orlicz Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Chandra Tripathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the classes of generalized difference bounded, convergent, and null sequences of fuzzy real numbers defined by an Orlicz function. Some properties of these sequence spaces like solidness, symmetricity, and convergence-free are studied. We obtain some inclusion relations involving these sequence spaces.

  12. Some Classes of Difference Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers Defined by Orlicz Function

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Chandra Tripathy; Stuti Borgohain

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the classes of generalized difference bounded, convergent, and null sequences of fuzzy real numbers defined by an Orlicz function. Some properties of these sequence spaces like solidness, symmetricity, and convergence-free are studied. We obtain some inclusion relations involving these sequence spaces.

  13. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Samirov, D V [Department of Innovations and High Technology, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi, Moskovskaya obl. (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  14. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  15. Artist's concept of eastward view of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating an eastward view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site. The white overlay indicates the scheduled tranverses by the Apollo 16 astronauts in the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals are the extravehicular activities (EVA's); and the Arabic numbers are the station stops along the traverse.

  16. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  17. Apollo Project - LOLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the screens with four Schmidt television

  18. A general number-to-space mapping deficit in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S; Sury, D; Moeller, K; Rubinsten, O; Nuerk, H-C

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on developmental dyscalculia (DD) suggested that deficits in the number line estimation task are related to a failure to represent number magnitude linearly. This conclusion was derived from the observation of logarithmically shaped estimation patterns. However, recent research questioned this idea of an isomorphic relationship between estimation patterns and number magnitude representation. In the present study, we evaluated an alternative hypothesis: impairments in the number line estimation task are due to a general deficit in mapping numbers onto space. Adults with DD and a matched control group had to learn linear and non-linear layouts of the number line via feedback. Afterwards, we assessed their performance how well they learnt the new number-space mappings. We found irrespective of the layouts worse performance of adults with DD. Additionally, in case of the linear layout, we observed that their performance did not differ from controls near reference points, but that differences between groups increased as the distance to reference point increased. We conclude that worse performance of adults with DD in the number line task might be due a deficit in mapping numbers onto space which can be partly overcome relying on reference points. PMID:26151441

  19. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  20. New gauge fields from extension of space time parallel transport of vector spaces to the underlying number systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way of describing gauge theories in physics is to assign a vector space (bar V)x to each space time point x. For each x the field ψ takes values ψ(x) in (bar V)x. The freedom to choose a basis in each (bar V)x introduces gauge group operators and their Lie algebra representations to define parallel transformations between vector spaces. This paper is an exploration of the extension of these ideas to include the underlying scalar complex number fields. Here a Hilbert space, (bar H)x, as an example of (bar V)x, and a complex number field, (bar C)x, are associated with each space time point. The freedom to choose a basis in (bar H)x is expanded to include the freedom to choose complex number fields. This expansion is based on the discovery that there exist representations of complex (and other) number systems that differ by arbitrary scale factors. Compensating changes must be made in the basic field operations so that the relevant axioms are satisfied. This results in the presence of a new real valued gauge field A(x). Inclusion of A(x) into covariant derivatives in Lagrangians results in the description of A(x) as a gauge boson for which mass is optional. The great accuracy of QED suggests that the coupling constant of A(x) to matter fields is very small compared to the fine structure constant. Other physical properties of A(x) are not known at present.

  1. Albert Siepert Points Out Highlights of Apollo 10 Liftoff to Belgium King and Queen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.

  2. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin suits up for Countdown Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. relaxes after suiting up to participate in a space vehicle Countdown Demonstration Test with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins. They will be launched on a lunar landing mission.

  3. Certain Spaces of Functions over the Field of Non-Newtonian Complex Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faruk Çakmak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigate some characteristic features of complex numbers and functions in terms of non-Newtonian calculus. Following Grossman and Katz, (Non-Newtonian Calculus, Lee Press, Piegon Cove, Massachusetts, 1972, we construct the field ℂ* of *-complex numbers and the concept of *-metric. Also, we give the definitions and the basic important properties of *-boundedness and *-continuity. Later, we define the space C*(Ω of *-continuous functions and state that it forms a vector space with respect to the non-Newtonian addition and scalar multiplication and we prove that C*(Ω is a Banach space. Finally, Multiplicative calculus (MC, which is one of the most popular non-Newtonian calculus and created by the famous exp function, is applied to complex numbers and functions to investigate some advance inner product properties and give inclusion relationship between C*(Ω and the set of C*′(Ω*-differentiable functions.

  4. Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical studies of the process of deciding on and executing the Apollo lunar landing during the 1960s and early 1970s. From the announcement of President John F Kennedy on May 25, 1961, of his decision to land an American on the Moon by the end of the decade, through the first lunar landing on July 20, 1969, on to the last of six successful Moon landings with Apollo 17 in December 1972, NASA carried out Project Apollo with enthusiasm and aplomb. While there have been many studies recounting the history of Apollo, at the time of the 30th anniversary of the first lunar landing by Apollo 11, it seems appropriate to revisit the process of large-scale technological management as it related to the lunar mission. Consequently, the NASA History Office has chosen to publish this monograph containing the recollections of key partcipants in the management process. The collective oral history presented here was recorded in 1989 at the Johnson Space Center's Gilruth Recreation Center in Houston, Texas. It includes the recollections of key participants in Apollo's administration, addressing issues such as communication between field centers, the prioritization of technological goals, and the delegation of responsibility. The following people participated: George E. Muller, Owen W. Morris, Maxime A. Faget, Robert R. Gilruth, Christopher C. Kraft, and Howard W. (Bill) Tindall. The valuable perspectives of these individuals deepen and expand our understanding of this important historical event. This is the 14th in a series of special studies prepared by the NASA History Office. The Monographs in Aerospace History series is designed to provide a wide variety of investigations relative to the history of aeronautics and space. These publications are intended to be tightly focused in terms of subject, relatively short in length, and reproduced in an inexpensive format to allow timely and broad dissemination to researchers in aerospace history.

  5. Luminescence of Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, N. N.; Gross, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luminescence measurements have been made of Apollo 14 lunar samples with far UV, X-ray, and proton irradiation and of Apollo 15 lunar samples with X-ray irradiation. Preliminary efficiencies with the far UV are in the range .01 to .001; efficiencies with X-rays and protons are in the range .000001 to .00000001. The crystalline igneous rocks show higher efficiencies, in general, than the breccias and glasses, and the ratio of intensity of the green to the blue luminescence peak tends to be higher for the crystalline igneous rocks than for the breccias and glasses.

  6. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  7. Nuclear structure theory in spin- and number-conserving quasiparticle configuration spaces: First applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.

    1984-01-01

    In the first part of the present series of two papers we discussed several nuclear structure models all working in configuration spaces consisting of spin- and number-projected quasiparticle determinants. In the present paper a particular version of the numerically simplest of these models is presented. This model approximates the nuclear wave functions by linear combinations of the angular momentum- and particle number-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov vacuum and the equally spin- and number-projected two quasiparticle excitations with respect to it. The model allows the use of realistic two body interactions and rather large model spaces. It can hence be applied to a large number of nuclear structure problems in various mass regions. First applications have been performed for the nuclei /sup 20/Ne, /sup 22/Ne, /sup 46/Ti, and /sup 164/Er. In all these cases the results are very encouraging.

  8. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope

  9. Optical properties of Apollo 12 moon samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, B.; Briggs, F.

    1973-01-01

    We present the photometric phase function, color, normal albedo, polarimetric phase function, and spectrophotometry of the Apollo 12 soil. With a few minor exceptions, the optical properties of the Apollo 12 soil are very similar to those of the Apollo 11 soil and of lunar mare surfaces.

  10. Of magnitudes and metaphors: explaining cognitive interactions between space, time, and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Bodo; Marghetis, Tyler; Matlock, Teenie

    2015-03-01

    Space, time, and number are fundamental to how we act within and reason about the world. These three experiential domains are systematically intertwined in behavior, language, and the brain. Two main theories have attempted to account for cross-domain interactions. A Theory of Magnitude (ATOM) posits a domain-general magnitude system. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) maintains that cross-domain interactions are manifestations of asymmetric mappings that use representations of space to structure the domains of number and time. These theories are often viewed as competing accounts. We propose instead that ATOM and CMT are complementary, each illuminating different aspects of cross-domain interactions. We argue that simple representations of magnitude cannot, on their own, account for the rich, complex interactions between space, time and number described by CMT. On the other hand, ATOM is better at accounting for low-level and language-independent associations that arise early in ontogeny. We conclude by discussing how magnitudes and metaphors are both needed to understand our neural and cognitive web of space, time and number. PMID:25437376

  11. The underlying number-space mapping among kindergarteners and its relation with early numerical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Wong, Terry Tin-Yau

    2016-08-01

    People map numbers onto space. The well-replicated SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect indicates that people have a left-sided bias when responding to small numbers and a right-sided bias when responding to large numbers. This study examined whether such spatial codes were tagged to the ordinal or magnitude information of numbers among kindergarteners and whether it was related to early numerical abilities. Based on the traditional magnitude judgment task, we developed two variant tasks-namely the month judgment task and dot judgment task-to elicit ordinal and magnitude processing of numbers, respectively. Results showed that kindergarteners oriented small numbers toward the left side and large numbers toward the right side when processing the ordinal information of numbers in the month judgment task but not when processing the magnitude information in the number judgment task and dot judgment task, suggesting that the left-to-right spatial bias was probably tagged to the ordinal but not magnitude property of numbers. Moreover, the strength of the SNARC effect was not related to early numerical abilities. These findings have important implications for the early spatial representation of numbers and its role in numerical performance among kindergarteners. PMID:27104240

  12. Geologic setting of Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, C. A.; Muehlberger, W. R.; Ulrich, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, the materials of the Cayley Plains and the Descartes Mountains were thought to be mostly of volcanic origin. Rock and soil samples from these regions strongly suggest, however, that they may be products of multiring basin forming impacts, although minor local volcanism is not precluded. The smooth planar surfaces may have been formed initially by Imbrium ejecta which flowed into topographic lows at the distal margins of the lineated Fra Mauro ejecta. It is emphasized, however, that the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site cannot necessarily be considered representative of the lunar crust in the Descartes region from which they were collected.

  13. Preliminary analysis of WL experiment number 701: Space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. W.; Padden, R. J.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Chapman, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    A brief overview of the analysis performed on WL Experiment number 701 is presented, highlighting the successful operation of the first know active fiber optic links orbited in space. Four operating fiber optic links were exposed to the space environment for a period exceeding five years, situated aboard and external to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Despite the prolonged space exposure to radiation, wide temperature extremums, atomic oxygen interactions, and micrometeorite and debris impacts, the optical data links performed well within specification limits. Early Phillips Laboratory tests and analyses performed on the experiment and its recovered magnetic tape data strongly indicate that fiber optic application in space will have a high success rate.

  14. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  15. Rotation spacing and multiplexing number in angle-peristrophic multiplexing holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Masamitsu; Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Motohashi, Mitsuya; Saito, Nobuo

    2015-09-01

    Holographic memory is expected to be the next-generation optical memory with several advantages including high data transfer rate and high recording density. Holographic memory enables the storage of holograms in the same location in a holographic medium typically using the angle multiplexing method. The multiplexing number is an important factor that determines the recording density when using this method. To increase the multiplexing number, it is known as an effective method to combine peristrophic (or rotation) multiplexing with angle multiplexing. We use the k-sphere to describe that the rotation spacing for peristrophic multiplexing depends on both the numerical aperture in the signal beam path and the angle between the reference and signal beams. We then formulate the rotation spacing and compare the results obtained using the theoretical formula with the measured results. Finally, we estimate the maximum multiplexing number for our experimental system using the angle-peristrophic multiplexing method on the basis of the measured results.

  16. Apollo - LOLA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Project LOLA. Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs' : 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the screens with four Schmidt television projectors. The attitude orientation of the vehicle is represented by changing the lunar scene

  17. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Prayer Within Quarantine Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility as prayer is offered by Lt. Commander John Pirrto, USS Hornet Chaplain accompanied by U.S. President Richard Nixon (front right). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. How to find the Apollo landing sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2014-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to be able to connect the history of lunar exploration to the Moon visible above. It addresses what Apollo equipment and experiments were left behind and what the Apollo landings sites look like now. Each Apollo mission is examined in detail, with photos that progressively zoom-in to guide the reader in locating the Apollo landing sites. Guided by official NASA photographs from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the original Apollo missions, the reader can view the Moon with a new appreciation of the accomplishment of landing astronauts on its surface.  Countless people have gazed at the Moon in the night sky knowing the successes of the Apollo Program in landing men on the Moon. After the information in this guide, casual and serious observers can actually point out where the Apollo landings occurred as well as knowing why those sites were chosen.

  19. Phase space interference and the WKB approximation for squeezed number states

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D F

    2003-01-01

    Squeezed number states for a single mode Hamiltonian are investigated from two complementary points of view. Firstly the more relevant features of their photon distribution are discussed using the WKB wave functions. In particular the oscillations of the distribution and the parity behavior are derived and compared with the exact results. The accuracy is verified and it is shown that for high photon number it fails to reproduce the true distribution. This is contrasted with the fact that for moderate squeezing the WKB approximation gives the analytical justification to the interpretation of the oscillations as the result of the interference of areas with definite phases in phase space. It is shown with a computation at high squeezing using a modified prescription for the phase space representation which is based on Wigner-Cohen distributions that the failure of the WKB approximation does not invalidate the area overlap picture.

  20. Quasi-normal Frequencies in Schwarzschild space-time to Arbitrary Order for Large Overtone Number

    CERN Document Server

    Casals, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We analytically investigate the spin-1 quasinormal mode frequencies of Schwarzschild black hole space-time. We formally determine these frequencies to arbitrary order as an expansion for large imaginary part (i.e., large-n, where n is the overtone number). As an example of the practicality of this formal procedure, we analytically calculate the explicit frequencies up to order $n^{-5/2}$.

  1. Some s-numbers of an integral operator of Hardy type in Banach function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edmunds, D.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Kopaliani, T.; Samashvili, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 207, July (2016), s. 79-97. ISSN 0021-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Hardy type operators * Banach function spaces * s-numbers * compact linear operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2014 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0021904516000265

  2. Space and time dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: Effects on physical and geometric quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space and time dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space and time or space time dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics, are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scal...

  3. Mapping number to space in the two hemispheres of the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Pre-verbal infants and non-human animals associate small numbers with the left space and large numbers with the right space. Birds and primates, trained to identify a given position in a sagittal series of identical positions, whenever required to respond on a left/right oriented series, referred the given position starting from the left end. Here, we extended this evidence by selectively investigating the role of either cerebral hemisphere, using the temporary monocular occlusion technique. In birds, lacking the corpus callosum, visual input is fed mainly to the contralateral hemisphere. We trained 4-day-old chicks to identify the 4th element in a sagittal series of 10 identical elements. At test, the series was identical but left/right oriented. Test was conducted in right monocular, left monocular or binocular condition of vision. Right monocular chicks pecked at the 4th right element; left monocular and binocular chicks pecked at the 4th left element. Data on monocular chicks demonstrate that both hemispheres deal with an ordinal (sequential) task. Data on binocular chicks indicate that the left bias is linked to a right hemisphere dominance, that allocates the attention toward the left hemispace. This constitutes a first step towards understanding the neural basis of number space mapping. PMID:27246250

  4. The link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcat, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Made in the frame of a French master on political history of USA in Paris IV La Sorbonne University, this subject is the third part of " The Economy of Apollo during the 60s". Nicolas Turcat is actually preparing his PhD in History of Innovation (DEA—Paris IV La Sorbonne). Our actual subject is " the link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years". This speech will highlight on some aspects of the link between NASA and aerospace industry. NASA could achieve the Apollo mission safely and under heavy financial pressure during the sixties due to a new type of organization for a civil agency; the contractor system. In fact, Military used it since the 1950s. And we will see how the development of this type of contract permitted a better interaction between the two parts. NASA would make another type of link with universities and technical institutes; a real brain trust was created, and between 1961 and 1967, 10,000 students worked and more than 200 universities on Apollo program. We will try to study briefly the procurement plan and process during the Apollo years. Without entering the " spin-offs debate", we will try to watch different aspects of the impacts and realities of the contractor and subcontractor system. We will see that would create a political debate inside USA when presidents Johnson and Nixon would decide to reduce Apollo program. Which states will benefit Apollo program? Or questions like how the debate at the end of the 1960s will become more and more political? Actually, almost 60% of the country's R&D was focused on Apollo, economical and moreover, political impacts would be great. We will try to study this under the light of different example: and particularly in California. The industrial and military complex was a part of the Apollo program. Apollo reoriented the aim of this complex for making it the first aerospace industry. Since this time, USA had not only acquired space ambition but real space capabilities. But more than

  5. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit. PMID:25018746

  6. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: Space, time and number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KennySkagerlund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS. The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1 children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2 a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3 a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  7. Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15

  8. Artist's Concept of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the first international docking of the U.S.'s Apollo spacecraft and the U.S.S.R.'s Soyuz spacecraft in space. The objective of the ASTP mission was to provide the basis for a standardized international system for docking of marned spacecraft. The Soyuz spacecraft, with Cosmonauts Alexei Leonov and Valeri Kubasov aboard, was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome near Tyuratam in the Kazakh, Soviet Socialist Republic, at 8:20 a.m. (EDT) on July 15, 1975. The Apollo spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand, and Donald Slayton aboard, was launched from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 3:50 p.m. (EDT) on July 15, 1975. The Primary objectives of the ASTP were achieved. They performed spacecraft rendezvous, docking and undocking, conducted intervehicular crew transfer, and demonstrated the interaction of U.S. and U.S.S.R. control centers and spacecraft crews. The mission marked the last use of a Saturn launch vehicle. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for development and sustaining engineering of the Saturn IB launch vehicle during the mission.

  9. Displaced squeezed number states: Position space representation, inner product, and some applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Jørgensen, Thomas Godsk; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1996-01-01

    For some applications the overall phase of a quantum state is crucial. For the so-called displaced squeezed number state (DSN), which is a generalization of the well-known squeezed coherent state, we obtain the position space representation with the correct overall phase, from the dynamics in a...... harmonic potential. The importance of the overall phase is demonstrated in the context of characteristic or moment generating functions. For two special cases the characteristic function is shown to be computable from the inner product of two different DSNs....

  10. Finiteness of the number of arithmetic groups generated by reflections in Lobachevsky spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After results of the author (1980, 1981) and Vinberg (1981), the finiteness of the number of maximal arithmetic groups generated by reflections in Lobachevsky spaces remained unknown in dimensions 2≤n≤9 only. It was proved recently (2005) in dimension 2 by Long, Maclachlan and Reid and in dimension 3 by Agol. Here we use the results in dimensions 2 and 3 to prove the finiteness in all remaining dimensions 4≤n≤9. The methods of the author (1980, 1981) are more than sufficient for this using a very short and very simple argument

  11. Nuclear structure theory in spin- and number-conserving quasiparticle configuration spaces: General formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper a general survey of the mathematical formalism for microscopic nuclear structure calculations in configuration spaces consisting of arbitrary spin- and number-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov--type quasiparticle determinants is given. On the basis of this formalism, various levels of approximation are then discussed. These lead to a number of microscopic nuclear structure models in between the standard Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory and the complete diagonalization of a given effective many nucleon Hamiltonian. For all these models variational equations are derived and possibilities for their numerical application are estimated. The second part of the present series of two papers will then present initial results of the applications of the simplest of these models to several nuclei in various mass regions.

  12. An experimental investigation of the NASA space shuttle external tank at hypersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittliff, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Pressure and heat transfer tests were conducted simulating flight conditions which the space shuttle external tank will experience prior to break-up. The tests were conducted in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel and simulated entry conditions for nominal, abort-once-around (AOA), and return to launch site (RTLS) launch occurrences. Surface pressure and heat-transfer-rate distributions were obtained with and without various protuberences (or exterior hardware) on the model at Mach numbers from 15.2 to 17.7 at angles of attack from -15 deg to -180 deg and at several roll angles. The tests were conducted over a Reynolds number range from 1300 to 58,000, based on model length.

  13. The impact of mathematical proficiency on the number-space association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A specific instance of the association between numerical and spatial representations is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes effect. The SNARC effect describes the finding that during binary classification of numbers participants are faster to respond to small/large numbers with the left/right hand respectively. Even though it has been frequently replicated, important inter-individual variability has also been reported. Mathematical proficiency is an obvious candidate source for inter-individual variability in numerical judgments, but studies investigating its influence on the SNARC effect remain scarce. The present experiment included a total of 95 University students, divided into three groups differing significantly in their mathematical proficiency levels. Using group analyses, it appeared that the three groups differed significantly in the strength of their number-space associations in a parity judgment task. This result was further confirmed on an individual level, with higher levels in arithmetic leading to relatively weaker SNARC effects. To explain this negative relationship we propose accounts based on differences in access to qualitatively different numerical representations and also consider more domain general factors, with a focus on inhibition capacities.

  14. Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Oña, Ofelia B

    2013-08-28

    This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to wave functions of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the wave functions in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a wave function with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of wave functions of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones. PMID:24006970

  15. Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the question of "Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?" Was money really flowing freely all through Apollo? Are we wallowing in nostalgia and comparing current circumstances to a managerial time which did not exist? This talk discusses these and other questions as background for you as today s project managers. There are slides showing the timelines from before the speech that Kennedy gave promising to land a man on the moon, to the early 60's, when the manned space center prepared the preliminary lunar landing mission design, an NASA organization chart from 1970, various photos of the rockets, and the astronauts are presented. The next slides discuss the budgets from the 1960's to the early 1970's. Also the results of a survey of 62 managers, who were asked "What problems pose the greatest obstacles to successful project performance?"

  16. Lunar Shape via the Apollo Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W L; Wollenhaupt, W R

    1973-01-19

    Data from the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 laser altimeters reveal the first accurate elevation differences between distant features on both sides of the moon. The large far-side depression observed in the Apollo 15 data is not present in the Apollo 16 data. When the laser results are compared with elevations on maps from the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, differences of 2 kilometers over a few hundred kilometers are detected in the Mare Nubium and Mare Tranquillitatis regions. The Apollo 16 data alone would put a 2-kilometer bulge toward the earth; however, the combined data are best fit by a sphere of radius 1737.7 kilometers. The offset of the center of gravity from the optical center is about 2 kilometers toward the earth and 1 kilometer eastward. The polar direction parameters are not well determined. PMID:17802353

  17. Restoration and Reexamination of Apollo Lunar Dust Detector Data from Original Telemetry Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent

    2012-01-01

    We are recovering the original telemetry (Figure I) from the Apollo Dust, Thermal, Radiation Environment Monitor (DTREM) experiment, more commonly known as the Dust Detector, and producing full time resolution (54 second) data sets for release through the Planetary Data System (PDS). The primary objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of dust deposition, temperature, and radiation damage on solar cells on the lunar surface. The monitor was a small box consisting of three solar cells and thermistors mounted on the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) central station. The Dust Detector was carried on Apollo's 11, 12, 14 and 15. The Apollo 11 DTREM was powered by solar cells and only operated for a few months as planned. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 detectors operated for 5 to 7 years, returning data every 54 seconds, consisting of voltage outputs from the three solar cells and temperatures measured by the three thermistors. The telemetry was received at ground stations and held on the Apollo Housekeeping (known as "Word 33") tapes. made available to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) by Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas Institute for Geophysics). We have converted selected parts of the telemetry into uncalibrated and calibrated output voltages and temperatures.

  18. Towards a Selenographic Information System: Apollo 15 Mission Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, J. E.; Petro, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    offer technical and scientific information in its spatial context. While it is not possible given the enormous amounts of data, and the small allotment of time, to enter and/or link every detail to its map layer, the links that have been made here direct the user to rich, stable archive websites and web-based databases that are easy to navigate. While this project only created a product for the Apollo 15 mission, it is the model for spatially-referencing the other Apollo missions. Such a comprehensive lunar surface-activities database, a Selenographic Information System, will likely prove invaluable for future lunar studies. References: Meyer, C. (2010), The lunar sample compendium, June 2012 to August 2012, http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, Astromaterials Res. & Exploration Sci., NASA L. B. Johnson Space Cent., Houston, TX. Swann, G. A. (1972), Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site, in Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report, [NASA SP-289], pp. 5-1 - 5-112, NASA Manned Spacecraft Cent., Washington, D.C.

  19. APOLLO 16: One for the Album

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 16 :Charles M. Duke photographs Cmdr. John W. Young in front of the Lunar Module. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 16: 'Nothing So Hidden'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO16: Fifth manned lunar landing mission withJohn W. Young, Ken Mattingly, and Charles M. Duke. Landed at Descartes on April 20 1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Deployed P&F Subsattelite in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 265hrs 51 min 5sec

  20. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop duri...

  1. Small on the left, large on the right: numbers orient visual attention onto space in preverbal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2016-05-01

    Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical cues are critical in orienting infants' visual attention towards a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. This finding provides the first direct evidence that, in humans, the association between numbers and oriented spatial codes occurs before the acquisition of symbols or exposure to formal education, suggesting that the number line is not merely a product of human invention. PMID:26074348

  2. Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.

  3. Food and nutrition studies for Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been conducted on nutrient intake and absorption during the Apollo 16 mission. Results indicate that inflight intakes of all essential nutrients were adequate and that absorption of these materials occurred normally.

  4. Perception of available space during chimpanzee introductions: Number of accessible areas is more important than enclosure size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrelko, Elizabeth S; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Restricting animals to different areas of their enclosure, for both brief and extended durations, is a key element of animal management practices. With such restrictions, available space decreases and the choices the animals can make are more limited, particularly in relation to social dynamics. When unfamiliar individuals are introduced to each other, group dynamics can be unpredictable and understanding space usage is important to facilitate successful introductions. We studied the behavioral, welfare-related responses of two groups of zoo-housed chimpanzees (n = 22) as they were introduced to each other and experienced a variety of enclosure restrictions and group composition changes. Our analysis of available space while controlling for chimpanzee density, found that arousal-related scratching and yawning decreased as the number of enclosure areas (separate rooms) available increased, whereas only yawning decreased as the amount of available space (m(2)) increased. Allogrooming, rubbing, and regurgitation/reingestion rates remained constant as both the number of enclosure areas and amount of space changed. Enclosure space is important to zoo-housed chimpanzees, but during introductions, a decrease in arousal-related scratching indicates that the number of accessible areas is more important than the total amount of space available, suggesting that it is important to provide modular enclosures that provide choice and flexible usage, to minimize the welfare impact of short- and long-term husbandry needs. PMID:26235989

  5. Apollo 15 mare units and their petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples from 12 different mare sites were identified and classified among the Apollo 15 samples. The genesis of the Apollo 15 mare units is summarized given the general model of mare basalt source regions and of more basalt genesis derived from a synthesis of the major oxide/major mineral, compatible siderophile, and incompatible trace element data and isotopic ratios of the Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd systems

  6. The paleomagnetic record of the Apollo samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The burst of early work on the magnetism of the Apollo samples was followed by a quiescent period until recently. It had been thought that the strong magnetization in samples, whose ages ranged from approximately 3.65 to 3.9 Ga, was evidence of a lunar dynamo at that time, and possibly until 3.4Ga.. New results have yielded evidence for (1) an early dynamo at ∼4.2 Ga giving surface fields of the order of μT's (2) a better understanding of Shock Remanent Magnetization (3) and new paleointensity determinations. Reanalysis of the lunar paleomagnetic data has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and comparison of the AF demagnetization characteristics of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) with other possible mechanisms of origin. This work suggests that although the NRM of many samples is not likely to be a primary Thermal Remanent Magnetization (TRM), acquired when the samples initially cooled on the lunar surface, a number of Mare Basalts do appear to carry a primary NRM. The results are consistent with the suggestions of Stephenson, Collinson, and Runcorn, (1976) that a lunar dynamo generated a lunar surface field, which weakened by about an order of magnitude from its peak ∼3.9 to 3.4 Ga.

  7. 1996 'STELLAR' and MCP summer programs commencement. Apollo Astronaut Buzz Aldren drops by after

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    1996 'STELLAR' and MCP summer programs commencement. Apollo Astronaut Buzz Aldren drops by after attending his book signing at US Space Camp eariler in the day is shown here with Gayle Wilson (governor's wife) and Ken Munechika (R) and Dr. Rose Grymes (center)

  8. The Importance of Apollo to Solar-System Science and Future Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Shearer, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    December 14, 2012 marks 40 years since humans walked on the Moon, and the demise of the Apollo program. Apollo will be remembered for America's response to the President's ambitious plan to go to the Moon that was fueled by cold-war "competition". However, the importance of Apollo goes far beyond that because it represents an achievement that spacefaring nations, including the USA, still aspire to. This presentation focuses on the Apollo influence on our understanding of the Moon and the Solar-System, as well as future human exploration activities. Apollo gave 2 things that continue to yield surprises and (re)shape our thinking about the Moon: ALSEP data sets and the Apollo lunar sample collection. The ALSEPs gave us data on the radiation and dust environment, as the nature of the lunar interior, and how the Moon interacts with the solar wind and Earth's magnetotail. Many of ALSEP datasets are STILL not available in the Planetary Data System, but those that are yield surprises, such as the direct detection of the Moon's core from Apollo seismic data (Weber et al., 2011, Science 331, 309). This is now possible because of the more sophisticated computing systems that are available. Apollo samples have shown the unequivocal presence of indigenous lunar water (Saal et al., 2008, Nature 454, 192). ALSEP data, Apollo samples, and the Apollo experience itself are still critical in shaping human space exploration, and showing the knowledge gaps that need to be filled to facilitate long-term human lunar exploration and beyond. ALSEP data are the only data we have regarding dust activity on the lunar surface. This coupled with the Apollo astronaut experience shows that systems (e.g., space suits) need to be engineered differently if a permanent human lunar presence is ever to be established. Seismic data show the magnitude of some moonquakes exceed 5 on the Richter scale and the maximum ground movement lasts several minutes and takes over an hour to dissipate. Any habitat

  9. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  10. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue

  11. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: Space, time and number

    OpenAIRE

    KennySkagerlund

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also ...

  12. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number

    OpenAIRE

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also ...

  13. Virtual Structure Constants as Intersection Numbers of Moduli Space of Polynomial Maps with Two Marked Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we derive the virtual structure constants used in the mirror computation of the degree k hypersurface in CP N-1, by using a localization computation applied to moduli space of polynomial maps from CP 1 to CP N-1 with two marked points. This moduli space corresponds to the GIT quotient of the standard moduli space of instantons of Gauged Linear Sigma Model by the standard torus action. We also apply this technique to the non-nef local geometry {{\\cal O}(1)oplus {\\cal O}(-3)rightarrow CP1} and realize the mirror computation without using Birkhoff factorization. Especially, we obtain a geometrical construction of the expansion coefficients of the mirror maps of these models.

  14. Direct Space Vector PWM Strategy for Matrix Converters with Reduced Number of Switching Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Yugo; Hamada, Shizunori; Urushibata, Shota; Nomura, Masakatsu; Sato, Yukihiko; Ishida, Muneaki

    This paper proposes a novel “Direct Space Vector PWM (Direct SVPWM)” strategy based on the direct AC/AC conversion approach for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters. This method allows the sine input and sine output waveforms as a major premise, and gives top priority to the improvement of the output control performance in motor drive applications, for instance, provides maximum riding comfort for an elevator, etc. Output voltage harmonics, switching losses, and common-mode voltage can be reduced across the entire voltage region. In addition, the switching count can be reduced even further by fully utilizing the output current detection value. Direct space vectors are first defined, and the selection method of space vectors is described. Next, the PWM duty calculation technique is explained. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is proven from the comparison with the conventional virtual indirect method based on the experimental and analysis results.

  15. Effects of space radiation on kapton polymer targets. Technical note number 98-008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapton (polypyromellitimide) is used in space applications as an insulator, thermal blanket layer, substrate for solar cell arrays, and surface coatings. This report describes laboratory tests of kapton materials to investigate the erosion damage caused by simulated space radiation on those polymers. The tests were carried out at the McMaster University Tandem Accelerator Laboratory using protons and alpha particles at various energies, approach angles, and fluences. Samples tested were 7-millimeter squares 0.1 millimeter thick. Damage to specimens was measured by a weight loss technique. Results are presented and compared to those obtained using Monte Carlo simulation

  16. Number fields dynamics and the compactification of space problem in the unified theories of fields and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivations for the mathematical models of theoretical physics over general number fields and idea of phase transition between different ground states which are described by different number fields are considered. Fractal calculus for p-adic and adel numbers is formulated. This technique is applied to a model of real massless field over the p-adic space and N-point Green function is calculated. Then generalization of quantum mechanics with variable ℎ is considered, an expression for the conserved probability current is obtained. 66 refs

  17. Re-Analysis of HFT Data Using the Apollo Lunar Surface Gravimeter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, T.; Saito, Y.; Tanaka, S; Horai, K.; Hagermann, A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE) was carried out on Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16. Network observations of four seismic stations were performed for five years from 1972 to 1977. The PSE was a successful mission that informed us of the lunar crustal thickness and seismic velocity structure of the Moon from direct observations of the lunar interior (e.g. [1]). However, the paucity of seismic stations and the limited number of usable seismic events have been a major problem o...

  18. Space and time reversals: II. Phenomenological classification of elementary particles; quantum numbers and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the six ''matrices'', we give a classification of the leptons and of the flavours of quarks in three families containing particles and antiparticles; quantum numbers and condensed forms of conservation laws are also discussed for weak and strong interactions

  19. Space The New Medical Frontier / NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the occasion. Photo courtesy of NIH Long-Term Space Research Until the advent of the ISS, research missions ... of improving human health." NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research Inspired by the space suits Apollo astronauts wore ...

  20. Space- and time-dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: effects on physical and geometric quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benioff, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space- and time- dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space- and time- or space-time-dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However, it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.

  1. Apollo2Go: a web service adapter for the Apollo genome viewer to enable distributed genome annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Klaus FX

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apollo, a genome annotation viewer and editor, has become a widely used genome annotation and visualization tool for distributed genome annotation projects. When using Apollo for annotation, database updates are carried out by uploading intermediate annotation files into the respective database. This non-direct database upload is laborious and evokes problems of data synchronicity. Results To overcome these limitations we extended the Apollo data adapter with a generic, configurable web service client that is able to retrieve annotation data in a GAME-XML-formatted string and pass it on to Apollo's internal input routine. Conclusion This Apollo web service adapter, Apollo2Go, simplifies the data exchange in distributed projects and aims to render the annotation process more comfortable. The Apollo2Go software is freely available from ftp://ftpmips.gsf.de/plants/apollo_webservice.

  2. Virtual Structure Constants as Intersection Numbers of Moduli Space of Polynomial Maps with Two Marked Points

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the virtual structure constants used in mirror computation of degree k hypersurface in CP^{N-1}, by using localization computation applied to moduli space of polynomial maps from CP^{1} to CP^{N-1} with two marked points. We also apply this technique to non-nef local geometry O(1)+O(-3)->CP^{1} and realize mirror computation without using Birkhoff factorization.

  3. 13 Things That Saved Apollo 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfill, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps, the most exciting rescue, terrestrial or extra-terrestrial, is the successful return of the Apollo 13 crew to Earth in April of 1970. The mission s warning system engineer, Jerry Woodfill, who remains a NASA employee after 47 years of government service has examined facets of the rescue for the past 42 years. He will present "13 Things That Saved Apollo 13" from the perspective of his real time experience as well as two score years of study. Many are recent discoveries never before published in mission reports, popular books or documentary and Hollywood movies depicting the rescue.

  4. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  5. Apollo 14 flight support and system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 incident and subsequent oxygen tank redesign for Apollo 14 placed unique requirements on the flight support activity. A major part of this activity was the integration of the various analytical efforts into a single team function. Additionally, the first flight of the redesigned system without an orbital test required an extensive analytical base. The support team philosophy, objectives, and organization are presented. Various analytical tools that were used during the flight are discussed. Investigations made during the postflight period are considered and their impact upon subsequent flights shown.

  6. Production of a High-Mach-Number Plasma Flow for an Advanced Plasma Space Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Inutake; K. Yoshino; S. Fujimura; H. Tobari; T. Yagai; Y. Hosokawa; R. Sato; K. Hattori; A. Ando

    2004-01-01

    A higher specific impulse and a larger thrust are required for a manned interplanetary space thruster. Prior to a realization of a fusion-plasma thruster, a magneto-plasma-dynamic arcjet (MPDA) powered by a fission reactor is one of the promising candidates for a manned Mars space thruster. The MPDA plasma is accelerated axially by a self-induced j × B force. Thrust performance of the MPDA is expected to increase by applying a magnetic nozzle instead of a solid nozzle. In order to get a much higher thruster performance, two methods have been investigated in the HITOP device, Tohoku University. One is to use a magnetic Laval nozzle in the vicinity of the MPDA muzzle for converting the high ion thermal energy to the axial flow energy. The other is to heat ions by use of an ICRF antenna in the divergent magnetic nozzle. It is found that by use of a small-sized Laval-type magnetic nozzle, the subsonic flow near the muzzle is converted to be supersonic through the magnetic Laval nozzle. A fast-flowing plasma is successfully heated by use of an ICRF antenna in the magnetic beach configuration.

  7. Modeling and Analysis of the APOLLO Lunar Laser Ranging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Reasenberg, R D; Colmenares, N R; Johnson, N H; Murphy, T W; Shapiro, I I

    2016-01-01

    The Earth-Moon-Sun system has traditionally provided the best laboratory for testing the strong equivalence principle. For a decade, the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) has been producing the world's best lunar laser ranging data. At present, a single observing session of about an hour yields a distance measurement with uncertainty of about 2~mm, an order of magnitude advance over the best pre-APOLLO lunar laser ranging data. However, these superb data have not yet yielded scientific results commensurate with their accuracy, number, and temporal distribution. There are two reasons for this. First, even in the relatively clean environment of the Earth-Moon system, a large number of effects modify the measured distance importantly and thus need to be included in the analysis model. The second reason is more complicated. The traditional problem with the analysis of solar-system metric data is that the physical model must be truncated to avoid extra parameters that would increase t...

  8. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Y.; G. Kleindienst; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicit...

  9. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Y.; G. Kleindienst; K.-H. Glassmeier

    2009-01-01

    We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined...

  10. Paving the Way for Apollo 11

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2009-01-01

    In 'Paving the Way for Apollo 11' David Harland explains the lure of the Moon to classical philosophers, astronomers, and geologists, and how NASA set out to investigate the Moon in preparation for a manned lunar landing mission. It focuses particularly on the Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor missions.

  11. Apollo 14 mission circuit breaker anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Continuity through the circuit breaker in the mechanically closed condition was prevented by a foreign substance on the contact surface onboard Apollo 14. It was concluded that this was the only failure of this type in over 3400 units that were flown, and since no circuit breaker is a single-point failure for crew safety or mission success, no corrective action was taken.

  12. Apollo 15 mare volcanism: constraints and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Apollo 15 landing site contains more volcanics in the form of crystalline basalts and pristine glasses, which form the framework for all models dealing with the mantle beneath that site. Major issues on the petrology of the mare source regions beneath that portion of Mare Imbrium are summarized

  13. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, W David

    2011-01-01

    This new and expanded edition of the bestselling How Apollo Flew to the Moon tells the exciting story of how the Apollo missions were conducted and follows a virtual flight to the Moon and back. New material includes: - the exploration of the lunar surface; - more illustrations; - more technical explanations and anecdotes. From launch to splashdown, hitch a ride in the incredible Apollo spaceships, the most sophisticated machines of their time. Explore each step of the journey and glimpse the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. Although the tremendous technological accomplishments are well documented, the human dimension is not forgotten, and the book calls on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. A wealth of fascinating and accessible material is provided, including: the role of the powerful Saturn V; the reasoning  behind trajectories; the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health; the triumphs and difficulties of working in...

  14. Rendezvous missions: From ISS to lunar space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazin, Rafail

    2014-08-01

    There was a lot of experience gained in the rendezvous of different vehicles in the LEO during the years of human space exploration. In the framework of the Apollo program when the astronauts landed on the surface of the Moon, the docking of the Lunar Module launched from the Moon's surface to the Apollo Command Module was successfully implemented in the near-Moon orbit. Presently many space agencies are considering a return to the Moon. It is necessary to solve the new task of docking the vehicle launched from the Earth to the long-term near-Moon orbital station taking into account specific constraints. Based on the ISS experience the author proposes a number of ballistic rendezvous strategies that provide for docking to the near-Moon orbital station with minimum propellant consumption. The trade-off analysis of the given rendezvous strategies is presented.

  15. Coexistence curves and molecule number densities of AdS black holes in the reduced parameter space

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coexistence curves and molecule number densities of $f(R)$ AdS black holes and Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes. Specifically, we work with the reduced parameter space and derive the analytic expressions of the universal coexistence curves that are independent of theory parameters. Moreover, we obtain the explicit expressions of the physical quantity describing the difference of the number densities of black hole molecules between the small and large black hole. It is found that both the coexistence curve and the difference of the molecule number densities of $f(R)$ AdS black holes coincide with those of RN-AdS black holes. It may be attributed to the same equation of state they share in the reduced parameter space. The difference of the molecule number densities between the small and large Gauss-Bonnet AdS black hole exhibits different behavior. This may be attributed to the fact that the charge of RN-AdS black hole is non-trivial. Our research will not only deepen the understan...

  16. Modelling the number density of Halpha emitters for future spectroscopic near-IR space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzetti, L; Geach, J E; Cimatti, A; Baugh, C; Cucciati, O; Merson, A; Norberg, P; Shi, D

    2016-01-01

    The future space missions Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA will use the Halpha emission line to measure the redshifts of tens of millions of galaxies. The Halpha luminosity function at z>0.7 is one of the major sources of uncertainty in forecasting cosmological constraints from these missions. We construct unified empirical models of the Halpha luminosity function spanning the range of redshifts and line luminosities relevant to the redshift surveys proposed with Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA. By fitting to observed luminosity functions from Halpha surveys, we build three models for its evolution. Different fitting methodologies, functional forms for the luminosity function, subsets of the empirical input data, and treatment of systematic errors are considered to explore the robustness of the results. Functional forms and model parameters are provided for all three models, along with the counts and redshift distributions up to z~2.5 for a range of limiting fluxes (F_Halpha>0.5 - 3 x 10^-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1) that are relevant fo...

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. Key Factors Influencing the Decision on the Number of Brayton Units for the Prometheus Space Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, John; Belanger, Sean; Burdge, Wayne; Clementoni, Eric; Jensen, Krista; Proctor, N. Beth; Zemo-Fulkerson, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors (NR) Program and its DOE Laboratories, KAPL and Bettis, were assigned responsibility to develop space reactor systems for the Prometheus Program. After investigating all of the potential reactor and energy conversion options, KAPL and Bettis selected a direct gas Brayton system as the reference approach for the nuclear electric propulsion missions, including the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). In order to determine the optimal plant architecture for the direct gas system, KAPL and Bettis investigated systems with one or two active Brayton units and up to two spare units. No final decision was made on the optimal system configuration for the NEP gas-Brayton system prior to closeout of the project. The two most promising options appear to be a single system without spares and a three Brayton system with two operating units, each producing half of the required load, with a single spare unit. The studies show that a single Brayton system, without spares, offers the lowest mass system, with potential for lower operating temperature, and a minimum of system and operational complexity. The lower required mass and increased system efficiency inherent in the single Brayton system may be exploited to satisfy other design objectives such as reduced reactor and radiator operating temperatures. While Brayton system lifetimes applicable to a JIMO or other nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission have not been demonstrated, there is no fundamental limit on the lifetime of the Brayton hardware. Use of additional Brayton units with installed spares will allow for continued operation in the event of a failure of an individual Brayton unit. However, preliminary system reliability evaluations do not point to any substantial reliability benefit provided by carrying spare Brayton units. If a spare unit is used, operating two of the units at full power with an unpowered spare proved more efficient than operating all three units at a reduced power and temperature

  20. The effect of sensor resolution on the number of cloud-free observations from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krijger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and surface emission inversions are likely to be focal points for future satellite missions on atmospheric composition. Most important for these applications is sensitivity to the atmospheric composition in the lowest few kilometers of the troposphere. Reduced sensitivity by clouds needs to be minimized. In this study we have quantified the increase in number of useful footprints, i.e. footprints which are sufficient cloud-free, as a function of sensor resolution (footprint area. High resolution (1 km×1 km MODIS TERRA cloud mask observations are aggregated to lower resolutions. Statistics for different thresholds on cloudiness are applied. For each month in 2004 two days of MODIS data are analyzed. Globally the fraction of cloud-free observations drops from 16% at 100 km2 resolution to only 3% at 10 000 km2 if not a single MODIS observation within a footprint is allowed to be cloudy. If up to 5% or 20% of a footprint is allowed to be cloudy, the fraction of cloud-free observations is 9% or 17%, respectively, at 10 000 km2 resolution. The probability of finding cloud-free observations for different sensor resolutions is also quantified as a function of geolocation and season, showing examples over Europe and northern South America.

  1. RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP BRIGHTNESS AND NUMBER COUNTS IN 72 GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the broadest and most precise empirical investigation of red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness and number counts ever conducted. We implement a new method and use data from two Hubble Space Telescope globular cluster (GC) surveys to measure the brightness and star counts of the RGBB in 72 GCs. The median measurement precision is 0.018 mag in the brightness and 31% in the number counts, respectively, reaching peak precision values of 0.005 mag and 10%. The position of the main-sequence turnoff and the number of horizontal branch stars are used as comparisons where appropriate. Several independent scientific conclusions are newly possible with our parameterization of the RGBB. Both brightness and number counts are shown to have second parameters in addition to their strong dependence on metallicity. The RGBBs are found to be anomalous in the GCs NGC 2808, 5286, 6388, and 6441, likely due to the presence of multiple populations. Finally, we use our empirical calibration to predict the properties of the Galactic bulge RGBB. The updated RGBB properties for the bulge are shown to differ from the GC-calibrated prediction, with the former having lower number counts, a lower brightness dispersion, and a brighter peak luminosity than would be expected from the latter. This discrepancy is well explained by the Galactic bulge having a higher helium abundance than expected from GCs, ΔY ∼ +0.06 at the median metallicity.

  2. Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Spar and Sun End

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image depicts the sun end and spar of the ATM flight unit showing individual telescopes. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into a complex frame named the rack, and was protected by the solar shield.

  3. Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N=133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. PMID:26637947

  4. Apollo 11 25th Anniversary logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This Official NASA commemorative logo marks the 25th anniversary of the first lunar landing. The design incorporates an eagle, from the original Apoll 11 crew insignia, descending toward the lunar surface with an olive branch, symbolizing America's peaceful mission in space. Alternative Headquarters number is 93-HC-312 or 93-H-336.

  5. APOLLO2 code self-shielding formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the various self-shielding methods used in the APOLLO2 code for treating one resonant nucleus or a mixture of resonant nuclei. The methods are expounded in chronological order. First of all, the methods dealing with one resonant isotope are explained. Then an original method dealing directly with a resonant mixture is detailed. This new method is also convenient for one resonant nucleus and leads, in that case, to interesting improvements in the self-shielding modeling. (author)

  6. Photogrammetry of Apollo 15 photography, part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.; Jordan, R.; Nakata, G. M.; Derick, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    In the Apollo 15 mission, a mapping camera system and a 61 cm optical bar, high resolution panoramic camera, as well as a laser altimeter were used. The panoramic camera is described, having several distortion sources, such as cylindrical shape of the negative film surface, the scanning action of the lens, the image motion compensator, and the spacecraft motion. Film products were processed on a specifically designed analytical plotter.

  7. Scots scientists dismiss Apollo mission doubts university team deals with the conspiracies

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists from a Scottish university are going walkabout to combat the sceptics who claim US astronaut Neil Armstrong never set foot on the moon. The conspiracists claim the Apollo moon landings of the 60s and 70s were faked by Nasa in a TV studio in an attempt to help America claim victory in the space race with the former Soviet Union" (1 page)

  8. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

  9. APOLLO 16: Putting the 'rover' thru its paces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 16 : Cmdr Young puts the 'rover' thru a full field test... From the film documentary 'APOLLO 16: 'Nothing So Hidden'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 16: Fifth manned lunar landing mission with John W. Young, Ken Mattingly, and Charles M. Duke. Landed at Descartes on April 20 1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Deployed P&F subsattelite in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 265hrs. 51 min. 5sec.

  10. Apollo2Go: a web service adapter for the Apollo genome viewer to enable distributed genome annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer Klaus FX; Spannagl Manuel; Ernst Rebecca; Klee Kathrin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Apollo, a genome annotation viewer and editor, has become a widely used genome annotation and visualization tool for distributed genome annotation projects. When using Apollo for annotation, database updates are carried out by uploading intermediate annotation files into the respective database. This non-direct database upload is laborious and evokes problems of data synchronicity. Results To overcome these limitations we extended the Apollo data adapter with a generic, co...

  11. Restoration and Reexamination of Data from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Kent, H.; Turner, Niescja

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort by the Lunar Data Node (LDN) we are restoring data returned by the Apollo Dust, Thermal, and Radiation Engineering Measurements (DTREM) packages emplaced on the lunar surface by the crews of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15. Also commonly known as the Dust Detector experiments, the DTREM packages measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. They operated on the surface for up to nearly 8 years, returning data every 54 seconds. The Apollo 11 DTREM was part of the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), and operated for a few months as planned following emplacement in July 1969. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 DTREMs were mounted on the central station as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) and operated from deployment until ALSEP shutdown in September 1977. The objective of the DTREM experiments was to determine the effects of lunar and meteoric dust, thermal stresses, and radiation exposure on solar cells. The LDN, part of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS), operates out of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. The goal of the LDN is to extract lunar data stored on older media and/or in obsolete formats, restore the data into a usable digital format, and archive the data with PDS and NSSDC. For the DTREM data we plan to recover the raw telemetry, translate the raw counts into appropriate output units, and then apply calibrations. The final archived data will include the raw, translated, and calibrated data and the associated conversion tables produced from the microfilm, as well as ancillary supporting data (metadata) packaged in PDS format.

  12. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  13. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon. PMID:26581509

  14. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  15. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  16. Apollo soil mechanics experiment S-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.

  17. Apollo portable life support system performance report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

  18. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  19. 绝对平均有界数列空间Aab(K)%Absolutely Average Bounded Number Sequence Space Aab(K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凤红; 罗成; 孙凤龙

    2011-01-01

    Based on the absolutely average convergence of a number sequence,the concept of absolutely average bounded number sequence is given.Space Aab (K) is defined as absolutely average bounded number sequences over the real or complex scalar field K ,which is a space between space 1∞ of bounded number sequences and space Ab (K) of approxmatively bounded number sequences.Moreover,that an equivalent condition of a number sequence is absolutely average bounded is given,and space Aab(K) is a non-separable , non-reflexive Banach space which has neither the Krern-Mil 'man property nor Radon-Nikodym property are proved.%提出了绝对平均有界数列的概念,并由此定义了实(或复)数域K上绝对平均有界的数列空间Aab(K),这是一个介于有界数列空间l∞和近似有界数列空间Ab(K)之间的空间.给出了数列绝对平均有界性的等价条件,证明了空间Aab(K)是不可分的、不自反的、不具有Kre(r)n-Mil'man性质和Radon-Nikod(y)m性质的Banach空间.

  20. 实数集上去倒数拓扑空间的研究%Study of Deleted Reciprocal Topological Space on Real Numbers Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德金

    2015-01-01

    对实数集上的去倒数拓扑空间进行了研究。证明了它是可分空间、Lindelof空间、满足第二可数性公理的空间、连通空间等,并证明它不是局部连通空间、道路连通空间、紧致空间等。%It gave some properties of deleted reciprocal topological space on real numbers set. The main result is that it is separable space,lindel of space,second axiom of countability and connected space,but not local connected space,path connected space and compact space.

  1. Microcraters on Apollo 15 and 16 rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.; Moore, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions, determined for 11 Apollo 16 rocks and three Apollo 15 rocks, fall into four categories. Category 1 rocks (68415, 68416, 62235) are angular, cratered on one side only, and have moderate crater densities. Category 2 rocks (60016, 66075, 61175) are subrounded, cratered on all sides, and have distributions suggestive of the steady state. Category 3 rocks (61015, 62295) are subangular and cratered on only one side, but the crater frequency distributions have some of the characteristics of category 2 rocks. Category 4 rocks (15015, 15017, 15076, 60335) are angular, cratered on only one side, and have moderated to very low crater densities. The crater frequency distributions of categories 1 and 4 have properties indicating the possibility of estimating the time they were exposed to micrometeor bombardment. Category 1 rocks appear to have been exposed for 2 to 3 m.y. These rocks, particularly 68415, 68416, and 69935, may be ejecta from South Ray Crater, indicating an age of 2 to 3 m.y. for South Ray Crater. Category 4 rocks have been exposed for much shorter periods.

  2. Countdown to a Moon launch preparing Apollo for its historic journey

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of workers labored at Kennedy Space Center around the clock, seven days a week, for half a year to prepare a mission for the liftoff of Apollo 11. This is the story of what went on during those hectic six months. Countdown to a Moon Launch provides an in-depth look at the carefully choreographed workflow for an Apollo mission at KSC. Using the Apollo 11 mission as an example, readers will learn what went on day by day to transform partially completed stages and crates of parts into a ready-to-fly Saturn V. Firsthand accounts of launch pad accidents, near misses, suspected sabotage, and last-minute changes to hardware are told by more than 70 NASA employees and its contractors. A companion to Rocket Ranch, it includes many diagrams and photographs, some never before published, to illustrate all aspects of the process. NASA’s groundbreaking use of computers for testing and advanced management techniques are also covered in detail. This book will demystify the question of how NASA could build and lau...

  3. APOLLO 16: Young and Duke head for North Ray Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 16 : Young and Duke head for North Ray Crater From the film documentary 'APOLLO 16: 'Nothing So Hidden'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO16: Fifth manned lunar landing mission withJohn W. Young, Ken Mattingly, and Charles M. Duke. Landed at Descartes on April 20 1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Deployed P&F Subsattelite in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 265hrs 51 min 5sec

  4. APOLLO 16: A liesurely lunar Lift-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 16 : Lift-off should be stress-free event. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 16: 'Nothing So Hidden'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO16: Fifth manned lunar landing mission withJohn W. Young, Ken Mattingly, and Charles M. Duke. Landed at Descartes on April 20 1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Deployed P&F Subsattelite in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 265hrs 51 min 5sec

  5. On the Moon the apollo journals

    CERN Document Server

    Heiken, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Public interest in the first lunar landing transcended political, economic and social borders – the world was briefly united by the courage of the crew, and the wonder of the accomplishment. Prompted by the rivalry of the Cold War, Apollo 11 and the five missions that subsequently landed on the Moon were arguably the finest feats of exploration in human history. But these were more than exercises in ‘flags and footprints’, because the missions involved the crews making geological field trips on a low gravity site while wearing pressure suits, carrying life-support systems on their backs and working against an unforgiving time line. The missions delivered not only samples of moonrock, but also hard-learned lessons for how to work on the surface of another planet, and this experience will be crucial to planning the resumption of the human exploration of the Moon and going on to Mars.

  6. The ancient lunar crust, Apollo 17 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, O. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 highland collection is dominated by fragment-laden melt rocks, generally thought to represent impact melt from the Serenitatis basin-forming impact. Fortunately for our understanding of the lunar crust, the melt rocks contain unmelted clasts of preexisting rocks. Similar ancient rocks are also found in the regolith; most are probably clasts eroded out of melt rocks. The ancient rocks can be divided into groups by age, composition, and history. Oldest are plutonic igneous rocks, representing the magmatic components of the ancient crust. The younger are granulitic breccias, which are thoroughly recrystallized rocks of diverse parentages. The youngest are KREEPy basalts and felsites, products of relatively evolved magmas. Some characteristics of each group are given.

  7. Comparison of Fully Numerical Predictor-Corrector and Apollo Skip Entry Guidance Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Christopher W.; Lu, Ping

    2012-09-01

    The dramatic increase in computational power since the Apollo program has enabled the development of numerical predictor-corrector (NPC) entry guidance algorithms that allow on-board accurate determination of a vehicle's trajectory. These algorithms are sufficiently mature to be flown. They are highly adaptive, especially in the face of extreme dispersion and off-nominal situations compared with reference-trajectory following algorithms. The performance and reliability of entry guidance are critical to mission success. This paper compares the performance of a recently developed fully numerical predictor-corrector entry guidance (FNPEG) algorithm with that of the Apollo skip entry guidance. Through extensive dispersion testing, it is clearly demonstrated that the Apollo skip entry guidance algorithm would be inadequate in meeting the landing precision requirement for missions with medium (4000-7000 km) and long (>7000 km) downrange capability requirements under moderate dispersions chiefly due to poor modeling of atmospheric drag. In the presence of large dispersions, a significant number of failures occur even for short-range missions due to the deviation from planned reference trajectories. The FNPEG algorithm, on the other hand, is able to ensure high landing precision in all cases tested. All factors considered, a strong case is made for adopting fully numerical algorithms for future skip entry missions.

  8. Real-Numbers-Like Theory on the Order Topological Spaces%序拓扑空间上的类实数理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亚峰

    2015-01-01

    Order topological spaces have many good properties similar to the real line. In this paper, I give some generalization, analysis and research of real number theory on order topological spaces.%序拓扑空间具有许多与实直线相似的良好结构和性质,为此就实数理论在序拓扑空间下做了一定的推广、分析和研究。

  9. Reference calculations on critical assemblies with Apollo2 code working with a fine multigroup mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this thesis is to add to the multigroup transport code APOLLO2 the capability to perform deterministic reference calculations, for any type of reactor, using a very fine energy mesh of several thousand groups. This new reference tool allows us to validate the self-shielding model used in industrial applications, to perform depletion calculations, differential effects calculations, critical buckling calculations or to evaluate precisely data required by the self shielding model. At its origin, APOLLO2 was designed to perform routine calculations with energy meshes around one hundred groups. That is why, in the current format of cross sections libraries, almost each value of the multigroup energy transfer matrix is stored. As this format is not convenient for a high number of groups (concerning memory size), we had to search out a new format for removal matrices and consequently to modify the code. In the new format we found, only some values of removal matrices are kept (these values depend on a reconstruction precision choice), the other ones being reconstructed by a linear interpolation, what reduces the size of these matrices. Then we had to show that APOLLO2 working with a fine multigroup mesh had the capability to perform reference calculations on any assembly geometry. For that, we successfully carried out the validation with several calculations for which we compared APOLLO2 results (obtained with the universal mesh of 11276 groups) to results obtained with Monte Carlo codes (MCNP, TRIPOLI4). Physical analysis led with this new tool have been very fruitful and show a great potential for such an R and D tool. (author)

  10. A Systematic Spectroscopic Study of Four Apollo Lunar Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongcheng Ling; Alian Wang; Bradley L Jolliff

    2011-01-01

    A systematic spectroscopic study including Raman,Mid-IR,NIR,and VIS-NIR,is used to investigate four endmember lunar soils.Apollo soils (<45 μm) 14163,15271,67511,and 71501 were selected as endmembers to study,based on their soil chemistry,maturity against space weathering,and the sampling locations.These endmembers include an anorthositic highlands soil (67511),a low-Ti basaltic soil (15271),a high-Ti basaltic soil (71501),and a mafic,KREEPy,impact-melt-rich soil (14163).We used a laser Raman point-counting procedure to derive mineral modes of the soils and the compositional distributions of major mineral phases,which in turn reflect characteristics of the main source materials for these soils.The Mid-lR,NIR,and VIS-NIR spectroscopic properties also yield distinct information on mineralogy,geochemistry,and maturity among the four soils.Knowledge of the mineralogy resulting from the Raman point-counting procedure corresponds well with bulk mineralogy and soil properties based on Mid-IR,NIR,and VIS-NIR spectroscopy.The future synergistic application of these spectroscopy methods on the Moon will provide a linkage between the results from in situ surface exploration and those from orbital remote- sensing observations.

  11. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin takes photos during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Flying in a KC-135 aircraft, Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. takes pictures during training for the upcoming first manned lunar landing with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong Jr. and Michael Collins.

  12. Photogrammetry using Apollo 16 orbital photography, part B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.; Jordan, R.; Nakata, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion is made of the Apollo 15 and 16 metric and panoramic cameras which provided photographs for accurate topographic portrayal of the lunar surface using photogrammetric methods. Nine stereoscopic models of Apollo 16 metric photographs and three models of panoramic photographs were evaluated photogrammetrically in support of the Apollo 16 geologic investigations. Four of the models were used to collect profile data for crater morphology studies; three models were used to collect evaluation data for the frequency distributions of lunar slopes; one model was used to prepare a map of the Apollo 16 traverse area; and one model was used to determine elevations of the Cayley Formation. The remaining three models were used to test photogrammetric techniques using oblique metric and panoramic camera photographs. Two preliminary contour maps were compiled and a high-oblique metric photograph was rectified.

  13. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  14. Elastic wave velocities and thermal diffusivities of Apollo 14 rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, H.; Fujii, N.; Hamano, Y.; Osako, M.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional- and shear-wave velocities of Apollo 14 lunar rocks 14311,50 and 14313,27 as functions of pressure up to 10 kb and the thermal diffusivity of sample 14311,50 over the temperature range 100 to 550 K have been measured. Both samples 14311 and 14313 are polymict fragmental rocks. The overall elastic and anelastic behavior of the Apollo 14 samples are similar to those of Apollo 11 and 12 samples; low velocity and low Q at pressures below 1 kb and rapid increase of velocity and Q with pressure are also typical of the Apollo 14 rocks. The available data of P- and S-wave velocities of lunar rocks show that Birch's law holds for the lunar rocks. The thermal diffusivity of a lunar rock in vacuum is found to be significantly lower than that in air at one atmospheric pressure.

  15. Changes is genes coding for laccases 1 and 2 may contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the isolated population in Pieniny National Park (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) occurs in Pieniny National Park (Poland). Deformations and reductions of wings in a relatively large number of individuals from this population is found, yet the reasons for these defects are unknown. During studies devoted to identify cause(s) of this phenomenon, we found that specific regions of genes coding of enzymes laccases 1 and 2 could not be amplified from DNA samples isolated from large fractions of malformed insects while expected PCR products were detected in almost all (with one exception) normal butterflies. Laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductases) are oxidases containing several copper atoms. They catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic or other compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. In insects, their enzymatic activities were found previously in epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, and reproductive tissues. Therefore, we suggest that defects in genes coding for laccases might contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterflies, though it seems obvious that deficiency in these enzymes could not be the sole cause of these developmental improperties in P. apollo from Pieniny National Park. PMID:26523407

  16. El Paso and White Sands area as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The El Paso and White Sands area are photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission three hours and eight minutes after liftoff. North is toward top of picture. Near bottom center of picture is the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico metropolitan area. At the top is the White Sands National Monument area. Note Rio Grande River on left side of picture. The snow-covered Sacremento Mountains are seen in the upper right corner. The altitude of the spacecraft when this photograph was taken was 115 nautical miles.

  17. The Partnership: a History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, E. C.; Ezell, L. N.

    1978-01-01

    Correspondance, interviews, official documents, and other published materials were used to trace the evolution of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project from the initial proposal for international cooperation in space use and exploration until the successful completion of the joint Soviet-American mission. Conceptual drawings of proposed docking modules and mechanisms are presented and dicussed. Black and white photographs taken during mission planning and in-flight activities are included with color photographs of the earth taken during the mission. Joint meetings are summarized and the scientific experiments and launch vehicles are discussed in the appendices.

  18. Neutronic modeling of pebble bed reactors in APOLLO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we develop a new iterative homogenization technique for pebble bed reactors, based on a 'macro-stochastic' transport approximation in the collision probability method. A model has been developed to deal with the stochastic distribution of pebbles with different burnup in the core, considering spectral differences in homogenization and depletion calculations. This is generally not done in the codes presently used for pebble bed analyses, where a pebble with average isotopic composition is considered to perform the cell calculation. Also an iterative core calculation scheme has been set up, where the low-order RZ SN full-core calculation computes the entering currents in the spectrum zones subdividing the core. These currents, together with the core keff, are then used as surface source in the fine-group heterogeneous calculation of the multi-pebble geometries. The developed method has been verified using reference Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified PBMR- 400 model. The pebbles in this model are individually positioned and have different randomly assigned burnup values. The APOLLO2 developed method matches the reference core keff within ± 100 pcm, with relative differences on the production shape factors within ± 4%, and maximum discrepancy of 3% at the hotspot. Moreover, the first criticality experiment of the HTR-10 reactor was used to perform a first validation of the developed model. The computed critical number of pebbles to be loaded in the core is very close to the experimental value of 16890, only 77 pebbles less. A method to calculate the equilibrium reactor state was also developed and applied to analyze the simplified PBMR-400 model loaded with different fuel types (UO2, Pu, Pu + MA). The potential of the APOLLO2 method to compute different fluxes for the different pebble types of a multi-pebble geometry was used to evaluate the bias committed by the average composition pebble approximation. Thanks to a 'compensation of error', this

  19. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  20. EFFECTS OF PLANTING SPACE AND HARVEST TIME ON THE NUMBER, WEIGHT AND DIAMETER OF MARIGOLD (CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L. FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during 2010 in marigold (Calendula officinalis L. to determine the effects of three plant densities (plant density A - 65 cm x 35 cm; plant density B - 65 cm x 25 cm; plant density C – 55 cm x 25 cm and harvest time on the number, weight and diameter of marigold flowers. The results showed that the plant density significantly influenced the number of flowers per plant and flower weight. The largest number of flowers per plant was recorded in the plant density B (13.2 and the lowest (9.87 in the plant density C. The lowest flower weight was recorded in the plant density C (1.31 g and was statistically lower than the flower weight in the plant densities A (1.42 g and B (1.38 g. The plant density significantly influenced the number of flowers on side branches, being the highest in the plant density B. The diameter of the marigold flower was not significantly influenced by the plant density. During the experiment, a total of 13 harvests were achieved. The greatest number of flowers per plant was harvested in the eighth, ninth and tenth harvest, while the largest flower weight was measured in the fifth and twelfth harvest. On the average, the number of flowers per plant / harvest was 11.63 and the weight of flowers was 1.38 g. Diameter of marigold flowers ranged from 2.89 cm to 3.59 cm in the thirteenth and the third harvest, respectively. The number of flowers on side branches per plant / harvest was 11.61.

  1. Artist's concept of Apollo 8 start thrust engine and head for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    North American Rockwell artist's concept illustrating a phase of the scheduled Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission. Here, after 20 hours of lunar orbit, Apollo 8 astronauts start the 20,500 lb. thrust engine and head for home.

  2. Logo for the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Logo for the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission. Logo is described as the numeral 20. Inside the zero is a representation of an eagle landing on the lunar surface with the title 'Apollo 11' above it.

  3. Artist's drawing of internal arrangement of orbiting Apollo and Soyuz crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Artist's drawing illustrating the internal arrangement of orbiting the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit in a docked configuration. The three American Apollo crewmen and the two Soviet Soyuz crewmen will transfer to each other's spacecraft during the July Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. The four ASTP visible components are, left to right, the Apollo Command Module, the Docking Module, the Soyuz Orbital Module and the Soyuz Descent Vehicle.

  4. Photogrammetric Processing of Apollo 15 Metric Camera Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Alexandrov, O.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete cartographic development of Apollo mapping system data into versatile digital map products. These will enable a variety of scientific/engineering uses of the data including mission planning, geologic mapping, geophysical process modelling, slope dependent correction of spectral data, and change detection. Here we describe efforts to control the oblique images acquired from the Apollo 15 Metric Camera.

  5. Breccia 66055 and related clastic materials from the Descartes region, Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Robyn, M. A.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace and major element contents obtained by instrumental neutron activation are reported for a number of Apollo 16 soil samples and miscellaneous breccia fragments. In addition, data obtained by instrumental neutron activation and electron microprobe techniques along with petrographic descriptions are presented for selected subsamples of breccia 66055. The compositions of our soil samples can be modeled by mixtures of various amounts of anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro and low-K Fra Mauro basalt components. These mixtures are typical of those found in a number of petrographic surveys of the fines. Breccia 66055 is a complex regolith breccia which consists of at least four distinct types of microbreccias. No systematic relation with respect to stratigraphic age among the various microbreccia types was observed. Compositionally and texturally, the clasts which compose breccia 66055 are similar to a number of previously reported rock types from the Apollo 16 area. The entire breccia appears to have undergone a complex history of thermal metamorphism. We conclude from the study of these samples that the Cayley Formation is probably homogeneous in its gross compositional and petrographic aspects.

  6. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  7. Differential variability in time and space of numbers in suspension and deposit feeding benthic species in a tidal flat area.

    OpenAIRE

    Beukema, J.J.; Cadee, G.C.; Hummel, H

    1983-01-01

    Evidence from a tidal flat ecosystem in the Dutch Wadden Sea is presented, substantiating a hypothesis formulated by Levinton (1972) and stating that both the food supply and the numbers of suspension feeding marine zoobenthic species fluctuate more heavily, spatially as well as temporally, than those of deposit feeders. During the year and also from day-to-day, concentrations of chlorophyll-a and particulate organic matter fluctuated more heavily in the water above tidal flats than in the to...

  8. Self-shielding phenomenon modelling in multigroup transport code Apollo-2; Modelisation du phenomene d'autoprotection dans le code de transport multigroupe Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M

    2006-03-15

    This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)

  9. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returning from the excursion to Stone Mountain during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left. Smoky Mountain rises behind the LM in this north-looking view at the Descartes landing site.

  10. HPC challenges for deterministic neutronics simulations using APOLLO3 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present some major HPC challenges for deterministic neutronics simulations and how these challenges are addressed in the APOLLO3 code. Different levels of HPC are illustrated on different kind of applications and parallel paradigms techniques in the frame of the APOLLO3 code. Results obtained for fuel load management using genetic algorithm, domain decomposition for transport solvers, GPU acceleration for the Boltzmann equation solution are given using from few cores to massively parallel computing using more than 10000 cores. (author)

  11. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  12. The spectral code Apollo2: from lattice to 2D core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M.; Santandrea, S.; Damian, F.; Blanc-Tranchant, P.; Zmijarevic, I. [CEA Saclay (DEN/DANS/SERMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Santamarina, A. [CEA Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Apollo2 is a powerful code dedicated to neutron transport, it is a highly qualified tool for a wide range of applications from research and development studies to industrial applications. Today Apollo2 is part of several advanced 3-dimensional nuclear code packages dedicated to reactor physics, fuel cycle, criticality and safety analysis. The presentations have been organized into 7 topics: -) an introduction to Apollo2, -) cross-sections, -) flux calculation, -) advanced applications, -) Apollo2 users, specialized packages, -) qualification program, and -) the future of Apollo2. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  13. The spectral code Apollo2: from lattice to 2D core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollo2 is a powerful code dedicated to neutron transport, it is a highly qualified tool for a wide range of applications from research and development studies to industrial applications. Today Apollo2 is part of several advanced 3-dimensional nuclear code packages dedicated to reactor physics, fuel cycle, criticality and safety analysis. The presentations have been organized into 7 topics: -) an introduction to Apollo2, -) cross-sections, -) flux calculation, -) advanced applications, -) Apollo2 users, specialized packages, -) qualification program, and -) the future of Apollo2. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  14. The triumph and decline of the "squares": Grumman Aerospace engineers and production workers in the Apollo era, 1957--1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkst, David Hugh

    This dissertation is a social, cultural, and economic history of the men and women of the Grumman Aerospace Company of Bethpage, New York from 1957 through 1973. These "Grummanites" were the engineers and production workers who designed and built the Apollo Lunar Modules that allowed humans to land on the Moon. This study provides unique insights into the impact that the Apollo Program---a large state-initiated and -supported program---had on those "squares," people whom many contemporaries saw as a vital part of mainstream 1960s American society. By the beginning of the Space Age in 1957, Grumman, Long Island's single largest employer, had firmly established a workplace culture of paternalism that Grummanites largely embraced. Company officials believed strongly in worker retention and had established a policy of providing every sort of benefit their employees seemingly desired, including a highly personal and participatory form of management. Many Grummanites had joined the firm during the early years of the Apollo Program because they believed in the promise of permanent employment on exciting projects that would explore the endless frontier of space. But, as many of these mainly self-reliant, individualistic "squares" would bitterly discover, their dedication to Grumman did little to secure their livelihoods during the aerospace industry's early 1970s downsizing; their individual successes were too largely tied to federal spending and declined when Americans grew disenchanted with space exploration. This dissertation demonstrates how the cultural bond of paternalism between aerospace workers and their company unraveled in the 1960s, and then ended in the early 1970s, because of forces within the company, the economy, and the American state. The word "triumph" in this study's title not only applies to Grummanites' triumphs with the Lunar Modules, but also their individual socioeconomic victories. The term "decline" refers to the early 1970s downsizing of more

  15. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on plant pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material returned by Apollo 12 contained 21 to 35% more total pigment than control tissues. This difference is due primarily to increased chlorophyll a concentrations per gram fresh weight of tissue in experimental cultures. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control cultures.

  16. Apollo 15 regolith breccias and soils: Comparative petrology and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Soils and regolith breccias contain clues to the geologic processes that contributed to the evolution of the local regolith over time. A suite of ten regolith breccias from the Apollo 15 site were compared with the results of previous studies in order to learn more about the regolith evolution at that site.

  17. Introduction to the Apollo collections. Part 1: Lunar igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, P. E.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The basic petrographic, chemical, and age data is presented for a representative suite of igneous rocks gathered during the six Apollo missions. Tables are given for 69 samples: 32 igneous rocks and 37 impactites (breccias). A description is given of 26 basalts, four plutonic rocks, and two pyroclastic samples. The textural-mineralogic name assigned each sample is included.

  18. Two New Evolved Gabbroic Samples from Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    We have found petrographic and geochemical data for two evolved monomict mafic rocks collected at the Apollo 16 site. While they somewhat resemble sodic ferrogabbro, they may be fragments of the Th-rich plutonic rocks thought to underlie the PKT. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Technical Note: The effect of sensor resolution on the number of cloud-free observations from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krijger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and surface emission inversions are likely to be focal points for future satellite missions on atmospheric composition. Most important for these applications is sensitivity to the atmospheric composition in the lowest few kilometers of the troposphere. Reduced sensitivity by clouds needs to be minimized. In this study we have quantified the increase in number of useful footprints, i.e. footprints which are sufficient cloud-free, as a function of sensor resolution (footprint area. High resolution (1 km×1 km MODIS TERRA cloud mask observations are aggregated to lower resolutions. Statistics for different thresholds on cloudiness are applied. For each month in 2004 four days of MODIS data are analyzed. Globally the fraction of cloud-free observations drops from 16% at 100 km2 resolution to only 3% at 10 000 km2 if not a single MODIS observation within a footprint is allowed to be cloudy. If up to 5% or 20% of a footprint is allowed to be cloudy, the fraction of cloud-free observations is 9% or 17%, respectively, at 10 000 km2 resolution. The probability of finding cloud-free observations for different sensor resolutions is also quantified as a function of geolocation and season, showing examples over Europe and northern South America (ITCZ.

  20. A discretization of the wave-number space using a self-similar, alternating, dodecahedral/icosahedral basis for the Navier-Stokes equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gürcan, Ö D

    2016-01-01

    A discretization of the wave-number space of the Navier-Stokes equation, using a logarithmically spaced chain of alternating icosa-dodeca-hedral spheres is proposed. This strange choice allows the possibility of forming triangles using only discretized wave-vectors when the scaling between two consecutive dodecahedra is equal to the golden ratio, and the icosahedron between the two dodecahedra is the dual of the inner dodecahedron. Alternatively, the same discretization can be described as a logarithmically spaced (with a scaling equal to the golden ratio) dodecahedron-icosahedron compounds. A wave-vector which points from the origin to a vertex of such a mesh, can always find two other discretized wave-vectors that are also on the vertices of the mesh (which is not true for an arbitrary mesh). For each vertex (i.e. discretized wave-vector) in this space, there are either 9 or 15 pairs of vertices (i.e. wave-vectors) with which the initial vertex can interact to form a triangle. This allows the reduction of t...

  1. Manifold-Splitting Regularization, Self-Linking Twisting, Writhing Numbers of Space-Time Ribbons and POLYAKOV’S Proof of Fermi-Bose Transmutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    We present an alternative formulation of Polyakov’s regularization of Gauss’ integral formula for a single closed Feynman path. A key element in his proof of the D=3 fermi-bose transmutations induced by topological gauge fields, this regularization is linked here with the existence and properties of a nontrivial topological invariant for a closed space ribbon. This self-linking coefficient, an integer, is the sum of two differential characteristics of the ribbon, its twisting and writhing numbers. These invariants form the basis for a physical interpretation of our regularization. Their connection to Polyakov’s spinorization is discussed. We further generalize our construction to the self-linking, twisting and writhing of higher dimensional d=n (odd) submanifolds in D=(2n+1) space-time. Our comprehensive analysis intends to supplement Polyakov’s work as it identifies a natural path to its higher dimensional mathematical and physical generalizations. Combining the theorems of White on self-linking of manifolds and of Adams on nontrivial Hopf fibre bundles and the four composition-division algebras, we argue that besides Polyakov’s case where (d, D)=(1, 3) tied to complex numbers, the potentially interesting extensions are two chiral models with (d, D)=(3, 7) and (7, 15) uniquely linked to quaternions and octonions. In Memoriam Richard P. Feynman

  2. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 17 drill core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Lithologic abundances obtained from modal analyses of a continuous string of polished thin sections indicate that the Apollo 17 deep drill core can be divided into three main zones: An upper zone (0-19 cm depth) characterized by high abundances of agglutinates (30%) and a high ratio of mare to non-mare lithic fragments (less than 0.8); a coarse-grained layer (24-56 cm) rich in fragments of high-Ti mare basalts and mineral fragments derived from them, and poor in agglutinates (6%); and a lower zone (56-285 cm) characterized by variable but generally high agglutinate abundances (25%) and a low ratio of mare to nonmare lithic fragments (0.6). Using observations of the geology of the landing site, the principles of cratering dynamics, and the vast amount of data collected on the core, the following depositional history for the section of regolith sampled by the Apollo 17 drill core: was devised.

  3. Estimation of Apollo lunar dust transport using optical extinction measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John E

    2015-01-01

    A technique to estimate mass erosion rate of surface soil during landing of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) and total mass ejected due to the rocket plume interaction is proposed and tested. The erosion rate is proportional to the product of the second moment of the lofted particle size distribution N(D), and third moment of the normalized soil size distribution S(D), divided by the integral of S(D)D^2/v(D), where D is particle diameter and v(D) is the vertical component of particle velocity. The second moment of N(D) is estimated by optical extinction analysis of the Apollo cockpit video. Because of the similarity between mass erosion rate of soil as measured by optical extinction and rainfall rate as measured by radar reflectivity, traditional NWS radar/rainfall correlation methodology can be applied to the lunar soil case where various S(D) models are assumed corresponding to specific lunar sites.

  4. Cibele e Apollo su un’ara da Celeia

    OpenAIRE

    De Franzoni, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    The attention of the author is focused on the relationship between Cybele and Apollo on a votive altar found in the territory of the ancient Celeia. The presence of symbols referring both to the anatolian goddess and to the oracular deity on the sides of the monument was considered from scholars as an evidence of a symbiosis between these particular healing deities. However, the lack of close comparisons for this exclusive association with respect to other figurative documents ...

  5. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSING OF APOLLO 15 METRIC CAMERA OBLIQUE IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    K. L. Edmundson; O. Alexandrov; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K.J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R L; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M S

    2016-01-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete...

  6. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin appears relaxed before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. appears to be relaxed during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  7. Apollo 14 inverted pigeonites - Possible samples of lunar plutonic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of 'inverted pigeonites' found in Apollo 14 samples 14082 and 14083 (a polymict breccia, the 'white rock') by a combination of optical, electron probe, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. These 'inverted pigeonites' are regarded as samples of plutonic rocks that have been blasted out of the Imbrium Basin. It is also concluded that lunar pigeonites will invert to orthopyroxenes, given sufficiently slow cooling histories even in very anhydrous environments.

  8. Apollo Display工业级A-RGB控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Apollo Display Technologies公司发布Prisma ECO模/数RGB控制器板卡,该板卡非常满足工业和医疗等方面的OEM对长期可用、稳定和全技术支持方面的要求。这种低成本板卡作为一个套件提供,

  9. Chemistry and petrology of Apollo 17 highland coarse fines - Plutonic and melt rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Galbreath, K. C.; Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    A suite of 21 fragments from the Apollo 17 coarse-fines consists of ferroan anorthosites, anorthositic gabbros, granulitic and regolith breccias, and impact melts. These samples belong to known petrographic and chemical groups. Three ferroan anorthosites were found, including one which appears to be the lowest in REE (La = 0.60X) and probably the purest of the Apollo 17 anorthosites identified thus far. The ferroan suite is a more important component at the Apollo 17 site than previously recognized. The Apollo 17 melt rocks are similar to other samples with LKFM and low-K KREEP compositions and show less diversity in trace elements (REE) than the Apollo 15 melt rocks. Apollo 17 melt rocks consist of aphanitic and poikilitic types that show some compositional variability with identical Ni/Ir, suggesting that either two distinct melt sheets formed by similar projectiles, or compositional heterogeneity within one melt sheet is possible.

  10. APOLLO-2: An advanced transport code for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APOLLO-2 is a fully modular code in which each module corresponds to a specific task: access to the cross-sections libraries, creation of isotopes medium or mixtures, geometry definition, self-shielding calculations, computation of multigroup collision probabilities, flux solver, depletion calculations, transport-transport or transport-diffusion equivalence process, SN calculations, etc... Modules communicate exclusively by ''objects'' containing structured data, these objects are identified and handled by user's given names. Among the major improvements offered by APOLLO-2 the modelization of the self-shielding: it is possible now to deal with a great precision, checked versus Montecarlo calculations, a fuel rod divided into several concentric rings. So the total production of Plutonium is quite better estimated than before and its radial distribution may be predicted also with a good accuracy. Thanks to the versatility of the code some reference calculations and routine ones may be compared easily because only one parameter is changed; for example the self-shielding approximations are modified, the libraries or the flux solver being exactly the same. Other interesting features have been introduced in APOLLO-2: the new isotopes JEF.2 are available in 99 and 172 energy groups libraries, the surface leakage model improves the calculation of the control rod efficiency, the flux-current method allows faster calculations, the possibility of an automatic convergence checking during the depletion calculations coupled with fully automatic corrections, heterogeneous diffusion coefficients used for voiding analysis. 17 refs, 1 tab

  11. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  12. The evolution of electronic tracking, optical, telemetry, and command systems at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurran, W. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A history is presented of the major electronic tracking, optical, telemetry, and command systems used at ETR in support of Apollo-Saturn and its forerunner vehicles launched under the jurisdiction of the Kennedy Space Center and its forerunner organizations.

  13. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  14. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  15. Using Technology to Better Characterize the Apollo Sample Suite: A Retroactive PET Analysis and Potential Model for Future Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    From 1969-1972 the Apollo missions collected 382 kg of lunar samples from six distinct locations on the Moon. Studies of the Apollo sample suite have shaped our understanding of the formation and early evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and have had important implications for studies of the other terrestrial planets (e.g., through the calibration of the crater counting record) and even the outer planets (e.g., the Nice model of the dynamical evolution of the Solar System). Despite nearly 50 years of detailed research on Apollo samples, scientists are still developing new theories about the origin and evolution of the Moon. Three areas of active research are: (1) the abundance of water (and other volatiles) in the lunar mantle, (2) the timing of the formation of the Moon and the duration of lunar magma ocean crystallization, (3) the formation of evolved lunar lithologies (e.g., granites) and implications for tertiary crustal processes on the Moon. In order to fully understand these (and many other) theories about the Moon, scientists need access to "new" lunar samples, particularly new plutonic samples. Over 100 lunar meteorites have been identified over the past 30 years, and the study of these samples has greatly aided in our understanding of the Moon. However, terrestrial alteration and the lack of geologic context limit what can be learned from the lunar meteorites. Although no "new" large plutonic samples (i.e., hand-samples) remain to be discovered in the Apollo sample collection, there are many large polymict breccias in the Apollo collection containing relatively large (approximately 1 cm or larger) previously identified plutonic clasts, as well as a large number of unclassified lithic clasts. In addition, new, previously unidentified plutonic clasts are potentially discoverable within these breccias. The question becomes how to non-destructively locate and identify new lithic clasts of interest while minimizing the contamination and physical degradation of

  16. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  17. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  18. 76 FR 7853 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Apollo Publishing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Delisting From Apollo Publishing, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Apollo Publishing, Inc.: AHRQ has accepted a notification...

  19. Apollo 16 exploration of Descartes - A geologic summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Cayley Plains at the Apollo 16 landing site consist of crudely stratified breccias to a depth of at least 200 meters, overlain by a regolith 10 to 15 meters thick. Samples, photographs, and observations by the astronauts indicate that most of the rocks are impact breccias derived from an anorthosite-gabbro complex. The least brecciated members of the suite include coarse-grained anorthosite and finer-grained, more mafic rocks, some with igneous and some with metamorphic textures. Much of the transverse area is covered by ejecta from North Ray and South Ray craters, but the abundance of rock fragments increases to the south toward the younger South Ray crater.

  20. Spinel troctolite and anorthosite in Apollo 16 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, M.; Dowty, E.; Keil, K.; Bunch, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the examination results on two Apollo 16 rocks recovered from the lunar highlands which probably represent contrasting types of 'primitive' lunar cumulates. One is a microbreccia containing a large lithic fragment of spinel troctolite, while the other is a shock-brecciated anorthosite. The reviewed results suggest that, if the two rock groups formed from the same parent magma type, the spinel troctolite must have formed early in the differentiation sequence as the result of crystal settling in the melt, whereas the anorthosite must have formed as a later cumulate, possibly by flotation.

  1. Lunar Terrain and Albedo Reconstruction from Apollo Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Kim, Taemin; Broxton, Michael; Moratto, Zach

    2010-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models and albedo maps is becoming increasingly more important as NASA plans more robotics missions to the Moon in the coming years. This paper describes a novel approach for separation of topography and albedo maps from orbital Lunar images. Our method uses an optimal Bayesian correlator to refine the stereo disparity map and generate a set of accurate digital elevation models (DEM). The albedo maps are obtained using a multi-image formation model that relies on the derived DEMs and the Lunar- Lambert reflectance model. The method is demonstrated on a set of high resolution scanned images from the Apollo era missions.

  2. 全面解析VIA Apollo KT600

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁小平

    2003-01-01

    VIA继KT400A之后又发布支持44MHz FSB的KT600芯片组,以此来配合AMD新款Athlon XP 3200+处理器抢占高端市场,AMD先进的400MHz前端总线规格,提供每秒钟达3.2GB的数据带宽,与威盛Apollo KT600芯片组所采用的FastStream64 DDR400(PC3200)内存控制技术,能够完美的协同运作;

  3. Industrial application of APOLLO2 to boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA NP - a joint's subsidiary of AREVA and Siemens- decided to develop a new calculation scheme based on the multigroup neutron transport code APOLLO2, developed at CEA, for industrial application to Boiling Water Reactors. This scheme is based on the CEA93 library with the XMAS-172 energy mesh and the JEF2.2 evaluation. Microscopic cross-sections are improved by a self-shielding calculation that accounts for 2D geometrical effects and the overlapping of resonances. The flux is calculated with the Method of Characteristics. A best-estimate flux is found with the 172 energy group structure. In the industrial scheme, the computing time and the memory size are reduced by a simplified self-shielding and the calculation of the flux with 26 energy groups. The results are presented for three BWR assemblies. Several BWR operating conditions were simulated. Results are accurate compared to the Monte-Carlo code MCNP. A very good agreement is obtained between the best-estimate and the industrial calculations, also during depletion. These results show the high physical quality of the APOLLO2 code and its capability to calculate accurately BWR assemblies for industrial applications. (authors)

  4. OMEGA APOLLO 11超霸腕表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    人类登月40周年之际,欧米茄推出了OMEGA APOLLO 11超霸限量腕表。OMEGA APOLLO 11超霸限量腕表搭载了当年的超霸专业月球表原型所使用的著名欧米茄1861型机芯。表壳和表链都采用精钢材质,表链得以进一步改进,配置了欧米茄专利链针系统。小秒针表盘上采用了徽章图案,由著名的阿波罗11号任务徽章演变而来:老鹰飞至月球表面,鹰爪抓有代表和平的橄榄枝;月球水平线之上,遥远的地球清晰可见。腕表的时针、分针和带有红色尖端的计时秒针覆有夜光涂层。

  5. Space Shuttle Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Apollo program demonstrated that men could travel into space, perform useful tasks there, and return safely to Earth. But space had to be more accessible. This led to the development of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components.

  6. Modeling of lunar basalt petrogenesis - Sr isotope evidence from Apollo 14 high-alumina basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reexamines the Sr isotope data available for the Apollo 14 high-alumina basalts in light of the assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) process model proposed by Neal et al. (1987, 1988, 1989). Positive linear correlations of Sr-87/Sr-86 with Rb-87/Rb-86 and the Sr abundance (both leading to KREEP) are used as evidence of such an AFC process in the petrogenesis of Apollo 14 high-alumina basalts. The existing Sr isotope data for Apollo 14 high-alumina basalts suggest that there were three AFC cycles. 33 refs

  7. Orientale Basin deposits (Riccioli area) in Apollo 16 earthshine photography, part E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D. D.; Head, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretations of photography of Orientale Basin deposits obtained under earthshine illumination conditions during the Apollo 16 mission are presented. Although the quality of these photographs is less than that obtainable in sunshine, these regions are in the dark during Apollo missions because of the locations of the Apollo landing sites. Photography of these regions under different lighting geometry and from different viewpoints is therefore a useful addition to previous photographic data. Oblique photography was obtained of Riccioli Crater and adjacent areas, which lie northeast of the Orientale Basin.

  8. Benchmarking of calculation schemes in Apollo2 and COBAYA3 for VVER lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Zheleva, Nonka; Ivanov, Plamen; Todorova, Galina; Kolev, Nikola; Herrero Carrascosa, José Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents solutions of the NURISP VVER lattice benchmark using APOLLO2, TRIPOLI4 and COBAYA3 pin-by-pin. The main objective is to validate MOC based calculation schemes for pin-by-pin cross-section generation with APOLLO2 against TRIPOLI4 reference results. A specific objective is to test the APOLLO2 generated cross-sections and interface discontinuity factors in COBAYA3 pin-by-pin calculations with unstructured mesh. The VVER-1000 core consists of large hexagonal assemblies with 2m...

  9. Irradiation stratigraphy in the Apollo 16 deep drill section 60002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, G. E.; Wood, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Particle track density frequency distributions, abundance of track rich grains and minimum track densities are reported for the upper 20 cm of the 60002 section of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The principal stratigraphic feature is a boundary approximately 7 cm from the top of the section. Experimental evidence does not conclusively determine whether this contact is an ancient regolith surface or is simply a depositional boundary. If it is an ancient surface, it has a model exposure age of 3 to 7 million years and a reworking depth of about 0.5 cm. However, because track density frequency distributions indicate the mixing of soils of different maturities, we favor interpreting this contact as a depositional boundary. There may be a second depositional boundary approximately 19 cm below the top of 60002.

  10. Petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite basalt suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative petrologic study of the Apollo 12 pigeonite basalt suite has been undertaken to answer the following questions: (1) What are the textural and petrologic variations within the pigeonite suite. (2) Are these variations consistent with the hypothesis that the pigeonite basalts are related by crystal fractionation to the olivine basalts. Texturally, the pigeonite basalts range from porphyritic samples with a very fine-grained variolitic groundmass to coarse-grained microgabbro samples with ophitic to graphic textures. The abundances of olivine and Cr-spinel continuously decrease with increasing grain size, whereas the abundances of plagioclase and ilmenite steadily increase. Petrologically, increasing grain size is accompanied by increased Ca in plagioclase, increased Fe in pyroxene, olivine, and spinel, and less Al, Ti, and Cr in pyroxene. All of these changes, including the differences in bulk chemistry can be explained by near-surface fractionation of olivine, pigeonite, and Cr-spinel with the compositions of the observed phenocryst phases

  11. Phase chemistry of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    0.26 gm of Apollo 14 soil sample 14259 has been investigated by optical, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. The mineral abundances in the soil are 45% plagioclase, 41% pyroxene, 7% olivine, 3% oxides, 2% K-feldspar, 1% nickel-iron and less than 1% troilite. Eleven percent of the glasses have compositions like those of mare basalts or mare soils and are believed to be mare-derived. Eighty-six percent of the glasses are equivalent in composition to basalts that have higher Al, and lower Ca/Al and Fe/Mg ratios than mare basalts. The most abundant compositional type is named Fra Mauro basaltic glass and is subdivided into three related types. The other major glass type in the soil corresponds in composition to anorthositic gabbro.

  12. Thermal diffusivity of four Apollo 17 rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, K.-I.; Winkler, J. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The modified Angstrom technique was used to measure the thermal diffusivity of four Apollo 17 rock samples in air at pressures of 1 atm and one-millionth torr in the temperature range 80-460 K, and in CO2 at different pressures for various temperature ranges and at different temperatures for the range of interstitial CO2 gas pressure 1 atm to 0.0001 torr. The experiments with CO2 were intended to simulate Martian conditions, and it was found that the thermal diffusivity of lunar crystalline basalt and breccia varies very little with temperature in a simulated Martian environment, which indicates that the thermal processes in the Martian regolith could be more straightforward than in the lunar regolith.

  13. The apollo 16 lunar samples: petrographic and chemical description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary characterization of the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site has substantiated the inference that the lunar terra are commonly underlain by plagioclase-rich or anorthositic rocks. No evidence has been found for volcanic rocks underlying the regolith in the Apollo 16 region. In their place, we have found anorthositic rocks that are thoroughly modified by crushing and partial melting. The textural and chemical variations in these rocks provide some evidence for the existence of anorthositic complexes that have differentiated on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The occurrence of deep-seated or plutonic rocks in place of volcanic or pyroclastic materials at this site suggests that the inference from physiographic evidence that the latter materials are widespread in terra regions may be incorrect. Several additional, more specific conclusions derived from this preliminary examination are: 1) The combination of data from the Descartes region with data from the orbital x-ray fluorescence experiment indicates that some backside, highland regions are underlain by materials that consist of more than 80 percent plagioclase. 2) The soil or upper regolith between North Ray and South Ray has not been completely homogenized since the time of formation of these craters. 3) The chemistry of the soil indicates that rocks rich in potassium, uranium, and thorium, similar to those that prevail at the Fra Mauro site, are relatively abundant (10 to 20 percent) in the Descartes region. 4) The K/U ratio of the lunar crust is similar to that of the KREEP basalts. 5) The carbon content of the premare lunar crust is even lower than that of the mare volcanic rocks. PMID:17731624

  14. Skyscraper Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Khovanova, Tanya; Lewis, Joel Brewster

    2013-01-01

    We introduce numbers depending on three parameters which we call skyscraper numbers. We discuss properties of these numbers and their relationship with Stirling numbers of the first kind, and we also introduce a skyscraper sequence.

  15. Polymer crystal growth facility concept for Space Station laboratory module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherji, Tripty; Moore, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    Interest in materials processing in space began to evolve in the late 1950's through low gravity simulation and some experiments on Apollo flights. Encouraged by the early results and considerations of the likely behavior of liquids and solidification process in low-gravity gave the recognition that this environment might be useful for a variety of unique processes. This generated a number of experimental ideas and gave rise to the design and development of facilities that will perform the experiments in space vehicles. These include the evolution of apparatus leading to the development of facilities for processing of materials on Skylab and now for the Space Transportation System (STS). The U.S. module on Space Station (SS) is going to expand this unique laboratory environment with practically no constraint on materials processing activity. This will need technology advancement for the hardware that will be required in this era. This presentation discusses the current concept for the experimental facility which will be housed in the U.S. Laboratory module on the Space Station and will allow the growth of single crystals of polymeric and organic materials using the state-of-the-art growth techniques.

  16. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  17. LRO Camera Imaging of the Moon: Apollo 17 and other Sites for Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Wiseman, S. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S.; Denevi, B. W.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the determination of mineralogic and compositional distributions and their relation to geologic features on the Moon’s surface. Through a combination of imaging with the LRO narrow-angle cameras and wide-angle camera (NAC, WAC), very fine-scale geologic features are resolved with better than meter-per-pixel resolution (NAC) and correlated to spectral variations mapped with the lower resolution, 7-band WAC (400-m/pix, ultraviolet bands centered at 321 and 360 nm; 100-m/pix, visible bands centered at 415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm). Keys to understanding spectral variations in terms of composition, and relationships between compositional variations and surface geology, are ground-truth sites where surface compositions and mineralogy, as well as geology and geologic history, are well known. The Apollo 17 site is especially useful because the site geology includes a range of features from high-Ti mare basalts to Serenitatis-Basin-related massifs containing basin impact-melt breccia and feldspathic highlands materials, and a regional black and orange pyroclastic deposit. Moreover, relative and absolute ages of these features are known. In addition to rock samples, astronauts collected well-documented soil samples at 22 different sample locations across this diverse area. Many of these sample sites can be located in the multispectral data using the co-registered NAC images. Digital elevation data are used to normalize illumination geometry and thus fully exploit the multispectral data and compare derived compositional parameters for different geologic units. Regolith characteristics that are known in detail from the Apollo 17 samples, such as maturity and petrography of mineral, glass, and lithic components, contribute to spectral variations and are considered in the assessment of spectral variability at the landing site. In this work, we focus on variations associated with the ilmenite content

  18. Apollo Spacecraft and Saturn V Launch Vehicle Pyrotechnics/Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Apollo Mission employs more than 210 pyrotechnic devices per mission.These devices are either automatic of commanded from the Apollo spacecraft systems. All devices require high reliability and safety and most are classified as either crew safety critical or mission critical. Pyrotechnic devices have a wide variety of applications including: launch escape tower separation, separation rocket ignition, parachute deployment and release and electrical circuit opening and closing. This viewgraph presentation identifies critical performance, design requirements and safety measures used to ensure quality, reliability and performance of Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive devices. The major components and functions of a typical Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive device are listed and described (initiators, cartridge assemblies, detonators, core charges). The presentation also identifies the major locations and uses for the devices on: the Command and Service Module, Lunar Module and all stages of the launch vehicle.

  19. Re-determination of deep moonquake sources using the Apollo 17 lunar surface gravimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, T.; S. Tanaka; Saito, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Horai, K.; Hagermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    We performed the first seismic analysis of deep moonquakes using the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Gravimeter. We redetermined the seismic source of the deep moonquakes and evaluated the contribution of the LSG.

  20. Apollo 90遥控特技模型飞机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    益飞

    2008-01-01

    在成功推出Apollo 50特技模型飞机之后,珠海飞翔模型有限公司于2007年9月推出了一款全新设计的F3A训练用机——Apollo 90(图J)。与Apollo 50相比,该机尺寸更大、设计更合理、组装更方便,飞行性能与国际级F3A模型飞机更加接近。笔者有幸拿到了Apollo 90的第一架样机进行了组装与测试飞行。

  1. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  2. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  3. Hadley Rille, lava tubes and mare volcanism at the Apollo 15 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley Rille appears to be a collapsed lava tube/channel, whose formation history may be more intimately related to the mare units sampled at 15 than was previously thought. More work is needed relating samples and observations from Apollo 15 to the rille and its geologic evolution. As the only sinuous rille visited during the Apollo missions, Hadley Rille represents a data source that is directly applicable to the deciphering of processes involved in lunar mare volcanism

  4. Cosmic ray exposure ages of features and events at the Apollo landing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray exposure ages of lunar samples have been used to date surface features related to impact cratering and downslope movement of material. Only when multiple samples related to a feature have the same rare gas exposure age, or when a single sample has the same 81Kr-Kr and track exposure age can a feature be considered reliably dated. Because any single lunar sample is likely to have had a complex history, assignment of ages to features based upon only one determination by any method should be avoided. Based on the above criteria, there are only five well-dated lunar features: Cone Crater (Apollo 14) 26 m.y., North Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 50 m.y., South Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 2 m.y., the emplacement of the Station 6 boulders (Apollo 17) 22 m.y., and the emplacement of the Station 7 boulder (Apollo 17) 28 m.y. Other features are tentatively dated or have limits set on their ages: Bench Crater (Apollo 12) =50 m.y. (Auth.)

  5. Apollo: Giving application developers a single point of access to public health models using structured vocabularies and Web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael M.; Levander, John D.; Brown, Shawn; Hogan, William R.; Millett, Nicholas; Hanna, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Apollo Web Services and Apollo-SV, its related ontology. The Apollo Web Services give an end-user application a single point of access to multiple epidemic simulators. An end user can specify an analytic problem—which we define as a configuration and a query of results—exactly once and submit it to multiple epidemic simulators. The end user represents the analytic problem using a standard syntax and vocabulary, not the native languages of the simulators. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this design by implementing a set of Apollo services that provide access to two epidemic simulators and two visualizer services. PMID:24551417

  6. The consanguinity of the oldest Apollo 11 mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. P.; Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The textural, mineralogical, and chemical relationships between three of the oldest dates lunar mare basalt samples returned by Apollo 11 (10003, 10029 and 10062) were investigated. Very strong resemblances were noted between the modal minerologies of 10003 and 10029. Significantly more modal olivine and cristobalite was observed in 10062 than in the other basalt samples. A detailed examination of mineral-chemical relationships among the samples revealed similarities between 10003 and 10062 and differences between these two rocks and 10029, the most significant of which is the presence of akaganeite in 10029, implying that lawrencite was present in the pristine sample of 10029 but not in 10003 and 10062. Results of a Wright-Doherty mixing program used to test various fractional crystallization schemes show that 10062 can be derived from a liquid with the composition of either 10003 or 10029 by removing 2-5% ilmenite and 5% olivine. By removing about 6% plagioclase, 10003 can be derived from a liquid with the bulk composition of 10062. It is concluded that 10003 and 10029 may have come from different basaltic flows, whereas it is possible that 10003 and 10062 were derived from the same parental magma by near-surface fractionation of olivine plus ilmenite or of plagioclase plus or minus olivine.

  7. Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation Of Plume Impingement Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip T.; Clements, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing in order to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modem photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1-3 degrees. The lofted particle density is estimated at 10(exp 8)- 10(exp 13) particles per cubic meter. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15 cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos.

  8. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo subsatellite magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate available magnetic anomaly maps, one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near side map and the surface geology is more complex; individual anomaly sources have therefore not yet been identified. The mechanism of magnetization and the origin of the magnetizing field remain unresolved, but the uniformity with which the Reiner Gamma deposit is apparently magnetized, and the north-south depletion of magnetization intensity across a substantial portion of the far side, seem to require the existence of an ambient field, perhaps of global or larger extent.

  9. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  10. The Castaldi Nomogram. An Aid for Translating the Curriculum of Junior and Senior High Schools into the Necessary Number of Instructional Spaces or Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Basil

    This aid consists of three specially designed charts for determining the number of teaching stations required to house any given enrollment of pupils in any subject. Further uses are to determine class size, to discover the adequacy of proposed multi-purpose rooms, and to compute the fraction of a school day any room will be used. A specific…

  11. Hagen number versus Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents Hagen number vs. Bejan number. Although their physical meaning is not the same because the former represents the dimensionless pressure gradient while the latter represents the dimensionless pressure drop, it will be shown that Hagen number coincides with Bejan number in cases where the characteristic length (l is equal to the flow length (L. Also, a new expression of Bejan number in the Hagen-Poiseuille flow will be introduced. At the end, extending the Hagen number to a general form will be presented. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Pr = Sc = 1, all these three definitions of Hagen number will be the same.

  12. Pentagonal numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Lužnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    My graduate thesis contains a detailed examination of pentagonal nubers. In the beginning, I concentrate on figurate numbers and the mathematicians, who were the first to describe them. The work includes the basic characteristis of pentagonal numbers, how we can obtain them through calculating and counting of dots in graphic illustrtions and how we are able to check if a certain prime number is a pentagonal number or not.

  13. Leftist Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.

  14. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  15. [Formalized evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects modification due to the contribution of a number of factors on Earth and in space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafirkin, A V; Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2004-01-01

    The article reviews data of radiobiological investigations into the contribution of different physical factors preceding and succeeding exposure to the lethal doses of radiation. To reveal synergism, results of the experiments flown on biosats Kosmos-690 with and Kosmos-605 without a gamma-source were compared and coefficients of modification of the immediate body response by specific spaceflight factors were determined. Expressed in dose equivalents, these modification coefficients are used to calculate the generalized dose and radiation risk to spacecrew in orbit. The earlier published radiation damage model served as a basis for a hypothesis explaining some of the effects of radiation combined with non-radiation factors in space flight. PMID:15500165

  16. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  17. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    2011-01-01

    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  18. APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4 solutions of the OECD VVER-1000 LEU and MOX assembly benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► APOLLO2 MOC calculation schemes were tested for VVER UGd and MOXGd assemblies. ► Depletion and branch calculations were performed. ► The results are close to the Monte Carlo and deterministic reference solutions. ► The Linear Surface MOC gives accurate and computationally efficient solutions. ► The higher-order MOC in APOLLO2 can be recommended for industrial applications. - Abstract: The OECD benchmark for VVER-1000 UGd and MOXGd assemblies was solved with the APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4 codes. The objective was to verify the TRIPOLI4 Monte-Carlo solution and to assess the APOLLO2 method of characteristics based calculation routes for VVER assemblies. The test problems address important VVER V and V topics such as advanced fuel assemblies, depletion and branch calculations. Solutions with Monte-Carlo and deterministic codes from the OECD benchmark report are available for comparison. The APOLLO2 results obtained with reference and two-level 281/37g MOC calculation schemes are close to the Monte-Carlo reference solutions and the mean of all codes. The higher-order Linear Surface MOC is shown to give accurate and computationally efficient solutions

  19. Qualification of the APOLLO2 lattice physics code of the NURISP platform for VVER hexagonal lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments performed at the ZR-6 zero power critical reactor by the Temporary International Collective (TIC) and a burnup benchmark specified for depletion calculation of a VVER-440 assembly containing Gd burnable poison were used to qualify the APOLLO2.8-3.E (APOLLO2) code as a part of its ongoing validation activity. The work is part of the NURISP project, where KFKI AEKI undertook to develop and qualify some calculation schemes for hexagonal problems. Concerning the ZR-6 measurements, single cell, macro-cell and 2D calculations of selected regular and perturbed experiments are used for the validation. In the 2D cases, the radial leakage is also taken into account by the axial leakage represented by the measured axial buckling. Criticality parameter and reaction rate comparisons are presented. Although various sets of the experiments have been selected for the validation, good agreement of the measured and calculated parameters could be found by using the various options offered by APOLLO2. An additional mathematical benchmark - presented in the paper - also attests for the reliability of APOLLO2. All the test results prove the reliability of APOLLO2 for VVER core calculations. (orig.)

  20. Qualification of the APOLLO2 lattice physics code of the NURISP platform for WWER hexagonal lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments performed at the ZR-6 zero critical reactor by the Temporary International Collective and a numerical assembly burnup benchmark specified for depletion calculation of a WWER-440 assembly containing gadolinium burnable poison were used to qualify the APOLLO2 (APOLLO2.8-E3) code as a part of its ongoing validation activity. The work is part of the NURISP project, where KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute undertook to develop and qualify some calculation schemes for hexagonal problems. Concerning the ZR-6 measurements, single cell, macro cell and two-dimensional calculations of selected regular and perturbed experiments are being used for the validation. In the two-dimensional cases the radial leakage is also taken into account in the calculations together with the axial leakage represented by the measured axial buckling. Criticality parameter and reaction rate comparisons are presented. Although various sets of the experiments have been selected for the validation, good agreement of the measured and calculated parameters could be found by using the different options offered by APOLLO2. An additional mathematical benchmark-presented in the paper - also attests for the reliability of APOLLO2. All the test results prove the reliability of APOLLO2 for WWER core calculations. (Authors)

  1. Searching for neuKREEP: An EMP study of Apollo 11 Group A basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1993-01-01

    The Apollo 11 and 17 landing sites are characterized by the presence of high-Ti basalts (TiO2 greater than 6 percent). The Group A basalts of Apollo 11 have elevated K compositions (greater than 2000 ppm); and are enriched in incompatible trace elements relative to the other types of high-Ti basalt found in the region. These unique basalts also are the youngest of all high-Ti basalts, with an age of 3.56 +/- 0.02 Ga. Recent modelling of the Apollo 11 Group A basalts by Jerde et al. has demonstrated that this unique variety of high-Ti basalt may have formed through fractionation of a liquid with the composition of the Apollo 11 orange glass, coupled with assimilation of evolved material (dubbed neuKREEP and having similarities to lunar quartz monzodiorite). Assimilation of this material would impart its REE signature on the liquid, resulting in the elevated REE abundances observed. Minerals such as whitlockite which contain a large portion of the REE budget can be expected to reflect the REE characteristics of the assimilant. To this end, an examination of the whitlockite present in the Apollo 11 Group A basalts was undertaken to search for evidence of the neuKREEP material assimilated.

  2. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  3. Results of space experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional space-flight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. (orig.)

  4. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  5. Index Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Diewert, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Index numbers are used to aggregate detailed information on prices and quantities into scalar measures of price and quantity levels or their growth. The paper reviews four main approaches to bilateral index number theory where two price and quantity vectors are to be aggregated: fixed basket and average of fixed baskets, stochastic, test or axiomatic and economic approaches. The paper also considers multilateral index number theory where it is necessary to construct price and quantity aggrega...

  6. 2D core solutions for VVER-1000 with APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-size core solutions for VVER-1000 were obtained with the APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4 codes. New techniques in the reference deterministic and stochastic calculation schemes were tested. The higher-order MOC in APOLLO2 shows a substantial improvement in accuracy compared with the step characteristic method. The results are close to the Monte-Carlo reference solutions. The new solver is a good choice for reference VVER core simulations, especially for depleted cores. The parallel processing capabilities of TRIPOLI4 and new techniques for tackling the cycle-to-cycle correlations were tested for a high dominance ratio core. The results are in good agreement with the well converged LS MOC solutions. In the course of this study some VVER specific calculation schemes and procedures were developed and utilized. This is a good base for further use of APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4 in the VVER analysis

  7. Shadowing on Apollo 12 Solar Cells and Possible Movement of the ALSEP Central Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Paul A.; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    A fortuitous arrangement of a west-facing solar cell and a bracket on the Apollo 12 ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) has allowed us to precisely determine the relative position of the Sun near sunset relative to the Apollo 12 central station over a period of nearly 8 years. The small bracket, mounted on the central station due west of the cell, casts a shadow on the cell near sunset, decreasing the output of the cell proportional to the area of shadow covering the cell. The pattern of shadowing by the bracket gives good agreement with the known change of solar azimuth on a yearly timescale, but the pattern gradually but constantly changed from year-to-year, in a manner inconsistent with the known and changing position of the Sun.

  8. Evolution of KREEP - Further petrologic evidence. [igneous rocks from Apollo 15 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. L.; Hollister, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    It is hypothesized that KREEP samples from the Apollo 15 site are igneous. To support the hypothesis, comparisons are made with other crystalline KREEP samples, especially 14310. It is noted that the low siderophile element content and lack of high pressure phenocrysts in the Apollo 15 KREEP may be indications of a slower rise of KREEP melt to the surface, when contrasted with sample 14310. Gravitational separation of Fe-Ni metal is proposed as a mechanism to account for the depletion of siderophile elements relative to the Si-rich component. It is further suggested that KREEP may be the parent of Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, as well as of granitic rocks, due to the liquid immiscibility occurring during the KREEP melt crystallization, and the subsequent independent evolution of the components.

  9. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space - the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.

    2011-02-01

    A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification) for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  10. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  11. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 system...... through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  12. Indigenous Carbonaceous Phases Embedded Within Surface Deposits on Apollo 17 Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. Prior studies of Apollo samples have shown the total amount of organic matter to be in the range of approx 50 to 250 ppm. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity but also its heterogeneous distribution. Several processes should have contributed to the lunar organic inventory including exogenous carbonaceous accretion from meteoroids and interplanetary dust particles, and endogenous synthesis driven by early planetary volcanism and cosmic and solar radiation.

  13. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  14. Apollo 16 stratigraphy - The ANT hills, the Cayley Plains, and a pre-Imbrian regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Drake, M. J.; Hallam, M. E.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 645 particles in the 1 to 2 mm size range has been classified in the Apollo 16 soil samples 60602,3, 61242,7, 66042,4, 67602,13, and 69942,13. Five major categories of lithic fragments recognized in these samples include (1) an anorthositic/noritic/troctolitic, or ANT suite, (2) light-matrix breccias, (3) poikiloblastic noritic/anorthositic fragments, (4) spinel-troctolites, and (5) feldspathic basalts. The petrography and phase chemistry of the lithic fragments are discussed along with results of the fragment census and the stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 site.

  15. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  16. Mosaic of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site taken from TV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A 360 degree field of view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site area composed of individual scenes taken from a color transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. This panorama was made while the LRV was parked at the rim of Flag Crater (Station 1) during the first Apollo 16 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) by Astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr. The overlay identifies the directions and the key lunar terrain features. The camera panned across the rear portion of the LRV in its 360 degree sweep.

  17. Assessment of GEC Apollo X-ray tube ceiling suspension with GEC sectograph tomographic attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a GEC Apollo X-ray tube ceiling suspension with GEC sectograph tomographic attachments was assessed in detail at the King's Centre for the Assessment of Radiological Equipment (KCARE). Particulars of the assessment and operational features of the equipment are described. The report indicates that the equipment is robustly and safely constructed and it has a versatility which enables it to be used for all the applications currently foreseen for such units. The use of the Apollo in conjunction with sectograph tomographic attachments can provide linear tomographs comparable in excellence with those produced on dedicated units. (U.K.)

  18. Thorium and uranium variations in Apollo 17 basalts, and K-U systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Fruchter, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that Apollo 11 low-K and in particular Apollo 17 mare basalts show a wide range of Th/U ratios unlike other rocks; such variations cannot be explained by near surface crystal fractionation. A two-stage fractional crystallization-partial melting model involving a clinopyroxene cumulate as the major phase can explain the variations in Th/U ratios. Due to the Sm-Nd systematics constraint, several source cumulates are invoked to explain the observed Th/U continuum.

  19. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of Apollo 15 fines at low density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.; Hsia, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of the Apollo 15 fines, sample 15031,38, was measured under vacuum conditions as a function of temperature. Measurements were made for a sample density of 1300 kg/cu m. The conductivity was found to vary from about .00057 W per m per K at 95 K to about .00136 W per m per K at 406 K. The data are compared with the correlation using a cubic temperature dependence and also with data from samples gathered during prior Apollo missions. The thermal diffusivity is obtained for the sample by calculation using the given density and measured thermal conductivity along with specific heats from the literature.

  20. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  1. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  2. Magic Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE last digit of my home phone number in Beijing is 4. “So what?” European readers might ask.This was my attitude when I first lived in China; I couldn't understand why Chinese friends were so shocked at my indifference to the number 4. But China brings new discoveries every day, and I have since seen the light. I know now that Chinese people have their own ways of preserving their well being, and that they see avoiding the number 4 as a good way to stay safe.

  3. A new look at Apollo 17 LEAM data: Nighttime dust activity in 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Eberhard; Horányi, Mihály

    2013-12-01

    One of the unresolved enigmas from the Apollo era is the existence and characteristics of highly electrically charged dust floating above the lunar surface. Potential evidence for this hypothesized phenomenon came from the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment on Apollo 17. The LEAM instrument consisted of three sets of multi-coincidence dust sensors facing different directions. Recently, new arguments were raised (O'Brien, 2011) that the signals recorded by LEAM may be caused by interferences from heater current switching, which occurred most frequently near sunrise and sunset. In order to shed light on this controversy a new look into the LEAM data was initiated within the Colorado Center for Lunar and Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) team of NASA's Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). The purpose of this analysis is to verify the earlier analysis by Berg et al. (1975), and to find evidence for impacts of interplanetary meteoroids in the LEAM data available to us. A second goal is to find in the LEAM house keeping data evidence for excessive power switching and correlated signals in the LEAM science data. The original analysis by Berg et al. (1975) covered LEAM data during 22 lunations (~22 months) in 1973 and 1974. This data set is no longer available. For the present study, we had access to LEAM data for only about 5 lunations (140 days) in 1976. We analyzed the housekeeping data and observed excessive heating from about 24 h after sunrise until about 24 h before sunset. We defined sunrise and sunset when the LEAM temperature measurement reached -20 °C above which significant solar heating was apparent. For about 9 days around lunar noon the temperatures were so high that LEAM was switched off. During the times of excessive heating LEAM became very noisy. We limit our current analysis to about 24 h before sunset to about 24 h after sunrise when the LEAM temperatures were moderate set of 74.6 days constitutes about 75% of the periods when LEAM was

  4. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  5. Chemical variability of glass clasts in Apollo 16 regolith breccias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically homogeneous discrete fragments of glass embedded in the matrix of eight regolith breccias from the Apollo 16 mission were selected for electron probe microanalysis. Seven of these breccias have a trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratio between 8.8 and 12.5; hence they are ancient breccias with assembly ages over 4.0 Ga. The other breccia has trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 4.4 and is younger. We report on the 10-element (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe) analysis of 916 glass fragments. Glass fragments were classified according to colour, and also into four braod chemical categories. Basically, glasses with > 15 per cent FeO were termed mare-type and filtered, those of the rest with > 4 per cent K2O were termed KREEP-type and those with K2O between 0.1 per cent and 0.4 per cent were termed LKFM-type; the rest were called anorthositic. A few glasses have compositions of HASP; plagioclase, and 'granite'. Four glasses have an mg' > 0.9; three of these have troilite inclusions. Anorthositic compositions dominate the glass population; KREEP and LKFM compositions are more abundant than mare-type compositions in the ancient regolith breccias with the highest 40Ar/36Ar ratios include about 4.5 per cent mare-type glasses and about 7 per cent KREEP glasses; these abundances decrease marginally with decreasing 40Ar/36Ar ratios in the ancient regolith breccias. If these ancient regolith breccias represent ancient lunar regolith, then the inference may be made that there was an early lunar episode of mare basalt and KREEP rock emplacement followed by a more voluminous KREEP and mare basalt volcanism beginning at about 4.0 Ga ago or later. Our data suggest that the early lunar megaregolith and the anorthostic crust below were heterogeneous enough to have contained KREEP, LKFM, and mare basalts as well. (author). 48 refs

  6. A lack of Wolbachia-specific DNA in samples from apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    Various insects contain maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria which can cause reproductive alterations, modulation of some physiological responses (like immunity, heat shock response, and oxidative stress response), and resistance to viral infections. In butterflies, Wolbachia sp. is the most frequent endosymbiont from this group, occurring in about 30 % of species tested to date. In this report, the presence of Wolbachia-specific DNA has been detected in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo). In the isolated population of this insect occurring in Pieniny National Park (Poland), malformed individuals with deformed or reduced wings appear with an exceptionally high frequency. Interestingly, while total DNA isolated from most (about 85 %) normal insects contained Wolbachia-specific sequences detected by PCR, such sequences were absent in a large fraction (70 %) of individuals with deformed wings and in all tested individuals with reduced wings. These results indicate for the first time the correlation between malformation of wings and the absence of Wolbachia sp. in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings, one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly. PMID:26423782

  7. Origin and Evolution of the Moon: Apollo 2000 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    A descriptive formulation of the stages of lunar evolution as an augmentation of the traditional time-stratigraphic approach [21 enables broadened multidisciplinary discussions of issues related to the Moon and planets. An update of this descriptive formulation [3], integrating Apollo and subsequently acquired data, provides additional perspectives on many of the outstanding issues in lunar science. (Stage 1): Beginning (Pre-Nectarian) - 4.57 Ga; (Stage 2): Magma Ocean (Pre-Nectarian) - 4.57-4.2(?) Ga; (Stage 3:) Cratered Highlands (Pre-Nectarian) - 4.4(?) 4.2(?) Ga (Stage 4:) Large Basins - (Pre-Nectarian - Upper Imbrium) 4.3(?)-3.8 Ga; (Stage 4A:) Old Large Basins and Crustal Strengthening (Pre Nectarian) - 4.3(?)-3.92 Ga; (Stage 4B): Young Large Basins (Nectarian - Lower Imbrium) 3.92-3.80 Ga; (Stage 5): Basaltic Maria (Upper Imbrium) - 4.3(?)- 1.0(?) Ga; (Stage 6): Mature Surface (Copernican and Eratosthenian) - 3.80 Ga to Present. Increasingly strong indications of a largely undifferentiated lower lunar mantle and increasingly constrained initial conditions for models of an Earth-impact origin for the Moon suggest that lunar origin by capture of an independently evolved planet should be investigated more vigorously. Capture appears to better explain the geochemical and geophysical details related to the lower mantle of the Moon and to the distribution of elements and their isotopes. For example, the source of the volatile components of the Apollo 17 orange glass apparently would have lain below the degassed and differentiated magma ocean (3) in a relatively undifferentiated primordial lower mantle. Also, a density reversal from 3.7 gm/cubic cm to approximately 3.3 gm/cubic cm is required at the base of the upper mantle to be consistent with the overall density of the Moon. Finally, Hf/W systematics allow only a very narrow window, if any at all for a giant impact to form the Moon. Continued accretionary impact activity during the crystallization of the magma

  8. The Space Homestead and Creation of Real Estate and Industry beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Michael K.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s large habitats were proposed by G. K. O'Neill and studied by NASA that could house 10,000 to 4 million people in Earth/Moon space. These people would be employed in building space solar satellites and more habitats for new settlers. Such a program, the NASA studies concluded, could reach financial break even in 38 years with peak Apollo level expenditures. It was suggested in a previous paper that human settlement of space could begin not by building city size structures but with a minimum technology habitat that could provide subsistence for a more minimal number of people and be capable of producing new habitats with extraterrestrial materials and energy. These habitats would be mostly independent from Earth. The approach could provide a quicker return on investment and lower start-up costs, and could be of a scale that could be developed and tested within the planned NASA transportation and lunar base architecture. This paper examines the population growth kinetics of humans in space, and the development of space solar power industry using small bolo shaped habitats in comparison to using larger habitat designs as considered in the 1970s.

  9. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars

  10. Doppler measurements of the ionosphere on the occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz test project. Part 1: Computer simulation of ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, M. D.; Gay, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation of the ionospheric experiment of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) was performed. ASTP is the first example of USA/USSR cooperation in space and is scheduled for summer 1975. The experiment consists of performing dual-frequency Doppler measurements (at 162 and 324 MHz) between the Apollo Command Service Module (CSM) and the ASTP Docking Module (DM), both orbiting at 221-km height and at a relative distance of 300 km. The computer simulation showed that, with the Doppler measurement resolution of approximately 3 mHz provided by the instrumentation (in 10-sec integration time), ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts will be measurable accurately at all times, with some rare exceptions occurring when the radio path crosses regions of minimum ionospheric density. The computer simulation evaluated the ability of the experiment to measure changes of columnar electron content between CSM and DM (from which horizontal gradients of electron density at 221-km height can be obtained) and to measure variations in DM-to-ground columnar content (from which an averaged columnar content and the electron density at the DM can be deduced, under some simplifying assumptions).

  11. Doppler measurements of the ionosphere on the occasion of the Apollo--Soyuz Test Project. Part 1: computer simulation of ionosphere-induced Doppler shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer simulation of the ionosphere experiment of the Apollo--Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) was performed. ASTP is the first example of USA/USSR cooperation in space and is scheduled for summer 1975. The experiment consists of performing dual-frequency Doppler measurements (at 162 and 324 MHz) between the Apollo Command Service Module (CSM) and the ASTP Docking Module (DM), both orbiting at 221-km height and at a relative distance of 300 km. The computer simulation showed that, with the Doppler measurement resolution of approximately 3 mHz provided by the instrumentation (in 10-s integration time), ionosphere-induced Doppler shifts will be measurable accurately at all times, with some rare exceptions occurring when the radio path crosses regions of minimum ionospheric density. The computer simulation evaluated the ability of the experiment to measure changes of columnar electron content between CSM and DM (from which horizontal gradients of electron density at 221-km height can be obtained) and to measure variations in DM-to-ground columnar content (from which an averaged columnar content and the electron density at the DM can be deduced, under some simplifying assumptions)

  12. Stratigraphy of the Descartes region /Apollo 16/ - Implications for the origin of samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of terrain in the Apollo 16 Descartes landing region shows a series of features that form a stratigraphic sequence which dominates the history and petrogenesis at the site. An ancient 150-km diam crater centered on the Apollo 16 site is one of the earliest recognizable major structures. Nectaris ejecta was concentrated in a regional low at the base of the back slope of the Nectaris basin to form the Descartes Mountains. Subsequently, a 60-km diam crater formed in the Descartes Mountains centered about 25 km to the west of the site. This crater dominates the geology and petrogenetic history of the site. Stone and Smoky Mountains represent the degraded terraced crater walls, and the dark matrix breccias and metaclastic rocks derived from North and South Ray craters represent floor fallback breccias from this cratering event. The interpretation is developed that the stratigraphy of the Cayley and Descartes, and thus the historical record of the Apollo 16 region, documents the complex interaction of deposits and morphology of local and regional impact cratering events. Large local 60- to 150-km diam craters have had a dramatic and previously unrecognized effect on the history and petrology of the Apollo 16 site.

  13. On the Moon with Apollo 16. A Guidebook to the Descartes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gene

    The Apollo 16 guidebook describes and illustrates (with artist concepts) the physical appearance of the lunar region visited. Maps show the planned traverses (trips on the lunar surface via Lunar Rover); the plans for scientific experiments are described in depth; and timelines for all activities are included. A section on "The Crew" is…

  14. Evaluation of Drogue Parachute Damping Effects Utilizing the Apollo Legacy Parachute Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Kelly M.; Gamble, Joe D.; Matz, Daniel A.; Bretz, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Drogue parachute damping is required to dampen the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) crew module (CM) oscillations prior to deployment of the main parachutes. During the Apollo program, drogue parachute damping was modeled on the premise that the drogue parachute force vector aligns with the resultant velocity of the parachute attach point on the CM. Equivalent Cm(sub q) and Cm(sub alpha) equations for drogue parachute damping resulting from the Apollo legacy parachute damping model premise have recently been developed. The MPCV computer simulations ANTARES and Osiris have implemented high fidelity two-body parachute damping models. However, high-fidelity model-based damping motion predictions do not match the damping observed during wind tunnel and full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion. This paper will present the methodology for comparing and contrasting the Apollo legacy parachute damping model with full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion. The analysis shows an agreement between the Apollo legacy parachute damping model and full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion.

  15. Apollo program soil mechanics experiment. [interaction of the lunar module with the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The soil mechanics investigation was conducted to obtain information relating to the landing interaction of the lunar module (LM) with the lunar surface, and lunar soil erosion caused by the spacecraft engine exhaust. Results obtained by study of LM landing performance on each Apollo mission are summarized.

  16. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  17. Meteoroid streams associated with Apollo asteroids: evidence from the Adelaide radar orbit surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of Phaethon (the ''Geminid asteroid'') in 1983 there has been renewed interest in the association of meteor showers with Earth-approaching asteroids. In the past the existence of several streams associated with different asteroids (in particular Adonis, Apollo, Hermes and Oljato) has been suggested but not proven. Here the 3759 meteor orbits determined at Adelaide in the 1960's have been compared to the orbits of all known Aten-Apollo-Amor asteroids using a new and powerful search technique. Strong evidence is found for streams associated with Apollo-type asteroids Icarus, Hermes, Adonis, Oljato, Hephaistos, 5025 P-L, 1982 TA, and 1984 KB; the final five in this list may be members of the Taurid-Arietid complex, as is Comet P/Encke. No stream associated with 1862 Apollo was identified, but this may be due to the lack of observations at the appropriate solar longitude. No streams associated with any Aten or Amor asteroid were found: this may be due to the limited detectability of their meteors, if they exist, because of their low geocentric velocities. In general streams were discovered for all asteroids coming within 0.1 AU of the Earth, having radiants observable from Adelaide and atmospheric velocities above about 22 km/sec: this suggests that meteoroid streams are a general feature of Earth-approaching asteroids. (author). 1 fig., 32 refs

  18. Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

  19. Photogrammetry and altimetry: Part B: photogrammetry using Apollo 16 orbital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherman S.C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Nakata, Gary M.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 and 16 metric and panoramic cameras have provided photographs for accurate topographic portrayal of the lunar surface using photogrammetric methods. In turn, quantitative morphologic analyses of topographic results are invaluable aids in the interpretation of the geologic processes.

  20. Observation of transiron solar-flare nuclei in an Apollo 16 command-module window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, E. K.

    1974-01-01

    The first measurements of the fluence of solar particles with nuclear charges not less than 32 and 44 are presented, along with the enhancement factors found. Using a track-etching technique, these transiron nuclei were detected in a window from the Apollo 16 command module which was exposed outside the magnetosphere during the solar-particle event of Apr. 18, 1972.

  1. Spinel from Apollo 12 Olivine Mare Basalts: Chemical Systematics of Selected Major, Minor, and Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papike, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Spilde, M. N.

    2002-01-01

    Spinels from Apollo 12 Olivine basalts have been studied by Electron and Ion microprobe techniques. The zoning trends of major, minor and trace elements provide new insights into the conditions under which planetary basalts form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Transonic high Reynolds number stability and control characteristics of a 0.015-scale remotely controlled elevon model (44-0) of the space shuttle orbiter tested in calspan 8-foot TWT (LA70)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrell, H.; Gamble, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Transonic Wind Tunnel tests were run on a .015 scale model of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle in the 8-foot transonic wind tunnel. Purpose of the test program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds number. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from .35 to 1.20 and Reynolds numbers from 3,500,000 to 8,200,000 per foot. The high Reynolds number conditions (nominal 8,000,000/foot) were obtained using the ejector augmentation system. Angle of attack was varied from -2 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, and +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Aileron settings were varied from -5 to +10 degrees at elevon deflections of -10, 0, and +10 degrees. Fixed aileron settings of 0 and 2 degrees in combination with various fixed elevon settings between -20 and +5 degrees were also run at varying angles of attack.

  3. Number Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  4. Seismic motion in urban sites consisting of blocks in welded contact with a soft layer overlying a hard half space: II. large and infinite number of identical equispaced blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, A; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Wirgin, Armand

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of the response to a seismic wave of an urban site consisting of a large and infinite number ($N\\_{b}$) of identical, equispaced blocks overlying a soft layer underlain by a hard substratum. The results of the theoretical analysis, appealing to a space-frequency mode-matching (MM) technique, are compared to those obtained by a space-time finite element (FE) method. The two methods are shown to give rise to much the same prediction of seismic response for $N\\_{b}=10$. The MM technique is also applied to the case $N\\_{b}=\\infty$, notably to reveal the structure and natural frequencies of the vibration modes of the urban site. The mechanism of the interaction between blocks and the ground, as well as that of the collective effects of the blocks, are studied. It is shown that the presence of a large number of blocks modifies the seismic disturbance in a manner which evokes, and may partially account for, what was observed during many earthquakes in Mexico City. Disturbances at a much smalle...

  5. Benchmark calculation of APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF in a fast reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lattice cell benchmark calculation is carried out for APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF on the infinite lattice of a simple pin cell featuring a fast reactor. The accuracy in k-infinity and reaction rates is investigated in their reference and standard level calculations. In the 1st reference level calculation, APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF agree with the reference value of k-infinity obtained by a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation within 50 pcm. However, larger errors are observed in a particular reaction rate and energy range. A major problem common to both codes is in the cross section library of 239Pu in the unresolved energy range. In the 2nd reference level calculation, which is based on the ECCO 1968 group structure, both results of k-infinity agree with the reference value within 100 pcm. The resonance overlap effect is observed by several percents in cross sections of heavy nuclides. In the standard level calculation based on the APOLLO2 library creation methodology, a discrepancy appears by more than 300 pcm. A restriction is revealed in APOLLO2. Its standard cross section library does not have a sufficiently small background cross section to evaluate the self-shielding effect of 56Fe cross sections. The restriction can be removed by introducing the mixture self-shielding treatment recently introduced to APOLLO2. SLAROM-UF original standard level calculation based on the JFS-3 library creation methodology is the best among the standard level calculations. Improvement from the SLAROM-UF standard level calculation is achieved mainly by use of a proper weight function for light or intermediate nuclides. (author)

  6. Benchmark calculation of APOLLO-2 and SLAROM-UF in a fast reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lattice cell benchmark calculation is carried out for APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF on the infinite lattice of a simple pin cell featuring a fast reactor. The accuracy in k-infinity and reaction rates is investigated in their reference and standard level calculations. In the 1. reference level calculation, APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF agree with the reference value of k-infinity obtained by a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation within 50 pcm. However, larger errors are observed in a particular reaction rate and energy range. The major problem common to both codes is in the cross section library of 239Pu in the unresolved energy range. In the 2. reference level calculation, which is based on the ECCO 1968 group structure, both results of k-infinity agree with the reference value within 100 pcm. The resonance overlap effect is observed by several percents in cross sections of heavy nuclides. In the standard level calculation based on the APOLLO2 library creation methodology, a discrepancy appears by more than 300 pcm. A restriction is revealed in APOLLO2. Its standard cross section library does not have a sufficiently small background cross section to evaluate the self shielding effect on 56Fe cross sections. The restriction can be removed by introducing the mixture self-shielding treatment recently introduced to APOLLO2. SLAROM-UF original standard level calculation based on the JFS-3 library creation methodology is the best among the standard level calculations. Improvement from the SLAROM-UF standard level calculation is achieved mainly by use of a proper weight function for light or intermediate nuclides. (author)

  7. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J., Jr.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  8. a week in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  9. SPECIAL COLLOQUIUM : Building a Commercial Space Launch System and the Role of Space Tourism in the Future (exceptionally on Tuesday)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The talk will explore a little of the history of space launch systems and rocketry, will explain why commercial space tourism did not take off after Apollo, and what is happening right now with commercial space systems such as Virgin's, utilising advances in aerospace technology not exploited by conventional ground-based rocket systems. I will then explain the Virgin Galactic technology, its business plan as a US-regulated space tourism company, and the nature of its applications. I will then go on to say a little of how our system can be utilised for sub-orbital space science based on a commercial business plan

  10. Numbers in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL. PMID:27524965

  11. Number Theories

    CERN Document Server

    St-Amant, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We will see that key concepts of number theory can be defined for arbitrary operations. We give a generalized distributivity for hyperoperations (usual arithmetic operations and operations going beyond exponentiation) and a generalization of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic for hyperoperations. We also give a generalized definition of the prime numbers that are associated to an arbitrary n-ary operation and take a few steps toward the development of its modulo arithmetic by investigating a generalized form of Fermat's little theorem. Those constructions give an interesting way to interpret diophantine equations and we will see that the uniqueness of factorization under an arbitrary operation can be linked with the Riemann zeta function. This language of generalized primes and composites can be used to restate and extend certain problems such as the Goldbach conjecture.

  12. Flags in Space: NASA Symbols and Flags in the U.S. Manned Space Program

    OpenAIRE

    Platoff, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most memorable images from the Apollo missions to the moon is the picture of the astronaut standing next to the U.S. flag.  Throughout the history of America’s space program flags have been prevalent symbols on space suits, spacecraft, and mission patches.  Since the early days of manned space flight “flown” flags have been used as mementos to commemorate important flights and to recognize the contributions of individuals to the success of the program.  Other symbols besides flags ...

  13. Nuclear Propulsion for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Bechtel, R. D.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Basics of Nuclear Systems: Long history of use on Apollo and space science missions. 44 RTGs and hundreds of RHUs launched by U.S. during past 4 decades. Heat produced from natural alpha (a) particle decay of Plutonium (Pu-238). Used for both thermal management and electricity production. Used terrestrially for over 65 years. Fissioning 1 kg of uranium yields as much energy as burning 2,700,000 kg of coal. One US space reactor (SNAP-10A) flown (1965). Former U.S.S.R. flew 33 space reactors. Heat produced from neutron-induced splitting of a nucleus (e.g. U-235). At steady-state, 1 of the 2 to 3 neutrons released in the reaction causes a subsequent fission in a "chain reaction" process. Heat converted to electricity, or used directly to heat a propellant. Fission is highly versatile with many applications.

  14. Apollo Field Geology: 45 Years of Digesting Rocks, Field Data, and Future Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve Apollo astronauts participated in the Lunar Field Geological Experiment, overseen by Gene Shoemaker, Gordon Swann, and Bill Muehlberger and their Co-Investigators. In conjunction with geologists and engineers of the Geological Survey and NASA, this team planned, trained and executed the first extraterrestrial field geological investigation. As a result, astronaut sample selection, observations, photo-documentation and experiment deployment underpin 45 years of laboratory analyses and interpretation by thousands of lunar and planetary scientists. --Current hypotheses related to the origin, evolution and nature of the Moon would be far different had Apollo geological explorations not occurred, even assuming that all robotic missions flown before and since Apollo were flown. *Would we have recognized lunar meteorites without the broad suite of Apollo samples to guide us? If we eventually had properly identified such meteorites, would their chemistry and age data give us the same detailed insights about the origin and evolution of the Moon without the highly specific field documentation of samples collected by the astronauts? *Would we recognize that the early history of the Earth and Mars up to 3.8 billion years ago, including the development of life's precursors, was a period of the prolonged violence due to impacts of asteroids and comets? Would we have realized that clay minerals, produced by the alteration of impact-generated glass and debris, would have been dominant components and potential templates for complex organic molecules in the terrestrial and Martian environments? *Would we fully understand the surface environments of asteroids and young terrestrial planets without the detailed dissection and analysis of Apollo's lunar regolith samples? *Would the Moon's near-surface environment, and its mantle and core structure, be as well defined as they are without the ground-truth provided by Apollo samples and the equipment carefully emplaced there by the

  15. Espaçamento entre plantas e número de racimos para tomateiro em ambiente protegido = Plant spacing and number of inflorescences for tomato crop grown under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Seleguini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, de outubro de 2001 a março de 2002, na Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da UNESP, Campus de Ilha Solteira. Avaliou-se a produção do híbrido de tomate “Duradoro” em quatro espaçamentos entre plantas (30; 40; 50 e 60 cm e três números de racimos por planta (3; 4 e 5. Adotou-se odelineamento de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram que a altura de plantas aos 30 e 50 dias, após o transplantio (DAT não foi influenciada pelo espaçamento entre plantas. Aos 70 DAT, observou-se aumento linear da altura de plantas com a redução do espaçamento. A produção e o número de frutos por planta bem como a produção total e produção de frutos de tamanho médio por área cresceram-se diretamente com o aumento no número de racimos. A redução no espaçamento proporcionou aumentos na produção total de frutos, além de aumentar também a produção defrutos graúdos e médios. The experiment was carried out under protected environment fromOctober, 2001 to March, 2002, at the Teaching, Research and Extension Farm (Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP. The effects of fourplant spacing (30; 40; 50 and 60 cm and three numbers of inflorescences per plant (3; 4 and5 for tomato hybrid “Duradoro” were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, in a split-plot array, with four replications. Results showed that the height of plants, at 30 and 50 days after the transplant (DAT, was not influenced by thespacing among plants. At 70 DAT, a linear increase of the height of plants with the reduction of the plant spacing was observed. The yield and the number of fruits per plant as well as the total yield and yield of fruits of medium size per unit area increased directly with the increase in the number of inflorescences. The reduction in the plant spacing

  16. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  17. Environmental Projects. Volume 17; Biological Assessment, Opinion, and New 34-Meter Beam-Waveguide Antenna (DSS 24) at Apollo Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Irving

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the Biological Assessment, Biological Opinion and Final Report on the construction of a high- efficiency 34-meter, multifrequency beam-waveguide antenna at the Apollo Site of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, operated by JPL. According to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, a Biological Assessment must be conducted and a Biological Opinion, with terms and conditions, rendered (the Opinion by the U.S. Department of the Interior) before construction of any federal project that may affect endangered or threatened flora or fauna. After construction, a final report is filed with the Department. The desert tortoise, designated "threatened" by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Mojave ground squirrel and the Lane Mountain milk vetch, both designated "candidate threatened," required the reporting specified by the Act. The Assessment found no significant danger to the animal species if workers are educated about them. No stands of the plant species were observed in the surveyed construction area. The Department issued a Biological Opinion to safeguard the two animal species. The Service and the California Department of Fish and Game both issued a Biological Concurrence that JPL had satisfied all environmental criteria for preserving threatened species.

  18. Petrology and chemistry of Apollo 17 regolith breccias - A history of mixing of highland and mare regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of petrological and chemical analyses of ten Apollo 17 breccias, showing that two of these consist predominantly of highland material, seven are mare-dominated, and one is a welded volcanic glass deposit; all were formed at or near the Apollo 17 site, and all contain both mare and highland components. The data are indicative of the Apollo 17 breccias formation from immature source regolith. The breccias are considered to be formed locally after an eruption of basalt and orange glass at the site. Since the formation of the breccias, the regolith at the Apollo 17 site has become more mature, and the orange glass abundance has been somewhat decreased by mixing. One of the sample may contain a previously unreported volcanic glass type.

  19. Apollo-Soyuz test project. Volume 1: Astronomy, earth atmosphere and gravity field, life sciences, and materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The joint U.S.-USSR experiments and the U.S. conducted unilateral experiments performed during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are described. Scientific concepts and experiment design and operation are discussed along with scientific results of postflight analysis.

  20. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter trimmed center-of-gravity extension study. Volume 8: Effects of configuration modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of the 140 A/B Orbiter at a Mach number of 5.97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics at M=5.97 for the 140 A/B Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration and for the configuration modified by geometric changes in the wing planform fillet region and the fuselage forebody are presented. The modifications, designed to extend the orbiter's longitudinal trim capability to more forward center of gravity locations, include reshaping the baseline wing fillet, changing the fuselage forebody camber, and adding canards. The Langley 20 inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 6 million based on fuselage reference length was used. The angle of attack range of the investigation varied from about 15 deg to 35 deg at 0 deg and -5 deg sideslip angles. Data are obtained with the elevators and body flap deflected at appropriate negative and positive conditions to assess the trim limits.

  2. 技嘉用Apollo Pro 266芯片组的DDR主板GA-6RX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    这是一块ATX板型的重量级主板。DDR DIMM插槽有4个之多,最多可装4GB的PC2100/PC1600的DDR SDRAM内存。Apollo Pro 266本身支持SDRAM.但GA-6RX未予支持(据资料称,Apollo Pro266还支持VS SDRAM)。

  3. Geometry of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Peter M

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains a fairly complete picture of the geometry of numbers, including relations to other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, diophantine approximation, coding and numerical analysis. It deals with convex or non-convex bodies and lattices in euclidean space, etc.This second edition was prepared jointly by P.M. Gruber and the author of the first edition. The authors have retained the existing text (with minor corrections) while adding to each chapter supplementary sections on the more recent developments. While this method may have drawbacks, it has the definit

  4. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  5. Vesicles in Apollo 15 Green Glasses: The Nature of Ancient Lunar Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Berger, E. L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed studies of Apollo 15 green glass and related beads have shown they were formed in gas-rich fire fountains.. As the magmatic fluid became super-saturated in volatile gas, bubbles or vesicles formed within the magma. These exsolved gases became trapped within vesicles as the glasses were ejected from the fire-fountain and subsequently quenched. One of the keys to understanding formation processes on the ancient moon includes determining the composition of volatile species and elements, including metals, dissolved in magmatic gases. Here we report the nature of mineral phases spatially associated with vesicles in a green glass bead from Apollo sample 15411,42. The phases reflect the composition of the cooling/degassing magmatic vapors and fluids present at the time of bead formation approx, 3 Ga ago

  6. In-Situ XRF Measurements in Lunar Surface Exploration Using Apollo Samples as a Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, C.; Allen, C.; Mosie, A.; Hodges, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the Apollo lunar surface missions were sampled and returned to Earth by astronauts with varying degrees of geological experience. The technology used in these EVAs, or extravehicular activities, included nothing more advanced than traditional terrestrial field instruments: rock hammer, scoop, claw tool, and sample bags. 40 years after Apollo, technology is being developed that will allow for a high-resolution geochemical map to be created in the field real-time. Handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology is one such technology. We use handheld XRF to enable a broad in-situ characterization of a geologic site of interest based on fairly rapid techniques that can be implemented by either an astronaut or a robotic explorer. The handheld XRF instrument we used for this study was the Innov-X Systems Delta XRF spectrometer.

  7. Electrical conductivity anomaly beneath Mare Serenitatis detected by Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 16 magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic fluctuations measured by the Lunokhod 2 magnetometer in the Bay Le Monnier are distinctively anisotropic when compared to simultaneous Apollo 16 magnetometer data measured 1100 km away in the Descartes highlands. This anisotropy can be explained by an anomalous electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath Mare Serenitatis. A model is presented of anomalously lower electrical conductivity beneath Serenitatis and the simultaneous magnetic data from the Lunokhod 2 site at the mare edge and the Apollo 16 site are compared to the numerically calculated model solutions. This comparison indicates that the anisotroic fluctuations can be modeled by a nonconducting layer in the lunar lithosphere which is 150 km thick beneath the highlands and 300 km thick beneath Mare Serenitatis. A decreased electrical conductivity in the upper mantle beneath the mare may be due to a lower temperature resulting from heat carried out the magma source regions to the surface during mare flooding. (Auth.)

  8. Thermal Analyses of Apollo Lunar Soils Provide Evidence for Water in Permanently Shadowed Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Smith, M. C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-evolved-gas analyses were performed on the Apollo lunar soils shortly after their return to Earth [1-8]. The analyses revealed the presence of water evolving at temperatures above 200 C. Of particular interest are samples that were collected from permanently-shadowed locations (e.g., under a boulder) with a second sample collected in nearby sunlight, and pairs in which one was taken from the top of a trench, and the second was taken at the base of the trench, where the temperature would have been -10 to -20 C prior to the disturbance [9]. These samples include 63340/63500, 69941/69961, and 76240/76280. At the time that this research was first reported, the idea of hydrated minerals on the lunar surface was somewhat novel. Nevertheless, goethite was observed in lunar breccias from Apollo 14 [10], and it was shown that goethite, hematite and magnetite could originate in an equilibrium assemblage of lunar rocks

  9. Assessment of Scheduling and Plan Execution of Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Although over forty years have passed since first landing on the Moon, there is not yet a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of Apollo extravehicular activities (EVAs). Quantitatively evaluating lunar EVAs will provide a better understanding of the challenges involved with surface operations. This first evaluation of a surface EVA centers on comparing the planned and the as-ran timeline, specifically collecting data on discrepancies between durations that were estimated versus executed. Differences were summarized by task categories in order to gain insight as to the type of surface operation activities that were most challenging. One Apollo 14 EVA was assessed utilizing the described methodology. Selected metrics and task categorizations were effective, and limitations to this process were identified.

  10. Magnesium and Silicon Isotopes in HASP Glasses from Apollo 16 Lunar Soil 61241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, G. F.; Delaney, J. S.; Lindsay, F.; Alexander, C. M. O'D; Chakrabarti, R.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Whattam, S.; Korotev, R.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The high-Al (>28 wt %), silica-poor (<45 wt %) (HASP) feldspathic glasses of Apollo 16 are widely regarded as the evaporative residues of impacts in the lunar regolith [1-3]. By virtue of their small size, apparent homogeneity, and high inferred formation temperatures, the HASP glasses appear to be good samples in which to study fractionation processes that may accompany open system evaporation. Calculations suggest that HASP glasses with present-day Al2O3 concentrations of up to 40 wt% may have lost 19 wt% of their original masses, calculated as the oxides of iron and silicon, via evaporation [4]. We report Mg and Si isotope abundances in 10 HASP glasses and 2 impact-glass spherules from a 64-105 m grain-size fraction taken from Apollo 16 soil sample 61241.

  11. Three model space experiments on chemical reactions. [Gibbs adsorption, equilibrium shift and electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P.; Facemire, B.

    1977-01-01

    Three investigations conducted aboard Skylab IV and Apollo-Soyuz involved phenomena that are of interest to the biochemistry community. The formaldehyde clock reaction and the equilibrium shift reaction experiments conducted aboard Apollo Soyuz demonstrate the effect of low-g foams or air/liquid dispersions on reaction rate and chemical equilibrium. The electrodeposition reaction experiment conducted aboard Skylab IV demonstrate the effect of a low-g environment on an electrochemical displacement reaction. The implications of the three space experiments for various applications are considered.

  12. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  13. An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187, and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Downes, Hilary; Crawford, Ian A.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the compositional diversity of the Moon's interior. Basalt fragments from the lunar regolith can potentially sample lava flows from regions of the Moon not previously visited, thus, increasing our understanding of lunar geological evolution. As part of a study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site, detailed petrological and geochemical data are provided here for 13 basaltic chips. In addition to bulk chemistry, we have analyzed the major, minor, and trace element chemistry of mineral phases which highlight differences between basalt groups. Where samples contain olivine, the equilibrium parent melt magnesium number (Mg#; atomic Mg/[Mg + Fe]) can be calculated to estimate parent melt composition. Ilmenite and plagioclase chemistry can also determine differences between basalt groups. We conclude that samples of approximately 1-2 mm in size can be categorized provided that appropriate mineral phases (olivine, plagioclase, and ilmenite) are present. Where samples are fine-grained (grain size fines) from future sample return missions to investigate lava flow diversity and petrological significance.

  14. Riesz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, A C

    1983-01-01

    While Volume I (by W.A.J. Luxemburg and A.C. Zaanen, NHML Volume 1, 1971) is devoted to the algebraic aspects of the theory, this volume emphasizes the analytical theory of Riesz spaces and operators between these spaces. Though the numbering of chapters continues on from the first volume, this does not imply that everything covered in Volume I is required for this volume, however the two volumes are to some extent complementary.

  15. Inert gas stratigraphy of Apollo 15 drill core sections 15001 and 15003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W.; Kirsten, T.; Heymann, D.

    1973-01-01

    Rare gase contents were studied in Apollo 15 drill core sections corresponding to 207 to 238 and 125 to 161-cm depths, with respect to layering of the core, turnover on a centimeter scale, and cosmic proton bombardment history. Trapped gas abundance was established in all samples, the mean grain size being a major factor influencing the absolute rare gas contents. Analysis of the results suggests that the regolith materials were exposed to galactic and solar cosmic rays long before their deposition.

  16. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  17. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) which gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 is presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations - National International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is also included.

  18. Comparative magnetic studies of some Apollo 17 rocks and soils and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, A.; Menke, W. H.; Morash, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar rock and soil specimens studied include samples of the orange and gray soil strata from adjancent sites on the South rim of Shorty Crater, two vesicular mare basalts, and a mare basalt of the dense aphanitic type. The magnetic characteristics of the soils are discussed along with a hysteresis behavior analysis of Apollo 17 rocks. The remanent properties are examined, giving attention to viscous remanence, NRM stability, saturation isothermal remanence, and heating experiments.

  19. Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) gimballed star tracker. [developed for the Skylab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Design and development of six gimballed star trackers for Skylab's Apollo Telescope Mount, which performed successfully on all three manned Skylab missions and accumulated a total usage time of approximately 3,500 hours, is described in terms of configurations, materials and construction, qualification testing, performance, and reliability characteristics. A brief program history and design changes incorporated during the life of the program are also discussed. Extensive drawings, block diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  20. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  1. Rescue and Preservation of Sample Data from the Apollo Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Evans, Cindy A.; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Six Apollo missions landed on the Moon from 1969-72, returning to Earth 382 kg of lunar rock, soil, and core samples. These samples are among the best documented and preserved samples on Earth that have supported a robust research program for 45 years. From mission planning through sample collection, preliminary examination, and subsequent research, strict protocols and procedures are followed for handling and allocating Apollo subsamples, resulting in the production of vast amounts of documentation. Even today, hundreds of samples are allocated for research each year, building on the science foundation laid down by the early Apollo sample studies and combining new data from today's instrumentation, lunar remote sensing missions and lunar meteorites. Much sample information is available to researchers at curator.jsc.nasa.gov. Decades of analyses on lunar samples are published in LPSC proceedings volumes and other peer-reviewed journals, and tabulated in lunar sample compendia entries. However, for much of the 1969-1995 period, the processing documentation, individual and consortia analyses, and unpublished results exist only in analog forms or primitive digital formats that are either inaccessible or at risk of being lost forever because critical data from early investigators remain unpublished.

  2. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass - Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Delano, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Electron microprobe and INAA were used to analyze forty spherules of Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass for major and trace elements. The glass is one of twenty-five high-Mg primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. The abundances show that the magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas are presented.

  3. Women in Space — Following Valentina

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2005-01-01

    Space exploration has developed from early, unmanned space probes through the pioneering years of the ‘Manned’ Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions, to missions that now include women in the crew as a matter of course. Dave Shayler tells the story of the first woman balloonist in 1784 to their breakthrough as astronauts and cosmonauts in a range of professional roles. He covers the contribution women have made to space exploration and draws on interviews with Shuttle and Mir crew members who were women. These interviews detail the achievements of the first female Shuttle commander and the first female resident crew member of the International Space Station. These and many other events are presented in a detailed and highly readable account that recalls the difficult path to space exploration by women.

  4. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as ''return on investment'' and ''commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed

  5. Health physics innovations developed during Cassini for future space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a long history of space missions involving Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) devices starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), on through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All of these Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for bench-marking future MRS ground processing

  6. On powerful numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful number is a positive integer n satisfying the property that p2 divides n whenever the prime p divides n; i.e., in the canonical prime decomposition of n, no prime appears with exponent 1. In [1], S.W. Golomb introduced and studied such numbers. In particular, he asked whether (25,27 is the only pair of consecutive odd powerful numbers. This question was settled in [2] by W.A. Sentance who gave necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such pairs. The first result of this paper is to provide a generalization of Sentance's result by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of pairs of powerful numbers spaced evenly apart. This result leads us naturally to consider integers which are representable as a proper difference of two powerful numbers, i.e. n=p1−p2 where p1 and p2 are powerful numbers with g.c.d. (p1,p2=1. Golomb (op.cit. conjectured that 6 is not a proper difference of two powerful numbers, and that there are infinitely many numbers which cannot be represented as a proper difference of two powerful numbers. The antithesis of this conjecture was proved by W.L. McDaniel [3] who verified that every non-zero integer is in fact a proper difference of two powerful numbers in infinitely many ways. McDaniel's proof is essentially an existence proof. The second result of this paper is a simpler proof of McDaniel's result as well as an effective algorithm (in the proof for explicitly determining infinitely many such representations. However, in both our proof and McDaniel's proof one of the powerful numbers is almost always a perfect square (namely one is always a perfect square when n≢2(mod4. We provide in §2 a proof that all even integers are representable in infinitely many ways as a proper nonsquare difference; i.e., proper difference of two powerful numbers neither of which is a perfect square. This, in conjunction with the odd case in [4], shows that every integer is representable in

  7. The lunar regolith - Comparative studies of the Apollo and Luna sites. Chemistry of soils from Apollo 17, Luna 16, 20, and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents an extension of a comparative regolith study reported by Labotka et al. (1980) to the Apollo 17 site and to the east limb of the moon (Luna 16, 20, and 24 sites). Chemical systematics are considered, taking into account major and minor element characteristics, and large ion-lithophile patterns (K, REE, and Th). Attention is also given to chemical mixing calculations and the significance of the fine fraction. It is found that the chemistries of 1000-90, 90-20, and 20-10 micrometer size fractions are very similar to each other but quite different from the 'less than 10 micrometer' fine fractions. The 'less than 10 micrometer' fine fractions, which comprise about 5 to 20% of the bulk soils, are consistently more feldspathic and enriched in LIL-rich material relative to the coarse fractions in all soils. The KREEP type is different at each site and is largely derived locally.

  8. Parking Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Drew; Rhoades, Brendon

    2012-01-01

    Let $W$ be a Weyl group with root lattice $Q$ and Coxeter number $h$. The elements of the finite torus $Q/(h+1)Q$ are called the $W$-{\\sf parking functions}, and we call the permutation representation of $W$ on the set of $W$-parking functions the (standard) $W$-{\\sf parking space}. Parking spaces have interesting connections to enumerative combinatorics, diagonal harmonics, and rational Cherednik algebras. In this paper we define two new $W$-parking spaces, called the {\\sf noncrossing parking space} and the {\\sf algebraic parking space}, with the following features: 1) They are defined more generally for real reflection groups. 2) They carry not just $W$-actions, but $W\\times C$-actions, where $C$ is the cyclic subgroup of $W$ generated by a Coxeter element. 3) In the crystallographic case, both are isomorphic to the standard $W$-parking space. Our Main Conjecture is that the two new parking spaces are isomorphic to each other as permutation representations of $W\\times C$. This conjecture ties together sever...

  9. Qualification of APOLLO2 BWR calculation scheme on the BASALA mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new neutronic APOLLO2/MOC/SHEM/CEA2005 calculation scheme for BWR applications has been developed by the French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'. This scheme is based on the latest calculation methodology (accurate mutual and self-shielding formalism, MOC treatment of the transport equation) and the recent JEFF3.1 nuclear data library. This paper presents the experimental validation of this new calculation scheme on the BASALA BWR mock-up The BASALA programme is devoted to the measurements of the physical parameters of high moderation 100% MOX BWR cores, in hot and cold conditions. The experimental validation of the calculation scheme deals with core reactivity, fission rate maps, reactivity worth of void and absorbers (cruciform control blades and Gd pins), as well as temperature coefficient. Results of the analysis using APOLLO2/MOC/SHEM/CEA2005 show an overestimation of the core reactivity by 600 pcm for BASALA-Hot and 750 pcm for BASALA-Cold. Reactivity worth of gadolinium poison pins and hafnium or B4C control blades are predicted by APOLLO2 calculation within 2% accuracy. Furthermore, the radial power map is well predicted for every core configuration, including Void configuration and Hf / B4C configurations: fission rates in the central assembly are calculated within the ±2% experimental uncertainty for the reference cores. The C/E bias on the isothermal Moderator Temperature Coefficient, using the CEA2005 library based on JEFF3.1 file, amounts to -1.7±03 pcm/ deg. C on the range 10 deg. C-80 deg. C. (authors)

  10. Apollo RCA方法分析和解决安装边零件变形问题%Analyzing and Solving Distortion of Picture Frame Part with Apollo RCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 李伟红; 申童

    2010-01-01

    本文介绍了阿波罗根本原因分析法(Apollo RCA),针对9EA型重型燃机的燃烧室安装边加工变形影响交付问题,利用Apollo RCA的因&果图表等工具,深入分析产生的根本原因、实施有效解决途径、防止问题重复产生并满足客户要求.

  11. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  12. Medical Disaster: Why Ken Mattingly Can't Have Measles in Apollo 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamboukian, Sylvia A

    2016-03-01

    The film Apollo 13 depicts denial of illness and refusal of health care as key components of American masculinity. In the film, male astronauts and mission controllers deny vulnerability to measles and to urinary infections, as well as the need to sleep, to prove their manliness. This is symbolized by their ridicule of flight surgeon Dr. Chuck. Conversely, the astronauts' wives are depicted admitting vulnerability, especially insomnia. Thus, the film exploits and reinforces existing strands of American culture that view admission of illness and help-seeking as appropriate for women but not men, reinforcing denial and noncompliance as desirable male behaviors. PMID:25808882

  13. Country western singer Teresa entertains at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, country music recording artist Teresa performs a song, 'Brave New Girls,' written for astronaut Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, mission specialist on STS-93. She entertains participants and attendees of a women's forum held in the center. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS- 93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  14. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  15. Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

  16. INAA and RNAA of an Apollo-17 lunar mare basalt sample for 36 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty six elements, including all the fourteen naturally occurring lanthanides, were determined in an Apollo-17 lunar mare basalt sample by means of INAA and RNAA. Total amount of sample used was 62.1 mg. A detailed radiochemical separation scheme was established. Chemical yields for most of the thirty six elements tested are quantitative. Accuracy of the results was verified by parallel analysis of USGS W-1. The concentration data for most elements are in good agreement with literature values. C1 chondrite-normalized REE concentrations show a typical lunar mare basalt pattern. (author)

  17. Le sostruzioni del tempio di Apollo Sosiano e del portico adiacente

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Si analizzano le opere murarie di fondazione e di sostruzione del Tempio di Apollo Sosiano e del portico retrostante e i loro rapporti con le fondazioni del Tempio di Bellona e del Portico di Ottavia. Le strutture esaminate presentano una complessa stratigrafia riconducibile alle varie fasi di un grande cantiere che, negli ultimi decenni del i secolo a.C., portò alla completa ricostruzione di tutta l’area a nord del nuovo Teatro di Marcello. Si individuano inoltre molti elementi utili per la ...

  18. An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187, and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Downes, Hilary; Crawford, Ian A.

    2016-09-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the compositional diversity of the Moon's interior. Basalt fragments from the lunar regolith can potentially sample lava flows from regions of the Moon not previously visited, thus, increasing our understanding of lunar geological evolution. As part of a study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site, detailed petrological and geochemical data are provided here for 13 basaltic chips. In addition to bulk chemistry, we have analyzed the major, minor, and trace element chemistry of mineral phases which highlight differences between basalt groups. Where samples contain olivine, the equilibrium parent melt magnesium number (Mg#; atomic Mg/[Mg + Fe]) can be calculated to estimate parent melt composition. Ilmenite and plagioclase chemistry can also determine differences between basalt groups. We conclude that samples of approximately 1-2 mm in size can be categorized provided that appropriate mineral phases (olivine, plagioclase, and ilmenite) are present. Where samples are fine-grained (grain size <0.3 mm), a "paired samples t-test" can provide a statistical comparison between a particular sample and known lunar basalts. Of the fragments analyzed here, three are found to belong to each of the previously identified olivine and ilmenite basalt suites, four to the pigeonite basalt suite, one is an olivine cumulate, and two could not be categorized because of their coarse grain sizes and lack of appropriate mineral phases. Our approach introduces methods that can be used to investigate small sample sizes (i.e., fines) from future sample return missions to investigate lava flow diversity and petrological significance.

  19. Ethics and the Space Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth

  20. Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit...

  1. Espaçamentos entre plantas e número de fileiras no canteiro na produção de ervilha Spacing between plants and number of rows per plot on the yield of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire P Gassi

    2009-12-01

    green grains pea 'Luciana Nº 50' was evaluated when cultivated in four and five rows per plot and three spacings between plants in rows (5,0; 7,5 and 10,0 cm, in Dourados, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, in a randomized-blocks experimental design, with five replications. Plant height was not significantly influenced by the interaction between number of rows per plot and spaces between plants, neither by those isolated factors, with an average of 105,6 cm. The interaction was significant for fresh and dried mass of aerial part and the greatest values (10,49 t ha-1 and 2,31 t ha-1 were those from plants cultivated in four rows and 7,5 cm between plants. The smallest values (7,52 t ha-1 and 1,98 t ha-1, respectively were those from plants under five rows and spaced 5,0 cm between plants for fresh mass and four rows and 10,0 cm between plants for dried mass. Yield of commercial pods obtained under four rows of plants was superior in 1,50 t ha-1 than those under five rows (5,74 t ha-1 and the yield obtained in 10 cm between plants was superior in 2,25 t ha-1 than that under 5,0 cm (5,23 t ha-1. The greatest yield of commercial tender grains (4,27 t ha-1 was obtainded using spaces of 10 cm between plants, which was superior in 1,33 t ha-1 than those with 5,0 cm between plants, which was the smallest one. Considering yield of tender grains and the estimate of gross income, 'Luciana nº 50' must be cultivated with four rows of plants per plot and with 10 cm between plants.

  2. Generation and testing of XS libraries for VVER using APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOC based calculation schemes with APOLLO2 were used to generate few-group cross-section libraries for VVER-1000 at the nodal and pin level. This paper presents an overview of the testing of the schemes and the libraries, as well as the computational aspects. Two major improvements are considered: application of new developments in APOLLO2 and multi-core computation for an acceptable trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Two-level Pij-MOC industrial calculation schemes were tested against TRIPOLI4 reference results. Benchmarking of the schemes shows that the higher-order linear surface method of characteristics (LS MOC) is an efficient option for cross-section library generation. There is a significant potential for further refinement of the MOC energy mesh and the MOC parameters with the progress in distributed computing. A multi-parameter cross-section library for MSLB analysis with homogenized nodes was tested in 2D core simulation with COBAYA3 vs. whole-core TRIPOLI4 solutions on the CEA CCRT HPC system. Pin-by-pin cross-sections and interface discontinuity factors of Black Box Homogenization type were tested in diffusion calculations with COBAYA3 pin-by-pin against transport reference solutions. Good agreement is displayed. (authors)

  3. Pulmonary function evaluation during the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Previous experience during Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic normal gravity environments, but no previous study has reported on men exposed to an environment that was both normoxic at 258 torr total pressure and at null gravity as encountered in Skylab. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Inflight measurements of vital capacity (VC) were obtained during the last 2 weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). More detailed pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination (RV), closing volume (CV), VC, FVC and its derivatives. In addition, VC was measured in flight at regular intervals during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly (-10%) in flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight-to-postflight changes were observed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen were studied using equipment and procedures similar to those employed during Skylab 4. Postflight evaluation of the ASTP crewmen was complicated by their inadvertent exposure to nitrogen tetroxide gas fumes upon reentry.

  4. Generation and Testing of XS Libraries for VVER Using APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Nonka; Petrov, Nikolay; Todorova, Galina; Kolev, Nikola

    2014-06-01

    MOC based calculation schemes with APOLLO2 were used to generate few-group cross-section libraries for VVER-1000 at the nodal and pin level. This paper presents an overview of the testing of the schemes and the libraries, as well as the computational aspects. Two major ameliorations are considered: application of new developments in APOLLO2 and multicore computation for an acceptable trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Two-level Pij-MOC industrial calculation schemes were tested against TRIPOLI4 reference results. Benchmarking of the schemes shows that the higher-order linear surface method of characteristics (LS MOC) is an efficient option for cross-section library generation. There is a significant potential for further refinement of the MOC energy mesh and the MOC parameters with the progress in distributed computing. A multi-parameter cross-section library for MSLB analysis with homogenized nodes was tested in 2D core simulation with COBAYA3 vs. whole-core TRIPOLI4 solutions on the CEA CCRT HPC system. Pin-by-pin cross-sections and interface discontinuity factors of Black Box Homogenization type were tested in diffusion calculations with COBAYA3 pin-by-pin against transport reference solutions. Good agreement is displayed.

  5. Transport core solver validation for the ASTRID conceptual design study with APOLLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we are questioning the capability of 3D deterministic transport solvers available at CEA and EPM to accurately predict the void effect of the sodium plenum of the CEV core (GEN IV Sodium Fast Reactor concept selected for the ASTRID project at CEA). Discrete Ordinates, Spherical Harmonics and Simplified Spherical Harmonics transport solvers have been tested against Monte Carlo method on Takeda Benchmark Model 4 and on a new variant with a sodium plenum. Sn solvers offer the best accuracy on multiplication factor, void effect and control rod worth, with values very close to reference Monte Carlo ones. However, even using acceleration techniques, computing time are quite consequent. This difficulty should be solved by the parallelization of the MINARET Sn solver in the APOLLO3® platform. SPn solvers are very fast, but also quite distant from the reference, especially for the calculation of the void effect where they prove largely inadequate. A good compromise between accuracy and computational time is obtained with the Pu solver VARIANT. The corresponding nodal method is being implemented in APOLLO3®. (author)

  6. Validation of the new code package APOLLO2.8 for accurate PWR neutronics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Qualification work performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the new APOLLO2.S/SHEM-MOC package based on JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data file for the prediction of PWR neutronics parameters. This experimental validation is based on PWR mock-up critical experiments performed in the EOLE/MINERVE zero-power reactors and on P.I. Es on spent fuel assemblies from the French PWRs. The Calculation-Experiment comparison for the main design parameters is presented: reactivity of UOX and MOX lattices, depletion calculation and fuel inventory, reactivity loss with burnup, pin-by-pin power maps, Doppler coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, Void coefficient, UO2-Gd2O3 poisoning worth, Efficiency of Ag-In-Cd and B4C control rods, Reflector Saving for both standard 2-cm baffle and GEN3 advanced thick SS reflector. From this qualification process, calculation biases and associated uncertainties are derived. This code package APOLLO2.8 is already implemented in the ARCADIA new AREVA calculation chain for core physics and is currently under implementation in the future neutronics package of the French utility Electricite de France. (authors)

  7. Size and modal analyses of fines and ultrafines from some Apollo 17 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, G. M.; King, D. T., Jr.; Banholzer, G. S., Jr.; King, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Scanning electron and optical microscopy techniques have been used to determine the grain-size frequency distributions and morphology-based modal analyses of fine and ultrafine fractions of some Apollo 17 regolith samples. There are significant and large differences between the grain-size frequency distributions of the less than 10-micron size fraction of Apollo 17 samples, but there are no clear relations to the local geologic setting from which individual samples have been collected. This may be due to effective lateral mixing of regolith particles in this size range by micrometeoroid impacts. None of the properties of the frequency distributions support the idea of selective transport of any fine grain-size fraction, as has been proposed by other workers. All of the particle types found in the coarser size fractions also occur in the less than 10-micron particles. In the size range from 105 to 10 microns there is a strong tendency for the percentage of regularly shaped glass to increase as the graphic mean grain size of the less than 1-mm size fraction decreases, both probably being controlled by exposure age.

  8. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method: a new approach to obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontrand López-Nava-Breviere

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many obese patients cannot lose weight or reject conventional obesity management. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method is a pioneering coadjuvant, interventionist technique for the integral management of obesity. Objectives: The goals of this study were to report safety and efficacy results obtained at 6 months in patients undergoing endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. Material and methods: A prospective study was performed in 55 patients (13 males, 42 females who were subjected to the Apollo technique; mean age was 43.5 years (range 25-60 and mean BMI was 37.7 kg/m² (range 30-48. All received multidisciplinary follow-up for weight loss. Weight changes and presence of complications were assessed. Through the endoscope a triangular pattern suture is performed consisting of approximately 3-6 transmural (mucosa to serosa stitches, using a cinch device to bring them nearer and form a plication. Results: A total of 6-8 plications are used to provide a tubular or sleeve-shaped restriction to the gastric cavity. No major complications developed and patients were discharged at 24 hours following the procedure. Endoscopic and radiographic follow-up at 6 months post-procedure showed a well preserved tubular form to the stomach. After 6 months patients had lost 18.9 kg and 55.3% of excess weight. Conclusions: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty, together with dietary and psycho-behavioral changes, is a safe, effective technique in the coadjuvant management of obese patients.

  9. Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [Apollo 15 breccias and Russian tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Clasts, rind glass, matrix glass, and matrix minerals from five Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias (15255, 15286, 15465, 15466, and 15505) were studied optically and with the SEM/microprobe. Rind glass compositions differ from sample to sample, but are identical, or nearly so, to the local soil, suggesting their origin by fusion of that soil. Most breccia samples contain green or colorless glass spheres identical to the Apollo 15 green glasses. These glasses, along with other glass shards and fragments, indicate a large soil component is present in the breccias. Clast populations include basalts and gabbros containing phases highly enriched in iron, indicative of extreme differentiation or fractional crystallization. Impact melts, anorthosites, and minor amounts of ANT suite material are also present among the clasts. Tektite glasses, impact melts, and breccias from the Zhamanshin structure, USSR, were also studied. Basic tektite glasses were found to be identical in composition to impact melts from the structure, but no satisfactory parent material has been identified in the limited suite of samples available.

  10. Safety and environmental aspects of the Apollo-L2 D-3He reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Apollo-L2, a D-3He fueled tokamak reactor design that utilizes direct conversion. The reactor shield is made of steel and cooled with water. Three different austenitic steel alloys (PCA, 316 SS and Tenelon) were chosen to study the impact of material selection on the environmental and safety attractiveness of the reactor. The thermal response of the different shields following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) was determined up to two weeks after an unscheduled shutdown of the reactor. The Tenelon structure encountered the highest temperature increase following the accident. The maximum temperature a Tenelon first wall reaches is 500degreeC. The nickel-stabilized steel structures (PCA and 316 SS) result in the highest off-site dose due to its high radioactive cobalt content. 58Co and 60Co are the major contributors to the calculated dose. The low temperature of the structure during a LOCA results in the release of a very small fraction of the radioactive inventory at the onset of an accident. Hence, the Apollo-L2 design achieves the inherent safety criteria with respect to activation products

  11. Geometric Number Systems and Spinors

    CERN Document Server

    Sobczyk, Garret

    2015-01-01

    The real number system is geometrically extended to include three new anticommuting square roots of plus one, each such root representing the direction of a unit vector along the orthonormal coordinate axes of Euclidean 3-space. The resulting geometric (Clifford) algebra provides a geometric basis for the famous Pauli matrices which, in turn, proves the consistency of the rules of geometric algebra. The flexibility of the concept of geometric numbers opens the door to new understanding of the nature of space-time, and of Pauli and Dirac spinors as points on the Riemann sphere, including Lorentz boosts.

  12. 14 CFR 47.15 - Identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Identification number. (a) Number required. An applicant for Aircraft Registration must place a U.S. identification number (registration mark) on his Aircraft Registration...

  13. Some relations between entropy and approximation numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志明

    1999-01-01

    A general result is obtained which relates the entropy numbers of compact maps on Hilbert space to its approximation numbers. Compared with previous works in this area, it is particularly convenient for dealing with the cases where the approximation numbers decay rapidly. A nice estimation between entropy and approximation numbers for noncompact maps is given.

  14. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  15. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  16. The exposure history of the Apollo 16 sites. An assessment based on methane and carbide measurements. [in lunar soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Eglinton, C.; Gowar, A. P.; Jull, A. J. T.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Soils from eight stations at the Apollo 16 landing site have been analyzed for methane and carbide. These results, in conjunction with published data from photogeology, bulk chemistry, rare gases, primordial and radionuclides, and agglutinate abundances have been interpreted in terms of differing contributions from three components, North and South Ray crater ejecta and Cayley Plains material.

  17. Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be

  18. Wastes in space; Les dechets dans l'espace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  19. Spaces of valuations

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Reinhold

    1995-01-01

    Valuations are measure-like functions mapping the open sets of a topological space into positive real numbers. They can be classified according to some additional properties. Some topological spaces are defined whose elements are valuations from various classes. The relationships among these spaces are studied, and universal properties are shown for some of them.

  20. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  1. Gumpert Apollo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Gumpert Apollo相信有很多人会对这个名字感到莫名其妙,只有最发烧的超级跑车爱好者才会对它略有耳闻。但是,如果你能拥有一辆,你绝对不会在朋友面前栽面儿,因为它和一幢别墅的价值相差无几……

  2. Two-dimensional Einstein numbers and associativity

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Tomáš; Haluška, Ján

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with generalizations of real Einstein numbers to various spaces and dimensions. We search operations and their properties in generalized settings. Especially, we are interested in the generalized operation of hyperbolic addition to more-dimensional spaces, which is associative and commutative. We extend the theory to some abstract spaces, especially to Hilbert-like ones. Further, we bring two different two-dimensional generalizations of Einstein numbers and study proper...

  3. Lunar Seismic Velocity and Crustal Thickness Inversions Using Constraints from Apollo and GRAIL Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Drilleau, M.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from new Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversions of (i) 1-D lunar crustal and upper mantle velocity models and (ii) 3-D lateral crustal thickness models anchored by crustal thicknesses under the Apollo stations and the artificial and natural impact sites. These new generation models are constrained by both the Apollo impact event seismic data arrival times and by the more recent GRAIL gravimetric data. In all models, 1-D seismic velocities are parameterized using C1 Bézier polynomials, using two independent sets to represent the crust and the underlying mantle. Other parameters of the inversions include the depth and velocity amplitude of the Bézier control points, the depth of the crust-mantle discontinuity, the thickness of the crust under each Apollo station and impact epicenter, the vp/vs ratio, as well as location-specific time delays. Inverting for station-specific crustal thicknesses and velocity delays highlights geology-related differences between stations (e.g. contrasts in megaregolith thickness, in shallow subsurface composition and structure). These differences have already been observed by other analytical methods in the past, as detailed in the literature. We also test the possibility of having a dual-layered crust. However, some of the finer structural elements might be difficult to observe with the available data and might fall within the inherent uncertainty of the dataset. We use the more precise LROC-located epicentral locations for the lunar modules and Saturn-IV booster artificial impacts, reducing that way some of the uncertainty observed in past models. Natural impact epicentral locations are relocated during the inversions. Constraints from deep and shallow moonquakes will be included in future inversions to potentially refine the velocity and crustal models. This work falls within the NASA InSight mission to Mars seismic investigation (SEIS). Accordingly, the method and analytical software developed for this study will be

  4. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration beyond Earth orbit will be an enduring legacy for future generations, as it provides a platform for science and exploration that will define new knowledge and redefine known boundaries. NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program s Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle with associated life-support equipment and provisions for long journeys or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 tonnes (t) in 2017 and will be evolvable to 130 t after 2021. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of Mars. Building on the foundation laid by over 50 years of human and scientific space flight and on the lessons learned from the Apollo, Space Shuttle, and Constellation Programs the SLS team is delivering both technical trade studies and business case analyses to ensure that the SLS architecture will be safe, affordable, reliable, and sustainable. This panel will address the planning and progress being made by NASA s SLS Program.

  5. First massively parallel algorithm to be implemented in Apollo-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision probability (CP) method in neutron transport, as applied to arbitrary 2D XY geometries, like the TDT module in APOLLO-II, is very time consuming. Consequently RZ or 3D extensions became prohibitive. Fortunately, this method is very suitable for parallelization. Massively parallel computer architectures, especially MIMD machines, bring a new breath to this method. In this paper we present a CM5 implementation of the CP method. Parallelization is applied to the energy groups, using the CMMD message passing library. In our case we use 32 processors for the standard 99-group APOLLIB-II library. The real advantage of this algorithm will appear in the calculation of the future fine multigroup library (about 8000 groups) of the SAPHYR project with a massively parallel computer (to the order of hundreds of processors). (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 4 refs

  6. First massively parallel algorithm to be implemented in APOLLO-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision probability method in neutron transport, as applied to arbitrary 2-dimensional geometries, like the two dimensional transport module in APOLLO-II is very time consuming. Consequently 3-dimensional extension became prohibitive. Fortunately, this method is very suitable for parallelization. Massively parallel computer architectures, especially MIMD machines, bring a new breath to this method. In this paper we present a CM5 implementation of the collision probability method. Parallelization is applied to the energy groups, using the CMMD massage passing library. In our case we used 32 processors for the standard 99-group APOLLIB-II library. The real advantage of this algorithm will appear in the calculation of the future multigroup library (about 8000 groups) of the SAPHYR project with a massively parallel computer (to the order of hundreds of processors). (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Test and evaluation of Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration specimens 6, 9, and 12, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Flight and control specimens 6, 9, and 12 from the Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration were evaluated with respect to the degree of dispersion achieved for mixtures of immiscible materials under one-gravity and low gravity environments. The flight and control capsules 6, 9, and 12 contained paraffin and sodium acetate; paraffin, sodium acetate and argon; and paraffin, sodium acetate and 100 micrometer diameter tungsten microspheres, respectively. The evaluation and documentation utilized photographic and microstructure examinations, density measurements, and droplet size and distribution determinations. In addition, theoretical analyses were performed in order to aid in the understanding of the fluid behavior of the specimens during processing and subsequent solidification. A comparison of evaluated data with the theoretical analyses reveals that although the immiscible materials were uniquely dispersed in a low gravity environment, nonuniform dispersions were obtained primarily due to insufficient initial mixing and an essentially unidirectional thermal gradient during cooldown.

  8. Chemical stratigraphy of the Apollo 17 deep drill cores 70009-70007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, W. D.; Ali, M. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an analysis of a total of 26 samples from three core segments (70009, 70008, 70007) of the Apollo 17 deep drill string. The deep drill string was taken about 700 m east of the Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon. Three core segments have been chemically characterized from the mainly coarse-grained upper portion of the deep drill string. The chemical data suggest that the entire 70007-70009 portion of the deep drill string examined was not deposited as a single unit, but was formed by several events sampling slightly different source materials which may have occurred over a relatively short period of time. According to the data from drill stem 70007, there were at least two phases of deposition. Core segment 70009 is probably derived from somewhat different source material than 70008. It seems to be a very well mixed material.

  9. The mineralogical, chemical, and chronological characteristics of the crystalline Apollo 16 impact melt rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, W. U.; Reimold, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative review of mineralogical, chemical, and chronological data on crystalline Apollo 16 impact melt rocks is presented. The use of such data to identify distinct impact melt complex is discussed, and 22 distinct impact melt bodies are identified. The recently detected group of feldspathic microporphyritic (FM) melt rocks was tested for chemical and isotopic homogeneity; instrumental neutron activation analysis and new Rb-Sr isotopic whole rock data indicate that FMs were probably not derived from a single impact melt sheet, but might be representative of the Descartes basement. Stratigraphical and chronological concepts for the geological development of the landing site are discussed, and a model is presented for the formation of the Cayley Plains and the Descartes formation.

  10. Distribution and provenance of lunar highland rock types at North Ray Crater, Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeffler, D.; Ostertag, R.; Borchardt, R.; Malley, J.; Rehfeldt, A.; Reimold, W. U.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with its selenographic setting in the central lunar highlands, the Apollo 16 landing site in the Descartes area is highly important as a prime sampling area for rocks which formed as part of the primordial crust and as a key location for the analysis of the deformation and transport of crustal material by impact processes. The present investigation is concerned with the North Ray crater, which is located on the N-S running boundary between the smooth Cayley plains to the west and the Descartes mountains to the east. Attention is given to aspects of selenography and location of samples, the ejecta distribution of post-Cayley impact craters, sample classification, the frequency distribution of rock types in the North Ray Crater ejecta, an interpretation of compositional and age data, a model of the target stratigraphy and excavation of North Ray Crater, and implications for the emplacement and provenance of North Ray target rocks.

  11. Photometric anomalies in the Apollo landing sites as seen from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Korokhin, Viktor; Videen, Gorden

    2011-01-01

    Phase-ratio imagery is a new tool of qualitative photometric analyses of the upper layer of the lunar regolith, which allows the identification of natural surface structure anomalies and artificially altered regolith. We apply phase-ratio imagery to analyze the Apollo-14, -15, and -17 landing sites. This reveals photometric anomalies of ˜170 × 120 m size that are characterized by lower values of the phase-function steepness, indicating a smoothing of the surface microstructure caused by the engine jets of the landing modules. Other photometric anomalies characterized by higher phase-function slopes are the result of regolith loosening by astronaut boots and the wheels of the Modular Equipment Transporter and the Lunar Roving Vehicle. We also provide a possible explanation for the high brightness of the wheel tracks seen in on-surface images acquired at very large phase angles.

  12. The petrology and chemistry of basaltic fragments from the Apollo 11 soil - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A study of basaltic fragments from the Apollo 11 bulk sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis, the petrographic microscope, and the electron microprobe is presented. The fragments include Group A, B2, and B3 basalts, of which two of the Group A samples are vitrophyres with bulk compositions similar to the crystalline high-K rocks which crystallized under different physical conditions and represent a second high-K cooling unit. The B2 samples relate to each other through ilmenite fractionation, and the B3 samples relate through olivine fractionation; it is concluded that the B2 samples have an anomalously high La/K ratio and may have generated in the same source region as the Group D basalts.

  13. Research, development and application of noncombustible Beta fiber structures. [for Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. J.; Cobb, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Beta fiber was selected as the primary material for flexible fibrous structures used in spacecraft and crew systems applications in the Apollo program because it was noncombustible in a 100 percent oxygen atmosphere up to 16.5 psia. It met NASA criteria for outgassing, toxicity, odor, and crew comfort, and possessed sufficient durability to last through the mission. Topics discussed include: study of spacecraft applications; design of Beta fiber textile structures to meet the requirements; selection of surface treatments (finishes, coatings, and printing systems) to impart the required durability and special functional use to the textile structures; development of sewing and fabrication techniques; and testing and evaluation programs, and development of production sources.

  14. The relationships between geology and soil chemistry at the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Rodgers, K. V.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 soils, three distinct chemical groups have been recognized, each one corresponding broadly with a major geological and physiographic unit. These groups are: (1) Valley Floor type soils, (2) South Massif type soils, and (3) North Massif type soils. The observed chemical variations within and between these three groups is interpreted by means of mixing models in terms of lateral transport and mixing of prevailing local rock types, such as high-titanium basalts, KREEP-like noritic breccias, anorthositic gabbro breccias and orange glass. According to these models, North Nassif types evolved on the lower slopes of the North Massif and Sculptured Hills where anorthositic gabbro predominates over noritic breccia and where lateral mixing with basalt is effective, whereas the South Massif type soils originally developed on the upper slopes of the South Massif, where anorthositic breccia and noritic breccias are equally abundant, and where lateral mixing with basalt was minimal.

  15. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H; Grindrod, Peter M; Lintott, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASAs LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological features of interest. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the s...

  16. Grain size analysis and high frequency electrical properties of Apollo 15 and 16 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Yerbury, M.

    1973-01-01

    The particle size distribution of eleven surface fines samples collected by Apollo 15 and 16 was determined by the method of measuring the sedimentation rate in a column of water. The fact that the grain size distribution in the core samples shows significant differences within a few centimeters variation of depth is important for the understanding of the surface transportation processes which are responsible for the deposition of thin layers of different physical and/or chemical origin. The variation with density of the absorption length is plotted, and results would indicate that for the case of meter wavelength radar waves, reflections from depths of more than 100 meters generally contribute significantly to the radar echoes obtained.

  17. Building dismantlement and site remediation at the Apollo Fuel Plant: When is technology the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Apollo fuel plant was located in Pennsylvania on a site known to have been used continuously for stell production from before the Civil War until after World War II. Then the site became a nuclear fuel chemical processing plants. Finally it was used to convert uranium hexafluoride to various oxide fuel forms. After the fuel manufacturing operations were teminated, the processing equipment was partially decontaminated, removed, packaged and shipped to a licensed low-level radioactive waste burial site. The work was completed in 1984. In 1990 a detailed site characterization was initiated to establishe the extent of contamination and to plan the building dismantlement and soil remediation efforts. This article discusses the site characterization and remedial action at the site in the following subsections: characterization; criticality control; mobile containment; soil washing; in-process measurements; and the final outcome of the project

  18. Structural health monitoring of bridges using accelerometers – a case study at Apollo Bridge in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Kopáčik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Building structures are extremely sensitive at influence of outdoor conditions. Most often these are the influence of wind, sunshine, temperature changes of the surrounding and at least the influence of the own or other loading. According to resonance of the structure with the surrounding is coming to vibration and oscillation in relative high frequency interval (0.1 Hz - 100.0 Hz. These phenomena significantly affect the static and dynamic characteristics of structures, their safety and functionality. The paper brings example of monitoring these phenomena. The object of monitoring is the Danube Bridge Apollo in Bratislava, which main steel structure was measured by acceleration sensors with frequency up to10 Hz. The main topic of the paper is the analysis of dynamic behaviour of structure using spectral analysis method. The usage of Fourier Transform is described, own frequencies and amplitudes of structure oscillation are calculated.

  19. Development of common user data model for APOLLO3 and MARBLE and application to benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Common User Data Model, CUDM, has been developed for the purpose of benchmark calculations between APOLLO3 and MARBLE code systems. The current version of CUDM was designed for core calculation benchmark problems with 3-dimensional Cartesian, 3-D XYZ, geometry. CUDM is able to manage all input/output data such as 3-D XYZ geometry, effective macroscopic cross section, effective multiplication factor and neutron flux. In addition, visualization tools for geometry and neutron flux were included. CUDM was designed by the object-oriented technique and implemented using Python programming language. Based on the CUDM, a prototype system for a benchmark calculation, CUDM-benchmark, was also developed. The CUDM-benchmark supports input/output data conversion for IDT solver in APOLLO3, and TRITAC and SNT solvers in MARBLE. In order to evaluate pertinence of CUDM, the CUDM-benchmark was applied to benchmark problems proposed by T. Takeda, G. Chiba and I. Zmijarevic. It was verified that the CUDM-benchmark successfully reproduced the results calculated with reference input data files, and provided consistent results among all the solvers by using one common input data defined by CUDM. In addition, a detailed benchmark calculation for Chiba benchmark was performed by using the CUDM-benchmark. Chiba benchmark is a neutron transport benchmark problem for fast criticality assembly without homogenization. This benchmark problem consists of 4 core configurations which have different sodium void regions, and each core configuration is defined by more than 5,000 fuel/material cells. In this application, it was found that the results by IDT and SNT solvers agreed well with the reference results by Monte-Carlo code. In addition, model effects such as quadrature set effect, Sn order effect and mesh size effect were systematically evaluated and summarized in this report. (author)

  20. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Bamford, Steven; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.; Grindrod, Peter M.; Lintott, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASA's LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological 'features of interest'. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the statistical variability of multiple notations and the smoothness of local image structures. We compared different combinations of methods and parameters and assessed correlations between resulting crater summaries and the expert census. We derived the optimal data reduction steps and settings of the existing Moon Zoo crater data to agree with the expert census. Further, the regolith depth and crater degradation states derived from the data are also found to be in broad agreement with other estimates for the Apollo 17 region. Our study supports the validity of this citizen science project but also recommends improvements in key elements of the data acquisition planning and production.

  1. Construction bidding cost of KSC's space shuttle facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph Andrew

    1977-01-01

    The bidding cost of the major Space Transportation System facilities constructed under the responsibility of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is described and listed. These facilities and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) are necessary for the receiving, assembly, testing, and checkout of the Space Shuttle for launch and landing missions at KSC. The Shuttle launch configuration consists of the Orbiter, the External Tank, and the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB). The reusable Orbiter and SRB's is the major factor in the program that will result in lowering space travel costs. The new facilities are the Landing Facility; Orbiter Processing Facility; Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Facility (Dryden Test Center, California); Orbiter Mating Devices; Sound Suppression Water System; and Emergency Power System for LC-39. Also, a major factor was to use as much Apollo facilities and hardware as possible to reduce the facilities cost. The alterations to existing Apollo facilities are the VAB modifications; Mobile Launcher Platforms; Launch Complex 39 Pads A and B (which includes a new concept - the Rotary Service Structure), which was featured in ENR, 3 Feb. 1977, 'Hinged Space Truss will Support Shuttle Cargo Room'; Launch Control Center mods; External Tank and SRB Processing and Storage; Fluid Test Complex mods; O&C Spacelab mods; Shuttle mods for Parachute Facility; SRB Recovery and Disassembly Facility at Hangar 'AF'; and an interesting GSE item - the SRB Dewatering Nozzle Plug Sets (Remote Controlled Submarine System) used to inspect and acquire for reuse of SRB's.

  2. Research Needs in Electrostatics for Lunar and Mars Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2005-01-01

    The new space exploratory vision announced by President Bush on January 14, 2004, initiated new activities at the National Science and Space Administration (NASA) for human space missions to further explore our solar system. NASA is undertaking Lunar exploration to support sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and beyond. A series of robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 to prepare for human exploration as early as 2015 but no later than 2020 are anticipated. In a similar way, missions to the Moon and Mars are being planned in Europe, Japan and Russia. These space missions will require international participation to solve problems in a number of important technological areas where research is needed, including biomedical risk mitigation as well as life support and habitability on the surface of Mars. Mitigation of dust hazards is one of the most important problems to be resolved for both Lunar and Mars missions. Both Lunar and Martian regolith are unique materials and completely different from the terrestrial soils that we are exposed to on earth. The total absence of water and an atmosphere on the moon and the formation of soil and fine dust by micrometeorite impacts over billions of years resulted in a layer of soil with unique properties. The soil is primarily basaltic in composition with a high glass concentration. The depth of the soil layer varies from a few meters in the mare areas (dark areas on the Lunar near side) to tens of meters in the highland areas (the lighter mountainous areas) and the particle size distribution of this dust layer varies widely with a major mass fraction less than 10 micrometer in diameter. The hard soil from the moon which has been extensively studied by several researchers showed clearly unique properties of Lunar soil. Apollo astronauts became aware of the potentially serious threat to crew health and mission hardware that can be caused by the lunar dust. As reported by McKay and Carrier the mass fraction of the lunar

  3. Mining for Numbers. A Heuristic Approach to Some Prime Number Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1973-01-01

    Whole numbers written in spiral or triangular patterns with spaces occupied by prime numbers blocked in produces interesting visual patterns. Described is a game based on these patterns that may be played at many different levels. (JP)

  4. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  5. Space debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    36 years ago, the Soviet Union sent the first space satellite, Sputnik 1, into its orbit. Since then, the number of satellites has been increasing continuous by. As a result, the atmospheric layers close to the earth are littered with debris from broken satellites and rockets. This includes about 30 abandoned nuclear reactions orbiting at a height of about 1000 km. The expected life of the reactors is higher than the half-life after which the activity level of the radioactive material will have fallen to a tolerable level. (orig./HP)

  6. The characteristic numbers of quartic plane curves

    OpenAIRE

    Vakil, Ravi

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic numbers of smooth plane quartics are computed using intersection theory on a component of the moduli space of stable maps. This completes the verification of Zeuthen's prediction of characteristic numbers of smooth plane curves. A short sketch of a computation of the characteristic numbers of plane cubics is also given as an illustration.

  7. Positioning Brand Dan Minat Beli (Studi Korelasional Pengaruh Iklan Positioning Brand AXE Apollo di RCTI Terhadap Minat Beli Mahasiswa FISIP USU)

    OpenAIRE

    Girsang, Launa Meily

    2016-01-01

    Brand Positioning and Buying Interest (A Correlational Study of Advertising on Brand Positioning of Axe Apollo in RCTI towards Student’s Buying Interest in FISIP USU). The purpose of this research is to determine the extent of Advertising on Brand Positioning of Axe Apollo in RCTI towards Student’s Buying Interest in FISIP USU. The theories that used in this research is Communication Theories, Mass Communication, Television as Mass Media, Brand Positioning, and Buying Interest. This research ...

  8. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  9. Apollo 16 - Impact melt sheets, contrasting nature of the Cayley plains and Descartes mountains, and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinley, J. P.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Apollo 16 stations four and five rake samples have been examined petrographically and by electron microprobe and INAA. Lithologic abundances support the idea (Korontev, 1981) that the variation of soil composition at Apollo 16 results from mixing between a component represented by station five and components much like either the dimict breccias or feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition. Pyroxene, olivine, and coexisting plagioclase compositions from within the anorthosite portions of dimict breccias bridge the gap between the Mg-rich and ferroan anorthosite fields. Analyses from associated cumulate and granulitic clasts indicate that they are the source of the intermediate material. Dimict breccias formed about 3.92 b.y. ago, the nectaris event occurred 3.84-3.92 b.y. ago, and the Cayley plains were deposited as a result of the Imbrium event sometime later than 3.84 b.y.

  10. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  11. Petrology of Apollo 15 black-and-white rocks 15445 and 15455 - Fragments of the Imbrium impact melt sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes two macroscopically similar black-and-white rocks, 15445 and 15455, which were collected from the rim of Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The two Apollo 15 rocks are very similar in chemistry and clast population, but the matrix of 15455 is finer grained than that of 15445. The 15445 sample contains a lithic clast assemblage of plutonic/metamorphic spinel troctolite, troctolite, norite, and anorthosite, and its fine-grained vesicular black coherent matrix consists of a melt-bonded aggregate of small mineral clasts which are mainly olivine, plagioclase, and pink spinel. The two rocks are distinct from any other large samples from the Apollo 15 site. It is suggested that the rocks are samples of an impact melt sheet which forms a bedrock unit of the Apennine Front, and that this melt sheet did not form in a local small-scale event but was produced during the Imbrium impact event.

  12. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pathinathan; K. Ponnivalavan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above men...

  13. The up-scattering treatment in the fine-structure self-shielding method in APOLLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the exact elastic scattering in resonance domain introduces the neutron up-scattering which must be taken into account in the deterministic transport code. We present the newly implemented up-scattering treatment in the fine-structure self-shielding method of APOLLO3®. Two pin cell calculations have been carried out in order to evaluate the impact of the up-scattering treatment. The results are compared to those obtained by the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4® with its newly implemented DBRC model. The comparison of k-eff values on the examples of single cell calculations shows a very good agreement between the APOLLO3® up-scattering treatment and the TRIPOLI-4® DBRC model, which is less than 30 pcm for UOX fuel and less than 110 pcm for MOX. Also, the differential effects of asymptotic versus exact kernel produced by APOLLO3® compared to TRIPOLI-4®, do not exceed 20 pcm for the UOX cell and 40 pcm for the MOX cell. A detailed comparison of the U238 absorption rates shows clearly the influences of the first four big resonances of U238 to the calculation results. (author)

  14. Identification of new events in Apollo 16 lunar seismic data by Hidden Markov Model-based event detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Hammer, Conny

    2015-10-01

    Detection and identification of interesting events in single-station seismic data with little prior knowledge and under tight time constraints is a typical scenario in planetary seismology. The Apollo lunar seismic data, with the only confirmed events recorded on any extraterrestrial body yet, provide a valuable test case. Here we present the application of a stochastic event detector and classifier to the data of station Apollo 16. Based on a single-waveform example for each event class and some hours of background noise, the system is trained to recognize deep moonquakes, impacts, and shallow moonquakes and performs reliably over 3 years of data. The algorithm's demonstrated ability to detect rare events and flag previously undefined signal classes as new event types is of particular interest in the analysis of the first seismic recordings from a completely new environment. We are able to classify more than 50% of previously unclassified lunar events, and additionally find over 200 new events not listed in the current lunar event catalog. These events include deep moonquakes as well as impacts and could be used to update studies on temporal variations in event rate or deep moonquakes stacks used in phase picking for localization. No unambiguous new shallow moonquake was detected, but application to data of the other Apollo stations has the potential for additional new discoveries 40 years after the data were recorded. Besides, the classification system could be useful for future seismometer missions to other planets, e.g., the InSight mission to Mars.

  15. On Legendre numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Haggard

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The Legendre numbers, an infinite set of rational numbers are defined from the associated Legendre functions and several elementary properties are presented. A general formula for the Legendre numbers is given. Applications include summing certain series of Legendre numbers and evaluating certain integrals. Legendre numbers are used to obtain the derivatives of all orders of the Legendre polynomials at x=1.

  16. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  17. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  18. Power supplies for space systems quality assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sandia Laboratories' participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi-Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High-Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted

  19. Trivializing number of knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaki, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a numerical invariant, called trivializing number, of knots and investigate it. The trivializing number gives an upper bound of unknotting number and canonical genus for knots. We present a table of trivializing numbers for up to 10 crossings knots. We conjecture that twice of the unknotting number of any positive knot is equal to the trivializing number of it and give a partial answer.

  20. Luhn Prime Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Cira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The first prime number with the special property that its addition with reversal gives as result a prime number toois 229. The prime numbers with this property will be called Luhn prime numbers. In this article we intend to presenta performing algorithm for determining the Luhn prime numbers. Using the presented algorithm all the 50598 Luhnprime numbers have been, for p prime smaller than 2 · 107.

  1. LUHN PRIME NUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Cira; Florentin Smarandache

    2015-01-01

    The first prime number with the special property that its addition with reversal gives as result a prime number toois 229. The prime numbers with this property will be called Luhn prime numbers. In this article we intend to presenta performing algorithm for determining the Luhn prime numbers. Using the presented algorithm all the 50598 Luhnprime numbers have been, for p prime smaller than 2 · 107.

  2. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  3. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  4. Irradiation stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, G. E.; Blanford, J.; Hawkins, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    We report track density frequency distributions, the fraction of high density grains and minimum track densities for 63, 1 mm wide locations in the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/10. From these data we conclude that there are seven irradiation strata in the core. Only one buried reworking zone extending from 50-52 cm was found and it was exposed near the surface from 4.5-9 times 10 to the 6th y with a most probable exposure period of 6 times 10 to the 6th y. There is lack of conclusive data that this zone represents a reworking zone in which case the material below 52 cm most probably was exposed in situ for 4.5 times 10 to the 6th y and developed a reworking zone approximately less than 0.5 cm. The present surface of the core has a reworking zone of 12-13 cm which was exposed from 1.3 times 10 to the 7th to 2.5 times 10 to the 8th y. The best estimate for this exposure period remains the value of approximately less than 1.25 times 10 to the 8th y determined by Bogard and Hirsch (1976). The other strata in the core appear to contain mixtures of various soil types and are not related to in situ depositional events.

  5. Recent developments in multidimensional transport. Methods for the APOLLO 2 lattice code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A usual method for preparation of homogenized cross sections for reactor coarse mesh calculations is based on two dimensional multigroup transport treatment of an assembly together with an appropriate leakage model and reaction-rate-preserving homogenization technique. The actual generation of assembly spectrum codes based on collision probability methods is capable to treat complex geometries (i.e. irregular meshes of arbitrary shape), avoiding thus the modeling error which was introduced in codes with traditional tracking routines. The power and architecture of nowadays computers allow to treat spatial domains comprising several mutually-interacting assemblies using fine multigroup structure and keeping all geometrical details of interest. Increasing safety requirements demand detailed 2D and 3D calculations for very heterogeneous problems such as in control rod positioning, broken Pyrex rods, irregular compacting of MOX pellets at a MOX-UO2 interface and many others. An effort is been made to include accurate multidimensional transport methods in the APOLLO 2 lattice code. These include the extension to 3D axially-symmetric geometries of the general-geometry collision probability module TDT2 and the development of new 2D-3D characteristics methods for regular Cartesian meshes. Here we discuss the main features of recently developed multidimensional methods that are currently being tested. (authors). 10 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  6. Incidence of dermatophytosis in canine cases presented at Apollo Veterinary College, Rajashtan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Gangil

    Full Text Available Aim: Ring worm are fungal infection relevant to animal and human health. The study was aimed to assess the frequency of dermatophytes infection of the skin of dogs in and around the Jaipur city. Materials and methods: One twenty canine samples were obtained during three years (2008-2011 from dogs suffering from different dermatological disorders and were invitro processed for dermatophytes detection at the Department of Microbiology, Apollo College of veterinary medicine Agra Road, Jaipur. Result: Out of these, eighty nine samples were positive respectively for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. sporadic in 15 samples (0.12%. Retrospective studies of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum and Trichophyton were performed with the sole consideration of public health consequence of the canine ringworm. Conclusion: In the present study samples were found positive for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. Considering the veterinary and public health importance of canine ringworm it would be necessary to assess the prevalence of the dermatophytosis in Rajasthan. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 682-684

  7. Magnetic and Moessbauer studies of Apollo 16 rock chips 60315,51 and 62295,27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, A.; Vaughan, D. J.; Burns, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the Moessbauer spectra of two Apollo 16 rocks showed that 60315,51 is much richer in iron metal and troilite, but poorer in olivine, than 62295,27. The values of magnetic parameters, derived from hysteresis loops at 175 and 300 K, indicate the high metal contents and the predominance of coarse multidomain grains in both rocks. These coexist with a superparamagnetic grain fraction in 60315 and with a small single-domain grain fraction in 62295. The high Fe(0)/Fe(2+) ratios, the nonlinear acquisition of laboratory thermoremanence, and the drastic changes in magnetic parameters upon heating support the proposed formation of both rocks from the lunar regolith, with incorporation of shocked meteoritic metal grains during high-temperature impact events and simultaneous acquisition of magnetic remanence. Values estimated for ancient lunar magnetic fields by comparing the natural remanence with laboratory thermoremanence acquired in fields of 0.05 and 0.5 Oe, range from 0.01 to more than 1 Oe.

  8. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.

    1973-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  9. Orbital-science investigation: Part C: photogrammetry of Apollo 15 photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherman S.C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Nakata, Gary M.; Derick, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping of large areas of the Moon by photogrammetric methods was not seriously considered until the Apollo 15 mission. In this mission, a mapping camera system and a 61-cm optical-bar high-resolution panoramic camera, as well as a laser altimeter, were used. The mapping camera system comprises a 7.6-cm metric terrain camera and a 7.6-cm stellar camera mounted in a fixed angular relationship (an angle of 96° between the two camera axes). The metric camera has a glass focal-plane plate with reseau grids. The ground-resolution capability from an altitude of 110 km is approximately 20 m. Because of the auxiliary stellar camera and the laser altimeter, the resulting metric photography can be used not only for medium- and small-scale cartographic or topographic maps, but it also can provide a basis for establishing a lunar geodetic network. The optical-bar panoramic camera has a 135- to 180-line resolution, which is approximately 1 to 2 m of ground resolution from an altitude of 110 km. Very large scale specialized topographic maps for supporting geologic studies of lunar-surface features can be produced from the stereoscopic coverage provided by this camera.

  10. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  11. Instanton number calculus on noncommutative R4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In noncommutative spaces, it is unknown whether the Pontrjagin class gives integer, as well as, the relation between the instanton number and Pontrjagin class is not clear. Here we define 'Instanton number' by the size of Bα in the ADHM construction. We show the analytical derivation of the noncommutative U(1) instanton number as an integral of Pontrjagin class (instanton charge) with the Fock space representation. Our approach is for the arbitrary converge noncommutative U(1) instanton solution, and is based on the converge condition and the anti-self-dual (ASD) equation itself. We give the Stokes' theorem for the number operator representation. The Stokes' theorem on the noncommutative space shows that instanton charge is given by some boundary sum. Using the ASD conditions, we conclude that the instanton charge is equivalent to the instanton number. (author)

  12. Quasiperpendicular high Mach number Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasi-perpendicular shocks across two orders of magnitude in Alfven Mach number (MA) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted timescale of ~0.3 {\\tau}c, where {\\tau}c is the ion gyroperio...

  13. Food and Nutrition for the Moon Base: What we have Learned in 45 Years of Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has a new human space flight mission to return to the Moon, this time to establish an outpost to continue research there and develop our ability to send humans to Mars and bring them back in good health. The Apollo missions were the first human expeditions to the Moon. Only 2 crew members landed on the lunar surface on each Apollo mission, and they spent a maximum of 72 hours there. Future trips will have at least 4 crew members, and the initial trips will include several days of surface activity. Eventually, these short (sortie) missions will extend to longer lunar surface times, on the order of weeks. Thus, the challenges of meeting the food and nutritional needs of crew members at a lunar outpost will be significantly different from those during the early Apollo missions. The U.S. has had humans in space beginning in 1961 with increasing lengths of time in space flight. Throughout these flights, the areas of particular concern for nutrition are body mass, bone health, and radiation protection. The development and refinement of the food systems over the last 30 years are discussed, as well as the plans for both the sortie and lunar. The articles briefly review what we know today about food and nutrition for space travelers and relate this knowledge to our planned human flights back to the Moon.

  14. Enriching Number Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  15. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular...

  16. δ-FIBONACCI NUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Slota; Roman Witula

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the definition and discussion of the polynomial generalizations of the {sc Fibonacci} numbers called here $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers. Many special identities and interesting relations for these new numbers are presented. Also, different connections between $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers and {sc Fibonacci} and {sc Lucas} numbersare proven in this paper.

  17. Tropical Real Hurwitz numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Markwig, Hannah; Rau, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define tropical analogues of real Hurwitz numbers, i.e. numbers of covers of surfaces with compatible involutions satisfying prescribed ramification properties. We prove a correspondence theorem stating the equality of the tropical numbers with their real counterparts. We apply this theorem to the case of double Hurwitz numbers (which generalizes our result from arXiv:1409.8095).

  18. δ-FIBONACCI NUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Slota

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is the definition and discussion of the polynomial generalizations of the {sc Fibonacci} numbers called here $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers. Many special identities and interesting relations for these new numbers are presented. Also, different connections between $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers and {sc Fibonacci} and {sc Lucas} numbersare proven in this paper.

  19. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  20. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  1. Distribution of prime numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ouannas, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present the distribution of prime numbers which was treated in many researches by studying the function of Riemann; because it has a remarkable property; its non trivial zeros are prime numbers; but in this work I will show that we can find the distribution of prime numbers on remaining in natural numbers only.

  2. The Eudoxus Real Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Arthan, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    This note describes a representation of the real numbers due to Schanuel. The representation lets us construct the real numbers from first principles. Like the well-known construction of the real numbers using Dedekind cuts, the idea is inspired by the ancient Greek theory of proportion, due to Eudoxus. However, unlike the Dedekind construction, the construction proceeds directly from the integers to the real numbers bypassing the intermediate construction of the rational numbers. The constru...

  3. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  4. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  5. Large-Scale Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alix

    2012-01-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. We report here on efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center to develop the next generation of lunar retroreflectors. We will describe a new facility that is being used to design, assemble, and test large-scale hollow retroreflectors. We will also describe results from investigations into various bonding techniques used to assemble the open comer cubes and mirror coatings that have dust mitigation properties.

  6. Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alix M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. At Goddard Space Flight Center, we have developed a facility where we can design, build, and test next-generation hollow retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging. Here we will describe this facility as well as report on the bonding techniques used to assemble the retroreflectors. Results from investigations into different high reflectivity mirror coatings, as well as dust mitigation coatings will also be presented.

  7. 空间可展开天线基本单元构型的数综合方法%Number synthesis method for basic unit configuration of space deployable antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田大可; 刘荣强; 邓宗全; 郭宏伟

    2012-01-01

    为对金属网面可展开天线进行构型创新研究,提出了一种基于图论理论的金属网面可展开天线基本单元构型的数综合方法.根据基本单元的展开方式,总结出其运动链的特点,建立了运动链与拓扑图的转换关系,得到了4种基本单元的拓扑图模型.将拓扑图进行子图化分解,分析了构件的拓扑对称性.采用双色拓扑图分析了机架在不同位置时运动副的拓扑对称性,得到了满足拓扑要求的基本单元的构型总数.通过例子阐述了由拓扑图综合成机构的过程,并讨论了机构问的构型演化.算例及分析表明:该方法得到的构型总数可方便计算机自动综合软件建立拓扑图库,同时为宇航空间可展开机构理论的研究提供了借鉴与参考.%In order to perform the innovation research on the configuration for metal mesh deployable antenna, a number synthesis method based on graph theory for the basic unit configuration of metal mesh deployable antenna was proposed. According to the deployment modes of basic units, the characteristics of the kinematic chains were summarized, and the conversion relationship between the kinematic chain and topological graph was established. Four kinds of topological graph models for the basic units were obtained. The subgraph decomposition was conducted for the topological graph, and the topological symmetry of components was analyzed. The two-color topological graph was used to analyze the topological symmetry of kinematic pairs at different frame locations, and tile total configuration number of basic units to meet the topological requirements was obtained. According to the examples, the synthesis process from topological graphs to mechanisms was described, and the configuration evolution between various mechanisms was discussed. The calculated example and analysis show that the total configuration number obtained with the proposed method is convenient for

  8. s-Numbers sequences for homogeneous polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Caliskan, Erhan; Rueda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We extend the well known theory of $s$-numbers of linear operators to homogeneous polynomials defined between Banach spaces. Approximation, Kolmogorov and Gelfand numbers of polynomials are introduced and some well-known results of the linear and multilinear settings are obtained for homogeneous polynomials.

  9. Hodge Numbers for All CICY Quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Andrei; Lukas, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun's classification arXiv:1003.3235.

  10. Tunnel number one, genus one fibered knots

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Kenneth L.; Johnson, Jesse E.; Klodginski, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    We determine the genus one fibered knots in lens spaces that have tunnel number one. We also show that every tunnel number one, once-punctured torus bundle is the result of Dehn filling a component of the Whitehead link in the 3-sphere.

  11. Space Shuttle Program: STS-1 Medical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The necessity for developing medical standards addressing individual classes of Shuttle crew positions is discussed. For the U.S. manned program the conclusion of the Apollo era heralded the end of water recovery operations and the introduction of land-based medical operations. This procedural change marked a significant departure from the accepted postflight medical recovery and evaluation techniques. All phases of the missions required careful re-evaluation, identification of potential impact on preexisting medical operational techniques, and development of new methodologies which were carefully evaluated and tested under simulated conditions. Significant coordination was required between the different teams involved in medical operations. Additional dimensions were added to the concepts of medical operations, by the introduction of different toxic substances utilized by the Space Transportation Systems especially during ground operations.

  12. Future international cooperation on space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoe, John-David

    In the course of the next thirty years, extensive international cooperation in space may become the norm rather than the exception. The benefits from the mutual application and exchange of assets and knowledge may enable the development of projects that no nation could afford alone. Cooperation on technical projects may also yield political benefits such as alliance building, although potentially at a cost of making the program hostage to the vagaries of international politics. Successful past cooperative projects include the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, Spacelab and Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. The ongoing Space Station Freedom program is offering the first sustained long term opportunity for international cooperation in space. In addition to enabling potential advances in science and technology development, the station may serve as the stepping stone for future international efforts in areas such as planetary exploration. Any significant future increase in international cooperation would likely need to include both the United States and the Soviet Union. Such cooperation could offer many unique possibilities, including interactions between the Freedom and Mir. Indeed the success of future manned exploration missions may well depend on how well space-faring nations learn to cooperate with each other. International involvement in technical programs always creates an additional element of complexity regarding the technical requirements and resource management of a project. However, the experience of international cooperation to date tells us that there can be significant gains, both tangible and symbolic, from international participation.

  13. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  14. History of Catalan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We give a brief history of Catalan numbers, from their first discovery in the 18th century to modern times. This note will appear as an appendix in Richard Stanley's forthcoming book on Catalan numbers.

  15. About Bernoulli's Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bencze, Mihaly; Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a simple proof of Borevich-Shafarevich's method to compute the sum of the first n natural numbers of the same power. We also prove several properties of Bernoulli's numbers.

  16. Fibonacci Numbers and Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Cheng Lien; Lang, Mong Lung

    2013-01-01

    By investigating a recurrence relation about functions, we first give alternative proofs of various identities on Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers, and then, make certain well known identities visible via certain trivalent graph associated to the recurrence relation.

  17. Number Relationships in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myoungwhon

    2011-01-01

    When a child understands number relationships, he or she comprehends the meaning of numbers by developing multiple, flexible ways of representing them. The importance of developing number relationships in the early years has been highlighted because it helps children build a good foundation for developing a more sophisticated understanding of…

  18. Estimating Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  19. Survey on fusible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the recursive formula that appears in Erickson's presentation "Fusible Numbers" is incorrect, and pose an alternate conjecture about the structure of fusible numbers. Although we are unable to solve the conjecture, we succeed in establishing some basic properties of fusible numbers. We suggest some possible approaches to the conjecture, and list further problems in the final chapter.

  20. Sum-Difference Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  1. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  2. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  3. From Taub Numbers to the Bondi Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    1997-01-01

    Taub numbers are studied on asymptotically flat backgrounds with Killing symmetries. When the field equations are solved for a background spacetime and higher order functional derivatives (higher order variational derivatives of the Hilbert Lagrangean) are solved for perturbations from the background, such perturbed space-times admit zeroth, first, and second order Taub numbers. Zeroth order Taub numbers are Komar constants (upto numerical factors) or Penrose-Goldberg constants of the backgro...

  4. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  5. Topological number of edge states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kimura, Taro

    2016-05-01

    We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analog of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a noncommutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.

  6. Topological Number of Edge States

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analogue of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a non-commutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.

  7. Functional units for natural numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A

    2009-01-01

    Interaction with services provided by an execution environment forms part of the behaviours exhibited by instruction sequences under execution. Mechanisms related to the kind of interaction in question have been proposed in the setting of thread algebra. Like thread, service is an abstract behavioural concept. The concept of a functional unit is similar to the concept of a service, but more concrete. A state space is inherent in the concept of a functional unit, whereas it is not inherent in the concept of a service. In this paper, we establish the existence of a universal computable functional unit for natural numbers and related results.

  8. Number Theory, Analysis and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfeld, Dorian; Jones, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serge Lang was an iconic figure in mathematics, both for his own important work and for the indelible impact he left on the field of mathematics, on his students, and on his colleagues. Over the course of his career, Lang traversed a tremendous amount of mathematical ground. As he moved from subject to subject, he found analogies that led to important questions in such areas as number theory, arithmetic geometry, and the theory of negatively curved spaces. Lang's conjectures will keep many mathematicians occupied far into the future. In the spirit of Lang's vast contribution to mathematics, th

  9. AR-39Ar-40 dating of basalts and rock breccias from Apollo 17 and the malvern achondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, T.; Horn, P.

    1977-01-01

    The principles and the potential of the Ar-39/Ar-40 dating technique are illustrated by means of results obtained for 12 Apollo 17 rocks. Emphasis is given to methodical problems and the geological interpretation of lunar rock ages. Often it is ambigious to associate a given lunar breccia with a certain formation, or a formation with a basin. In addition, large-scale events on the Moon have not necessarily reset radiometric clocks completely. One rock fragment has a well-defined plateau age of 4.28 b.y., but the ages of two Apollo 17 breccias define an upper limit for the formation age of the Serenitatis basin at 4.05 b.y. Ages derived from five mare basalts indicate cessation of mare volcanism at Taurus-Littrow approximately 3.78 b.y. ago. Ca/Ar-37 exposure ages show that Camelot Crater was formed by an impact approximately 95 m.y. ago. After a short summary of the lunar timetable as it stands at the end of the Apollo program, we report about Ar-39/Ar-40 and rare gas studies on the Malvern meteorite. This achondrite resembles lunar highland breccias in texture as well as in rare-gas patterns. It was strongly annealed at some time between 3.4 and 3.8 b.y. ago. The results indicate that very similar processes have occurred on the Moon and on achondritic parent bodies at comparable times, leading to impact breccias with strikingly similar features, including the retention of rare-gas isotopes from various sources.

  10. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  11. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    In Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, nouns are inflected for number and distinguish between singular and plural. The number inflection is not expressed by affixation, but by phonological alternations in the root and in such a way that the number is not directly observable, but only detectable...... through agreement. With simple native nouns, which are typically monosyllables, the number inflection is unpredictable and irregular, but some fairly common singular-plural patterns can be established, as seen in the Agar dialect. There is strong internal and external evidence that originally, many nouns...... had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role in the...

  12. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  13. Plutonium-244 dating: Initial ratios of plutonium to uranium in the Apollo 11 and 14 lunar fines and breccias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 550 mass-spectrometric analyses of xenon released from bulk samples and temperature fractions of the lunar fines, breccias and rocks have been carried out in various laboratories in the world including the Soviet Union, since Apollo 11 astronauts made the first successful landing on the moon on 20 July 1969. Re-examination of all the known xenon isotope data for the lunar samples reveals that the moon started to retain her xenon at about the same time as the carbonaceous chondrites, when the initial ratio of Pu to U within the solar system was about 1 to 10 (atom/atom) more than 4,800 million years ago

  14. Lunar paleointensity from three Apollo 15 crystalline rocks using an A.R.M. method. [Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    An anhysteretic remanent magnetization method described by Banerjee and Mellema (1974) is used in the lunar paleointensity studies reported. The range of the difference in the paleointensity values obtained by the new method is not quite as great as the range of differences ordinarily found in values determined with the conventional method reported by Thellier and Thellier (1959). The results of the investigation show that the three Apollo 15 rocks studied acquired their natural remanent magnetization in a finite-sized magnetic field which was two or three orders of magnitude greater than the present ambient interplanetary field at the moon.

  15. Origin of the Apollo 14, 15, and 17 yellow ultramafic glasses by mixing of deep cumulate remelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. M.; Grove, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the fO2-dependent melting conditions of the Apollo 14 yellow intermediate-Ti ultramafic glasses and the melting processes that formed the full suite of lunar yellow ultramafic glasses. Multiple saturation experiments indicate that the Apollo 14 yellow glass would have been in equilibrium with residual olivine and low-Ca pyroxene near 1530 °C and 2.4 GPa at ΔIW = +2. At ΔIW = -2, the multiple saturation point moves to greater depth and higher temperature to 1580 °C and 3.0 GPa. Combining the results of this study with that of Krawczynski and Grove (2012) on more Ti-rich Apollo orange and red glass indicates that the fO2-induced change in multiple saturation pressure correlates with the Fe-Ti# (molar (FeO + TiO2*)/(MgO + FeO + TiO2*), where TiO2* = all Ti calculated as Ti4+) of the liquid. Further, a decrease in the olivine Fe-Mg exchange coefficient at lower fO2 suggests that Fe2+ is complexing more efficiently with Ti3+ at the expense of Mg in the melt than it did with Ti4+ at higher fO2. Processes involving assimilation and/or fractionation and/or melt-wall rock reaction all fail to produce the within-suite compositional variability observed in the Apollo 14, 15, and 17 yellow glasses. Mixing of remelted source cumulates, combined with small amounts of olivine fractionation, are the only mechanisms that can reproduce all three trends. We present a quantitative model of the mixing process with simultaneous olivine fractionation. Remarkably, the trends can be explained by mixing melts of an ultramafic source (olivine + pigeonite or orthopyroxene), a clinopyroxene + ilmenite bearing cumulate, and KREEP. Lunar mantle overturn is the most likely process that can reconcile the observed major and trace element compositional characteristics and the experimental results. These two constraints are consistent with different models of lunar magma ocean crystallization (Snyder et al., 1992; Eklins-Tanton et al., 2011). A complex, hot thermal history is necessary

  16. Some volcanic and structural features of Mare Serenitatis. [as determined by low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, W. B.; Adams, M.

    1973-01-01

    Relationships between volcanic and structural features along the southern edge of Mare Serenitatis as determined from low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photographs are discussed. Observational summaries are given of: (1) contact relations between the dark border material and the central mare fill, (2) a late stage lava flow with associated cinder cones, and (3) certain structural features related to the development of the mare basin and its associated volcanic landforms. A chronologic summary is given of volcanic and structural events believed to be critical to understanding the development of Mare Serenitatis.

  17. On Soft Dual Space of Soft Normed Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Murat Ibrahim; Altun, Yilmaz; Bilgin, Tunay

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Soft set theory was introduced by Molodtsov in the study [8]. Soft real numbers and properties were introduced inthe study [6] and soft normed space was defined in [11]. In this study, firstly we obtain a soft normed space by defining a soft norm on (Real numbers) which is called soft normed real space. By using this normed space we define the soft linear functional and investigate some of its properties. Secondly, we introduce soft dual space and soft dual operator and investi...

  18. Effects of Varying Surface Inclines and Suit Pressure: Implications on Space Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Harvill, Lauren; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Suited human performance studies in reduced gravity environments to date include limited observations from Apollo Lunar surface Extravehicular Activities (EVA) and from previous studies conducted in partial gravity simulation environments. The Constellation Program EVA Systems Project office has initiated tests to develop design requirements for the next generation Lunar EVA suit. Theses studies were conducted in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility (SVMF) at Johnson Space Center from which the results provided recommendations for suit weight, mass, center of gravity, pressure, and suit kinematic constraints that optimize human performance in partial gravity environments.

  19. A Summary of NRC Findings and Recommendations on International Collaboration in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Michael; Smith, David H.; Graham, Sandra

    Collaboration among the world’s space agencies has become an essential tool to achieving shared goals in the exploration of space. In space science international coordination and collaborations have formed the foundation of advances in our knowledge of our universe over the last few decades. In support of the U.S. space science and Earth science programs, NASA has engaged in well over 1000 international activities with many nations. Indeed, international participation in NASA science missions has more often been the norm rather than the exception. Among notable recent examples are the Hubble Space Telescope (with ESA), the Cassini-Huygens Saturn mission (with ESA and Italy), the James Webb Space Telescope (with ESA and Canada) and of course the International Space Station (with Russia, ESA, Japan, and Canada). However, the international character of a space mission is no guarantee of its successful realization. International collaboration can be sidetracked owing to developments in national programs or budgets and the management challenges cannot be understated. In human spaceflight international coordination and collaboration started in earnest with the Apollo-Soyuz program in the 1970s and today it forms the foundation of the successful International Space Station partnership that is likely to continue through into the early 2020s. But what role will international collaboration play in human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit in the decades ahead? This paper will discuss the findings and recommendations of a number of NRC reports that have considered international collaboration. For instance the 1998 U.S. National Research Council (NRC) / European Science Foundation report “U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science” found, cooperative programs depend on a clear understanding of how the responsibilities of the mission are to be shared among the partners, a clear management scheme with a well defined interface between the parties, and efficient

  20. Signed Numbers Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Vijayasekhar,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Signed integers are normally represented using 2’s complement representation. Addition and subtraction of signed numbers is done in the same manner as for unsigned numbers. However carry (or borrow is simple ignored. Unlike unsigned number carry (or borrow does not mean overflow or error. Doubling of a signed number can be done by shift left. However, halving of a signed number can not be done by shift right. Hence special arithmetic instruction SAR (Shift arithmetic right is needed. We have defined an alternative representation for signed numbers. Here a positive number is represented by appended a zero (0 at right. Here a negative number is represented by inverting all bits in corresponding positive number. Two signed numbers are added by adding corresponding binary representation. After that carry is added to the result. Similarly two signed numbers are subtracted by subtracting corresponding binaryrepresentation. After that borrow is subtracted. Doubling and halving is done by ROL (Rotate left and ROR (Rotate right respectively. Following are drawbacks of our system. (A Addition is done in two stages. In the first stage the numbers are added. In the second stage carry is added. Carry can not be ignored as in 2’s complement representation. (B Same holds for subtraction. (C When an odd number is halved then error results. In 2’s complement representation approximate answer appears. The advantage of our system is that entire arithmetic can be carried using ordinary logical instructions. No special instruction is needed. In 2’s complement representation a special instruction SAR is needed. This instruction is not used for any other purpose.