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Sample records for apical transitoria presentacion

  1. Takotsubo, discinesia apical transitoria: Presentacion de 4 casos y revisión de la literatura Takotsubo, reversible apical ballooning of the left ventricle: Report of 4 cases

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    Bárbara C. Finn

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available En 1990 se describió un síndrome caracterizado por discinesia apical transitoria, cambios en el electrocardiograma (ECG, mínima elevación de enzimas cardíacas y arterias coronarias normales. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en mujeres añosas y es precedido por un evento de estrés, ya sea físico o psíquico. La fisiopatología aún no está aclarada y se proponen diversas teorías. La de mayor peso es la que postula una afección secundaria a la descarga de catecolaminas desencadenada por el estrés, sobre un corazón incapaz de mantener una respuesta inotrópica adecuada. Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes atendidos en nuestro hospital que se manifestaron con síntomas sugerentes de infarto agudo de miocardio asociados a insuficiencia cardiaca, en el contexto de un episodio estresante. Los síntomas preponderantes fueron dolor precordial opresivo y disnea. En el ECG se evidenciaron tanto supradesnivel del segmento ST, como inversión de la onda T. Todos los pacientes presentaron la imagen ecocardiográfica típica de discinesia apical, y todos tuvieron en la cinecoronariografía coronarias normales. Cabe destacar que tanto el ECG, como el ecocardiograma volvieron a la normalidad a partir de las dos semanas.A syndrome of apical ballooning, with ECG mimicking acute myocardial infarctation, mild or no enzymatic changes, and normal coronary angiogram was described in 1990. It presents mainly in middle aged and elderly women and it is preceded by stress triggering circumstances. Several mechanisms have been proposed although the precise cause remains unclear. The most accepted theory proposes the interaction of catecholamines and an inadequate inotropic response. We report four cases that presented with chest pain and sudden onset of heart failure, all patients had physical or emotional stress as a triggering factor. On ECG, ST segment elevation and inverted T waves were observed in the acute phase. All patients had typical echocardiogram

  2. DISCINESIA ÁNTERO-APICAL TRANSITORIA O SÍNDROME DE TAKO-TSUBO. PRESENTACIÓN DE UN CASO / Transient antero-apical dyskinesia or tako-tsubo syndrome. A case report

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    Dayán A. García Cuesta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient apical ballooning, Tako-tsubo syndrome (and other synonyms, is a clinical condition first described in Japan, and then in other countries, that mimics acute myocardial infarction. Disorders of left ventricular contractility recover within a few weeks. The fatality rate is very low compared with infarction, but it should be known by professionals that see patients with acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department. A patient who was discharged from our department with this diagnosis is presented, and electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and angiographic images are shown.

  3. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

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    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  4. Presentacion

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    Revista Facultad Ingenieria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombiaconsidera de especial importancia resaltar la labor de personas que con su gestióny actitud han dejado una huella grata y contribuido al engrandecimiento de laIngeniería y a la formación de nuevos Ingenieros en nuestro medio.

  5. Regimen de salidas transitorias en la ley de seguridad ciudadana

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    Ana María Mosquera Rial

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Planteo. -- Teorías explicativas. -- Sistemas penitenciarios. -- La ejecución penal en el Uruguay. -- Régimen de salidas transitorias. -- Modificaciones establecidas por la Ley 16.707 al régimen de salidas transitorias. -- Conclusiones

  6. Estudio Clásico de Estabilidad Transitoria para Sistemas Multimáquina

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    José Alejandro Morones Alba

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra una descripción del modelo matemático en el que se basa el diseño de un simulador para el estudio clásico de estabilidad transitoria en Sistemas Eléctricos de Potencia. El simulador determina el comportamiento transitorio de primera oscilación para sistemas multimáquina ante disturbios como fallas trifásicas, cambios de configuración, pérdida de carga y pérdida de generación.

  7. Osteoporosis transitoria migratoria de cadera: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La osteoporosis transitoria asociada a la gestación es una condición poco usual, idiopática y auto - limitada. Comúnmente asociada al tercer trimestre del embarazo y al periodo postparto; cursa con dolor migra - torio en las articulaciones de carga, osteopenia radiográfica difusa periarticular y patrón de edema medular óseo en la RMN. Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 28 años, en la...

  8. Primera sección- territorio, áreas protegidas y ecosistemas-presentaciones orales.

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, Tercer Simposio Forestal

    2013-01-01

    Aquí se puede encontrar un resumen de las presentaciones orales de la primera sección- territorio, áreas protegidas y ecosistemas- del tercer simposio forestal. Entre los que se encuentran: •Geografía rural de un sector del altiplano de Santa Rosa de Osos •Metodología para la elaboración de modelos digitales del terreno a partir de fotografías aéreas •Variación florística y edáfica de especies arbóreas en bosques de tierra firme en el parque nacional natural Amacayacu, Amazonía ...

  9. Segunda sección- manejo de bosques e industrias -presentaciones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, Tercer simposio forestal

    2013-01-01

    Aquí se puede encontrar un resumen de las presentaciones orales de la segunda sección sobre manejo de bosques e industrias - del tercer simposio forestal. Entre los que se encuentran: •Descomposición de hojarasca y liberación de nutrientes en plantaciones de acacia mangium del balo cauca antioqueño. •Crecimiento poblacional y modelos de cosecha sostenible de las especies de musgo aprovechadas en el corregimiento de Santa Elena (Antioquia). •Gestión de productos no maderables de...

  10. Estructura narrativa en las presentaciones académicas: mapas conceptuales frente a discursos secuenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Alba, Carlos Luis; Llorens Largo, Faraón; Satorre Cuerda, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación se centra en la importancia del discurso narrativo que debe vertebrar cualquier presentación académica. La inteligibilidad de los contenidos está inevitablemente vinculada a la forma de la propia presentación. Las nuevas tecnologías han propiciado un salto cualitativo a la hora de elaborar las presentaciones posibilitando un abanico de recursos que antes resultaba difícil de imaginar. El estudio se centra en un análisis comparativo entre la naturaleza discurs...

  11. Isquemia cerebral transitoria y riesgo de infarto cerebral isquémico

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    Luis Guillermo Rosales-Bravo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad vascular cerebral es la principal causa de hospitalización neurológica en el mundo. Costa Rica no es la excepción; en nuestros hospitales cada día es más frecuente el número de pacientes que ingresan con infartos cerebrales isquémicos. Esta común enfermedad obedece a la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas como la hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias, tabaquismo y la alta expectativa de vida de los costarricenses, todos considerados factores de riesgo. Aproximadamente un 80% de los infartos cerebrales son isquémicos secundarios a la oclusión arterial aguda de un territorio vascular específico; el restante 20% corresponde a la variante hemorrágica. Las secuelas neurológicas secundarias a esta entidad son la principal causa de discapacidad crónica en los pacientes y conllevan una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque muchos sufren el infarto cerebral isquémico en forma aguda, otro grupo de pacientes experimenta uno o varios episodios previos de isquemia cerebral transitoria, lo cual los pone en riesgo de sufrir un infarto cerebral isquémico durante un periodo corto, es decir, son pacientes vulnerables. Esta revisión pretende actualizar los conocimientos médicos, especialmente para aquellos que trabajan en la atención primaria y en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarias, que reconozcan a este grupo de pacientes y les brinden la atención médica necesaria para de prevenir un infarto cerebral isquémico. La isquemia cerebral transitoria debe ser considerada como una emergencia neurológica.

  12. Oclusión transitoria de comunicación interauricular en el síndrome de Lutembacher

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    Alejandro E. Contreras

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una paciente de 82 años de edad, con síntomas de insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada e hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Un ecocardiograma transtorácico mostró una comunicación interauricular tipo ostium secundum y estenosis valvular mitral concomitante (síndrome de Lutembacher. La valoración ecocardiográfica de la enfermedad mitral se vio dificultada por la presencia del defecto interauricular. Se realizó test de oclusión percutánea transitoria de la comunicación interauricular, observándose la aparición de estenosis valvular mitral grave. El tamaño del defecto interauricular modificó las manifestaciones clínicas y el test de oclusión transitoria ayudó a decidir la conducta terapéutica.

  13. Isquemia cerebral transitoria y riesgo de infarto cerebral isquémico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Rosales-Bravo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad vascular cerebral es la principal causa de hospitalización neurológica en el mundo. Costa Rica no es la excepción; en nuestros hospitales cada día es más frecuente el número de pacientes que ingresan con infartos cerebrales isquémicos. Esta común enfermedad obedece a la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas como la hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias, tabaquismo y la alta expectativa de vida de los costarricenses, todos considerados factores de riesgo. Aproximadamente un 80% de los infartos cerebrales son isquémicos secundarios a la oclusión arterial aguda de un territorio vascular específico; el restante 20% corresponde a la variante hemorrágica. Las secuelas neurológicas secundarias a esta entidad son la principal causa de discapacidad crónica en los pacientes y conllevan una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque muchos sufren el infarto cerebral isquémico en forma aguda, otro grupo de pacientes experimenta uno o varios episodios previos de isquemia cerebral transitoria, lo cual los pone en riesgo de sufrir un infarto cerebral isquémico durante un periodo corto, es decir, son pacientes vulnerables. Esta revisión pretende actualizar los conocimientos médicos, especialmente para aquellos que trabajan en la atención primaria y en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarias, que reconozcan a este grupo de pacientes y les brinden la atención médica necesaria para de prevenir un infarto cerebral isquémico. La isquemia cerebral transitoria debe ser considerada como una emergencia neurológica.Stroke is the first cause of neurological hospitalization in the world. Costa Rica is not the exception, in our hospitals the amount of patients who are admitted with ischemic stroke increases every day. This condition is more common due to the high prevalence of chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, besides smoking and the high costarrican life expectancy, are all

  14. EL USO DE LAS PRESENTACIONES DIGITALES EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR: UNA REFLEXIÓN SOBRE LA PRÁCTICA

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    Orlando Maroto Marín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la enseñanza universitaria se han extendido ampliamente. En esta reseña temática se realiza una reflexión sobre la pertinencia de su aplicación; además se revisan algunos detalles de su producción. Se recalca la importancia de tomar en cuenta los detalles de las presentaciones para así lograr los objetivos educativos. El uso de un medio audiovisual y digital debería favorecer el establecimiento de una comunicación interactiva entre docentes y estudiantes. Con estas notas se espera aportar ideas sobre las presentaciones digitales especialmente para el personal docente que inicia sus labores dentro de la universidad.

  15. Un Examen de los Factores Explicativos del Empleo de las Presentaciones a Analistas en la Empresa Española

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    Manuel Larrán Jorge

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas cotizadas organizan regularmente encuentros restringidos con analistas financieros en aras del flujo de información con el mercado y la correcta valoración de sus títulos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las variables que influyen en el empleo de presentaciones a analistas por parte de las empresas integrantes en el Índice General de la Bolsa de Madrid. Los resultados evidencian que, en España, las compañías que se comunican con analistas a través de presentaciones muestran un tamaño significativamente superior frente a aquellas que no emplean este canal, siendo la pertenencia al IBEX 35 y la existencia de departamentos de Relaciones con Inversores los factores determinantes de la celebración de estos encuentros. Palabras clave: canales privados, divulgación de información, analistas financieros, presentaciones a analistas.Presentations to analysts are used by listing companies in order to disclose information and avoid the undervaluation of their securities. The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of presentations to analysts in the Spanish Capital Market and the determinants of the decision to hold these presentations. Our empirical study was performed on the Spanish companies listed in the Madrid Stock Exchange. We found evidence indicating that the decision to hold presentations for analysts is related to the size of the company. In addition, we verify that the firms listed in IBEX 35 and with Investor Relations departments are more likely to host these meetings.

  16. Estimador de la carga (aire-GNC) aspirada por el motor de combustión interna duranrte condiciones transitorias de operación.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Andrés; Samat, David; Molina, Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Durante las operaciones transitorias de un motor, se requiere de una exacta relación aire combustible, a los efectos de optimizar la eficiencia y reducir las emisiones. Motores que de fabrica no están acondicionados para funcionar con gas y son transformados para funcionar con combustibles gaseosos (GNC) en los que se utiliza para su dosado mezcladores tipo Venturi, no brindan una respuesta satisfactoria para las condiciones antes expuestas. El presente trabajo describe y desarrol...

  17. LATEX: EDITOR DE PRESENTACIONES AUDIOVISUALES EN CLASES DE CULTURA COMPLEMENTARIAS A CURSOS DE ESPAÑOL COMO LENGUA EXTRANJERA (ELE.

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    Lorena M. A. de-Matteis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe los fundamentos del sistema LATEX-beamer e introduce el protocolo de trabajo para el diseño de presentaciones audiovisuales basadas en un archivo sistemático de recursos audiovisuales para un curso de Cultura Argentina destinado a mejorar la competencia pragmática de los estudiantes internacionales de la Universidad Nacional del Sur. Se identifican algunas de las ventajas que el sistema ofrece: archivos más pequeños, portabilidad completa a distintas plataformas o sistemas operativos, reciclamiento veloz de diapositivas y enlaces efectivos a archivos de audio y video externos, así como a sitios de Internet.

  18. El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la educación superior: una reflexión sobre la práctica / Use of digital presentations in higher education: a reflexion on practice

    OpenAIRE

    Maroto Marín, Orlando

    2008-01-01

    Resumen: El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la enseñanza universitaria se han extendido ampliamente. En esta reseña temática se realiza una reflexión sobre la pertinencia de su aplicación; además se revisan algunos detalles de su producción. Se recalca la importancia de tomar en cuenta los detalles de las presentaciones para así lograr los objetivos educativos. El uso de un medio audiovisual y digital debería favorecer el establecimiento de una comunicación interactiva entre docente...

  19. Surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mi Kyung; Bai, Sang Wook

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition, occurring in up to 11% of women in the United States. Often, pelvic organ prolapse recurs after surgery; when it recurs after hysterectomy, it frequently presents as vaginal apical prolapse. There are many different surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse; among them, abdominal sacral colpopexy is considered the gold standard. However, recent data reveal that other surgical procedures also result in good outcome. This review discusses the various surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse including their risks and benefits. PMID:27462591

  20. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

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    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  1. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  2. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  3. Apical dominance in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Apical dominance in Alstroemeria is studied to develop an improved propagation protocol for this crop. Four types of explants were prepared: an intact rhizome with two intact shoots (+R+2S), an intact rhizome with two decapitated shoots (+R-2S), a decapitated rhizome with two intact shoots (-R+2S),

  4. Cell division activity during apical hook development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, V.; Koornneef, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth during plant development is predominantly governed by the combined activities of cell division and cell elongation. The relative contribution of both activities controls the growth of a tissue. A fast change in growth is exhibited at the apical hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings where cells gro

  5. El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la educación superior: una reflexión sobre la práctica / Use of digital presentations in higher education: a reflexion on practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroto Marín, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la enseñanza universitaria se han extendido ampliamente. En esta reseña temática se realiza una reflexión sobre la pertinencia de su aplicación; además se revisan algunos detalles de su producción. Se recalca la importancia de tomar en cuenta los detalles de las presentaciones para así lograr los objetivos educativos. El uso de un medio audiovisual y digital debería favorecer el establecimiento de una comunicación interactiva entre docentes y estudiantes. Con estas notas se espera aportar ideas sobre las presentaciones digitales especialmente para el personal docente que inicia sus labores dentro de la universidad.Abstract: The use of slide show presentation in higher education has been extending wider through universities. This article is a reflection about its use and pertinence and a review of some details on its production. This research reinforces the importance of review the slide show details to achieve the educational goals. In the classroom is established communication between professor and students and vice versa. The audiovisual media must reinforce communication skills and not only an informational reception. These notes could be helpful for the newest teachers, those who are starting their teaching career into the university, finding in their beginning the way to eliminate some actions that limits their creative capacity to teach.

  6. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  7. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. PMID:26602450

  8. Evaluación transitoria del promotor del gen de la proteina de la capside del virus del mosaico amarillo de la papa (pymv) - Colombia en plantas de tabaco

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Rendón, Andrea Jimena

    2014-01-01

    Los promotores derivados de virus son herramientas biotecnológicas muy útiles que permiten regular la expresión de genes de interés en plantas transgénicas. Sin embargo algunos promotores no promueven eficientemente la transcripción de genes en diferentes plantas, siendo necesario evaluar nuevos promotores que permitan obtener mejores resultados en cuanto a expresión y estabilidad génica. Con base en lo anterior, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo general: Evaluar la expresión transitoria...

  9. Apical dominance in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R. G. F.; Klerk, de, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Apical dominance in Alstroemeria is studied to develop an improved propagation protocol for this crop. Four types of explants were prepared: an intact rhizome with two intact shoots (+R+2S), an intact rhizome with two decapitated shoots (+R-2S), a decapitated rhizome with two intact shoots (-R+2S), and a decapitated rhizome with two decapitated shoots (-R-2S). The explants were cultivated on solid MS medium with 9 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). -R-2S explants showed the highest and +R+2S the l...

  10. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Parisi; Francesca; Mirabella; Gioel; Gabrio; Secco; Rossella; Fattori

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the firstline imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease.

  11. Oclusión transitoria de comunicación interauricular en el síndrome de Lutembacher Temporary occlusion of atrial septal defect in the Lutembacher syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Contreras

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una paciente de 82 años de edad, con síntomas de insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada e hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Un ecocardiograma transtorácico mostró una comunicación interauricular tipo ostium secundum y estenosis valvular mitral concomitante (síndrome de Lutembacher. La valoración ecocardiográfica de la enfermedad mitral se vio dificultada por la presencia del defecto interauricular. Se realizó test de oclusión percutánea transitoria de la comunicación interauricular, observándose la aparición de estenosis valvular mitral grave. El tamaño del defecto interauricular modificó las manifestaciones clínicas y el test de oclusión transitoria ayudó a decidir la conducta terapéutica.We report the case of an 82 year-old woman with symptoms of advanced heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. An echocardiogram showed an ostium secundum type atrial septal defect and concomitant mitral valve stenosis (Lutembacher syndrome. Echocardiographic assessment of mitral pathology was hampered by the interatrial septal defect. Transient percutaneous occlusion test of the atrial septal defect was performed and severe mitral valve stenosis was detected. Atrial septal defect size modified the clinical manifestations and the transient occlusion test helped to decide the therapeutic strategy.

  12. Apical dominance and growth in vitro of Alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pumisutapon, P.

    2012-01-01

    In Alstroemeria, micropropagation is achieved by axillary bud outgrowth. However, the multiplication rate is rather low (1.2–2.0 per cycle of 4 weeks) due to strong apical dominance. Even though several factors (i.e. culture media, growth regulators, and environmental conditions) have been studied, no significant improvements have been achieved. Basic research on apical dominance mechanism in Alstroemeria is therefore required. This may enhance the understanding how apical dominance con...

  13. Minimal Apical Enlargement for Penetration of Irrigants to the Apical Third of Root Canal System: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srikanth; Krishna, Amaravadi Gopi; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, E Sujayeendranatha; Battu, Someshwar; Aravelli, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine minimal apical enlargement for irrigant penetration into apical third of root canal system using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Distobuccal canals of 40 freshly extracted human maxillary first molar teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique. The teeth were divided into four test groups according to size of their master apical file (MAF) (#20, #25, #30, #35 0.06% taper), and two control groups. After final ...

  14. APICAL TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING AS PANCOAST TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old woman presented with pain in her right shoulder radiating to the right scapula and a tingling sensation of the right arm with involvement of the fourth and fifth finger. Chest x ray showed a well-defined mass in right apical area of lung. HRCT chest showed a well-defined mass in right upper zone in apex destroying the upper 2 ribs. Clinically the diagnosis of Pancoast tumor of the right lung was made. Computed tomographic guided fine needle aspiration cytology was done and it was inconclusive. So gun biopsy was done under ultrasound guidance. The histologic and microbiologic examinations established the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB.

  15. Apical-dominant particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Cui; Xingjuan Cai; Jianchao Zeng; Guoji Sun

    2008-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a new stochastic population-based search methodology by simulating the animal social behaviors such as birds flocking and fish schooling.Many improvements have been proposed within the framework of this biological assumption.However,in this paper,the search pattern of PSO is used to model the branch growth process of natural plants.It provides a different poten-tial manner from artificial plant.To illustrate the effectiveness of this new model,apical dominance phenomenon is introduced to construct a novel variant by emphasizing the influence of the phototaxis.In this improvement,the population is divided into three different kinds of buds associated with their performances.Furthermore,a mutation strategy is applied to enhance the ability escaping from a local optimum.Sim-ulation results demonstrate good performance of the new method when solving high-dimensional multi-modal problems.

  16. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  17. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials....... Methods. Twenty-four patients were centrally randomized to apical box preparation (size #60) or cone preparation (apical size #25). The groups were comparable regarding the presence of primary caries and type of coronal restoration. In the course of canal preparation each tooth was irrigated with 2.5% Na......OCl (12 ml). Lastly, the canals were filled with 17% EDTA (2 × 30 s) and 5% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) for 10 min. The canals were sampled for micro-organisms on four occasions: before instrumentation, after instrumentation, after application of IKI dressing and at the beginning of the second...

  18. Plataformas de expresión en plantas de péptidos humanos terapéuticos: expresión transitoria y estable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Noguera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas representan un sistema de expresión alternativo para la producción de proteínas heterólogas complejas tales como vacunas, antígenos, anticuerpos, eritroproyetina e insulina humana. Este sistema posee diversas ventajas sobre los sistemas de expresión tradicional basados en el cultivo de células de bacterias, levaduras, insectos y mamíferos, como su bajo costo de producción, menor tiempo para alcanzar la producción a gran escala, expresión, modificación y ensamblaje apropiado de la proteína recombinante y ausencia de riesgo de contaminación con patógenos humanos. En la última década la ingeniería genética de plantas ha utilizado ampliamente los sistemas de expresión estable basados en la bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens y la expresión transitoria basada en los vectores virales de plantas para la obtención de compuestos beneficiosos para la salud y el bienestar del hombre. La introducción de estos elementos virales en los sistemas de producción de proteínas recombinantes ha simplificado la manipulación y el proceso de infección de las plantas con el gen quimérico. Aunado a esto, el entendimiento de la inmunogenicidad que poseen los glicanos de origen vegetal sobre la actividad de los péptidos heterólogos, ha permitido dilucidar cuales son las vías moleculares más convenientes para expresar, ensamblar, compartamentalizar e incrementar la acumulación de las proteínas de interés. Con la presente revisión se busca proporcionar al lector una información detallada acerca de las estrategias de expresión heterólogas que utilizan sistemas vegetales, los principales agentes terapéuticos desarrollados basados en estos sistemas y la importancia biológica de las modificaciones post–traduccionales de los péptidos recombinantes. In plant expression platforms of therapeutic human peptides: transient and stable expression Abstract Plants represent an alternative expression system for the production of

  19. External electromagnetic transient sources: analysis of its effect in underground power cables; Fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas: analisis de su efecto en los cables de potencia subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Paz, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    sistemas electricos de potencia que operan en la actualidad, los cables subterraneos son solo un complemento. El costo de estos cables generalmente es mas alto que el de las lineas aereas, por lo cual su uso se restringe solo a aquellas areas donde la construccion de las lineas aereas no es factible. Se estima que para voltajes menores que 110 kV este costo es hasta siete veces mayor que el de una linea area y para voltajes mayores que 380 kV puede ser hasta veinte veces mayor. Sin embargo, existen razones importantes para construir un sistema de cables subterraneos como: a) el crecimiento rapido de los centros urbanos y las zonas industriales, lo cual provoca restricciones de los derechos de vida para la construccion de lineas aereas, b) los cruces de grandes cuerpos de agua, c) la congestion de lineas aereas cerca de las subestaciones o las plantas generadoras, d) los cruces de lineas aereas y e) las leyes y los reglamentos, por mencionar algunas. La importancia de los sistemas de transmision subterraneos de alto y extra alto voltaje se incrementara en el mediano y el largo plazo, por lo tanto, se considera que los efectos de los fenomenos externos en estos sistemas, como las inducciones producidas por las fuentes transitorias electromagneticas, seran mas severos. En este trabajo de investigacion se define a las descargas atmosfericas como las fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas. Los cables de grandes dimensiones, tales como los cables de potencia, se comportan como grandes recolectores de las interferencias producidas por las descargas atmosfericas, las cuales pueden provocar danos en los componentes de un sistema. Para evitar los danos e incrementar la confiabilidad de los sistemas de cable subterraneos es necesario utilizar dispositivos de proteccion y niveles de aislamiento apropiados, principalmente. Si el fenomeno y el comportamiento del sistema se representan adecuadamente, es posible poder determinar con mayor precision las caracteristicas que deben

  20. Maxillary first premolars: I. Morphology of the apical constriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu; Ming Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the apical constriction morphology of maxillary first premolars in the Chinese population. Methods: Eighty recently extracted human maxillary first premolars from a native Chinese population were used. The number and shape of apical constrictions were recorded under a dental operating microscope (DOM) at 12.5X2.5 magnification. After access preparation, a new K-file was inserted into the canal until the tip of the file was just seen at the apical constriction under the DOM. The teeth with files in the canals were X-rayed from a mesiodistal direction using a direct digital radiography (DDR) system, and the distance between the file tip and the center of radiographic apex was directly measured from the computer screen using DDR measurement software. Results: The percentage of teeth with an apical constriction was 78.5% (102/130). The most common apical constriction shapes were oval (55.9%) and round (35.3%). The mean distance between the apical constriction and the anatomical tip of the root was 0.61 mm, and 84.3% (86/102) were within 1 mm. Conclusion: The most common shape of an apical constriction was oval or round, and the distance to the apex was mostly within 1 mm, indicating that root canal therapy should stop 1 mm from the radiographic apex.

  1. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  2. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Stojičić Dragana; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA) were compared to those of untreated control...

  3. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following apical approach TAVI

    OpenAIRE

    Vanezis Andrew P; Baig Mirza K; Mitchel Ian M; Shajar Matloob; Naik Surendra K; Henderson Robert A; Mathew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis carries a two year survival of only 50%. However many patients are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement as they are considered too high risk due to significant co-morbidities. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) offers a viable alternative for this high risk patient group, either by the femoral or apical route. This article reports a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following an apical approach TAVI in an eld...

  4. Haemostatic agents in apical surgery. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clé-Ovejero, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood presence in apical surgery can prevent the correct vision of the surgical field, change the physical properties of filling materials and reduce their sealing ability. Objetive To describe which are the most effective and safest haemostatic agents to control bleeding in patients undergoing apical surgery. Material and Methods TWe carried out a systematic review, using Medline and Cochrane Library databases, of human clinical studies published in the last 10 years. Results The agents that proved more effective in bleeding control were calcium sulphate (100%) and collagen plus epinephrine (92.9%) followed by ferric sulphate (60%), gauze packing (30%) and collagen (16.7%). When using aluminium chloride (Expasyl®), over 90% of the apical lesions improved, but this agent seemed to increase swelling. Epinephrine with collagen did not significantly raise either blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusions Despite the use of several haemostatic materials in apical surgery, there is little evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The most effective haemostatic agents were calcium sulphate and epinephrine plus collagen. Epinephrine plus collagen did not seem to significantly raise blood pressure or heart rate during surgery. Aluminium chloride did not increase postoperative pain but could slightly increase postoperative swelling. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the haemostatic effectiveness and adverse effects of haemostatic materials in apical surgery. Key words:Haemostasis, apical surgery. PMID:27475689

  5. Optimización de las condiciones de biobalística de baja presión para análisis de expresión transitoria de genes heterólogos en hojas de tabaco cultivadas in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Vaca-Vaca; Andrea Jimena Pulido-Rendón; Karina López-López

    2014-01-01

    Los estudios de expresión transitoria de genes heterólogos de interés biotecnológico son un paso previo a su expresión estable en plantas transgénicas. El objetivo del trabajo fue optimizar las condiciones de biobalística para realizar ensayos de expresión transitoria de genes heterólogos en Nicotiana tabacum va-riedad Xanthi (tabaco) utilizando la pistola de genes de baja presión Helios® Gene Gun (BioRad®). Como gen heterólogo se utilizó al promotor 35S de CaMV fusionado al gen uidA (GUS) c...

  6. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Pandey, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the established working length. Group II (ACT, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater than the MAF that was followed by dry reaming. Root canal therapy was accomplished in single-visit for all the teeth. They were pursued radiographically at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Pre- and post-treatment PAI scores were compared. To ascertain the proportion of healed teeth between the two groups, McNemar Chi-square test was applied. Results: At 3, 6, and 9 months’ time interval the proportion of healed teeth for Group II (ACT) was greater in comparison to Group I (CAP) (P < 0.05). However, at 12 months follow-up period this difference was not significant (P = 0.08). Conclusion: ACT enhanced the healing kinetics. However, the long-term (12 months) radiographic outcome was similar for either technique. PMID:27656054

  7. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  8. Changes of the Unique Odontogenic Properties of Rat Apical Bud Cells under the Developing Apical Complex Microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fang; Liang Tang; Xiao-hui Liu; Ling-ying Wen; Yan Jin

    2009-01-01

    Aim To characterize the odontogenic capability of apical bud and phenotypical change of apical bud cells (ABCs) in different microenvironment. Methodology Incisor apical bud tissues from neonatal SD rat were dissected and transplanted into the renal capsules to determine their odontogenic capability. Meanwhile ABCs were cultured and purified by repeated differential trypsinization. Then ABCs were cultured with conditioned medium from developing apical complex cells (DAC-CM). Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were performed to compare the biological change of ABC treated with or without DAC-CM. Results First we confirmed the ability of apical bud to form crown-like structure ectopically. Equally important, by using the developing apical complex (DAC) conditioned medium, we found the microenvironment created by root could abrogate the "crown" features of ABCs and promote their proliferation and differentiation. Conclusion ABCs possess odontogenic capability to form crown-like tissues and this property can be affected by root-produced microenvironment.

  9. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  10. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L0) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N0) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p1) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N1) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p2) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N2) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  11. INDICACIONES DE ESTIMULACIÓN ELÉCTRICA TRANSITORIA, COMPLICACIONES Y NECESIDAD DE ESTIMULACIÓN CARDÍACA PERMANENTE / Use of temporary cardiac pacing, its complications and need for permanent cardiac pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ramos González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Introducción: La estimulación cardíaca temporal está indicada en diversas situaciones de extrema urgencia, en pacientes con bradiarritmias graves y bloqueos aurículo-ventriculares de II o III grados.Su indicación siempre se considera ante la presencia de síntomas como: compromiso hemodinámico importante, que no responde a los medicamentos, y poca tolerancia el ritmo lento. Objetivo: Describir las principales indicaciones de estimulación eléctrica transitoria que pueden llevar a la estimulación eléctrica permanente, así como las complicaciones que se presentan al utilizarla. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo donde se estudiaron 266 pacientes de 281 ingresados en el Hospital "Arnaldo Milián Castro", a los cuales se les implantó un marcapasos transitorio. Se describen las indicaciones y complicaciones del procedimiento. Resultados: Se observó un mayor número de indicaciones de estimulación eléctrica transitoria cuando aumenta la edad de la población en estudio, 45,86 % para los mayores de 80 años. El sexo femenino predominó (156 pacientes, con una relación mujer-hombre de 1,56:1. La causa degenerativa (42,1 % fue la mayor indicación de estimulación eléctrica permanente. La punción de vasos no deseados fue la complicación más frecuente (7,1 %. Conclusiones: La indicación de estimulación eléctrica transitoria es más frecuente en los mayores de 80 años, principalmente por causa degenerativa, que finalmente lleva a la estimulación eléctrica permanente. El porcentaje de complicaciones no se muestra elevado cuando se tiene en cuenta que este procedimiento no se realizó bajo visión fluoroscópica. / Abstract: Introduction: Temporary cardiac pacing is used in various extreme emergency situations, in patients with severe bradyarrhythmias and second and third degree atrioventricular block. Its use is always considered when there are symptoms such as a significant hemodynamic compromise, not responding

  12. Cryopreservation of Pelargonium apices by droplet-vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, Anthony; Panis, Bart; Dorion, Nöelle; Swennen, Rony; Grapin, Agnès

    2008-01-01

    The droplet-vitrification method was adapted to Pelargonium apices by optimizing the duration of the loading solution (LS) as well as the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The excised apices were dehydrated in two steps (20 min in LS and 15 min in PVS2) and then immersed directly in liquid nitrogen (LN). After thawing and unloading in the recovery solution at room temperature for 15 min, apices were plated onto semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium. This simple protocol without any pretreatment was successfully applied to eight cultivars with a survival level ranging between 55.6 - 96.2 percent and a regrowth level between 9.1 and 70.6 percent. These results prove the feasibility of the long-term storage of Pelargonium germplasm through cryopreservation.

  13. IN VIVO ANALYSIS OF SOME KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APICAL ZONE IN TEETH WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogenesis of internal and external resorptive processes in the dental tissues and those of the periapical zone is not fully understood, but the main purpose, either in teeth with internal resorption or in teeth with periapical lesions, is decontamination of the endodontic space and subsequent three-dimensional obturation in order to isolate periapical and oral tissues and prevent reinfection. Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze in vivo some key characteristics of the apical zone in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: To facilitate the clinical protocol after the radiographic analysis and assessment of patency, the working lengths of 153 root canals (n = 153 in 106 teeth were determined. The clinical widths of the apical narrowing were measured by using the last instrument (ISO 0.02 tapered file, which can move freely through the apical narrowing after electrometric determination of the working length (Raypex 5 /VDW, Germany/. Results and Discussion: Determination of working width and working length is important for realizing the first stage of decontamination – maximum instrumentation of the endodontic space and choice of a clinical protocol. The classification of root canals in a particular group according to the relative patency or lysed apical opening is important for the selection of obturation technique, which is essential for reducing the microleakage in the zone. Conclusion: Since the target of this work were teeth with CAP, in the majority of the cases with clinical findings of root canals with preexisting filling, radicular pins, obliteration, separated canal instruments, perforations at different levels, via falsa or thresholds, the access to the apical zone was not subjected to a closely observed instrumental clinical protocol. In the treatment of each case, however, the clinical principles of modern endodontic treatment were closely observed.

  14. Evaluación de los procesos de precocción/congelación de tres presentaciones de papa criolla (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja) variedad Colombia / Assessment processes precooking/freezing of three presentations of native potato (Solanum tuberosum phureja group) Colombia variety

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Rincón, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estandarizar los procesos de precocción y congelación de tres presentaciones de papa criolla (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja). Se usaron presentaciones de tubérculos enteros de 2,7 cm de diámetro, semiesferas a partir de tubérculos de 3,5 cm de diámetro y bastones (prismas rectangulares de 0,7 cm x 0,8 cm x 2,8 cm). Para estandarizar la etapa de precocción se generaron modelos matemáticos de transferencia de calor acoplados a modelos de inactivación de...

  15. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation. PMID:2640036

  16. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  17. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  18. The apical plasma membrane of chitin-synthesizing epithelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard Moussian

    2013-01-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth.It is produced at the apical side of epidermal,tracheal,fore-,and hindgut epithelial cells in insects as a central component of the protective and supporting extracellular cuticle.Chitin is also an important constituent of the midgut peritrophic matrix that encases the food supporting its digestion and protects the epithelium against invasion by possibly ingested pathogens.The enzyme producing chitin is a glycosyltransferase that resides in the apical plasma membrane forming a pore to extrude the chains of chitin into the extracellular space.The apical plasma membrane is not only a platform for chitin synthases but,probably through its shape and equipment with distinct factors,also plays an important role in orienting and organizing chitin fibers.Here,I review findings on the cellular and molecular constitution of the apical plasma membrane of chitin-producing epithelia mainly focusing on work done in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  19. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical left ventricular aneurysm: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江腾勇; 韩智红; 王京; 吕强; 吴学思

    2002-01-01

    @@ Morphological diversity is one characteristic of hypertrophic cardi omyopathy (HCM), but it is not common that HCM is associated with apical left ve ntricular aneurysm (LVA) without evidence of a coronary artery lesion. We repor t on such a case and review the pathogenesis, manifestations and diagnostic meth ods by collecting the few available papers published on this topic.

  20. Implantation of a left ventricular assist device in patients with a complex apical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Meindert; Verwey, Harriette F; Haeck, Marlieke L A; Holman, Eduard R; Schalij, Martin J; Klautz, Robert J M

    2012-12-01

    Implantation of a left ventricular assist device can be challenging in patients with an altered apical anatomy after cardiac surgery or as the result of the presence of a calcified apical aneurysm. In this paper we present 2 cases with a challenging apical anatomy and introduce a new surgical technique facilitating left ventricular assist device implantation in these patients.

  1. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  2. Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Wyn; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    Apical constriction is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which embryonic tissue is deformed, giving rise to the shape and form of the fully-developed organism. The mechanism involves a contraction of fibres embedded in the apical side of epithelial tissues, leading to an invagination or folding of the cell sheet. In this article the phenomenon is modelled mechanically by describing the epithelial sheet as an elastic shell, which contains a surface representing the continuous mesh formed from the embedded fibres. Allowing this mesh to contract, an enhanced shell theory is developed in which the stiffness and bending tensors of the shell are modified to include the fibres' stiffness, and in which the active effects of the contraction appear as body forces in the shell equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented at the end, including the bending of a plate and a cylindrical shell (modelling neurulation) and the invagination of a spherical shell (modelling simple gastrulation). PMID:19859751

  3. Transient apical dyskinesia with a pacemaker: Electrocardiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Feltes, Gisela I; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Biagioni, Corina; De Agustín, J Alberto; Vivas, David; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Transient apical dyskinesia syndromes present features similar to acute coronary syndromes, but with normal coronary arteries and rapid complete resolution of wall motion alterations. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of typical chest pain at rest after her brother's death. She had had a pacemaker implanted in 2001. Troponin levels were elevated and apical hypokinesia was shown by ventriculography and echocardiography, with normal coronary arteries. Evolving ECG alterations were observed in spite of the continued pacing rhythm. All these alterations were fully resolved after discharge. This case shows that, even in the presence of a pacemaker, evolving ECG alterations can be observed in Takotsubo syndrome. PMID:25840647

  4. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  5. Apical pressures developed by needles for canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C E; Eleazer, P D; Downs, K E; Scheetz, J P

    2002-04-01

    Drying instrumented canals with pressurized air may result in patient morbidity or even fatality. Low pressure and side vent needles have been suggested to lessen the danger. This study observed apical pressures from different needles inserted deeply into small round and ovoid canals as instrumentation progressed. Low-pressure (5 psi) air was injected through the needles, and apical pressures were recorded after each instrument. Pressures varied greatly within each test group. Generalities that can be drawn are that binding the needle within the canal gives higher pressures than with the needle slightly short of binding and that pressures were higher with apexes instrumented to size 30 and higher. With the needle tightly bound, neither needle size, needle design, nor canal shape resulted in statistically significant mean pressure differences. With the needle slightly withdrawn, larger bore needles gave higher pressures than small diameter needles. Caution is advised with the clinical use of pressurized air in the drying of root canals. PMID:12043877

  6. Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of endodontic failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R

    2004-01-01

    Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system. It is viewed as a dynamic encounter between microbial factors and host defenses at the interface between infected radicular pulp and periodontal ligament that results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. The treatment of apical periodontitis, as a disease of root canal infection, consists of eradicating microbes or substantially reducing the microbial load from the root canal and preventing re-infection by orthograde root filling. The treatment has a remarkably high degree of success. Nevertheless, endodontic treatment can fail. Most failures occur when treatment procedures, mostly of a technical nature, have not reached a satisfactory standard for the control and elimination of infection. Even when the highest standards and the most careful procedures are followed, failures still occur. This is because there are root canal regions that cannot be cleaned and obturated with existing equipments, materials, and techniques, and thus, infection can persist. In very rare cases, there are also factors located within the inflamed periapical tissue that can interfere with post-treatment healing of the lesion. The data on the biological causes of endodontic failures are recent and scattered in various journals. This communication is meant to provide a comprehensive overview of the etio-pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of failed endodontic treatments that can be visualized in radiographs as asymptomatic post-treatment periapical radiolucencies. PMID:15574679

  7. Enlargement of the apical gap after laser root resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme P. S.; Paradella, Thais C.; Munin, Egberto; Mello, Jose B.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2000-11-01

    An apical filling material should establish, as perfect as possible, the hermetic sealing of an apical cavity. However, a gap is formed between the filling material (gutta-percha) and the root canal wall. The egress of irritants into the root canal system to the periapical tissues is considered the principal cause of fails in apicoectomy and retro-filling, being assumed that irritants penetrate mainly through the gap located between the gutta-percha and the dentin. In this paper, we report the observation of an enlargement of the apical gap, after laser apicoectomy, comparing to conventional apicoectomy. The samples were divided into groups, and the conventional apicoectomy group, together with the Er:YAG laser group (400 mJ/10 Hz) produced both similar results, being the gap unaltered. On the other hand, the samples that were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1.5 W/10 Hz) presented a larger gap, conclusions that were drawn from Scanning Electronic Microscope analysis. The enlargement of the gap was due to the fusion of the dentin on the border, close to the gutta-percha. This pronounced behavior might have been caused by the surface discontinuity, imposing a non-homogeneous condition, in relation to heat propagation, existing many clinical applications of these observations.

  8. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  9. Occurrence of the Transition of Apical Architecture and Expression Patterns of Related Genes during Conversion of Apical Meristem Identity in G2 Pea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2009-01-01

    G2 pea exhibits an apical senescence delaying phenotype under short-day (SD) conditions; however, the structural basis for its apical development is still largely unknown. In the present study, the apical meristem of SD-grown G2 pea plants underwent a transition from vegetative to indeterminate inflorescence meristem, but the apical meristem of long-day (LD)-grown G2 pea plants would be further converted to determinate floral meristem. Both SD signal and GA3 treatment enhanced expression of the putative calcium transporter PPF1, and pea homologs of TFL1 (LF and DET), whereas LD signal suppressed their expression at 60 d post-flowering compared with those at 40 d post-flowering. Both PPF1 and LF expressed at the vegetative and reproductive phases in SD-grown apical buds, but floral initiation obviously increased the expression level of PPF1 compared with the unchanged expression level of LF from 40 to 60 d post-flowering. In addition, although the floral initiation significantly enhanced the expression levels of PPF1 and DET, DET was mainly expressed after floral initiation in SD-grown apical buds. Therefore, the main structural difference between LD- and SD-grown apical meristem in G2 pea lies in whether their apical indeterminate inflorescence medstem could be converted to the determinate structure.

  10. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified. PMID:2458472

  11. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  12. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  13. Selamento apical proporcionado por diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlel Tristão Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To have success in endodontic treatment it is necessary that the sealing airtight as possible of the root canal system, with suitable material such as gutta-percha and sealer. There are sealers of different compositions, which should allow the sealing of the root canal system, preventing recontamination place and favoring the success of endodontic therapy. In this study were evaluated the apical microleakage after obturation using different root canal sealers widely employed in the market, with different compositions. For this study, 85 single rooted teeth premolars which have removed their crowns and root canals prepared and filled using four types of cement: AH Plus, Endofill, Acroseal and Real Seal SE. All samples were sealed and submitted to microleakage with Indian ink; longitudinal cuts made on both sides of the tooth and cleaved; apical images were obtained. The areas of dye penetration were measured on a computer using specific software and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that the Acroseal ® showed the highest mean microleakage with no statistically significant difference in relation to the RealSeal SE®, but with significant differences compared to Endofill ® and AHPlus ®.

  14. Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Dewiyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal infection and periapical diseases are caused by bacteria and their products. Long term infection may spread bacteria throughout the root canal system. Apical periodontitis caused by infectious microbe that persistent in root canals can cause radiographic and histopathology periapical changes. Chemomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing then are recommended to be conducted and used in between visits to eliminate microbes in root canals. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 can be used as intracanal dressing since it can be used as musical physical defense barrier to eliminate re-infection in root canal and to disturb nutrition supply for bacterial development. Purpose: The aim of this study is observe the effectiveness of Ca(OH2 in treating endodontic teeth with apical periodontitis. Cases: Case 1 and 3 are about patients whose left posterior mandibular teeth had spontaneous intermittent pain. Case 2 is about a patient whose left posterior maxillary teeth had gingival abscess and fracture history. Based on the radiographic examination, it was known that the filling of root canal was incomplete and there was radiolucency in the apical area. Case management: The cases were treated with triad endodontics, which involves preparation, disinfection by using 2.5% NaOCl as irrigation substance and calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing, and then the filling of root canal with gutta percha and endomethasone root canal cement. Evaluations were conducted one month, 12 months, and 24 months after the treatment. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide is effective to be used as intracanal dressing in apical periodontitis cases.Latar belakang: Infeksi saluran akar dan penyakit periapeks disebabkan oleh mikroba dan produknya. Infeksi yang berlangsung lama memungkinkan bakteri masuk ke dalam seluruh sistem saluran akar. Periodontitis apikal disebabkan oleh infeksi persisten mikroba di dalam sistem saluran akar disertai perubahan radiografik dan

  15. A restricted set of apical proteins recycle through the trans-Golgi network in MDCK cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brändli, A W; Simons, K

    1989-01-01

    Sorting of newly synthesized proteins destined for the apical plasma membrane takes place in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in MDCK cells. This process is most likely receptor mediated and requires components that recycle between both compartments. We have developed an assay to detect apical proteins that recycle through the sialyltransferase-containing TGN. Cell surface glycoproteins were exogalactosylated apically using a mutant cell line derived from MDCK, MDCKII-RCAr. The mutant exhibits i...

  16. Apical localization of PMCA2w/b is enhanced in terminally polarized MDCK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Antalffy, Géza; Caride, Ariel J.; Pászty, Katalin; Hegedus, Luca; Padanyi, Rita; STREHLER, EMANUEL E.; Enyedi, Ágnes

    2011-01-01

    The “w” splice forms of PMCA2 localize to distinct membrane compartments such as the apical membrane of the lactating mammary epithelium, the stereocilia of inner ear hair cells or the post-synaptic density of hippocampal neurons. Previous studies indicated that PMCA2w/b was not fully targeted to the apical domain of MDCK cells but distributed more evenly to the lateral and apical membrane compartments. Overexpression of the apical scaffold protein NHERF2, however, greatly increased the amoun...

  17. Apical ammonium inhibition of cAMP-stimulated secretion in T84 cells is bicarbonate dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Roger T; Best, Alison; Crawford, Oscar R; Xu, Jie; Soleimani, Manoocher; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2005-10-01

    Normal human colonic luminal (NH(4)(+)) concentration ([NH(4)(+)]) ranges from approximately 10 to 100 mM. However, the nature of the effects of NH(4)(+) on transport, as well as NH(4)(+) transport itself, in colonic epithelium is poorly understood. We elucidate here the effects of apical NH(4)(+) on cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion in colonic T84 cells. In HEPES-buffered solutions, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) had no significant effect on cAMP-stimulated current. In contrast, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) reduced current within 5 min to 61 +/- 4% in the presence of 25 mM HCO(3)(-). Current inhibition was not simply due to an increase in extracellular K(+)-like cations, in that the current magnitude was 95 +/- 5% with 10 mM apical K(+) and 46 +/- 3% with 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) relative to that with 5 mM apical K(+). We previously demonstrated that inhibition of Cl(-) secretion by basolateral NH(4)(+) occurs in HCO(3)(-)-free conditions and exhibits anomalous mole fraction behavior. In contrast, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current in HCO(3)(-) buffer did not show anomalous mole fraction behavior and followed the absolute [NH(4)(+)] in K(+)-NH(4)(+) mixtures, where K(+) concentration + [NH(4)(+)] = 10 mM. The apical NH(4)(+) inhibitory effect was not prevented by 100 microM methazolamide, suggesting no role for apical carbonic anhydrase. However, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current was prevented by 10 min of pretreatment of the apical surface with 500 microM DIDS, 100 microM 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS), or 25 microM niflumic acid, suggesting a role for NH(4)(+) action through an apical anion exchanger. mRNA and protein for the apical anion exchangers SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] and SLC26A6 [putative anion transporter (PAT1)] were detected in T84 cells by RT-PCR and Northern and Western blots. DRA and PAT1 appear to associate with CFTR in the apical membrane. We conclude that the HCO(3)(-) dependence of apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of secretion is

  18. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill......Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root...

  19. com e sem remoção do delta apical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the apex cut and apical fusion by Nd:YAG laser at apical surgery. 24 human canines were endodontic treated and randomly divided into two groups. In A group the apicoectomy was performed at 90 degrees and 3mm from the apex extreme; in B group the apex was kept. Both groups were irradiated by Nd:YAG laser (10Hz, 150mJ, 60s. The results showed less infiltration to A group (p<0,001. When Nd:YAG laser apical fusion after apicoectomy were performed at the parameters of this study, best apical isolation is obtained.

  20. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible. PMID:23435704

  1. Case of cheilitis granulomatosa associated with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Sowa, Junko; Ishii, Masamitsu; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Koutetsu

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of cheilitis granulomatosa is unknown. In some cases, rapid improvement and/or complete elimination of swelling of the lips after dental treatment has been reported. Here, we describe another case of improvement following dental treatment. A 57-year-old woman had developed asymptomatic swelling of the lower lip 2 months previously. Histological examination revealed non-caseous giant cell granulomas. Neither facial nerve palsy nor fissuring of the tongue was present. Patch testing for metal allergy revealed only mild irritation to zinc ion. Although topical corticosteroid ointment and oral tranilast for 4 months were ineffective, rapid and remarkable improvement of the swelling was noted soon after treatment of two lesions of apical periodontitis. Thorough examination for foci of infection is necessary when treating a patient with cheilitis granulomatosa. PMID:18271809

  2. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible.

  3. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an 123I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from 123I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  4. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okishige, Kaoru; Sasano, Tetsuo; Yano, Kei; Azegami, Kouji; Suzuki, Kou; Itoh, Kuniyasu [Yokohama Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an {sup 123}I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  5. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  6. Aquaporin-2: COOH terminus is necessary but not sufficient for routing to the apical membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, P.M.T.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Savelkoul, P.J.M.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Raak, M.M.J.P. van; Jennings, M.L.; Muth, T.R.; Rajendran, V.; Caplan, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Renal regulation of mammalian water homeostasis is mediated by the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channel, which is expressed in the apical and basolateral membranes of proximal tubules and descending limbs of Henle, and aquaporin-2 (AQP2), which is redistributed from intracellular vesicles to the apical

  7. Mechanisms of apical-basal axis orientation and epithelial lumen positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Arend W.; Bryant, David M.; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2015-01-01

    In epithelial cells, the polarized orientation of the apical-basal axis determines the position of the apical lumen and, thereby, the collective tubular tissue architecture. From recent studies employing 3D cell cultures, animal models, and patient material, a model is emerging in which the orientat

  8. Developmental Corneal Innervation: Interactions between Nerves and Specialized Apical Corneal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilus, James K.; Linsenmayer, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    During developmental innervation of the chicken cornea, nerves interact with apical corneal epithelial cells to form synapse-like structures. In addition, these apical epithelial cells express class III β-tubulin, an isoform of β-tubulin generally thought to be neuron specific.

  9. Effect of master apical file size and taper on irrigation and cleaning of the apical third of curved canals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Canal preparation generates a substantial amount of debris and smear layer (SL. The size and taper of the Master Apical File (MAF affects on penetration of irrigants and subsequently canal cleaning efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MAF size and taper on penetration of irrigants to the apical third of curved mesiobuccal (MB canals of mandibular first molars.Eighty-nine human mandibular first molars were divided into one control group (n=5 without rotary instrumentation and 6 experimental groups (n=14 each that were prepared with the following RaCe rotary files as MAF: 25.04 (group1, 25.06 (group 2, 30.04 (group 3, 30.06 (group 4, 35.04 (group 5 and 35.06 (group 6. All the experimental groups were rinsed with 2 ml of 17 % EDTA followed by 2 ml of 5.25% NaOCl. Debridement of the MB canals was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P<0.05.Group 6 (MAF=35.06 showed 100% acceptable debridement. This rate was 92.9% for MAF=35.04. In group 4 (MAF=30.06 smear layer (SL was removed in the three-forth of the samples and debris was removed in 92.9% of them. Acceptable debridement was not achieved in most samples of groups 1 and 2 (25.04 and 25.06, respectively and the mentioned two groups had statistically significant difference in this respect with the other groups (P<0.05.Based on this study, 30.06 may be considered as the minimum MAF size for acceptable debridement.

  10. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  11. Evaluation of apical subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebed, Kalie Y; Al Adham, Raed I; Bishu, Kalkidan; Askew, J Wells; Klarich, Kyle W; Araoz, Philip A; Foley, Thomas A; Glockner, James F; Nishimura, Rick A; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2014-09-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is an uncommon variant of HC. We sought to characterize cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among apical HC patients. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of apical HC who underwent cardiac MRI examinations at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from August 1999 to October 2011. Clinical and demographic data at the time of cardiac MRI study were abstracted. Cardiac MRI study and 2-dimensional echocardiograms performed within 6 months of the cardiac MRI were reviewed; 96 patients with apical HC underwent cardiac MRI examinations. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 130.7 ± 39.1 ml and 44.2 ± 20.9 ml, respectively. Maximum LV thickness was 19 ± 5 mm. Hypertrophy extended beyond the apex into other segments in 57 (59.4%) patients. Obstructive physiology was seen in 12 (12.5%) and was more common in the mixed apical phenotype than the pure apical (19.3 vs 2.6%, p = 0.02). Apical pouches were noted in 39 (40.6%) patients. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 70 (74.5%) patients. LGE was associated with severe symptoms and increased maximal LV wall thickness. In conclusion, cardiac MRI is well suited for studying the apical form of HC because of difficulty imaging the cardiac apex with standard echocardiography. Cardiac MRI is uniquely suited to delineate the presence or absence of an apical pouch and abnormal myocardial LGE that may have implications in the natural history of apical HM. In particular, the presence of abnormal LGE is associated with clinical symptoms and increased wall thickness. PMID:25037678

  12. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B; Yule, David I

    2012-02-01

    Ca(2+) activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca(2+)] was used to investigate if Ca(2+)-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca(2+)-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca(2+)] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca(2+). Conditions were used to isolate K(+) and Cl(-) conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K(+) and Cl(-) currents. A localized reduction in [Ca(2+)] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca(2+) chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K(+) and Cl(-) currents. The K(+) currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance "maxi-K" (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34-sensitive K(+) currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca(2+)] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K(+) or Cl(-) currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM.

  13. Optimización de las condiciones de biobalística de baja presión para análisis de expresión transitoria de genes heterólogos en hojas de tabaco cultivadas in vitro

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    Juan Carlos Vaca-Vaca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de expresión transitoria de genes heterólogos de interés biotecnológico son un paso previo a su expresión estable en plantas transgénicas. El objetivo del trabajo fue optimizar las condiciones de biobalística para realizar ensayos de expresión transitoria de genes heterólogos en Nicotiana tabacum variedad Xanthi (tabaco utilizando la pistola de genes de baja presión Helios® Gene Gun (BioRad®. Como gen heterólogo se utilizó al promotor 35S de CaMV fusionado al gen uidA (GUS clonado en el vector pBI121. Las condiciones evaluadas fueron: presión de disparo, número de disparos y distancia de disparo sobre discos de hojas u hojas completas de tabaco cultivadas in vitro. La expresión de GUS se evaluó como el promedio del número de puntos azules observados en los tejidos bombardeados. únicamente se consideraron puntos azules cuando se utilizaron hojas completas de tabaco. Se observó un mayor número de puntos azules cuando se empleó una presión de 160 psi, cuatro disparos y un bombardeo directo sobre hojas completas. Para confirmar las condiciones obtenidas se utilizó el vector pCAMBIA 1305.2, observándose un alto número de puntos azules en los tejidos bombardeados, indicativo de la eficiencia de las condiciones optimizadas en el presente trabajo.

  14. Comparison of apical sealing and periapical extrusion of the ThermaFil obturation technique with and without MTA as an apical barrier: An in vitro study

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    Satish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the conventional ThermaFil obturation technique and ThermaFil obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA as an apical barrier, with regard to apical sealing and extrusion. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human canines were instrumented using a crown-down technique and divided into two groups. The experimental group was obturated using ThermaFil obturation with MTA as an apical barrier and the control group was obturated using the conventional ThermaFil obturation technique. AH Plus sealer was used in both the groups. Apical extrusion was recorded. Teeth of both the groups were coated with nail polish, except for the apical 3 mm. After 24 h, they were suspended in black India ink for 48 h. Canines were decalcified, rendered transparent, and linear dye penetration was measured under ×40 stereomicroscope. Results: There was a significant extrusion noticed in conventional ThermaFil obturation technique. Frequency of extrusion of sealer and/or gutta-percha was supposed to be evaluated using χ² test, but since the values of the samples of ThermaFil plus MTA group were zero, statistical analysis could not be conducted, whereas linear dye leakage was calculated with Mann-Whitney U test because the distribution was abnormal. Conclusion: Although ThermaFil plus MTA group showed microleakage, extrusion of sealer and the core material was prevented in comparison with conventional ThermaFil obturation technique. It is advantageous to use MTA as an apical plug as there is no fear of apical extrusion and the root canal system can then be packed three dimensionally against this barrier using any thermoplasticized gutta-percha obturation technique.

  15. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

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    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  16. Copper directs ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatic cells via basolateral endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasae, Lydia K; Schell, Michael J; Hubbard, Ann L

    2014-12-01

    Physiologic Cu levels regulate the intracellular location of the Cu ATPase ATP7B. Here, we determined the routes of Cu-directed trafficking of endogenous ATP7B in the polarized hepatic cell line WIF-B and in the liver in vivo. Copper (10 µm) caused ATP7B to exit the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in vesicles, which trafficked via large basolateral endosomes to the apical domain within 1 h. Although perturbants of luminal acidification had little effect on the TGN localization of ATP7B in low Cu, they blocked delivery to the apical membrane in elevated Cu. If the vesicular proton-pump inhibitor bafilomycin-A1 (Baf) was present with Cu, ATP7B still exited the TGN, but accumulated in large endosomes located near the coverslip, in the basolateral region. Baf washout restored ATP7B trafficking to the apical domain. If ATP7B was staged apically in high Cu, Baf addition promoted the accumulation of ATP7B in subapical endosomes, indicating a blockade of apical recycling, with concomitant loss of ATP7B at the apical membrane. The retrograde pathway to the TGN, induced by Cu removal, was far less affected by Baf than the anterograde (Cu-stimulated) case. Overall, loss of acidification-impaired Cu-regulated trafficking of ATP7B at two main sites: (i) sorting and exit from large basolateral endosomes and (ii) recycling via endosomes near the apical membrane. PMID:25243755

  17. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  18. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  19. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station.

  20. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author)

  1. Emergence of an Apical Epithelial Cell Surface In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedzinski, Jakub; Hannezo, Edouard; Tu, Fan; Biro, Maté; Wallingford, John B

    2016-01-11

    Epithelial sheets are crucial components of all metazoan animals, enclosing organs and protecting the animal from its environment. Epithelial homeostasis poses unique challenges, as addition of new cells and loss of old cells must be achieved without disrupting the fluid-tight barrier and apicobasal polarity of the epithelium. Several studies have identified cell biological mechanisms underlying extrusion of cells from epithelia, but far less is known of the converse mechanism by which new cells are added. Here, we combine molecular, pharmacological, and laser-dissection experiments with theoretical modeling to characterize forces driving emergence of an apical surface as single nascent cells are added to a vertebrate epithelium in vivo. We find that this process involves the interplay between cell-autonomous actin-generated pushing forces in the emerging cell and mechanical properties of neighboring cells. Our findings define the forces driving this cell behavior, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26766441

  2. Obturating teeth with wide open apices using mineral trioxide aggregate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, H

    2002-07-01

    The conventional approach in handling a tooth with a wide open apex requiring endodontic treatment is by means of a procedure called apexification. The objective of treatment is to introduce calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile water or local anaesthetic into the root canal to create a hard-tissue-like formation or an apical plug to prevent extrusion of filling materials during obturation of teeth with wide open apices. This procedure may take anything from 6 months to 2 years. In 1999 a new material called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced to the dental profession for clinical use which has the ability to create an apical plug within a few weeks.

  3. HIPOTIROIDISMO CANINO, PRESENTACION DE UN CASO ATIPICO

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Ballut P; Marcelo Mieres L.

    2004-01-01

    Este trabajo describe las características clínicas de un caso de hipotiroidismo atípico, catalogado como de presentaciónoculta, caracterizado por signos relacionados con miopatía, neuropatía, deterioro del estado mental, sangrado

  4. HIPOTIROIDISMO CANINO, PRESENTACION DE UN CASO ATIPICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ballut P

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe las características clínicas de un caso de hipotiroidismo atípico, catalogado como de presentaciónoculta, caracterizado por signos relacionados con miopatía, neuropatía, deterioro del estado mental, sangrado

  5. Mundo re-presentacional de adolescentes infractores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Restrepo, Nancy Julieth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Este artículo derivada de investigación, realizada en una institución de resocialización para adolescentes que han infringido la ley penal Colombiana. Material es procesado mediante un enfoque hermenéutico a partir de los aportes teóricos de las psicoterapias relacionales. Se encontró que los modos de ser-hacer-sentir que éstos jóvenes tienen en relación al mundo, a sí mismos y a los otros, están sostenidos por una tejido relacional que gira en torno a la devaluación, la desigualdad y la dependencia, aspectos relacionados con inseguridades vinculares que dejan a éstos adolescentes con precarios recursos para enfrentar las demandas de su nuevo momento evolutivo. . Abstract. This article is derived from research, carried out in a rehabilitation facility for adolescents who have infringed the Colombian criminal law. Material is processed through a hermeneutic approach from the theoretical contributions of the relational psychotherapy. It was found that the modes of being-doing-feel that these young have in relation to the world, to themselves, and to others, are sustained by a relational fabric that revolves around the devaluation, inequality, and dependence, these issues related to insecurities leaving these adolescents with precarious resources to meet the needs of their new evolutionary time.

  6. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    OpenAIRE

    León, P; MJ Ilabaca; M Alcota; FE González

    2011-01-01

    La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas v...

  7. Pulp microbiology of complete teeth with idiopathic apical lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical changes named as lesions, in teeth with full crown integrity and without history of trauma, do not show a clear aetiology. Objective: To determine the presence of microorganisms in pulp dental tissue will clarify the cause of its death and therefore the damage to periodontal tissues. Materials and methods: From people between 10 and 39 years old, 23 teeth were selected. The samples were taken with paper points and 0.8 sterile files, and were transported in VMGA III medium, to be processed in the following 24 hours after they were taken and sowed in Brucella-agar. Results: The most affected teeth were upper central incisors, 43.8%. From the 23 studied teeth, microbiological grow was seen on 20 teeth. The following microorganisms species were identified: Fusobacterium spp., 25%, Eubacterium spp., 15%; Peptostreptococcus spp., 10%; Campylobacter spp., 10%; gram negative enteric bacteria, 10%; Porphyromonas gingivalis, 10%; Prevotella intermedia, 5%; Eikenellia corrodens, 5%; Dialister pneumosintes, 5%; and yeasts, 5%. There was no growing evidence of Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis and Streptococcus β  hemolytic. Discussion and conclusions: Sound pulp dental tissue is sterile; an injury over it will cause its inflammation, degeneration, death and bacterial contamination. Results in the present study clearly show the presence of microorganisms in closed apical dental lesions of endodontic origin. In same manner, it was seen that a great part of microorganisms species found can be regarded as periodontal pathogens. This could suggest a management with an endodontic, a periodontic and a pharmacological combined treatment.

  8. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure.

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    Shunsuke Yagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are made of a well-polarized monolayer of epithelial cells, and their morphology is maintained strictly for their proper functions. Previously, we showed that Rac1 activation is suppressed at the apical membrane in the mature organoid, and that such spatially biased Rac1 activity is required for the polarity maintenance. Here we identify Chimaerin, a GTPase activating protein for Rac1, as a suppressor of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane. Depletion of Chimaerin causes over-activation of Rac1 at the apical membrane in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, followed by luminal cell accumulation. Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  10. Effect of needle insertion depth and apical diameter on irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKSEL Hacer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the amount of irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth when the apical diameter and needle insertion depth were varied. Thirty single-rooted maxillary incisors with straight root canals were selected. The root length was standardized to a length of 9 mm. The teeth were divided into two experimental groups according to the degree of apical enlargement (n = 15. The apices were enlarged to a diameter of 1.10 mm or 1.70 mm by using a #3 or #6 peeso reamer, respectively, to simulate immature teeth. The irrigation solution was applied 2 or 4 mm short of the working length (WL in each experimental group. The glass vial model was used for the collection of extruded irrigant beyond the root apex. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance test showed that there was no significant difference between different needle insertion depths (2 and 4 mm short of the WL in the group with an apical diameter of 1.70 mm (p > 0.05. In the group with an apical diameter of 1.10 mm, a 32% increase in irrigant extrusion was observed when the needle was positioned at 2 mm (p < 0.05. Regarding the effect of apical diameter, the group with a diameter of 1.70 mm showed more apical extrusion of the irrigant (34% increase for the needle positioned at 2 mm and 68% increase for the needle positioned at 4 mm. It was observed that the needle insertion depth and apical diameter have a significant effect on irrigant extrusion in immature permanent teeth.

  11. Comparison of Apical Axial Derotation between Adolescent Idiopathic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis with Pedicle Screw Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Suh, Seung-Woo; Srinivasalu, S.; Mehta, Satyen; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare outcomes of apical derotation with pedicle screws in idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Overview of Literature No information about apical derotation in NMS with pedicle screws is available. Methods We performed deformity correcting surgery using pedicle screw constructs on 12 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients (mean age 14.1 years) and 16 NMS patients (mean age 16.5 years). Preoperative, postoperative, and final fo...

  12. Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes. Effect on the Golgi complex and apical membrane trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Thorsen, Evy;

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal brush border enzymes, including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, are associated with "rafts" (membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipids). To assess the functional role of rafts in the present work, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on apical......-associated. Our results implicate the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network in raft formation and suggest a close relationship between this event and apical membrane trafficking....

  13. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Spadotto, Veronica; ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndr...

  14. Cochlear outer hair cells undergo an apical circumference remodeling constrained by the hair bundle shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etournay, Raphaël; Lepelletier, Léa; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Michel, Vincent; Cayet, Nadège; Leibovici, Michel; Weil, Dominique; Foucher, Isabelle; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Christine

    2010-04-01

    Epithelial cells acquire diverse shapes relating to their different functions. This is particularly relevant for the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), whose apical and basolateral shapes accommodate the functioning of these cells as mechano-electrical and electromechanical transducers, respectively. We uncovered a circumferential shape transition of the apical junctional complex (AJC) of OHCs, which occurs during the early postnatal period in the mouse, prior to hearing onset. Geometric analysis of the OHC apical circumference using immunostaining of the AJC protein ZO1 and Fourier-interpolated contour detection characterizes this transition as a switch from a rounded-hexagon to a non-convex circumference delineating two lateral lobes at the neural side of the cell, with a negative curvature in between. This shape tightly correlates with the 'V'-configuration of the OHC hair bundle, the apical mechanosensitive organelle that converts sound-evoked vibrations into variations in cell membrane potential. The OHC apical circumference remodeling failed or was incomplete in all the mouse mutants affected in hair bundle morphogenesis that we tested. During the normal shape transition, myosin VIIa and myosin II (A and B isoforms) displayed polarized redistributions into and out of the developing lobes, respectively, while Shroom2 and F-actin transiently accumulated in the lobes. Defects in these redistributions were observed in the mutants, paralleling their apical circumference abnormalities. Our results point to a pivotal role for actomyosin cytoskeleton tensions in the reshaping of the OHC apical circumference. We propose that this remodeling contributes to optimize the mechanical coupling between the basal and apical poles of mature OHCs.

  15. 24 Hour ST Segment Analysis in Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Bode; Christof Burgdorf; Heribert Schunkert; Volkhard Kurowski

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The etiologic basis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning, a novel cardiac syndrome, is not clear. Among the proposed pathomechanisms is coronary vasospasm. Long-term ST segment analysis may detect vasospastic episodes but has not been reported. METHODS: 30 consecutive patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning, left ventricular dysfunction and normal or near-normal coronary arteries were investigated. A 24-hour Holter ECG was obtained after emergency admi...

  16. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe th...

  17. La competència comunicativa oral a la Universitat: disseny, implementació d'un programa de comunicació oral a través de presentacions en públic per a docents universitaris de l'àmbit de l'economia i l'empresa i valoració d'impacte entre l'alumnat

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Escolano, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Entre les competències generals/transversals amb que es dissenyen els nous plans d’estudi a la universitat, la competència comunicativa és considerada clau, altament valorada per l’entorn sòcioprofessional. L’estudi de l’impacte s’orienta a identificar contextos afavoridors d’aquesta competència a través de presentacions orals en públic per a professorat i alumnat d’entorn universitari. Es parteix d’una perspectiva àmplia, que entén l’aprenentatge com a camí, procés, i l’avaluació com a...

  18. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas vs. crónicas, éxito/fracaso del tratamiento y rehabilitación post-tratamiento. Se recolectó información de 292 dientes de pacientes tratados en dicha clínica, analizándose la información de aquellos con dientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de periodontitis apical clasificándolo según la nueva nomenclatura de la asociación de endodoncia americana. La frecuencia de periodontitis apical fue de un 36.7% (92 pacientes, de los cuales un 77.8% presentaron patologías de tipo crónicas. Un 75% de los pacientes pertenecieron al sexo femenino y la 5ta década representó un 34.8% de los pacientes. El 100% de los pacientes que acudieron a control presentó éxito en sus tratamientos según variables clínico-radiográficas, mientras que la restauración más frecuente post-tratamiento fue la resina compuesta (52.4%. Dado el pequeño número de pacientes que concurrieron a la citación de control para determinar el éxito del tratamiento, esta variable debe ser considerada como preliminar. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la condición mas frecuente fue la periodontitis apical de tipo crónica, afectando más a mujeres y a la 5ta década.Apical periodontitis is a microbially induced inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues. Its treatment requires eliminating microorganism from root canal and sealing it properly to induce further tissue repair. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of apical periodontitis and its distribution by

  19. Comparison of Irrigation Penetration into the Apical Part of Canals in Hand and Rotary Instrumentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khabiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The penetration of irrigating solution to the apical one third of canals and removal of debris are dependent on the final size of the instruments and instrumentation techniques used in the canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of final instrument size, on irrigation penetration into the apical part of canals in hand K-file instrumentation versus rotary system of Hero 642.Methods and Materials: The mesiobuccal canals of 48 first mandibular molar teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were divided into 2 groups of 24 in each and the mesiobuccal canals were instrumented by hand K-file or rotary system of Hero 642 at 2 stages. After each stage, a contrast medium was injected into the canals and radiographs were taken by RVG system. The irrigation penetration was measured in radiographs by Diamax software. The data were analyzed using t – student test.Results: This study showed that instrumentation up to # 25 file is not enough for irrigation penetration into the apical area. Also by more flaring the canals, more irrigating solution penetrates into the apical part of canals (P 0 0.001, but the difference between hand and rotary systems was not statistically significant (P > 0.05.Discussion: According to this study, instrumentation up to # 30 file results in better irrigation penetration into the apical area. The flaring of the canals is essential for better cleaning and irrigation of apical area.

  20. Calcium-enriched mixture cement as artificial apical barrier: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nosrat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the conventional apexification using calcium hydroxide, artificial apical barrier technique is more valuable and less time consuming. This article describes successful use of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement as an artificial apical barrier in open apices. In this study, 13 single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices were treated non-surgically. After copious irrigation of the root canals with NaOCl 5.25% and gentle filing, based on need for interappointment dressing, treatments were followed by CEM cement (BioniqueDent, Tehran, Iran apical plug insertion in the first or second appointment. All cases were then permanently restored. All subjects were followed until radiographic evidence of periradicular healing was seen (mean 14.5 months. Clinically, all cases were functional and asymptomatic and complete osseous healing was observed in all the teeth. Considering the biological properties of CEM cement, this new endodontic biomaterial might be appropriate to be used as artificial apical barrier in the open apex teeth.

  1. Do Parameters Of Irradiation Influences The Apical Sealing Of Er:YAG Laser Apicetomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Failures on the sealing of the tooth apex are responsible for many failures of apical surgeries. The Er:YAG laser has been proposed as an alternative for the use of rotator instruments on surgical endodontics. 12 human extracted canines had root endodontic treatment being the apical limit was set at 1mm before the apical foramen and were distributed into 2 groups. On group I, apicectomy was performed with the Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/15 Hz). Apical cut was performed of perpendicular mode with 3mm from the apical foramen. On Group II, the same procedures and the same sequence as above was used, varying only the parameters of the Er:YAG laser (400 mJ/6 Hz). The specimens were divided into groups and fixed, by the cervical third, on wax. Impermeabilization of the residual root apical third was performed following the same procedures used in the cervical third but the residual apex was left free from the impermeabilization. After that, the roots were immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution and placed in a bacteriological oven for 48 h. The segments were visually observed and the one showing greatest level of dye leakage was selected and kept in individual container and coded accordingly. Apical staining was measured using a stereoscopic magnifying glass; a compass; and caliper. The results showed that Group I showed significantly different higher mean level of dye leakage (5.67±4.9, p<0.05). There was a significantly difference between the groups. It is concluded that the apicectomies carried out with 400 mJ/6 Hz showed the smallest infiltration value.

  2. Síndrome do balonamento apical secundário ao uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Síndrome del abombamiento apical secundario al uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Apical ballooning syndrome secondary to nasal decongestant abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso típico de síndrome do balonamento apical em uma paciente octogenária com alteração eletrocardiográfica, de contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo, e que apresentou recuperação da função ventricular. A paciente é portadora de rinite alérgica e fez uso excessivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes do episódio da dor.Describimos un caso típico de síndrome de abombamiento apical en una paciente octogenaria con alteración electrocardiográfica, de contractilidad del ventrículo izquierdo, y que presentó recuperación de la función ventricular. La paciente es portadora de rinitis alérgica y hace uso excesivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes del episodio del dolor.We describe a typical case of apical ballooning syndrome in an octogenarian female patient with left ventricular wall motion abnormality on electrocardiography, whose ventricular function returned to normal. The patient has allergic rhinitis and had used nasal decongestant excessively a few hours prior to the episode of pain.

  3. The potassium impermeable apical membrane of insect epithelia: a target for development of safe pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Harvey

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Columnar cell apical membranes (CCAM in series with goblet cell apical membranes (GCAM form an electroosmotic barrier separating the midgut lumen from epithelial cell cytoplasm. A unique K+ ATPase in GCAM generates three gradients across this barrier. A greater than 180 mV electrical gradient (lumen positive drives amino acid uptake through voltage-dependent K+ symports. A greater than 1000-fold [H+] gradient (lumen alkaline and a greater than 10-fold [K+] gradient (lumen concentrated are adaptations to the high tannin and high K+ content, respectively, in dietary plant material. Agents which act on the apical membrane and disrupt the PD, H+, or K+ gradients are potential insecticides. Insect sensory epithelia and mammalian stria vascularis maintain similar PD and K+ gradients but would not be exposed to ingested anti-apical membrane insecticides. Following the demonstration by Sacchi et al. that Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt induces specifically a K+ conductance increase in CCAM vesicles, we find that the K+ channel blocking agent, Ba2+, completely reverses Bt inhibition of the K+-carried short circuit current in the isolated midgut of Manduca sexta. Progress in characterizing the apical membrane includes finding that fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine binds specifically to certain GCAM polypeptides and that CCAM vesicles can be mass produced by Ca2+ or Mg2+ precipitation from Manduca sexta midgut.

  4. CAMSAP3 orients the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubule arrays in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Mika; Kobayashi, Saeko; Kawasaki, Miwa; Shioi, Go; Kaneko, Mari; Ishiuchi, Takashi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Meng, Wenxiang; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-12

    Polarized epithelial cells exhibit a characteristic array of microtubules that are oriented along the apicobasal axis of the cells. The minus-ends of these microtubules face apically, and the plus-ends face toward the basal side. The mechanisms underlying this epithelial-specific microtubule assembly remain unresolved, however. Here, using mouse intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated-spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a pivotal role in orienting the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubules in epithelial cells. In these cells, CAMSAP3 accumulated at the apical cortices, and tethered the longitudinal microtubules to these sites. Camsap3 mutation or depletion resulted in a random orientation of these microtubules; concomitantly, the stereotypic positioning of the nucleus and Golgi apparatus was perturbed. In contrast, the integrity of the plasma membrane was hardly affected, although its structural stability was decreased. Further analysis revealed that the CC1 domain of CAMSAP3 is crucial for its apical localization, and that forced mislocalization of CAMSAP3 disturbs the epithelial architecture. These findings demonstrate that apically localized CAMSAP3 determines the proper orientation of microtubules, and in turn that of organelles, in mature mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:26715742

  5. In vitro study of apical leakage of root canals after different root apex resection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Franco MARQUES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro apicalmarginal leakage of root canals after three root apex resectiontechniques.Material and methods: Thirty maxillary canines wereprepared chemo-mechanically to a size 40 master apical file, andenlarged by using Gates Glidden burs 2, 3 and 4. Teeth were obturatedby Tagger thermomechanical compaction technique and then dividedinto three groups (n = 10. The first group (GI was 3 mm apicalresected with Endo Z in high speed handpiece. The specimens of secondgroup (GII were 3 mm apical weared with Endo Z, and the third group(GIII had 3 mm apical resected with Er:YAG laser (500 impulse, 12pps and 300 mJ energy. After the apical sections, IRM cement wasplaced into the root-end cavity and teeth of each group were immersedin India ink for 5 days and submitted to decalcification and clarifying for marginal apical microleakage visualization with microscope.Results: The results showed statistically difference (p < 0.01 between GI and the other groups.Conclusion: The root apex cut using Endo Z promotes the lowest values of microleakage when used in apicoectomy.

  6. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  7. Midventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Apical Aneurysm: Potential for Underdiagnosis and Value of Multimodality Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sivanandam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate a case of midventricle obstructive HCM and apical aneurysm diagnosed with appropriate use of multimodality imaging. A 75-year-old African American woman presented with a 3-day history of chest pain and dyspnea with elevated troponins. Her electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, prolonged QT, and occasional ectopy. After medical therapy optimization, she underwent coronary angiography for an initial diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Her coronaries were unremarkable for significant disease but her left ventriculogram showed hyperdynamic contractility of the midportion of the ventricle along with a large dyskinetic aneurysmal apical sac. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram provided poor visualization of the apical region of the ventricle but contrast enhancement identified an aneurysmal pouch distal to the midventricular obstruction. To further clarify the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was performed confirming the diagnosis of midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and fibrosis consistent with apical scar on delayed enhancement. The patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent elective implantable defibrillator placement in the ensuing months for recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and was initiated on prophylactic oral anticoagulation with warfarin for thromboembolic risk reduction.

  8. Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha; T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control, T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

  9. Estudio sobre la adaptación apical de conos maestros de gutapercha en conductos radiculares instrumentados con limas Lightspeed

    OpenAIRE

    Pumarola Suñé, José; García Campaña, Ana M.; Brau Aguadé, Esteban; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la coincidencia entre el calibre del cono maestro apical y la lima maestra apical, así como medir cualitativamente la adaptación de diferentes marcas de conos de gutapercha en el tercio apical de conductos radiculares instrumentados con limas Lightspeed. Se instrumentaron 100 conductos de molares naturales extraídos con el sistema Lightspeed. Las muestras se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cinco grupos. Cada grupo fue obturado mediante condensación l...

  10. Tissue reaction to Endométhasone sealer in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Suzuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the response of periapical tissues to the endodontic sealer Endométhasone in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty root canals of premolars and incisors of 2 mongrel dogs were used. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were instrumented up to a size 55 K-file and the apical cemental barrier was penetrated with a size 15 K-file to obtain a main apical foramen, which was widened to a size 25 K-file. The canals were irrigated with saline at each change of file. The root canals were obturated either short of or beyond the apical foramen by the lateral condensation of gutta-percha and Endométhasone, originating 2 experimental groups: G1: Endométhasone/short of the apical foramen; G2: Endométhasone/beyond the apical foramen. The animals were killed by anesthetic overdose 90 days after endodontic treatment. The individual roots were obtained and serial histological sections were prepared for histomorphological analysis (H&E and Brown & Brenn techniques under light microscopy. The following parameters were examined: closure of the apical foramen of the main root canal and apical opening of accessory canals, apical cementum resorption, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and thickness and organization of the apical periodontal ligament. Each parameter was scored 1 to 4, 1 being the best result and 4 the worst. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon nonparametric tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: Comparing the 2 groups, the best result (p<0.05 was obtained with root canal filling with Endométhasone short of the apical foramen but a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present in all specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting the filling material to the root canal space apically is important to determine the best treatment outcome when Endométhasone is used as sealer.

  11. Roles of external and cellular Cl- ions on the activation of an apical electrodiffusional Cl- pathway in toad skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, J; Lacaz-Vieira, F

    1990-07-01

    This study is concerned with the short-circuit current, Isc, responses of the Cl(-)-transporting cells of toad skin submitted to sudden changes of the external Cl- concentration, [Cl]o. Sudden changes of [Cl]o, carried out under apical membrane depolarization, allowed comparison of the roles of [Cl]o and [Cl]cell on the activation of the apical Cl- pathways. Equilibration of short-circuited skins symmetrically in K-Ringer's solutions of different Cl- concentrations permitted adjustment of [Cl]cell to different levels. For a given Cl- concentration (in the range of 11.7 to 117 mM) on both sides of a depolarized apical membrane, this structure exhibits a high Cl- permeability, P(Cl)apical. On the other hand, for the same range of [Cl]cell but with [Cl]o = 0, P(Cl)apical is reduced to negligible values. These observations indicate that when the apical membrane is depolarized P(Cl)apical is modulated by [Cl]o; in the absence of external Cl- ions, intracellular Cl- is not sufficient to activate P(Cl)apical. Computer simulation shows that the fast Cl- currents induced across the apical membrane by sudden shifts of [Cl]o from a control equilibrium value strictly follow the laws of electrodiffusion. For each experimental group, the computer-generated Isc versus [( Cl]cell - [Cl]o) curve which best fits the experimental data can only be obtained by a unique pair of P(Cl)apical and Rb (resistance of the basolateral membrane), thus allowing the calculation of these parameters. The electrodiffusional behavior of the net Cl- flux across the apical membrane supports the channel nature of the apical Cl- pathways in the Cl(-)-transporting cells. Cl- ions contribute significantly to the overall conductance of the basolateral membrane even in the presence of a high K concentration in the internal solution. PMID:1698229

  12. Gibberellin Is Involved in the Regulation of Cell Death-mediated Apical Senescence in G2 Pea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Senescence is the process of programmed degradation.The G2 line of pea exhibits apical senescence-delaying phenotype under short-day(SD)conditions,but the mechanism regulating the apical senescence is still largely unknown.Gibberellin (GA)was proved to be able to delay this apical senescence phenotype in G2 pea grown under long-day(LD) conditions.Here we show that the initiation of cell death signals in the tarminal floral meristem was involved in the regulation of apical senescence in pea plants.SD signals prevented the formation of the cell death region in the apical mersitem.Moreovsr.GA3 treatment could effectively inhibit the occurrence of cell death-mediated apical senescence in LD-grown apical buds.Therefore,our data suggest that the prevention of apical senescence in SD-grown G2 pea through GA3 treatment may be largely responsible for the regulation of occurrence of the DNA fragmentation in apical meristem.

  13. Loss of apical monocilia on collecting duct principal cells impairs ATP secretion across the apical cell surface and ATP-dependent and flow-induced calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovater, Michael B; Olteanu, Dragos; Hanson, Elizabeth L; Cheng, Nai-Lin; Siroky, Brian; Fintha, Attila; Komlosi, Peter; Liu, Wen; Satlin, Lisa M; Bell, P Darwin; Yoder, Bradley K; Schwiebert, Erik M

    2008-06-01

    Renal epithelial cells release ATP constitutively under basal conditions and release higher quantities of purine nucleotide in response to stimuli. ATP filtered at the glomerulus, secreted by epithelial cells along the nephron, and released serosally by macula densa cells for feedback signaling to afferent arterioles within the glomerulus has important physiological signaling roles within kidneys. In autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) mice and humans, collecting duct epithelial cells lack an apical central cilium or express dysfunctional proteins within that monocilium. Collecting duct principal cells derived from an Oak Ridge polycystic kidney (orpk ( Tg737 ) ) mouse model of ARPKD lack a well-formed apical central cilium, thought to be a sensory organelle. We compared these cells grown as polarized cell monolayers on permeable supports to the same cells where the apical monocilium was genetically rescued with the wild-type Tg737 gene that encodes Polaris, a protein essential to cilia formation. Constitutive ATP release under basal conditions was low and not different in mutant versus rescued monolayers. However, genetically rescued principal cell monolayers released ATP three- to fivefold more robustly in response to ionomycin. Principal cell monolayers with fully formed apical monocilia responded three- to fivefold greater to hypotonicity than mutant monolayers lacking monocilia. In support of the idea that monocilia are sensory organelles, intentionally harsh pipetting of medium directly onto the center of the monolayer induced ATP release in genetically rescued monolayers that possessed apical monocilia. Mechanical stimulation was much less effective, however, on mutant orpk collecting duct principal cell monolayers that lacked apical central monocilia. Our data also show that an increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) primes the ATP pool that is released in response to mechanical stimuli. It also appears that hypotonic cell swelling and

  14. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  15. The apical oblique view of the clavicle: Its usefulness in neonatal and childhood trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed clavicular radiographs of 26 patients with a history of trauma. The apical oblique projection of the clavicle was obtained with the injured side of the patient angled 450 towards the X-ray tube and a 200 cephalad angulation of the X-ray beam. This view proved to be more informative than the routine apical anteroposterior projection. It is especially effective in detecting nondisplaced fractures of the middle third of the clavicle in neonates and children. To verify our findings, we obtained apical anteroposterior and oblique radiographs of a specimen adult of the X-ray beam, the measurements of the projected lengths of the anatomical specimen, especially those of the middle portion of the clavicle, were very close to the corresponding anatomical lengths. (orig.)

  16. Estudio de la filtración apical de cuatro cementos de obturación

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Cayón, Miguel; Ribot Porta, J. de; Jané Noblom, L.; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Los autores estudian in vitro la microfiltración apical con cuatro cementos de obturación, mediante la utilización de un colorante y técnicas de diafanización. Analizan dos cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio, y uno de ionómero de vidrio, comparándolos con un cemento clásico a base de óxido de zinc-eugenol. La filtración apical del cemento sellador Apexit fue significativamente superior a la de los cementos Sealapex y Endomethasone. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los dem...

  17. Apical Ballooning Syndrome (Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy after Permanent Dual-Chamber Pacemaker Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Gardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical ballooning syndrome, also called takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recently reported. It may mimic acute myocardial infarction and is typically observed in postmenopausal women after stressful events. A 75-year-old female after permanent dual chamber pacemaker implant complained of chest pain with repolarization alterations suggesting acute myocardial ischemia. Echocardiography showed a left ventricle with akinesia of the apical portions and reduced global systolic function. The patient was treated with antithrombotic agents and intravenous nitrates. No coronary lesions were found at angiography. At ventriculography, a typical takotsubo-like shape of the left ventricle was observed. The clinical and echocardiographic picture normalized at discharge.

  18. Reasons for Apical Surgery Treatment in an Underserved New York City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselgren, Gunnar; Patel, Pratik; Alhassany, Hashim; Kunzel, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Endodontic retreatment often involves remaking restorations. The total cost may steer the treatment towards surgery. The aim of this study was to retrospectively record the reasons for performing apical surgery in an economically deprived patient population. The clinical reasons (59%) for apical surgery were most common, but the nonclinical (financial) reasons (41%) emerged as a major cause. The finding that 41% of the apicoectomies were performed because of nonclinical constraints is a high figure and may not reflect the situation generally. Still, economic factors potentially play a major role in the selection of surgical versus nonsurgical endodontic retreatment. PMID:27348949

  19. Apical Localization of Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter SGLT1 is Maintained by Cholesterol and Microtubules

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Haruo; Aoki, Takeo; Tajika-Takahashi, Yukiko; Takata, Kuniaki

    2006-01-01

    A GFP-labeled sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 (SGLT-GFP) was transfected into MDCK cells. SGLT-GFP was localized at the apical membrane in confluent cells. When cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment, the localization of SGLT-GFP gradually switched from apical to whole plasma membrane. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the effect of MβCD appeared within 30 min, and that the transition of SGLT-GFP to the whole plasma membrane was completed with...

  20. SEALING ABILITY OF GRAY MTA ANGELUS™, CPM™ AND MBPC USED AS APICAL PLUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco; Clovis Monteiro Bramante; Roberto Brandão Garcia; Norberti Bernadineli; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, ...

  1. Spontaneous idiopathic spinal epidural hematoma: two different presentations of the same disease Hematoma epidural espinal espontáneo: dos diferentes presentaciones clínicas de la misma enfermedad Hematoma epidural espinhal espontâneo: duas diferentes apresentações da mesma doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrúbal Falavigna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with different clinical presentations without precipitating factors and a brief review of the literature. Our case first developed acute and had progressive cervical spinal cord signs that determined emergency decompressive laminectomy. On the other hand, the second patient, who was chronic, was operated almost five months after the initial symptoms and the radiological diagnosis was a large facet cyst. Early surgical intervention is the chosen treatment for spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. Spinal surgeons should bear in mind that spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas may have different clinical presentations according to their location in order to perform a differential diagnosis.Fueron relatados dos casos de hematoma epidural espinal espontáneo con diferentes presentaciones clínicas sin factores precipitantes, y fue hecha una breve revisión de la literatura. Nuestro caso 1 tuvo un desarrollo agudo y mostró señales progresivas en la columna cervical que determinaron una laminectomía descompresiva de emergencia. Por otro lado, el segundo paciente, crónico, fue operado casi cinco meses después de los síntomas iniciales y el diagnóstico radiológico fue de un gran quiste sinovial. La intervención quirúrgica temprana es el tratamiento de elección para hematomas espontáneos epidurales espinales. El tratamiento quirúrgico representa la forma más común de terapia para todos los tipos de presentaciones clínicas. Debemos considerar que el tratamiento conservador (o no sea más común en casos de presentación leve, principalmente en pacientes con hematoma espinal crónico. Para realizar un diagnóstico diferencial, los cirujanos deben recordar que los hematomas epidurales espinales espontáneos pueden tener distintas presentaciones clínicas según su ubicación.Os autores relatam dois casos de hematoma epidural espinhal espontâneo com diferentes apresentações cl

  2. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation: a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Lambrianidis, T.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim (i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to invest

  3. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation : a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Lambrianidis, T.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim(i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to investi

  4. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  5. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  6. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  7. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura Saeki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry.

  8. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment versus Apical Plug in Immature Teeth: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Nosrat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This report compares and evaluates the treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment and apical plug as two accepted treatment protocols in a pair of necrotic immature maxillary central incisors of a 12-year old female. The patient was referred complaining of a dull pain and swelling in her upper lip area. She had a history of trauma to the anterior maxilla two years earlier. Both teeth were clinically diagnosed with pulp necrosis and periapical radiographs revealed that separate periapical radiolucent lesions surrounded the immature apices of both teeth. The left and right incisors were treated with apical plug and regenerative endodontic treatment, respectively, using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. The patient was followed-up for three years. During this period, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic and showed complete radiographic healing of the periapical lesions. The right central incisor showed root development. No tooth discoloration was evident. Apexification by apical plug placement and pulp regeneration are both reliable treatments for immature non-vital teeth. In order to choose the right treatment the advantages of either technique should be weighed against its drawbacks. CEM cement can be successfully applied for both purposes. This biomaterial causes less discoloration of the tooth. PMID:27617375

  9. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were...

  10. Responses of Metabolites in Soybean Shoot Apices to Changing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sicher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seedlings were grown in controlled environment chambers with CO2 partial pressures of 38 (ambient and 72 (elevated Pa. Five or six shoot apices were harvested from individual 21- to 24-day-old plants. Metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography and, out of 21 compounds, only sucrose and fructose increased in response to CO2 enrichment. One unidentified metabolite, Unk-21.03 decreased up to 80% in soybean apices in response to elevated CO2. Levels of Unk-21.03 decreased progressively when atmospheric CO2 partial pressures were increased from 26 to 100 Pa. Reciprocal transfer experiments showed that Unk-21.03, and sucrose in soybean apices were altered slowly over several days to changes in atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. The mass spectrum of Unk-21.03 indicated that this compound likely contained both an amino and carboxyl group and was structurally related to serine and aspartate. Our findings suggested that CO2 enrichment altered a small number of specific metabolites in soybean apices. This could be an important step in understanding how plant growth and development are affected by carbon dioxide enrichment.

  11. Right ventricular outflow and apical pacing comparably worsen the echocardioghraphic normal left ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.F. ten Cate (Tim); M.G. Scheffer (Michael); G.R. Sutherland (George); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); N.M. van Hemel (Norbert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: A depressed left ventricular function (LVF) is sometimes observed during right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing, but any prediction of this adverse effect cannot be done. Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pacing is thought to deteriorate LVF less frequently because of a more no

  12. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustina Mazzella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In darkness, the dicot seedlings produces an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIE 3/EIN3 like 1-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1 pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1 --both required for hook formation in darkness--, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth.

  13. A novel mitochondrial ATP8 gene mutation in a patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonckheere, A.I.; Hogeveen, M.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Brand, M.A.M. van den; Janssen, A.J.M.; Diepstra, J.H.S.; Brandt, FC van den; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Hol, F.A.; Hofste, T.G.; Kapusta, L.; Dillmann, U.; Shamdeen, M.G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the biochemical and molecular genetic defect in a 16-year-old patient presenting with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy suspected for a mitochondrial disorder. METHODS: Measurement of the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) capacity in muscle and enzyme

  14. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  15. Limited elimination of two viruses by cryotherapy of pelargonium apices related to virus distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, A; Mallet, R; Chevalier, M; Grapin, A

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of eradicating the pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) and pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) by cryotherapy of axillary shoot apices was investigated using five Pelargonium cultivars. Viruses were detected by DAS-ELISA and their location was determined by immunolocalization. Apex culture did not permit elimination of PFBV and only 15 percent regenerated plants of 'Stellar Artic' cultivar were ELISA PLPV-negative. Plants regenerated from cryotherapy-treated apices were tested by DAS-ELISA after a 3-month in vitro culture period. Viruses were not detected in 25 percent and 50 percent of the plants tested for PFBV and PLPV, respectively. However, immunolocalization carried out on apices originating from cryopreserved shoot tips sampled from DAS-ELISA negative plants showed that they were still virus-infected. Using immunolocalization, PFBV and PLPV could be detected in Pelargonium apices, even in the meristematic dome. However, viral particles were more numerous in basal zone cells than in meristematic cells. Our results demonstrate that PFBV and PLPV are present within meristematic cells and that cryopreservation can partly reduce the quantity of these viruses in Pelargonium plants but not eliminate them totally. Additional knowledge on localization and behaviour of viruses during cryopreservation is essential to optimize cryotherapy and plant genetic resource management.

  16. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root in mandi...

  17. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular, def

  18. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  19. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic devic

  20. Dual roles of Notch in regulation of apically restricted mitosis and apicobasal polarity of neuroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Shinya; Aoki, Ryo; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Tsuruoka-Kinoshita, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hideomi; Wada, Hironori; Watabe, Shugo; Tsuboi, Takashi; Masai, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-27

    How the mitosis of neuroepithelial stem cells is restricted to the apical ventricular area remains unclear. In zebrafish, the mosaic eyes(rw306) (moe/epb41l5(rw306)) mutation disrupts the interaction between the putative adaptor protein Moe and the apicobasal polarity regulator Crumbs (Crb), and impairs the maintenance of neuroepithelial apicobasal polarity. While Crb interacts directly with Notch and inhibits its activity, Moe reverses this inhibition. In the moe(rw306) hindbrain, Notch activity is significantly reduced, and the number of cells that proliferate basally away from the apical area is increased. Surprisingly, activation of Notch in the moe(rw306) mutant rescues not only the basally localized proliferation but also the aberrant neuroepithelial apicobasal polarity. We present evidence that the Crb⋅Moe complex and Notch play key roles in a positive feedback loop to maintain the apicobasal polarity and the apical-high basal-low gradient of Notch activity in neuroepithelial cells, both of which are essential for their apically restricted mitosis. PMID:21262462

  1. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  2. A systematic analysis of neonatal mouse heart regeneration after apical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald Marion; O'Meara, Caitlin Claire; Ho, Nhi Ngoc; Gannon, Joseph; Cai, Lei; Lee, Richard Theodore

    2015-02-01

    The finding that neonatal mice are able to regenerate myocardium after apical resection has recently been questioned. We determined if heart regeneration is influenced by the size of cardiac resection and whether surgical retraction of the ventricular apex results in an increase in cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity. We performed moderate or large apical ventricular resections on neonatal mice and quantified scar infiltration into the left ventricular wall at 21 days post-surgery. Moderately resected hearts had 15±2% of the wall infiltrated by a collagen scar; significantly greater scar infiltration (23±4%) was observed in hearts with large resections. Resected hearts had higher levels of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity relative to sham hearts. Surgically retracting the ventricle often resulted in fibrosis and induced cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity that were comparable to that of resected hearts. We conclude that apical resection in neonatal mice induces cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity and neomyogenesis, although scarring can occur. Surgical technique and definition of approach to assessing the extent of regeneration are both critical when using the neonatal mouse apical resection model.

  3. Sugar demand, not auxin, is the initial regulator of apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael G; Ross, John J; Babst, Benjamin A; Wienclaw, Brittany N; Beveridge, Christine A

    2014-04-22

    For almost a century the plant hormone auxin has been central to theories on apical dominance, whereby the growing shoot tip suppresses the growth of the axillary buds below. According to the classic model, the auxin indole-3-acetic acid is produced in the shoot tip and transported down the stem, where it inhibits bud growth. We report here that the initiation of bud growth after shoot tip loss cannot be dependent on apical auxin supply because we observe bud release up to 24 h before changes in auxin content in the adjacent stem. After the loss of the shoot tip, sugars are rapidly redistributed over large distances and accumulate in axillary buds within a timeframe that correlates with bud release. Moreover, artificially increasing sucrose levels in plants represses the expression of BRANCHED1 (BRC1), the key transcriptional regulator responsible for maintaining bud dormancy, and results in rapid bud release. An enhancement in sugar supply is both necessary and sufficient for suppressed buds to be released from apical dominance. Our data support a theory of apical dominance whereby the shoot tip's strong demand for sugars inhibits axillary bud outgrowth by limiting the amount of sugar translocated to those buds.

  4. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  5. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  6. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  7. Apical crown technique to model canal roots. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, D; Colombo, M; Gagliani, M

    2007-09-01

    The goals of endodontic therapy are to shape and clean the root canal system in order to receive a three-dimensional and hermetic filling of the entire endodontic space. The aim of this review is to analyze the development of the different canal shaping techniques from the manual stainless-steel instruments to the recently developed rotary Ni-Ti systems. The need to provide instruments of a suitable size to reach the apex of curved root canals drove the development of preparation techniques with a greater focus on the apical part. The Crown-Down technique involves the widening of the canal orifices with Gates-Glidden drills followed by the incremental removal of organic canal contents proceeding from the canal orifice to the apical portion using manual files. Files are used from larger to smaller with no apical pressure. Nevertheless, the term ''Crown-Down'' does not define the technique in the strictest sense, nor does it provide a specific sequence for the use of instruments, but rather defines a way to use the instruments. The preparation of root canals has been revolutionised by the development of Ni-Ti alloys. The features of this alloy give instruments profound flexibility and allow the manufacture of more tapered instruments compared with traditional stainless-steel instruments. In the second part of this review, numerous examples are provided concerning the comparison between different Ni-Ti systems and their techniques for use. A Crown-Down approach provides certain advantages including early organic debris removal, the creation of a large reservoir for irrigating solutions, a straighter access to the apical region of curved canals, and greater precision with regard to the exact working length and apical size.

  8. Morphology of bacterial flora in root canals associated with apical abscesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Huijie; Gao Chengzhi; Zhang Chengfei; Zheng Shuying; Yue Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background Apical abscess is an inflammatory process in the peri-radicular tissues caused by biofllms in the necrotic root canal systems.Therefore,a comprehensive analysis of the bacterial colonization is required for a better understanding of the pathogenesis.This study aimed to investigate the patterns of bacterial infection of root canals of teeth with apical abscesses and to determine whether histological and microbiological findings correlated with clinical conditions.Methods Eighteen samples from 18 teeth with apical pathological lesions were analyzed.Nine patients with acute apical abscesses experienced severe pain,and nine patients were asymptomatic with a sinus tract.After extraction,each affected root was divided into two halves.One half was processed for histobacteriologic analysis and examined using light microscopy,and the other half was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the patterns of microbial colonization of the root canals.Results The appearance of each sample subjected to SEM was consistent with the histobacteriologic findings despite the presence or absence of clinical symptoms.Intraradicular biofilms comprising cocci,rods,and/or filaments of amorphous materials were observed in the apical third of the main root canals in all samples.The bacterial biofilms covering the main root canal walls also penetrated the dentinal tubules to varying depths.The morphologies of biofilms varied,and a unique pattern of intraradicular infection was not identified.Conclusion Intraradicular infections formed complex and variable multispecies biofilms and their presence did not correlate with clinical symptoms.

  9. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5μm2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180o range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces

  10. Isolation of radio-iodinated apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S

    1979-04-01

    The apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium were radio-iodinated with the glucose-glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase system. The covalently bound radio iodine was used as a marker during subcellular fractionation and membrane isolation. Homogenization conditions that ensured rupture of more than 80% of the cells without substantial nuclear damage were defined by Normarski optics. The nuclei were separated by differential centrifugation and the apical and basal-lateral components were resolved by differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The apical components yielded two radioactive bands that were identified as glycocalyx and plasma membrane labeled with 125I. The basal-lateral components yielded a hetero-disperse pattern made up of at least 3 radioactive bands, but the bulk of the activity of ouabain-sensitive ATPase comigrated with only one of these bands. The mitochondia, identified by assays for cytochrome oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase activities, were separated from the radio-iodine labeled by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isokinetic conditions. The labeled glycocalyx and the slowly migrating components of basal-lateral labeling were separated from the radio-iodinated membranes by centrifugation at 100,000 x g x 1 hr after removal of the mitochrondria by the isokinetic method. The labeled membranes were then subjected to ultracentrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isopycnic conditions; the basal-lateral membranes containing ouabain-sensitive ATP-ase were well resolved from the apical membranes by this method. These results provide a relatively rapid method of attaining partial purification of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium. PMID:222911

  11. Activation of an apical Cl- conductance by Ca2+ ionophores in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, N J; Boucher, R C

    1989-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia express a defect in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of apical membrane Cl- channels. Recent patch-clamp studies have raised the possibility that Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms for the activation of Cl- secretion may be preserved in CF airway epithelia. To determine 1) whether intact normal (N1) and CF airway epithelia exhibit a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism for activation of Cl- secretion and 2) whether Ca2+ -dependent mechanism for activation of Cl- secretion and 2) whether Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms initiate Cl- secretion via activation of an apical membrane Cl- conductance (GCl-), nasal epithelia from N1 and CF subjects were cultured on collagen membranes, and responses to isoproterenol or Ca2- ionophores [A23187 10(-6) M; ionomycin (10(-5)M)] were measured with transepithelial and intracellular techniques. Isoproterenol induced activation of an apical membrane GCl- in N1 cultures but was ineffective in CF. In contrast, in both N1 and CF amiloride-pretreated cultures, A23187 induced an increase in the equivalent short-circuit current that was associated with an activation of an apical membrane Gc1- and was bumetanide inhibitable. A23187 addition during superfusion of the lumen with a low Cl- (3 mM) solution reduced intracellular Cl- activity of CF cells. A Ca2+ ionophore of different selectivity properties, ionomycin, was also an effective Cl- secretagogue in both N1 and CF cultures. We conclude that 1) the A23187 induced Cl- secretion via activation of an apical GCl- in N1 human nasal epithelium, and 2) in contrast to an isoproterenol-dependent path, a Ca2+ -dependent path for GCl- activation is preserved in CF epithelia. PMID:2465689

  12. Immunohistochemical features of the granulation tissue structure in the primary and secondary apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko P.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The search of criteria of differential enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinases immunocompetent cells of granulomas in the primary and secondary apical periodontitis (AP provides information about the features of lesions of periodontal stromal component, and it can be used as the basis for future therapeutic intervention. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the cellular composition of granulation tissue, which formed during primary and secondary apical periodontitis; comparison of morphological characteristics of the structure apical granuloma with immunohistochemical indicators of markers expression of cluster of differentiation CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD138, CD20 and cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Methods. The study included 59 patients aged 18 to 50 years with apical periodontitis. Patients were divided into 2 clinical group: 1 – with primary periodontitis and 2 – with secondary periodontitis. For morphological studies using peryapikalnoyi granulation tissue biopsies. Results. Significant differences were found for the fractions of CD4+ T helper cells (p=0,034, r=0,321, CD20+ mature B lymphocytes (p=0,001, r=0,671, CD68+ macrophages (p=0,011, r=0,684 and CD138+ plasma cells (p=0,002, r=0,645. And, also likely decrease in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ (p=0,002, r=0,645, by reducing the fraction of CD4+ T-helper cells, against reducing the number of leukocytes, expression of MMP-9 (p=0,04, r=0,302 and COX-2 (p=0,013, r=0,321 with secondary apical periodontitis, compared to the primary periodontitis. Conclusion. Disease progression and the beginning of the destruction of bone tissue with the formation of granulation tissue is the result of abnormal immune responses, III and IV type hypersensitivity reactions, with the formation of immune granulomas. Citation: Gritsenko PI, Samojlenko AV, Shpon’ka IS, Poslavska

  13. Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima L N Kotha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

  14. Apical Plasma Membrane Proteins and Endolyn-78 Travel through a Subapical Compartment in Polarized WIF-B Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ihrke, Gudrun; Martin, Greg V.; Shanks, Michael R.; Schrader, Michael; Schroer, Trina A.; Hubbard, Ann L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of three classes of apical plasma membrane (PM) proteins in polarized hepatic WIF-B cells and then compared it to the endocytic trafficking of basolaterally recycling membrane proteins. We used antibodies to label the basolateral cohort of proteins at the surface of living cells and then followed their trafficking at 37°C by indirect immunofluorescence. The apical PM proteins aminopeptidase N, 5′nucleotidase, and the polymeric IgA receptor were ef...

  15. Filtración apical versus filtración coronal

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares Martínez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    La filtración del conducto radicular es la principal causa de los fracasos en endodoncia (19). Esta recontaminación puede producirse a través de dos vías principales de filtración que son los orificios coronal y apical. En la actualidad hay controversia entre diferentes autores sobre cuál es la vía de filtración más importante, si la apical (9, 167) o la coronal (4, 76). Existen diversas técnicas de obturación y materiales de obturación, entre las que puede elegir el clínico en función de cad...

  16. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...... enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. Methodology Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were scanned using X‐ray microcomputed tomography. Root canals were prepared using either a GT/Profile protocol or a Ra......Ce/NiTi protocol. Variables used for evaluation were the following: distance between root canal surfaces before and after preparation (distance after preparation, DAP), percentage of root canal area remaining unprepared and increase in canal volume after preparation. Root canals were classified according to size...

  17. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Delve Başer Can

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident.

  18. [Endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery, is an evidence-based choice possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, J

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of a recurrence after an initial endodontic treatment can consist of endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery. The literature reports comparable success rates for these two options. However, randomised controlled trials that are truly comparable to each other are unavailable as a result of which comparison and an informed choice are not really possible. In addition to the treatment outcome, consideration also has to be given to cost-effectiveness and other patient-related factors, such as pain, swelling and medication. Regarding these considerations, too, little reliable information can be found in the literature. Moreover, factors relating to insurance play an important role in the Netherlands, where only apical surgery is covered by the basic healthcare insurance. In conclusion, all of these factors should be carefully considered before proceeding to an individual treatment strategy. PMID:26878715

  19. Multiple Apical Radiolucencies and External Cervical Resorption Associated with Varicella Zoster Virus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kreena; Schirru, Elia; Niazi, Sadia; Mitchell, Philip; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for the primary infection chickenpox. After the initial infection, it remains latent but can reactivate, resulting in shingles (herpes zoster). Previous reports have implicated VZV in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis, but the involvement of the virus has not been investigated fully. The present case describes a patient who suffered from a severe episode of shingles and subsequently developed periapical radiolucencies of all the teeth in the affected nerve distribution. Molecular and culture techniques showed the presence of VZV DNA in the root canal system in the absence of bacteria. This confirms that VZV can cause localized pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. The lesions healed after endodontic treatment, implying chemomechanical debridement using sodium hypochlorite irrigation and a calcium hydroxide interim dressing may be effective against the virus. PMID:27133503

  20. Neurons derive from the more apical daughter in asymmetric divisions in the zebrafish neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paula; Reugels, Alexander M; Barker, David; Blanc, Eric; Clarke, Jonathan D W

    2010-06-01

    In the developing CNS, asymmetric cell division is critical for maintaining the balanced production of differentiating neurons while renewing the population of neural progenitors. In invertebrates, this process depends on asymmetric inheritance of fate determinants during progenitor divisions. A similar mechanism is widely believed to underlie asymmetrically fated divisions in vertebrates, but compelling evidence for this is missing. We used live imaging of individual progenitors in the intact zebrafish embryo CNS to test this hypothesis. We found that asymmetric inheritance of a subcellular domain is strongly correlated with asymmetric daughter fates and our results reveal an unexpected feature of this process. The daughter cell destined to become a neuron was derived from the more apical of the two daughters, whereas the more basal daughter inherited the basal process and replenished the apical progenitor pool.

  1. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Veronica; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndrome often affects post-menopausal women and is triggered by sympathetic overstimulation, like intense physical or emotional stress, so that it is called the "broken heart syndrome". Although left-ventricular systolic dysfunction usually fully recovers within few days, heart failure can still complicate the early phase. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy that had full recovery after 4 weeks of follow up. The main electrocardiographic, angiographic and imaging features are discussed. PMID:24689016

  2. The effect of root preparation technique and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Carlos G; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were randomly selected and mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10 teeth each for different canal preparation techniques and instrumentation lengths: group A: step-back preparation (SB) with stainless steel files (SF) using root canal length (RCL) to guide instrumentation length; group B: SB using RCL - 1 mm; group C: crown-down preparation (CD) with Profile using RCL; and group D: CD with PF using RCL - 1 mm. Digital images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of instrumentation length (p 0.05) on the development of apical cracks.

  3. One-step apexification using platelet rich fibrin matrix and mineral trioxide aggregate apical barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In one-step apexification using MTA, the technical problem encountered is controlling the overfill or underfill of MTA. The use of a matrix material helps to overcome this shortcoming. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF is an immune platelet concentrate, which can be used as a matrix, it also promotes wound healing and repair. This case report presents a case of one step apexification using MTA as an apical barrier and autologous PRF as an internal matrix.

  4. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices of Two Rice Varieties under Aluminum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIFTAHUDIN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the major limiting factor of plant growth and production in acid soils. The target of Al toxicity is the root tip, which affects mainly on root growth inhibition. The aim of this research was to study the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of two rice varieties IR64 (Al-sensitive and Krowal (Al-tolerant, which were grown on nutrient solution containing 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 ppm of Al. The root growth was significantly inhibited in both rice varieties at as low as 15 ppm Al concentration. The adventive roots of both varieties showed stunted growth in respons to Al stress. There was no difference in root growth inhibition between both rice varieties as well as among Al concentrations. Al uptake on root apices was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Histochemical staining of roots using hematoxylin showed dark purple color on 1 mm region of Al-treated root apices. Rice var. IR 64 tended to take up more Al in root tip than Krowal did. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.176 in root Al content of both varieties in response to different concentration and period of Al treatments. Al distribution in root apices was found in the epidermal and subepidermal region in both rice varieties. Based on those results, rice var. Krowal that was previously grouped as Al-tolerant variety has similar root growth and physiological response to Al stress as compared to Al-sensitive variety IR64.

  5. Effects of Long-term Right Ventricular Apical Pacing on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impacts of long-term right ventricular apical pacing on the ventricular remodeling and cardiac functions of patients with high-grade and third-degree atrioventricular blockage with normal heart structures and cardiac functions. In addition, we provide many evidences for choosing an optimal electrode implantation site.Methods: Study participants included patients who were admitted for pacemaker replacements and revisited for examinations of implanted pacemakers at outpatient. Pa...

  6. A glycophospholipid membrane anchor acts as an apical targeting signal in polarized epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol- (GPI) anchored proteins contain a large extracellular protein domain that is linked to the membrane via a glycosylated form of phosphatidylinositol. We recently reported the polarized apical distribution of all endogenous GPI-anchored proteins in the MDCK cell line (Lisanti, M. P., M. Sargiacomo, L. Graeve, A. R. Saltiel, and E. Rodriguez-Boulan. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:9557-9561). To study the role of this mechanism of membrane anchoring in targeti...

  7. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Qiu

    Full Text Available Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium. Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  8. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying An; Xing Zhang; Ziqiang Zhu; Yusi Ji; Wenrong He; Zhiqiang Jiang; Mingzhe Li; Hongwei Guo

    2012-01-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil,which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil.Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process.Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development,although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown.Here we showed that GA3 enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature,and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature,which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway.Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1),a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development.We further found that GA3 induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner,whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter.Additionally,DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression.Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid,a polar auxin transport inhibitor,repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant,supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development.Taken together,our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions.

  9. ABA mediates PEG-mediated premature differentiation of root apical meristem in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hongtao; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Root apical meristem (RAM) is central for indeterminate growth of plant roots and in sensing environmental stimuli, such as water status. Recently, we reported that PEG8000-simulated mild and moderate osmotic stress induces premature differentiation of RAM, which is a conserved adaptive mechanism in higher plants to cope with water stress. Microarray data analysis revealed that the ABA signaling pathway may be involved in water stress-induced RAM premature differentiation. Here we showed that...

  10. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

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    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  11. A new approach to supply chain management based on pooling ITIL and APICS Principles and Practices

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    Abdelaali Himi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available APICS (Advanced Productivity, Innovation and Competitive Success - The Association for Operations Management is known as the repository providing a set of best practices in Supply Chain Management. The ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library also provides best practices for IT service management. Noting the existence of a similarity between these two standards, this paper identifies the ITIL concepts used in the supply chain context and describe their contributions.

  12. Comparing the apical microleakage of lateral condensation and chloroform dip techniques with a new obturation method

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    Masoud Saatchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The final objective of root canal therapy is to create a hermetic seal along the length of the root canal system. For this purpose, many methods and materials have been introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare the apical microleakage in a new obturation technique (true-tug-back with two other obturation techniques (lateral condensation and chloroform dip technique. Methods: In this in vitro study 102 single canal teeth were selected. The crowns were removed, and the canals were prepared using step-back technique. The master apical file was K-file #40. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 32 teeth. First group were obturated with lateral condensation technique and second group with chloroform dip technique and the third group with true-tug-back technique. Six teeth were used as control group. The teeth were placed in incubator at 100% humidity and 37°c for three days. The roots of the teeth were coated with two layers of nail varnish except for the apical 2 millimeter. Teeth were placed in Methylene blue 2% for one week. The teeth were sectioned vertically and the depth of maximum dye penetration for each tooth was recorded by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Dunkan test. Results: The mean liner dye penetration differences between lateral condensation group (6.88 ± 4.06 mm and chloroform dip technique group (7.16 ± 3.37 mm were not statistically significant (P = 0.719. The differences between true-tug-back group (3.15 ± 0.52 mm and two other groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the true-tug-back technique can improve apical seal. Further studies are needed for this purpose.

  13. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Ítalo Bruno dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concen...

  14. 24 hour ST segment analysis in transient left ventricular apical ballooning.

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    Frank Bode

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The etiologic basis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning, a novel cardiac syndrome, is not clear. Among the proposed pathomechanisms is coronary vasospasm. Long-term ST segment analysis may detect vasospastic episodes but has not been reported. METHODS: 30 consecutive patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning, left ventricular dysfunction and normal or near-normal coronary arteries were investigated. A 24-hour Holter ECG was obtained after emergency admission. ST segment analysis was performed automatically in 2 leads and confirmed by visual inspection. Criteria for an ischemic event were: 1. ST elevation or 2. horizontal or down-sloping ST segments ≥1 min duration and ≥100 µV J+80 point deviation corrected for baseline ST-deviation. RESULTS: Patients presented with ST segment elevation (n = 19 and/or T wave inversion (n = 20 on admission ECG. Ejection fraction was 50±12%. No transient ST elevations were observed during Holter ECG analysis. In 3 patients, 8 transient episodes of ST depression were recorded. Durations of episodes varied between 75 s and 790 s (mean 229 s. Maximal ST deviation averaged -191±71 µV. Ischemic burden was -1 to -22 mVs (mean -8 mVs. 27 patients showed no ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS: ST segment analysis of 24 h Holter recordings revealed minor ischemic events in only 10% of patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Overall, ST segment changes were not indicative of recurrent coronary spasm playing a major role in the genesis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning.

  15. Assessment of apically extruded debris and irrigant produced by different nickel-titanium instrument systems

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    Ebru KÜÇÜKYILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparation time and the amounts of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Forty-five extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were selected and divided into three groups. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions, using a reciprocating single-file system, a single-file rotary system and a multiple-file rotary system. Bidistilled water was used as the irrigant solution. The apically extruded debris and irrigant were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amounts of extruded debris and irrigant were assessed with a precision micro-balance. The Eppendorf tubes were incubated at 37°C for 15 days. After the incubation period, they were weighed again to assess the debris extrusion. The time required to prepare the canals was also recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using MANOVA and Bonferroni’s adjustment. Considering the apically extruded debris and irrigant, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05. The Reciproc group produced the highest debris (0.000632 ± 0.000162 gr and irrigant (0.844587 ± 0.437814 ml extrusion values. While the least extruded debris was observed with OneShape (0,000431 ± 0,000171 gr, the least extruded irrigant was observed with ProTaper system (0.564147 ± 0.370596 ml. Instrumentation was faster using the Reciproc than the other two instruments (70.27 ± 13.38 s (p < 0.05. All of the instrumentation systems used in this study produced apical debris and irrigant extrusion. The reciprocating single-file system tended to produce more debris and irrigant extrusion, compared with the rotary systems. Considering the preparation time, the single-file systems appeared to be advantageous due to their working time.

  16. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

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    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  17. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Wang, Xianling; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance, and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CL...

  18. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyan eGuo; Wei eZhang; Hainan eTian; Kaijie eZheng; Xuemei eDai; Shanda eLiu; Qingnan eHu; Xianling eWang; Bao eLiu; Shucai eWang

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CLE...

  19. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). PMID:19089289

  20. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs

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    Fernando Accorsi Orosco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30, which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4. The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05.

  1. Expression analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in epithelialized and non-epithelialized apical periodontitis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Everdan; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Figueira, Rita; Sogayar, Mari; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in apical periodontitis lesions. STUDY DESIGN Nineteen epithelialized and eighteen non-epithelialized apical periodontitis lesions were collected after periapical surgery. After histological processing, serial sectioning, H&E staining and microscopic analysis, 10 epithelialized and 10 non-epithelialized lesions were selected for immunohistochemical analysis for MMP-9 and CD 68. At least 1/3 of each specimen was frozen at −70°C for further mRNA isolation and reverse transcription into cDNA for Real-Time-PCR procedures. The relative expression of a target gene was determined in comparison with reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT, β-actin and BCRP). RESULTS Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were stained for MMP-9 in both types of lesions, and when present, epithelial cells were also stained. The number and the ratio of MMP-9+/total cells were greater in non-epithelialized than epithelialized lesions (p=0.0001) and showed a positive correlation to CD68+/total cells (p=0.045). No significant differences were observed for MMP-9 mRNA expression between ephithelized and non-ephithelized lesions. However, when compared to healthy periapical ligaments, both types of lesions presented increased MMP-9 expression (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION The present data suggest the participation of several inflammatory cells, mainlly CD68+ cells, in the MMP-9 expression in apical periodontitis lesions. MMP-9 could be actively enroled in the ECM degradation in apical periodontitis lesions. PMID:18926740

  2. Light sheet microscopy for tracking single molecules on the apical surface of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Hu, Ying; Cang, Hu

    2013-12-12

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool to study single molecule dynamics in living biological samples. However, current tracking techniques, which are based mainly on epifluorescence, confocal, or TIRF microscopy, have difficulties in tracking single molecules on the apical surface of a cell. We present here a three-dimensional (3D) single particle tracking technique that is based on prism coupled light-sheet microscopy (PCLSM). This novel design provides a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to confocal microscopy while it has the capability of illuminating at arbitrary depth. We demonstrate tracking of single EGF molcules on the apical surface of live cell membranes from their binding to EGF receptors until they are internalized or photobleached. We found that EGF exhibits multiple diffusion behaviors on live A549 cell membranes. At room temperature, the average diffusion coefficient of EGF on A549 cells was measured to be 0.13 μm(2)/s. Depletion of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin leads to a broader distribution of diffusion coefficients and an increase of the average diffusion coefficient at room temperature. This light-sheet based 3D single particle tracking technique solves the technique difficulty of tracking single particles on apical membranes and is able to document the whole "lifetime" of a particle from binding till photobleaching or internalization. PMID:23895420

  3. Diagnosis and planning in apical surgery: use of cone-beam tomography

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    Regina Karla de Pontes Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The ability to tridimensionally evaluate pathological and anatomical areas, in apical surgery planning, presents a number of advantages. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT was developed for dental applications. This paper aims to present a literature review on CBCT, highlighting its advantages over both conventional computed tomography (CT and radiography. Moreover, its clinical applications in apical surgery are discussed. Literature review and conclusion: Unlikely CT, CBCT captures a volume of data in a single 360° rotation, providing benefits such as higher accuracy, better resolution, reduced scanning time and reduced radiation dose. In the maxillofacial region, CBCT has been mainly used in the assessment of dento-alveolar pathology and oral traumatology. CBCT provides a better diagnosis and quantitative information on periodontal bone levels than conventional radiography. It has also been used for patients requiring surgical facial reconstruction, orthognathic surgery, dental implants, and more complex tooth extractions. Besides that, it seems to be a significant tool in modern endodontic practice, presenting useful applications in apical surgery.

  4. Apical Extrusion of Debris Produced during Continuous Rotating and Reciprocating Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevares, Giselle; Xavier, Felipe; Gominho, Luciana; Cavalcanti, Flávia; Cassimiro, Marcely; Romeiro, Kaline; Alvares, Pamella; Queiroz, Gabriela; Sobral, Ana Paula; Gerbi, Marleny; Silveira, Marcia; Albuquerque, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare apical extrusion of debris in canals instrumented with systems used in reciprocating and continuous motion. Sixty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20): the Reciproc (REC), WaveOne (WO), and HyFlex CM (HYF) groups. One Eppendorf tube per tooth was weighed in advance on an analytical balance. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions, and standardised irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was performed to a total volume of 9 mL. After instrumentation, the teeth were removed from the Eppendorf tubes and incubated at 37°C for 15 days to evaporate the liquid. The tubes were weighed again, and the difference between the initial and final weight was calculated to determine the weight of the debris. The data were statistically analysed using the Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests (α = 5%). All systems resulted in the apical extrusion of debris. Reciproc produced significantly more debris than WaveOne (p < 0.05), and both systems produced a greater apical extrusion of debris than HyFlex CM (p < 0.001). Cross section and motion influenced the results, despite tip standardization. PMID:26543896

  5. Master apical file size - smaller or larger: a systematic review of microbial reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoshariae, A; Kulild, J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine, in patients undergoing root canal treatment, whether apical enlargement of canals affected microbial reduction. A PICO (population, intervention, comparison and outcome) strategy was developed to identify previously published studies dealing with apical size of canal and microbial reduction. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and PubMed databases were searched. Additionally, the bibliographies of all relevant articles and textbooks were manually searched. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently selected the relevant articles. Due to the variety of methodologies and different techniques used to measure outcome for master apical file enlargement, it was not possible to standardize the research data and to apply a meta-analysis. Seven articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Five of the seven articles generally concluded that canal enlargement reduced bioburden in the root canal system. Two articles reported no difference in canals enlarged to size 25 or 40. The results of the systematic review confirmed that more evidence-based research in this area is needed. With the limited information currently available, the best current available clinical evidence suggests that contemporary chemomechanical debridement techniques with canal enlargement techniques do not eliminate bacteria during root canal treatment at any size.

  6. Sample preparation for laser-microdissection of soybean shoot apical meristem

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    Chui E. Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem houses stem cells responsible for the continuous formation of aerial plant organs including leaves and stems throughout the life of plants. Laser-microdissection in combination with high-throughput technology such as next generation sequencing permits an in-depth analysis of molecular events associated with specific cell type of interest. Sample preparation is the most critical step in ensuring good quality RNA to be extracted from samples following laser-microdissection. Here, we optimized the sample preparation for a major legume crop, soybean. We used Farmer’s solution as a fixative and paraffin as the embedding medium for soybean shoot apical meristem tissue without the use of any specialized equipment. Shorter time for tissue fixation (two days was found to be critical for the preservation of RNA in soybean shoot apical meristem. We further demonstrated the utility of this method for different tissues derived from soybean and rice. The method outlined here shall facilitate studies on crop plants involving laser-microdissection.

  7. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne-Badovinac, Sally; Bilder, David

    2008-01-01

    Intense investigation has identified an elaborate protein network controlling epithelial polarity. Although precise subcellular targeting of apical and basolateral determinants is required for epithelial architecture, little is known about how the individual determinant proteins become localized within the cell. Through a genetic screen for epithelial defects in the Drosophila follicle cells, we have found that the cytoplasmic Dynein motor is an essential regulator of apico-basal polarity. Our data suggest that Dynein acts through the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein Stardust (Sdt) to localize the transmembrane protein Crumbs, in part through the apical targeting of specific sdt mRNA isoforms. We have mapped the sdt mRNA localization signal to an alternatively spliced coding exon. Intriguingly, the presence or absence of this exon corresponds to a developmental switch in sdt mRNA localization in which apical transcripts are only found during early stages of epithelial development, while unlocalized transcripts predominate in mature epithelia. This work represents the first demonstration that Dynein is required for epithelial polarity and suggests that mRNA localization may have a functional role in the regulation of apico-basal organization. Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development.

  8. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Horne-Badovinac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense investigation has identified an elaborate protein network controlling epithelial polarity. Although precise subcellular targeting of apical and basolateral determinants is required for epithelial architecture, little is known about how the individual determinant proteins become localized within the cell. Through a genetic screen for epithelial defects in the Drosophila follicle cells, we have found that the cytoplasmic Dynein motor is an essential regulator of apico-basal polarity. Our data suggest that Dynein acts through the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein Stardust (Sdt to localize the transmembrane protein Crumbs, in part through the apical targeting of specific sdt mRNA isoforms. We have mapped the sdt mRNA localization signal to an alternatively spliced coding exon. Intriguingly, the presence or absence of this exon corresponds to a developmental switch in sdt mRNA localization in which apical transcripts are only found during early stages of epithelial development, while unlocalized transcripts predominate in mature epithelia. This work represents the first demonstration that Dynein is required for epithelial polarity and suggests that mRNA localization may have a functional role in the regulation of apico-basal organization. Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development.

  9. Effect of nickel titanium file design on the root surface strain and apical microcracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Adorno, Carlos G; Ebihara, Arata; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nickel titanium file design on the root surface strain generated and apical microcracks caused during canal shaping. Thirty-three mandibular incisors were distributed into LightSpeed X, FlexMaster and a control group. A strain gauge was fixed apically on the proximal root surface to determine the maximum strain during canal shaping. Except for the control group, all root canals were enlarged to size 50. Images were taken after removing the apical 1 and 2 mm of the root end. Mean maximum strain values and presence of microcracks were statistically compared using the t-test and chi-square test, respectively. During canal shaping, the strain increased cumulatively with mean maximum strains of 808.2 ± 228.8 and 525.1 ± 168.9 microstrain in LightSpeed X and FlexMaster, respectively (P = 0.004). Both systems caused comparable microcracks. Although LightSpeed X produced higher maximum strain, no difference in microcrack development was found between both systems.

  10. Effect of nickel titanium file design on the root surface strain and apical microcracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Adorno, Carlos G; Ebihara, Arata; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nickel titanium file design on the root surface strain generated and apical microcracks caused during canal shaping. Thirty-three mandibular incisors were distributed into LightSpeed X, FlexMaster and a control group. A strain gauge was fixed apically on the proximal root surface to determine the maximum strain during canal shaping. Except for the control group, all root canals were enlarged to size 50. Images were taken after removing the apical 1 and 2 mm of the root end. Mean maximum strain values and presence of microcracks were statistically compared using the t-test and chi-square test, respectively. During canal shaping, the strain increased cumulatively with mean maximum strains of 808.2 ± 228.8 and 525.1 ± 168.9 microstrain in LightSpeed X and FlexMaster, respectively (P = 0.004). Both systems caused comparable microcracks. Although LightSpeed X produced higher maximum strain, no difference in microcrack development was found between both systems. PMID:26420627

  11. Relationship of apical lymph node involvement to survival in resected colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassagne, B; Valleur, P; Serra, J; Sarnacki, S; Galian, A; Hoang, C; Hautefeuille, P

    1993-07-01

    In a prospective study of 197 patients with resected colon carcinoma treated between 1974 and 1985, we explored the relationships between pathologic parameters, and the effect of the latter on survival, to identify the parameter whose systematic measurement would improve the predictive capacity of pathologic staging. Prognostic characteristics were studied by univariate analysis. The results showed significant relationships between the location and number of lymph nodes involved, blood vessel invasion, depth of tumor penetration, and metastases. The five-year survival rates were 45 percent and 17 percent (P < 0.001) for patients without and with apical lymph node involvement, respectively, and 44 percent and 6 percent (P < 0.05) for those with four or less nodes involved and more than four involved, respectively. Among the patients treated by incomplete resection, the respective survival rates of those resected for metastases and of those resected for apical lymph node involvement did not differ significantly. We conclude that the involvement of apical lymph nodes has a significant effect on prognosis and suggest systematic pathologic examination of these nodes to allow simpler and more reproducible selection of patients for treatment by incomplete resection who are at high risk of disease-related death. PMID:8394236

  12. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in a single family: case report

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    Paraskevaidis Stylianos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an extremely heterogeneous disease. An under recognized and very often missed subgroup within this broad spectrum concerns patients with left ventricular (LV apical aneurysms in the absence of coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a case of HCM with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in 3 patients coming from a single family. This HCM pattern was detected by 2D-echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in one of the patients because of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected in 24-h Holter monitoring and an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure during maximal exercise test. The defibrillator activated 8 months after implantation by suppression of a ventricular tachycardia providing anti-tachycardia pacing. The patient died due to refractory heart failure 2 years after initial evaluation. The rest of the patients are stable after a 2.5-y follow-up period. Conclusion The detection of apical aneurysm by echocardiography in HCM patients may be complicated. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the scarred aneurysm wall may often occur predisposing to sudden death.

  13. Genetic interaction of centrosomin and bazooka in apical domain regulation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

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    Geng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell polarity genes including Crumbs (Crb and Par complexes are essential for controlling photoreceptor morphogenesis. Among the Crb and Par complexes, Bazooka (Baz, Par-3 homolog acts as a nodal component for other cell polarity proteins. Therefore, finding other genes interacting with Baz will help us to understand the cell polarity genes' role in photoreceptor morphogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have found a genetic interaction between baz and centrosomin (cnn. Cnn is a core protein for centrosome which is a major microtubule-organizing center. We analyzed the effect of the cnn mutation on developing eyes to determine its role in photoreceptor morphogenesis. We found that Cnn is dispensable for retinal differentiation in eye imaginal discs during the larval stage. However, photoreceptors deficient in Cnn display dramatic morphogenesis defects including the mislocalization of Crumbs (Crb and Bazooka (Baz during mid-stage pupal eye development, suggesting that Cnn is specifically required for photoreceptor morphogenesis during pupal eye development. This role of Cnn in apical domain modulation was further supported by Cnn's gain-of-function phenotype. Cnn overexpression in photoreceptors caused the expansion of the apical Crb membrane domain, Baz and adherens junctions (AJs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that the interaction of Baz and Cnn is essential for apical domain and AJ modulation during photoreceptor morphogenesis, but not for the initial photoreceptor differentiation in the Drosophila photoreceptor.

  14. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  15. In vitro analysis of the apical deformation, using a different number of files during the instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas da Fonseca Roberti GARCIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of the present study was toevaluate in vitro the apical deformation in roots of crooked lowerincisors with mesio-distal flattening, using a different number of files during the instrumentation. Material and methods: Twenty rootswere randomly divided into two groups (n = 10. Group I: roots wereinitially instrumented with a K #15 file until a #35 file, through stepback technique. During instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 1% NaOCl between every instrument change. Obturation wasperformed with Grossman sealer by lateral condensation technique.Group II: procedure was similar to group I, except for the files number, using file #40 as memory instrument. After that, each root was 1mm apical weared in order to reveal the filling. A 3 mm cut from the root apex was performed, resulting in samples with the same length, which were examined with an optical microscope (X40. The images captured by the Image Tool software were analyzed and the area occupied by sealer, gutta-percha and possible empty spaces was quantified. Results: Data was submitted to statistical analysis and showed no statistical significant differences between groups I and II (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The variation in the number of files during instrumentation did not promote apical deformation, but resulted in a similar hermetic sealing between the studied groups.

  16. Thalamic input to distal apical dendrites in neocortical layer 1 is massive and highly convergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Garrido, Pablo; Pérez-de-Manzo, Flor; Porrero, César; Galazo, Maria J; Clascá, Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Input to apical dendritic tufts is now deemed crucial for associative learning, attention, and similar "feedback" interactions in the cerebral cortex. Excitatory input to apical tufts in neocortical layer 1 has been traditionally assumed to be predominantly cortical, as thalamic pathways directed to this layer were regarded relatively scant and diffuse. However, the sensitive tracing methods used in the present study show that, throughout the rat neocortex, large numbers (mean approximately 4500/mm(2)) of thalamocortical neurons converge in layer 1 and that this convergence gives rise to a very high local density of thalamic terminals. Moreover, we show that the layer 1-projecting neurons are present in large numbers in most, but not all, motor, association, limbic, and sensory nuclei of the rodent thalamus. Some layer 1-projecting axons branch to innervate large swaths of the cerebral hemisphere, whereas others arborize within only a single cortical area. Present data imply that realistic modeling of cortical circuitry should factor in a dense axonal canopy carrying highly convergent thalamocortical input to pyramidal cell apical tufts. In addition, they are consistent with the notion that layer 1-projecting axons may be a robust anatomical substrate for extensive "feedback" interactions between cortical areas via the thalamus.

  17. Phosphatidylserine-positive particles in the apical domain of sensory hair cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-rui; Alfred Nuttall

    2006-01-01

    Apical membrane recycling has been proposed to be important for normal hair cell function. The current study reports an in vitro work that demonstrates the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and PS-positive vesicles labeled by Annexin V in the apical portion of hair cells. The following characteristics of the PS-positive vesicles were noticed using scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy: (1) variable sizes around 200 nm; (2)variable distribution patterns (either uniformly along individual stereocilia in the hair bundle or irregular) in the stereocilia from cell to cell; (3) variable sizes and numbers at locations along the border of the cuticular plate (CP),with a large number of them located at the vestigal kinocilial location; (4) motility with some of the vesicles during the observation period; (5) increase in PS labeling and the number of PS-positive vesicles after loud sound stimulation; and (6) decreased PS labeling and PS-positive vesicle numbers following treatment with LY-294002, a PI3 -kinase inhibitor. These results suggest that the presence of PS-positive vesicles at the apical area of hair cells may be indicative of vesicle shedding or transportation of a protein or rafts.

  18. Supraventricular tachycardia in a patient with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, M; Imamura, Y; Tsuruta, M; Inoue, J; Nakashima, H; Fukuyama, K; Eguchi, Y; Tsuji, S; Matsuo, S; Yano, K

    1988-03-01

    Electrophysiologic study of a 55-year-old patient with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. The patient had a history of recurrent attacks of tachyarrhythmia and his electrocardiogram showed a short P-R interval (0.10 sec) with narrow QRS complex and left ventricular hypertrophy with giant negative T waves. His cineangiogram showed severe apical hypertrophy. An electrophysiologic study was performed. The results of programmed atrial pacing show the existence of the dual A-V nodal pathways. The A-H interval at rapid atrial pacing increased maximally by 103 msec. Atrial stimulation could depolarize parts of the atrium without altering the supraventricular tachycardia. These findings suggested that preferential rapidly conducting A-V nodal and intranodal reentry are the responsible mechanisms in this reciprocating tachycardia. We conclude that the short P-R interval was due to intranodal reentry through the dual A-V nodal pathways. To our knowledge, a case of Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been previously described in the literature.

  19. Retromer controls epithelial cell polarity by trafficking the apical determinant Crumbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, Shirin Meher; Wassmer, Thomas; Niehage, Christian; Hoflack, Bernard; Knust, Elisabeth

    2011-07-12

    The evolutionarily conserved apical determinant Crumbs (Crb) is essential for maintaining apicobasal polarity and integrity of many epithelial tissues [1]. Crb levels are crucial for cell polarity and homeostasis, yet strikingly little is known about its trafficking or the mechanism of its apical localization. Using a newly established, liposome-based system described here, we determined Crb to be an interaction partner and cargo of the retromer complex. Retromer is essential for the retrograde transport of numerous transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and is conserved between plants, fungi, and animals [2]. We show that loss of retromer function results in a substantial reduction of Crb in Drosophila larvae, wing discs, and the follicle epithelium. Moreover, loss of retromer phenocopies loss of crb by preventing apical localization of key polarity molecules, such as atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and Par6 in the follicular epithelium, an effect that can be rescued by overexpression of Crb. Additionally, loss of retromer results in multilayering of the follicular epithelium, indicating that epithelial integrity is severely compromised. Our data reveal a mechanism for Crb trafficking by retromer that is vital for maintaining Crb levels and localization. We also show a novel function for retromer in maintaining epithelial cell polarity. PMID:21700461

  20. Influence of Instruments Used in Root Canal Preparation on Amount of Apically Extruded Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ertuğrul; Ersoy, İbrahim; Gündüz, Hicran Ateş; Uygun, Ahmet Demirhan; Kol, Elif; Çakıcı, Fatih

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of ProTaper Gold, WaveOne Gold, ProTaper Universal, and WaveOne instruments on the amount of apically extruded debris. Eighty mandibular premolar teeth with straight root canals were selected and assigned to four groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented using ProTaper Gold, WaveOne Gold, ProTaper Universal, and WaveOne systems. Eppendorf tubes containing apically extruded debris were weighed three times, and mean values were calculated. The net mass of the extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial mass from the final mass. The groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. The PTG group extruded less debris than the PTU group, and the WOG group extruded less debris than the WO group (P < 0.05). All the instrumentation systems tested in the present study were associated with apical extrusion of debris. PMID:26814380

  1. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them. PMID:1964069

  2. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces bone resorption in apical periodontitis via increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Andric, Miroslav; Miletic, Maja; Beljic-Ivanovic, Katarina; Knezevic, Aleksandra; Mojsilovic, Slavko; Milasin, Jelena

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes in periapical tissues caused by etiological agents of endodontic origin lead to apical periodontitis. Apart from bacteria, two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are recognized as putative pathogens in apical periodontitis. Although previous reports suggest the involvement of EBV in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis, its exact role in periapical bone resorption has not yet been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that EBV infection in apical periodontitis is capable of inducing periapical bone resorption via stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Increased levels of ROS induce expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). RANKL binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) present on the surface of preosteoclasts induces their maturation and activation which consequently leads to bone resorption. The potential benefit of antiviral and antioxidant-based therapies in periapical bone resorption treatment remains to be assessed. PMID:27515196

  4. Microbial sphingomyelinase induces RhoA-mediated reorganization of the apical brush border membrane and is protective against invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslowsky, David E; Thiagarajah, Jay R; McCormick, Beth A; Lee, Jean C; Lencer, Wayne I

    2016-04-01

    The apical brush border membrane (BBM) of intestinal epithelial cells forms a highly structured and dynamic environmental interface that serves to regulate cellular physiology and block invasion by intestinal microbes and their products. How the BBM dynamically responds to pathogenic and commensal bacterial signals can define intestinal homeostasis and immune function. We previously found that in model intestinal epithelium, the conversion of apical membrane sphingomyelin to ceramide by exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) protected against the endocytosis and toxicity of cholera toxin. Here we elucidate a mechanism of action by showing that SMase induces a dramatic, reversible, RhoA-dependent alteration of the apical cortical F-actin network. Accumulation of apical membrane ceramide is necessary and sufficient to induce the actin phenotype, and this coincides with altered membrane structure and augmented innate immune function as evidenced by resistance to invasion by Salmonella. PMID:26864627

  5. The effect of bevel angle on apical microleakage following the use of amalgam and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Achieving appropriate seal in canal obturation is the main goal of endodontic therapy. However, in some cases, it can not be obtained by non-surgical procedures alone. Retrograde surgery is one of the most common procedures in endodontics. Apical seal improvement can be obtained by root end filling and decreasing the root end resection angle (bevel angle. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bevel angle on apical microleakage following the use of amalgam and MTA as root end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 128 extracted human teeth were instrumented and obturated by lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into two groups and the apical root resection was performed by high speed fissure bur (one group perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth and the other 45 to the long axis. The 3 mm root end cavity was prepared by ultrasonic device. Each group was divided into two subgroups: One filled with amalgam and the other with MTA. Teeth were incubated for 72 h, covered by two layers of nail polish (except for apical 3mm and submerged in methylene blue for 48 h. Teeth were washed under tap water and mesiodistally dissected by low speed disc. Dye penetration was evaluated by stereomicroscope. Data were analysed by two way ANOVA and Tukey tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The results showed that retrofill material type had a significant effect on microleakage and MTA was superior to amalgam in this respect. Bevel angle failed to show any significant effect on apical microleakage. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that the use of MTA instead of amalgam in clinical practice can improve the success rate of endodontic surgery whereas the bevel angle can be determined based on the status of each individual case; However, increasing the bevel angle seems to increase microleakage due to exposure of more dentinal tubules.

  6. Apical ballooning syndrome complicated by acute severe mitral regurgitation with left ventricular outflow obstruction – Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Celermajer David S; Chandrasegaram Manju D; Wilson Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Apical ballooning syndrome (or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) is a syndrome of transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Although first described in Japanese patients, it is now well reported in the Caucasian population. The syndrome mimicks an acute myocardial infarction but is characterised by the absence of obstructive coronary disease. We describe a serious and poorly understood complication of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Case Presentation We present the case of a 65 year...

  7. Potassium transport across rat alveolar epithelium: evidence for an apical Na+-K+ pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, G; Bouchonnet, F; Crone, C; Saumon, G

    1988-06-01

    1. Experiments were performed on rat lungs into which various solutions were instilled whilst the lungs were perfused with either whole blood or Ringer solution. Instillation of ion-free glucose solution led to a net flux of fluid and ions into the alveolar spaces. K+ ions entered faster than Na+ ions and reached a concentration about twice that in the perfusate. Ouabain in the perfusate (basolateral side) prevented the rise in alveolar K+ concentration above that in the perfusate, indicating a transcellular pathway. Ba2+ in the instillate (apical side) hindered the entry of K+ into alveoli, suggesting the presence of apical K+ channels. 2. When Ringer solution was instilled, K+ was continuously removed from the alveoli and the K+ concentration in the instillate remained constant or decreased slightly depending on the rate of fluid absorption. The net K+ efflux from alveoli to blood was 0.23 pmol/(cm2 s). When Ba2+ was added to the instillate the net K+ efflux increased to 0.36 pmol/(cm2 s). Apical ouabain reversed the K+ flux resulting in a net K+ flux of 0.19 pmol/(cm2 s) into the alveoli. This suggests the presence of an Na+-K+-ATPase located in the apical membrane of some alveolar cells. 3. The K+ transport from instillate (Ringer solution) to perfusate was traced by means of 86Rb which was added to the instillate. Ouabain in the instillate did not affect fluid absorption but reduced the apparent 86Rb permeability by 50% although the paracellular permeability (estimated with [3H]mannitol) was unaffected. This also indicates the presence of an apical Na+-K+-ATPase. When ouabain was added to the perfusate, the apparent 86Rb permeability doubled. These findings indicate that recirculation of 86Rb (and K+) occurs due to the activity of both apical and basolateral Na+-K+-ATPases. 4. When ouabain was placed on both sides of the epithelium, preventing transcellular transport, the passive 86Rb permeability was 10.3 x 10(-8) cm/s (assuming an alveolar surface area of

  8. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug method for the treatment of nonvital immature permanent maxillary incisors: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Günes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with calcium-hydroxide is associated with some difficulties such as weakened tooth fracture, root canal reinfection and long treatment time. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA apical plug method is an alternative treatment option for open apices, and has gained popularity in the recent times. In this case report, we have attempted to present successful treatment of three maxillary incisors with open apices and periapical lesions with MTA. After preparing the access cavity, the working length was determined. The root canals were irrigated with 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and disinfected with calcium-hydroxide for two weeks. MTA was then placed in the apical 3 millimeters of the root canal. The remaining part of the root canal was filled with gutta-percha and the coronal restoration was finished with composite resin. After six months the radiographic examination showed a decrease of periapical lesions. At a 1-year and 18-months follow up, radiological and clinical successful healing of the incisor teeth was seen. MTA seems as an effective material for the apical plug method for the treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with open apices.

  9. Fractal dimension of apical dendritic arborization differs in the superficial and the deep pyramidal neurons of the rat cerebral neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puškaš, Nela; Zaletel, Ivan; Stefanović, Bratislav D; Ristanović, Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex have specific structure and pattern of organization that involves the presence of apical dendrite. Morphology of the apical dendrite is well-known, but quantification of its complexity still remains open. Fractal analysis has proved to be a valuable method for analyzing the complexity of dendrite morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the fractal dimension of apical dendrite arborization of pyramidal neurons in distinct neocortical laminae by using the modified box-counting method. A total of thirty, Golgi impregnated neurons from the rat brain were analyzed: 15 superficial (cell bodies located within lamina II-III), and 15 deep pyramidal neurons (cell bodies situated within lamina V-VI). Analysis of topological parameters of apical dendrite arborization showed no statistical differences except in total dendritic length (p=0.02), indicating considerable homogeneity between the two groups of neurons. On the other hand, average fractal dimension of apical dendrite was 1.33±0.06 for the superficial and 1.24±0.04 for the deep cortical neurons, showing statistically significant difference between these two groups (pfractal dimension values, apical dendrites of the superficial pyramidal neurons tend to show higher structural complexity compared to the deep ones.

  10. Sudden Cardiac Arrest in a Patient With Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Case Report and a Brief Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanush; Paul, Neha; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Balasubramaniyam, Nivas; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Shah, Amar B; Gass, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a phenotypic variant of nonobstructive HCM, in which hypertrophy of the myocardium predominantly involves the left ventricular apex. It is common in Japanese and other Asian populations but is rare in the United States. Apical HCM has a relatively benign prognosis in terms of cardiovascular mortality; however, morbid events such as ventricular aneurysms, apical thrombi, diastolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction are not uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old white man who presented to our hospital after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The patient had a witnessed collapse while playing basketball in the field. He was found to be pulseless and unresponsive by his coach, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately started. Upon arrival of emergency medical services, an automated external defibrillator advised shock and he was defibrillated thrice. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 15 minutes. He was intubated for airway protection and was brought to the hospital. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated. He demonstrated good neurological status after active rewarming. Subsequent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of apical HCM with right ventricular involvement. The patient underwent an implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement for secondary prevention and was subsequently discharged. In conclusion, apical HCM can rarely be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The diagnosis may be missed on transthoracic 2-dimensional cardiac echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging should be considered to exclude apical HCM in young patients who present after sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:25923227

  11. Basal and apical regulation of VEGF-A and placenta growth factor in the RPE/choroid and primary RPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Leyla; Flach, Janina; Lassen, Jens; Treumer, Felix; Roider, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are strongly involved in pathological processes in the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) constitutively secrete VEGF-A, and the secretion of placental growth factor (PlGF) has also been described. RPE cells are strongly polarized cells with different secretome at the apical and basal side. In this study, we evaluated the basal and apical regulation of VEGF-A and PlGF secretion in RPE/choroid explants and primary RPE cells. Methods RPE/choroid tissue explants were prepared from porcine eyes and cultivated in modified Ussing chambers, separating apical (RPE) and basal (choroid) supernatant. Primary RPE cells were also prepared from porcine eyes and cultivated on Transwell plates. Explants and cells were treated with inhibitors for VEGFR-2 (SU1498), p38 (SB203580), and the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and SP-1 (mithramycin), respectively. VEGF-A and PlGF content was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, western blots were performed. Results In the RPE/choroid, VEGF-A can initially be found on the apical and basal sides with significantly more pronounced secretion on the basal side. VEGF-A secretion is differentially regulated on the apical and basal sides, with the inhibition of SP-1 and NF-κB showing strong effects apically and basally after 24 h and 48 h, the inhibition of p38 displaying its effect mainly on the basal side with some effect apically after 48 h, and the inhibition of VEGFR-2 reducing the secretion of VEGF only on the apical side at 24 h and 48 h. In the RPE cell culture, similar effects were found, with inhibition of NF-κB or SP-1 displaying a strong decrease in VEGF-A on both sides, and p38 inhibition displaying only an inhibitory effect on the basal side. In contrast, an apical effect of VEGFR-2 inhibition was not found. However, the

  12. Dependence of intracellular Na+ concentration on apical and basolateral membrane Na+ influx in frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic method was developed to measure the intracellular Na+ content of the transepithelial Na+ transport pool of frog skin. Isolated epithelia (no corium) were labeled with 24Na either asymmetrically, from apical (Aa) or basolateral (Ab) solutions, or symmetrically (Aab). Transport pool Na+ could be identified from the kinetics of washout of 24Na carried out in the presence of 1 mM ouabain, 100 microM amiloride, and 1 mM furosemide that served to trap cold Na+ and 24Na within the transport pool. In control epithelia, Aab averaged 64.1 neq/cm2 (13.9 mM), and maximal inhibition of apical membrane Na+ entry with 100 microM amiloride caused Aab to decrease to 24.3 neq/cm2 (5.3 mM). Ouabain caused Aab to increase markedly to 303 neq/cm2 in 30 min, whereas amiloride inhibition of apical membrane Na+ entry reduced markedly the rate of increase of Aab caused by ouabain. These data, in part, confirmed the existence of an important basolateral membrane permeability to Na+ that was measured in separate studies of the bidirectional 24Na fluxes at the basolateral membranes of the cells. Both sets of data were supportive of the idea that a significant Na+ recycling exists at the basolateral membranes of the cells that contributes to the Na+ load on the pump and Na+ recycling participates in the regulation of the Na+ concentration of the Na+ transport pool of these epithelial cells

  13. Analysis of dental root apical morphology: a new method for dietary reconstructions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, NoÉmie; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Guy, Franck; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology. This study aims to investigate the correlation between tooth root apical morphology and diet in primates, and its potential for paleo-diet reconstructions. Dental roots are composed of two portions: the eruptive portion with a smooth and regular surface, and the apical penetrative portion which displays an irregular and corrugated surface. Here, the angle formed by these two portions (aPE), and the ratio of penetrative portion over total root length (PPI), are calculated for each mandibular tooth root. A strong correlation between these two variables and the proportion of some food types (fruits, leaves, seeds, animal matter, and vertebrates) in diet is found, allowing the use of tooth root apical morphology as a tool for dietary reconstructions in primates. The method was then applied to the fossil hominoid Khoratpithecus piriyai, from the Late Miocene of Thailand. The paleo-diet deduced from aPE and PPI is dominated by fruits (>50%), associated with animal matter (1-25%). Leaves, vertebrates and most probably seeds were excluded from the diet of Khoratpithecus, which is consistent with previous studies. PMID:22553124

  14. Factors Influencing Selection of Vaginal, Open Abdominal, or Robotic Surgery to Treat Apical Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Weaver, Amy L.; Fruth, Kristin M.; Gebhart, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors influencing selection of Mayo-McCall culdoplasty (MMC), open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC), or robotic sacrocolpopexy (RSC) for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. Methods We retrospectively searched for the records of patients undergoing posthysterectomy apical vaginal prolapse surgery between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012, at our institution. Baseline characteristics and explicit selection factors were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Factors were compared between groups using χ2 tests for categorical variables, ANOVA for continuous variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests for ordinal variables. Results Among the 512 patients identified who met inclusion criteria, the MMC group (n=174) had more patients who were older, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3+ or greater, had anterior vaginal prolapse grade 3+, desired to avoid abdominal surgery, and did not desire a functional vagina. Patients in the ASC (n=237) and RSC (n=101) groups had more failed prolapse surgeries, suspected abdominopelvic pathologic processes, and chronic pain. Advanced prolapse was more frequently cited as an explicit selection factor for ASC than for either MMC or RSC. Conclusions The most common factors that influenced the type of apical vaginal vault prolapse surgery overlapped with characteristics that differed at baseline. In general, MMC was chosen for advanced anterior vaginal prolapse and baseline characteristics that increased surgical risks, ASC for advanced apical prolapse, and ASC or RSC for recurrent prolapse, suspected abdominal pathology, and patients with chronic pain or lifestyles including heavy lifting. Thus, efforts should be made to attempt to control for selection bias when comparing these procedures. PMID:26945273

  15. Apices of maxillary premolars observed by swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Arata; Iino, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Toshihiko; Hanada, Takahiro; Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Suda, Hideaki

    2015-02-01

    Apicoectomy is performed for the management of apical periodontitis when orthograde root canal treatment is not possible or is ineffective. Prior to the surgery, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination is often performed to evaluate the lesion and the adjacent tissues. During the surgical procedure, the root apex is resected and the resected surface is usually observed under dental operating microscope (DOM). However, it is difficult to evaluate the details and the subsurface structure of the root using CBCT and DOM. A new diagnostic system, swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), has been developed to observe the subsurface anatomical structure. The aim of this study was to observe resected apical root canals of human maxillary premolars using SS-OCT and compare the findings with those observed using CBCT and DOM. Six extracted human maxillary premolars were used. After microfocus computed tomography (Micro CT; for gold standard) and CBCT scanning of the root, 1 mm of the apex was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Each resected surface was treated with EDTA, irrigated with saline solution, and stained with methylene blue dye. The resected surface was observed with DOM and SS-OCT. This sequence was repeated three times. The number of root canals was counted and statistically evaluated. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of detecting root canals among CBCT, DOM and SS-OCT (p > 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Because SS-OCT can be used in real time during surgery, it would be a useful tool for observing resected apical root canals.

  16. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris during ultrasonic versus rotary instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araquam, Karolline Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a extrusão apical de debris durante a instrumentação rotatória versus ultra-sônica de canais radiculares. Metodologia: A amostra constituiu-se de 20 pré-molares inferiores com dimensões radiculares similares. Para coleta do material extruído apicalmente durante a instrumentação endodôntica, foram fixados recipientes de resina acrílica na superfície externa das raízes. Todos os dentes tiveram os terços cervical e médio dos canais radiculares preparado com brocas Gates-Glidden. Após odontometria, a instrumentação apical foi realizada com sistema ultra-sônico ou sistema rotatório (n=10/grupo. Os recipientes de resina foram pesados antes e após a instrumentação e a diferença de peso foi considerada a quantidade de material extruído. Os dados foram analisados por teste de Mann-Whitney, ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Houve grande variabilidade de quantidade de material extruído para ambas as técnicas de instrumentação, com valores de 0,0009 a 0,0860 g. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos (P>0. 05. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que ambas as técnicas de instrumentação testadas, com ultra-som ou sistema rotatório, apresentaram extrusão apical de debris em quantidade semelhante

  17. Analysis of dental root apical morphology: a new method for dietary reconstructions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, NoÉmie; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Guy, Franck; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology. This study aims to investigate the correlation between tooth root apical morphology and diet in primates, and its potential for paleo-diet reconstructions. Dental roots are composed of two portions: the eruptive portion with a smooth and regular surface, and the apical penetrative portion which displays an irregular and corrugated surface. Here, the angle formed by these two portions (aPE), and the ratio of penetrative portion over total root length (PPI), are calculated for each mandibular tooth root. A strong correlation between these two variables and the proportion of some food types (fruits, leaves, seeds, animal matter, and vertebrates) in diet is found, allowing the use of tooth root apical morphology as a tool for dietary reconstructions in primates. The method was then applied to the fossil hominoid Khoratpithecus piriyai, from the Late Miocene of Thailand. The paleo-diet deduced from aPE and PPI is dominated by fruits (>50%), associated with animal matter (1-25%). Leaves, vertebrates and most probably seeds were excluded from the diet of Khoratpithecus, which is consistent with previous studies.

  18. In vitro analysis of the cement film thickness of two endodontic sealers in the apical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Lucas da Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro film thickness of two endodontic sealers containing epoxy-resin and zinc-oxide-eugenol, respectively in the apical region of the root canal system. Materials and Methods : A total of 20 palatine roots of the first maxillary molars were submitted to instrumentation up to a #40 file by the step-back technique and irrigated with 2 ml of NaOCl after each change of file. The roots were divided at random into two groups of 10 elements; one group was sealed with the Sealer 26® cement and the other one with the EndoFill® cement using the classical technique. The roots were abraded in the apical region until exposure of the filling and cut crosswise at 3 mm to obtain samples. The samples were analyzed by optic microscopy with 40X magnification. The images obtained were recorded using the Adobe Premiere 5.1® software and submitted to morphometric analysis using an integration grid that permitted the quantification of the area filled with the sealer or gutta-percha, and eventual empty spaces. Results : Statistical analysis of the data (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05 revealed no significant differences between the epoxy-resin-based cement Sealer 26® (47.85% and the zinc- oxide- eugenol-based cement EndoFill® (54.16%. Conclusion : We conclude that the two sealers tested showed a similar behavior regarding the cement film thickness in the apical region.

  19. The phospholipid flippase ATP8B1 mediates apical localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Vincent A; de Jonge, Hugo R; Chang, Jung-Chin; Ho-Mok, Kam S; Duijst, Suzanne; Vidović, Dragana; Carlon, Marianne S; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Paulusma, Coen C

    2016-09-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the phospholipid flippase ATP8B1. Apart from severe cholestatic liver disease, many PFIC1 patients develop extrahepatic symptoms characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), such as pulmonary infection, sweat gland dysfunction and failure to thrive. CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel essential for epithelial fluid transport. Previously it was shown that CFTR transcript levels were strongly reduced in livers of PFIC1 patients. Here we have investigated the hypothesis that ATP8B1 is important for proper CFTR expression and function. We analyzed CFTR expression in ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines and assessed CFTR function by measuring short-circuit currents across transwell-grown ATP8B1-depleted intestinal T84 cells and by a genetically-encoded fluorescent chloride sensor. In addition, we studied CFTR surface expression upon induction of CFTR transcription. We show that CFTR protein levels are strongly reduced in the apical membrane of human ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines, a phenotype that coincided with reduced CFTR activity. Apical membrane insertion upon induction of ectopically-expressed CFTR was strongly impaired in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We conclude that ATP8B1 is essential for correct apical localization of CFTR in human intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells, and that impaired CFTR localization underlies some of the extrahepatic phenotypes observed in ATP8B1 deficiency. PMID:27301931

  20. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  1. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  2. Correlative Analysis of [Ca2+]C and Apical Secretion during Pollen Tube Growth and Reorientation

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Pedro Castanho; Malhó, Rui

    2006-01-01

    The maintenance of a cytosolic free calcium gradient (Ca2+]c) and vesicle secretion in the apex of pollen tubes is essential for growth. It has been postulated that high [Ca2+]c levels promote and confine vesicle fusion with the apical plasma membrane and in this study we performed a correlative analysis of both events using specific fluorescent dyes and confocal scanning microscopy. [Ca2+]c was imaged with Calcium Green-1 10 kDa dextran (CG-1) while secretory events were followed with FM1–43...

  3. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    the length of apicectomy and calculated the loss of root length and changes of RCR after apical surgery. METHODS: In a prospective clinical study, cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken preoperatively and postoperatively. From these images, the crown and root lengths of 61 roots (54 teeth in 47.......58 ± 1.43 mm (relative to the CBL). This amounted to a loss of 33.2% of clinical and 26% of anatomic root length. There was an overall significant difference between the tooth groups (P

  4. Influence of the apical enlargement size on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Cassia Salustiano Marinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role in endodontic infections because they have virulence factors such as endotoxin. Due to its potential cytotoxic activity, special attention has been given to the removal/neutralization of this endotoxin in the root canal system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the apical enlargement size (AES by using rotary instruments on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty root canals of the mandibular premolar teeth were used. Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B55 was inoculated into thirty root canals. Ten teeth served as the negative control group. After the incubation period, the first endotoxin samples were collected from the root canals with a sterile/apyrogenic paper point for the analysis of the endotoxin units (EU/mL present before instrumentation (S1. Specimen instrumentation was performed with the Mtwo® rotary system in the sequence 10/.04, 15/.05, 20/.06, 25/.06, 30/.05, 35/.04 and 40/.04. To monitor the effectiveness of increasing apical enlargement on endotoxin removal, the second endotoxin samples were collected from all the root canals after instrumentation with the following instruments: #25/.06- (S2; #30/.05- (S3; # 35/.04- (S4; and #40/.04- (S5. Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL was used to quantify the levels of endotoxin. The results were statistically compared by using repeated measures of ANOVA with post hoc Tukey testing. RESULTS: Increasing levels of endotoxin removal was achieved by large sized apical enlargement: S2 (AES #25/.06- 89.2%, S3 (AES #30/.05- 95.9%, S4 (AES #35/.04- 97.8% and S5 (AES #40/.04- 98.2%. Substantial reduction of endotoxin content was obtained in S4 and S5 compared to S2 (p<0.05, however, the root canal preparation was not able to eliminate the endotoxin. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the reduction of endotoxin levels of the dental root canals could be

  5. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Wang, Xianling; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance, and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION) gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice. Taken together, our results showed that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive peptide hormone gene, and it regulates shoot apical

  6. Endodontic management of immature teeth with spontaneous apical closure and periapical lesions: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Mehmet Kemal; Kaval, Mehmet Emin

    2015-08-01

    Spontaneous apical closure in non-vital immature teeth has been rarely encountered and outcome of non-surgical endodontic treatment of related teeth associated with periapical lesions has not yet been adequately elucidated. The aim of this article was to report endodontic management of spontaneous apical closure of infected untreated immature teeth with periapical lesions and to review previously proposed mechanisms for the development of spontaneous hard tissue barrier. Three patients were referred at different time intervals to the endodontic clinic for treatment of their maxillary anterior incisors with acute or chronic apical periodontitis. Dental histories indicated that related teeth had been subjected to trauma approximately 12-18 years previously. Radiographically, the involved teeth exhibited incomplete root formation with spontaneous apical closure and were associated with an apical radiolucency. After biomechanical preparation, calcium hydroxide paste was applied and was changed once or twice within 3 months. All canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus and the follow-up period was 16-50 months; both clinical and radiographic examinations revealed adequate function, the absence of clinical symptoms and significant healing of the periapical radiolucency.

  7. Fragment Propagation and Colonization Ability Enhanced and Varied at Node Level after Escaping from Apical Dominance in Submerged Macrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Jiang; Shuqing An; Changfang Zhou; Baohua Guan; Zhiyi Sun; Ying Cai; Fude Liu

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants develop strong fragment propagation and colonization ability to endure the natural disturbances. However,detailed research of ability to endure the natural disturbances has been lacking to date. Therefore, reproduction (shoot) and colonization (root) of shoot fragments of Potamogeton crispus L. with or without apices were investigated for the effect of apical dominance, and the growth of decapitated shoot fragments at three lengths (2, 4, 6cm) was compared. Meanwhile,fragment propagation at levels of bud position was studied for bud position effect after escaping from apical dominance.The results showed significant increases occurred in the outgrowth of lateral branches on fragments decapitated compared with the fragments with apices, implying that apical dominance exists. Different lengths of fragments showed little difference in biomass allocations, but significant differences were noted in their propagation. Meanwhile, the effect of bud position was verified, due to the significant difference of average reproduction per node among the three length groups. Thus, the present study has made progress in the current understanding of aquatic plant dispersion among natural systems and contributes to improve methods of in vitro propagation for re-implantation purposes.

  8. Surgical closure of apical multiple muscular septal defects via right ventriculotomy using a single patch with intermediate fixings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Qiang; LIU Ying-long; XU Yu-lin; GUO Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple apical muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) remain a challenge for surgeons because of their anatomical features.We used single patch with intermediate fixations to repair multiple apical muscular VSDs through right ventriculotomy.Methods We analysed the data of 16 children (median age 8 months,range 2 months to 144 months) with multiple apical muscular VSDs who underwent a single patch technique via apical right ventriculotomy.Perioperative data were collected and analysed,and the patients were followed up for three months to 66 months (median,46 months) to investigate the outcomes.Results All patients recovered from cardiopulmonary bypass easily with median of cardiopulmonary bypass time 87 minutes and of aortic crossclamp time 53 minutes.No surgically related death occurred and no patient required reoperation.One patient died of pseudomonas pyocyanea infection on day 11 postoperatively.Residual shunt happened in one patient with a diameter of 2 mm and spontaneously closed in 12 months after operation.Two patients presented slightly reduced right ventricular volume and apical hypokinesia postoperatively and recovered 24 and 36 months later respectively.No other complication was found during the three months to 66 months follow-up.Conclusion Our experiences using a single patch technique with intermediate fixations via right ventriculotomy in the management of multiple muscular VSDs had favourable outcomes.

  9. Ecology of the microbiome of the infected root canal system: a comparison between apical and coronal root segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özok, A.R.; Persoon, I.F.; Huse, S.M.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the microbial ecology of the coronal and apical segments of infected root canal systems using a complete sampling technique and next-generation sequencing. Methodology The roots of 23 extracted teeth with apical periodontitis were sectioned in half, horizontally, and cryo-pulverized. Bacterial communities were profiled using tagged 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable V5–V6 region. Results The sequences were classified into 606 taxa (species or higher taxon), representing 24 bacterial phyla or candidate divisions and one archaeal phylum. Proteobacteria were more abundant in the apical samples (proots compared to their coronal counterparts. Conclusions Endodontic infections are more complex than reported previously. The apical part of the root canal system drives the selection of a more diverse and more anaerobe community than the coronal part. The presence of a distinct ecological niche in the apical region explains the difficulty of eradication of the infection, and emphasizes the need that new treatment approaches should be developed. PMID:22251411

  10. Apical transport of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein requires Rab11-positive recycling endosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Momose

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs. Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently in both directions, suggestive of vesicle trafficking. Using a series of Rab family protein, we demonstrated that progeny vRNP localized to recycling endosome (RE in an active/GTP-bound Rab11-dependent manner. The vRNP interacted with Rab11 through viral RNA polymerase. The localization of vRNP to RE and subsequent accumulation to the APM were impaired by overexpression of Rab binding domains (RBD of Rab11 family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs. Similarly, no APM accumulation was observed by overexpression of class II Rab11-FIP mutants lacking RBD. These results suggest that the progeny vRNP makes use of Rab11-dependent RE machinery for APM trafficking.

  11. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  12. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

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    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  13. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Kanoh, Hatsuho; Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Shuji; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-08-29

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein-centrin2-labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering "floret" pattern to the linear "alignment." This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  14. AmotL2 disrupts apical-basal cell polarity and promotes tumour invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojallal, Mahdi; Zheng, Yujuan; Hultin, Sara; Audebert, Stéphane; van Harn, Tanja; Johnsson, Per; Lenander, Claes; Fritz, Nicolas; Mieth, Christin; Corcoran, Martin; Lembo, Frédérique; Hallström, Marja; Hartman, Johan; Mazure, Nathalie M; Weide, Thomas; Grandér, Dan; Borg, Jean-Paul; Uhlén, Per; Holmgren, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity is essential for the functionality of glandular epithelia. Cell polarity is often lost in advanced tumours correlating with acquisition of invasive and malignant properties. Despite extensive knowledge regarding the formation and maintenance of polarity, the mechanisms that deregulate polarity in metastasizing cells remain to be fully characterized. Here we show that AmotL2 expression correlates with loss of tissue architecture in tumours from human breast and colon cancer patients. We further show that hypoxic stress results in activation of c-Fos-dependent expression of AmotL2 leading to loss of polarity. c-Fos/hypoxia-induced p60 AmotL2 interacts with the Crb3 and Par3 polarity complexes retaining them in large vesicles and preventing them from reaching the apical membrane. The resulting loss of polarity potentiates the response to invasive cues in vitro and in vivo in mice. These data provide a molecular mechanism how hypoxic stress deregulates cell polarity during tumour progression. PMID:25080976

  15. Regulated Crb accumulation controls apical constriction and invagination in Drosophila tracheal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letizia, Annalisa; Sotillos, Sol; Campuzano, Sonsoles; Llimargas, Marta

    2011-01-15

    Many epithelial tissues undergo extensive remodelling during morphogenesis. How their epithelial features, such as apicobasal polarity or adhesion, are maintained and remodelled and how adhesion and polarity proteins contribute to morphogenesis are two important questions in development. Here, we approach these issues by investigating the role of the apical determinant protein Crumbs (Crb) during the morphogenesis of the embryonic Drosophila tracheal system. Crb accumulates differentially throughout tracheal development and is required for different tracheal events. The earliest requirement for Crb is for tracheal invagination, which is preceded by an enhanced accumulation of Crb in the invagination domain. There, Crb, acting in parallel with the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) pathway, is required for tracheal cell apical constriction and for organising an actomyosin complex, which we propose is mediated by Crb recruitment of moesin (Moe). The ability of a Crb isoform unable to rescue polarity in crb mutants to otherwise rescue their invagination phenotype, and the converse inability of a FERM-binding domain mutant Crb to rescue faulty invagination, support our hypothesis that it is the absence of Crb-dependent Moe enrichment, and not the polarity defect, that mainly underlies the crb invagination phenotype. This hypothesis is supported by the phenotype of lethal giant larvae (lgl); crb double mutants. These results unveil a link between Crb and the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. PMID:21172808

  16. Auxin controls local cytokinin biosynthesis in the nodal stem in apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mina; Takei, Kentaro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mori, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    In intact plants, the shoot apex grows predominantly and inhibits outgrowth of axillary buds. After decapitation of the shoot apex, outgrowth of axillary buds begins. This phenomenon is called an apical dominance. Although the involvement of auxin, which represses outgrowth of axillary buds, and cytokinin (CK), which promotes outgrowth of axillary buds, has been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrated that auxin negatively regulates local CK biosynthesis in the nodal stem by controlling the expression level of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (PsIPT), which encodes a key enzyme in CK biosynthesis. Before decapitation, PsIPT1 and PsIPT2 transcripts were undetectable; after decapitation, they were markedly induced in the nodal stem along with accumulation of CK. Expression of PsIPT was repressed by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In excised nodal stem, PsIPT expression and CK levels also increased under IAA-free conditions. Furthermore, beta-glucuronidase expression, under the control of the PsIPT2 promoter region in transgenic Arabidopsis, was repressed by an IAA. Our results indicate that in apical dominance one role of auxin is to repress local biosynthesis of CK in the nodal stem and that, after decapitation, CKs, which are thought to be derived from the roots, are locally biosynthesized in the nodal stem rather than in the roots. PMID:16507092

  17. Postoperative left ventricular apical ballooning: Transient Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following orthotopic liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedanova, Helena; Orban, Marek; Nemec, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 51 Final Diagnosis: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology • Transplantology Objective: Rare disease Background: Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (LVAB), also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is a cardiac syndrome characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. An episode of emotional stress, typically in female patients, is believed to precede and trigger the development of this syndrome. Case Report: We report a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy that developed after orthotopic liver transplantation in a 51-year-old woman. On D2 (day 2) the patient had severe hemodynamic compromise. Echocardiography showed systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV), with ejection fraction (EF) of 20% and anteroapical akinesis and ballooning of the apical 2/3 of the LV. Troponin T was elevated but other markers of myocardial necrosis were negative, as was coronary angiography. From D7 onward, there was an improvement in the hemodynamics in conjunction with a gradual increase of LV EF. The patient was dismissed from the hospital on D30 with signs of normal cardiac function and LV motion and EF of 50%. Liver function was also excellent. Conclusions: Every major operation, including liver transplantation, is associated with emotional stress for the patient. Therefore, it is necessary to consider Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the differential diagnosis of heart failure developing early after LT, and clinicians should subsequently use adequate diagnostic and therapeutic measures. PMID:24298303

  18. SHA1, a novel RING finger protein, functions in shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yutaka; Yao, Shan-Guo; Sako, Kaori; Sato, Takeo; Kato, Wataru; Ohto, Masa-aki; Ichikawa, Takanari; Matsui, Minami; Yamaguchi, Junji; Ikeda, Akira

    2007-05-01

    Post-embryonic plant growth is dependent on a functional shoot apical meristem (SAM) that provides cells for continuous development of new aerial organs. However, how the SAM is dynamically maintained during vegetative development remains largely unclear. We report here the characterization of a new SAM maintenance mutant, sha1-1 (shoot apical meristem arrest 1-1), that shows a primary SAM-deficient phenotype at the adult stage. The SHA1 gene encodes a novel RING finger protein, and is expressed most intensely in the shoot apex. We show that, in the sha1-1 mutant, the primary SAM develops normally during the juvenile vegetative stage, but cell layer structure becomes disorganized after entering the adult vegetative stage, resulting in a dysfunctional SAM that cannot initiate floral primordia. The sha1-1 SAM terminates completely at the stage when the wild-type begins to bolt, producing adult plants with a primary inflorescence-deficient phenotype. These observations indicate that SHA1, a putative E3 ligase, is required for post-embryonic SAM maintenance by controlling proper cellular organization. PMID:17461786

  19. RNG1 is a late marker of the apical polar ring in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Johnson Q; de Leon, Jessica C; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2010-09-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe the characteristics of a novel protein that localizes to the APR of Toxoplasma gondii which we have named ring-1 (RNG1). There are related RNG1 proteins in Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona but no obvious homologs in Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp. or Babesia spp. RNG1 is a small, low-complexity, detergent-insoluble protein that assembles at the APR very late in the process of daughter parasite replication. We were unable to knock-out the RNG1 gene, suggesting that its gene product is essential. Tagged RNG1 lines have also allowed us to visualize the APR during growth of Toxoplasma in the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin. Oryzalin inhibits nuclear division and cytokinesis although Toxoplasma growth continues, and similar to earlier observations of unchecked centriole duplication in oryzalin-treated parasites, the APR continues to duplicate during aberrant parasite growth. PMID:20658557

  20. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings Efeito da irradiação de laser de diodo no selamento apical em retrobturações com MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barbosa de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical sealing is essential for the success of paraendodontic surgery, so any procedure that may favor an adequate sealing of the apical remainder should be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of root-end cavities with MTA retrofillings. Root canals in twenty extracted human teeth were shaped with K-files and filled with gutta-percha. The apexes were cut off and root-end preparations were performed. The roots were divided randomly in 2 groups. Group 1 (ten specimens was retrofilled with MTA. Group 2 was irradiated with diode laser, with 1 W for 20 seconds, on the apical surface and root end cavity before retrofilling with MTA. The specimens had their external surfaces impermeabilized with cyanoacrylate, except for the apical surface, and were then immersed in 1% rhodamine B dye for 72 h and placed in plaster stone. After that, the specimens were submitted to longitudinal abrasion until half of the root remained. The linear dye leakage was observed in these mid-roots between the root canal wall and retrofilling. The linear dye leakage was measured with Image Lab software, and the results were statistically analyzed with Student's t test. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05. The diode laser irradiation did not improve the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings under the conditions of this in vitro study.O selamento apical é fundamental para o sucesso da cirurgia parendodôntica. Assim, procedimentos que melhorem o selamento do remanescente apical devem ser utilizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a irradiação de laser de diodo poderia aumentar o selamento apical em cavidades retrógradas obturadas com MTA. Foram utilizadas 20 raízes de dentes humanos extraídos que, após preparo com lima tipo K, tiveram seus canais obturados com guta-percha. Os ápices foram cortados e sofreram preparo de cavidades retr

  1. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  2. Delayed-enhancement MRI of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: assessment of the intramural distribution and comparison with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shinichiro (Dept. of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)), email: yas-amano@nifty.com; Takayama, Morimasa (Dept. of Cardiology, Sakakibara Heart Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Kitamura, Mitsunobu (Coronary Care Unit, Chiba-Hokuso Hospital of Nippon Medical School, Chiba (Japan))

    2011-07-15

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is reported to show patchy midwall myocardial hyper enhancement on delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI). The intramural distribution of myocardial hyper enhancement and its correlation with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac function have not been described for symptomatic apical HCM. Purpose: To evaluate the features and significance of myocardial hyper enhancement on DE-MRI in symptomatic apical HCM. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with symptomatic apical HCM and their 65 apical segments were investigated. Myocardial hyper enhancement and regional and global functional parameters were determined with MRI. We investigated the intramural distribution and frequencies of this myocardial hyper enhancement and compared them with the patients' clinical symptoms, the presence of ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI. Results: Eight (61.5%) patients with symptomatic apical HCM displayed apical myocardial hyper enhancement, and 22 (33.8%) of the 65 apical segments examined showed myocardial hyper enhancement. Of the myocardial hyper enhancement observed, 81.8% showed a subendocardial pattern.The Hyperenhanced apical myocardium had a lower percentage of systolic myocardial thickening, and was associated with serious symptoms (e.g. syncope) and ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic apical HCM showed myocardial hyper enhancement involving the subendocardial layer, which might be related to regional systolic dysfunction, serious clinical symptoms, and ventricular arrhythmias

  3. Evaluation of apical deviation in root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems Avaliação do desvio apical em canais instrumentados pelos sistemas K3 e ProTaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Diniz Bisi dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: this study evaluated the apical deviation of curved root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: twenty root canals of human maxillary and mandibular first molars were employed, which were divided into 2 groups: group A (10 teeth was instrumented with the K3 system, and group B (10 teeth with the ProTaper system. Evaluation of deviation was performed by double radiographic exposure. Radiographs were achieved before and after instrumentation, with 0.3-second, thus allowing superimposition of images. Three-dimensional computerized tomograph was performed in 3 specimens in each group, as an additional means to evaluate the apical deviation. RESULTS: were evaluated by the parametric test Student-Newman-Keuls at 5%, which did not reveal significance between groups concerning the apical deviation. The results of computerized tomograph images demonstrated that the larger deviation of the root canal occurred at the distolingual area for both systems. CONCLUSIONS: both techniques produced a mild apical deviation. Computerized microtomography was shown to be accurate for experimental endodontics studies.OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desvio apical de canais radiculares curvos instrumentados pelos sistemas K3 e ProTaper. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 20 canais radiculares de primeiros molares superiores e inferiores humanos, os quais foram divididos em 2 grupos, o grupo A (10 dentes foi instrumentado pelo sistema K3 e o grupo B (10 dentes com o sistema ProTaper, a forma de avaliação do desvio foi a dupla exposição radiográfica. As tomadas radiográficas foram feitas antes e após a instrumentação, com um tempo de 0,3 segundos em cada exposição, ocorrendo assim, sobreposição das imagens. Em 3 espécimes, de cada grupo, foi realizada a tomografia computadorizada tridimensional, como forma adicional de avaliar o desvio apical . Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados pelo teste paramétrico Student

  4. Mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and sustained ventricular tachycardia: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiao-jin; KANG Lian-ming; ZHANG Jian; DOU Ke-fei; YUAN Jian-song; YANG Yue-jin

    2011-01-01

    The case is a 54-year-old man with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mid-ventricular obstruction, apical aneurysm, and recurrence sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). A coronary angiogram revealed myocardial bridging located in the middle of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and the left ventriculogram showed an hour-glass appearance of the left ventricular cavity. There was a significant pressure gradient of 60 mmHg across the mid-ventricular obliteration at rest. A successful myectomy of the inappropriate hypertrophy myocardium and excision of the apical aneurysm were performed. Pathologic analysis demonstrated fibrosis in the apical aneurysm and thickened and narrowed vessels in the adjacent area. During the follow-up of eighteen months, the patient remained clinically stable and free from arrhythmic recurrence.

  5. Loss of primary cilia results in deregulated and unabated apical calcium entry in ARPKD collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroky, Brian J; Ferguson, William B; Fuson, Amanda L; Xie, Yi; Fintha, Attila; Komlosi, Peter; Yoder, Bradley K; Schwiebert, Erik M; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M; Bell, P Darwin

    2006-06-01

    Recent genetic analysis has identified a pivotal role of primary cilia in the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). However, little is known regarding how cilia loss/dysfunction contributes to cyst development. In epithelial cells, changes in apical fluid flow induce cilia-mediated Ca2+ entry via polycystin-2 (PC2), a cation channel. The Oak Ridge Polycystic Kidney (orpk) mouse contains a mutated Tg737 gene that disrupts expression of polaris, a protein required for ciliogenesis. These studies examine the effect of cilia malformation on Ca2+ entry in orpk cilia(-) collecting duct principal cells, and in orpk cells in which wild-type Tg737 was reintroduced, orpk cilia(+). [Ca2+]i was monitored in confluent cell monolayers using fluorescence microscopy. Intrinsic apical Ca2+ entry was measured by Mn2+ quenching and Ca2+ depletion/readdition under flow conditions below the threshold for stimulation. We found that unstimulated apical Ca2+ entry was markedly increased in cilia(-) cells and was sensitive to Gd3+, an inhibitor of PC2. Electrophysiological measurements demonstrate increased abundance of an apical channel, consistent with PC2, in cilia(-) cells. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that PC2, normally expressed on and at the base of cilia in orpk cilia(+) cells, was observed throughout the apical membrane in cilia(-) cells. Furthermore, cilia(-) cells displayed elevated subapical Ca2+ levels measured with the near-membrane Ca2+ indicator FFP-18. We propose that cilia exert a tonic regulatory influence on apical Ca2+ entry, and absence of cilia results in loss of spatial organization of PC2, causing unregulated Ca2+ entry and elevations in subapical [Ca2+], a factor which may contribute to cyst formation. PMID:16396941

  6. Nerve lesions following apical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: A systematic case review and report of two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Jared; Thorn, Jens Jørn; Korsgaard, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    We present two cases of apical extrusion of non-setting, calcium hydroxide paste which had been placed as an interappointment root canal dressing during routine endodontic treatment and which resulted in tissue necrosis of a large part of themandible, while. Surgical intervention consisted of...... effects and the use of an injectable system had most often been related to apical extrusion. Consequently, great care should be taken when applying the paste into the canal system. 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) with reference to the apical groove and flagellar apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwataki, Mitsunori; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind;

    2010-01-01

    The external and internal ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef has been examined with special reference to the apical groove and three-dimensional structure of the flagellar apparatus. The apical groove is U-shaped and connected to the anterior...... eukaryotes but different from the Gymnodinium group with diagnostic nuclear chambers. The longitudinal and transverse basal bodies are separated by approximately 0.5-1.0 µm and interconnected directly by a striated basal body connective and indirectly by microtubular and fibrous structures. Characteristic...

  8. Distribution of calmodulin in corn seedlings - Immunocytochemical localization in coleoptiles and root apices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Immunofluorescence techniques have been used to study the distribution of calmodulin in several tissues in etiolated corn (Zea mays, var. Bear Hybrid) seedlings. Uniform staining was seen in the background cytoplasm of most cell types. Cell walls and vacuoles were not stained. In coleoptile mesophyll cells the nucleoplasm of most nuclei was stained as was the stroma of most amyloplasts. The lumen border of mature tracheary elements in coleoptiles also stained. In the rootcap the most intensely stained regions were the cytoplasms of columella cells and of the outermost cells enmeshed in the layer of secreted slime. Nuclei in the rootcap cells did not stain distinctly, but those in all cell types of the root meristem did. Also in the root meristem, the cytoplasm of metaxylem elements stained brightly. These results are compared and contrasted with previous data on the localization of calmodulin in pea root apices and epicotyls and discussed in relation to current hypotheses on mechanisms of gravitropism.

  9. Integration of light and metabolic signals for stem cell activation at the shoot apical meristem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Anne; Janocha, Denis; Dong, Yihan; Medzihradszky, Anna; Schöne, Stefanie; Daum, Gabor; Suzaki, Takuya; Forner, Joachim; Langenecker, Tobias; Rempel, Eugen; Schmid, Markus; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger; Lohmann, Jan U

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of embryogenesis is the specification of stem cell systems, but in contrast to the situation in most animals, plant stem cells remain quiescent until the postembryonic phase of development. Here, we dissect how light and metabolic signals are integrated to overcome stem cell dormancy at the shoot apical meristem. We show on the one hand that light is able to activate expression of the stem cell inducer WUSCHEL independently of photosynthesis and that this likely involves inter-regional cytokinin signaling. Metabolic signals, on the other hand, are transduced to the meristem through activation of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) kinase. Surprisingly, TOR is also required for light signal dependent stem cell activation. Thus, the TOR kinase acts as a central integrator of light and metabolic signals and a key regulator of stem cell activation at the shoot apex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17023.001 PMID:27400267

  10. Analysis of the apical constriction using micro-computed tomography and anatomical sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Citterio

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusion: 52.6% of the observed ACs was ambiguous (present on one projection but not on the other one. Only 21.0% of the canals showed a tridimensional AC (present on both projections. Inter-rater agreement was very good (k = 0.839. The morphology, from greater to least, was flaring (25%, single (21.1%, parallel (21.1%, tapered (19.7%, apical delta (10.5% and multiple (2.6%. Inter-rater agreement was again very good (kappa = 0.869. Root canal anatomy as described in the literature is more conceptual than real. The presence of AC appears to be an exception rather than a canon.

  11. Management of immature teeth with apical infections using mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the young permanent teeth lead to devitalization of the pulp with concomitant arrest in further development of the immature root of the involved tooth. Hermetic seal of the root canal system during obturation is not possible in such cases, due to the lack of an apical constriction. The traditional management technique in such cases has been apexification involving induction of a calcific barrier at the apex using calcium hydroxide, which in turn facilitates obturation of the root canal. However this becomes complicated when there is persistent infection leading to periapical changes. This case report describes the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA for management of a periapically compromised immature tooth.

  12. Rac1 controls epithelial tube length through the apical secretion and polarity pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Sollier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric parameters of epithelial tubes are critical to the physiology and homeostasis of most organs. In addition, many human diseases are associated with tube-size defects. Here, we show that Rac1 limits epithelial tube elongation in the developing fly trachea by promoting Rab5-dependent endocytosis of the apical determinant Crumbs. Rac1 is also involved in a positive feedback loop with the septate junction protein Coracle. Thereby, Rac1 precludes paracellular diffusion and contributes to the septate junction-dependent secretion of the chitin-modifying enzymes Vermiform and Serpentine, which restrict epithelial tube length independently of Crumbs. Thus, Rac1 is a critical component of two important pathways controlling epithelial tube morphogenesis.

  13. A novel mitochondrial ATP8 gene mutation in a patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, An I; Hogeveen, Marije; Nijtmans, Leo; van den Brand, Mariel; Janssen, Antoon; Diepstra, Heleen; van den Brandt, Frans; van den Heuvel, Bert; Hol, Frans; Hofste, Tom; Kapusta, Livia; Dillmann, U; Shamdeen, M; Smeitink, J; Smeitink, J; Rodenburg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    To identify the biochemical and molecular genetic defect in a 16-year-old patient presenting with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy suspected for a mitochondrial disorder.Measurement of the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) capacity in muscle and enzyme analysis in muscle and fibroblasts were performed. Relevant parts of the mitochondrial DNA were analysed by sequencing.A homoplasmic nonsense mutation m.8529G→A (p.Trp55X) was found in the mitochondrial ATP8 gene in the patient's fibroblasts and muscle tissue. Reduced complex V activity was measured in the patient's fibroblasts and muscle tissue, and was confirmed in cybrid clones containing patient-derived mitochondrial DNAWe describe the first pathogenic mutation in the mitochondrial ATP8 gene, resulting in an improper assembly and reduced activity of the complex V holoenzyme. PMID:21686774

  14. Reverse or inverted apical ballooning in a case of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Pablo; Monedero, Isabel; Rubio, Amador; Botas, Javier

    2015-06-26

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by the development of transient left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities, in the absence of significant coronary artery obstruction. This syndrome usually occurs in women and is frequently associated with an intense emotional or physical stress. It usually involves apical segments, but in the recent years atypical forms have been described. Inverted or reverse Takotsubo is a variant in which the basal and midventricular segments are hypokinetic, sparing contractile function of the apex. In this report we describe the case of a 54-year-old woman, with chronic malnutrition, initially admitted because of hypoglycemia and severe electrolyte disturbance due to a refeeding syndrome. Within the next hours she experienced acute cardiac symptoms and developed heart failure with low cardiac output. Electrocardiogram (ECG), elevation of troponin and echocardiographic findings were consistent with inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first incidence reported of inverted Takotsubo triggered by refeeding syndrome.

  15. Estudio histopatológico de las reabsorciones cemento-dentinarias de la región apical de los dientes humanos extraídos con lesión crónica en el periapice A histopathology study of resorption cementum-dentin in the apical region of human teeth extracted chronic apical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    L Nunes da Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Veintiun dientes humanos extraídos con lesión crónica apical fueron analizados por la histopatología buscando determinar la presencia de la reabsorción cemento-dentinaria en la región periapical de estos dientes. En cada diente estudiado fue introducido un instrumento endodoncico para identificar el foramen apical y todos los dientes fueron radiografiados con una técnica estándar de película radiográfica periapical No. 2. Después de la descalcificación de los dientes, éstos fueron sometidos a...

  16. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  17. VEGFR-2 reduces while combined VEGFR-2 and -3 signaling increases inflammation in apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtej, Anca; Papadakou, Panagiota; Sasaki, Hajime; Bletsa, Athanasia; Berggreen, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background In apical periodontitis, oral pathogens provoke an inflammatory response in the apical area that induces bone resorptive lesions. In inflammation, angio- and lymphangiogenesis take place. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) are key players in these processes and are expressed in immune cells and endothelial cells in the lesions. Objective We aimed at testing the role of VEGFR-2 and -3 in periapical lesion development and investigated their role in lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes. Design We induced lesions by pulp exposure in the lower first molars of C57BL/6 mice. The mice received IgG injections or blocking antibodies against VEGFR-2 (anti-R2), VEGFR-3 (anti-R3), or combined VEGFR-2 and -3, starting on day 0 until day 10 or 21 post-exposure. Results Lesions developed faster in the anti-R2 and anti-R3 group than in the control and anti-R2/R3 groups. In the anti-R2 group, a strong inflammatory response was found expressed as increased number of neutrophils and osteoclasts. A decreased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was found in the anti-R2/R3 group. Lymphangiogenesis in the draining lymph nodes was inhibited after blocking of VEGFR-2 and/or -3, while the largest lymph node size was seen after anti-R2 treatment. Conclusions We demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect of VEGFR-2 signaling in periapical lesions which seems to involve neutrophil regulation and is independent of angiogenesis. Combined signaling of VEGFR-2 and -3 has a pro-inflammatory effect. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis is promoted through activation of VEGFR-2 and/or VEGFR-3. PMID:27650043

  18. Influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis identified by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the success of endodontic treatment has been often discussed based on outcome obtained by periapical radiography. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A consecutive sample of 1020 images (periapical radiographs and CBCT scans) taken from 619 patients (245 men; mean age, 50.1 years) between February 2008 and September 2009 were used in this study. Presence and intracanal post length (short, medium and long) were associated with apical periodontitis (AP). Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.01. The kappa value was used to assess examiner variability. From a total of 591 intracanal posts, AP was observed in 15.06%, 18.78% and 7.95% using periapical radiographs, into the different lengths, short, medium and long, respectively (p=0.466). Considering the same posts length it was verified AP in 24.20%, 26.40% and 11.84% observed by CBCT scans, respectively (p=0.154). From a total of 1,020 teeth used in this study, AP was detected in 397 (38.92%) by periapical radiography and in 614 (60.19%) by CBCT scans (p<0.001). The distribution of intracanal posts in different dental groups showed higher prevalence in maxillary anterior teeth (54.79%). Intracanal posts lengths did not influenced AP. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT method was used. (author)

  19. The sound sensation of apical electric stimulation in cochlear implant recipients with contralateral residual hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane S Lazard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies using vocoders as acoustic simulators of cochlear implants have generally focused on simulation of speech understanding, gender recognition, or music appreciation. The aim of the present experiment was to study the auditory sensation perceived by cochlear implant (CI recipients with steady electrical stimulation on the most-apical electrode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five unilateral CI users with contralateral residual hearing were asked to vary the parameters of an acoustic signal played to the non-implanted ear, in order to match its sensation to that of the electric stimulus. They also provided a rating of similarity between each acoustic sound they selected and the electric stimulus. On average across subjects, the sound rated as most similar was a complex signal with a concentration of energy around 523 Hz. This sound was inharmonic in 3 out of 5 subjects with a moderate, progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For these subjects, the sound sensation created by steady electric stimulation on the most-apical electrode was neither a white noise nor a pure tone, but a complex signal with a progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components in 3 out of 5 subjects. Knowing whether the inharmonic nature of the sound was related to the fact that the non-implanted ear was impaired has to be explored in single-sided deafened patients with a contralateral CI. These results may be used in the future to better understand peripheral and central auditory processing in relation to cochlear implants.

  20. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  1. Influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis identified by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo Cesar Lyra; Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth [Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Dental School; Bueno, Mike Reis [University of Cuiaba (UNIC), MT (Brazil). Dental School; Pecora, Jesus Djalma, E-mail: estrela3@terra.com.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dental School

    2009-07-01

    The determination of the success of endodontic treatment has been often discussed based on outcome obtained by periapical radiography. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A consecutive sample of 1020 images (periapical radiographs and CBCT scans) taken from 619 patients (245 men; mean age, 50.1 years) between February 2008 and September 2009 were used in this study. Presence and intracanal post length (short, medium and long) were associated with apical periodontitis (AP). Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.01. The kappa value was used to assess examiner variability. From a total of 591 intracanal posts, AP was observed in 15.06%, 18.78% and 7.95% using periapical radiographs, into the different lengths, short, medium and long, respectively (p=0.466). Considering the same posts length it was verified AP in 24.20%, 26.40% and 11.84% observed by CBCT scans, respectively (p=0.154). From a total of 1,020 teeth used in this study, AP was detected in 397 (38.92%) by periapical radiography and in 614 (60.19%) by CBCT scans (p<0.001). The distribution of intracanal posts in different dental groups showed higher prevalence in maxillary anterior teeth (54.79%). Intracanal posts lengths did not influenced AP. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT method was used. (author)

  2. A transferrin-like GPI-linked iron-binding protein in detergent-insoluble noncaveolar microdomains at the apical surface of fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1995-01-01

    ultracryosections of mucosal tissue, the protein was localized to the apical surface of the enterocytes, whereas it was absent from the basolateral plasma membrane. Interestingly, it was mainly found in patches of flat or invaginated apical membrane domains rather than at the surface of microvilli. Caveolae were...

  3. A preliminary study of the percentage of gutta-percha-filled area in the apical canal filled with vertically compacted warm gutta-percha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2002-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the width of apical root canals and the depth of heat application during warm vertical compaction on the percentage of gutta-percha-filled area (PGFA) in the apical root canal. Methodology Two groups of extracted human canines (total 60) we

  4. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Dehghani, Atena; Abesi, Farida; Khafri, Soraya; Ghadiri Dehkordi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha cone, using one of the four sealers, under dry and moist root canal conditions (10 teeth in each group). Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root surfaces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue, and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in micrometers. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test using SPSS V.18 software at P 0.05). Apical micro-leakage was significantly higher in the Excite DSC groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture. PMID:25346829

  5. Inducción del cierre apical en el diente con necrosis pulpar y el ápice no formado

    OpenAIRE

    Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Se efectúa una revisión del proceso de apicoformación en dientes con necrosis pulpar y ápice no formado, analizando el mecanismo de cierre apical inducido por el hidróxido de calcio y otras substancias, así como la histopatología del mismo.

  6. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems- An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppolu Madhusudhana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. Conclusions: The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  7. The effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow in root canals evaluated using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Boutsioukis; C. Gogos; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis; E. Kastrinakis; L.W.M. van der Sluis

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To evaluate the effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow inside a root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two different needles types, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methodology  A validated CFD model was used to simulate the irrigant flow from either

  8. Unique apicomplexan IMC sub-compartment proteins are early markers for apical polarity in the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Benoit; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Brady, Declan; Silvie, Olivier; Wright, Megan H; Ferguson, David J P; Wall, Richard J; Whipple, Sarah; Guttery, David S; Tate, Edward W; Wickstead, Bill; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises over 5000 intracellular protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, that are clinically important pathogens affecting humans and livestock. Malaria parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium possess a pellicle comprised of a plasmalemma and inner membrane complex (IMC), which is implicated in parasite motility and invasion. Using live cell imaging and reverse genetics in the rodent malaria model P. berghei, we localise two unique IMC sub-compartment proteins (ISPs) and examine their role in defining apical polarity during zygote (ookinete) development. We show that these proteins localise to the anterior apical end of the parasite where IMC organisation is initiated, and are expressed at all developmental stages, especially those that are invasive. Both ISP proteins are N-myristoylated, phosphorylated and membrane-bound. Gene disruption studies suggest that ISP1 is likely essential for parasite development, whereas ISP3 is not. However, an absence of ISP3 alters the apical localisation of ISP1 in all invasive stages including ookinetes and sporozoites, suggesting a coordinated function for these proteins in the organisation of apical polarity in the parasite.

  9. MHV-A59 enters polarized murine epithelial cells through the apical surface but is released basolaterally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. Entry and release of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells, as we have recently shown (J. W. A. Rossen, C. P. J. Bekker, W. F. Voorhout, G. J. A. M. Strous, A. va

  10. In vivo PTH provokes apical NHE3 and NaPi2 redistribution and Na-K-ATPase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Norian, J M; Magyar, C E;

    1999-01-01

    and to determine whether the same cellular signals drive the changes in apical and basolateral transporters. PTH-(1-34) (20 U), which couples to adenylate cyclase (AC), phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), or [Nle8,18,Tyr34]PTH-(3-34) (10 U), which couples to PLC and PLA2 but not AC, were given...

  11. Unique apicomplexan IMC sub-compartment proteins are early markers for apical polarity in the malaria parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Poulin

    2013-09-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises over 5000 intracellular protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, that are clinically important pathogens affecting humans and livestock. Malaria parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium possess a pellicle comprised of a plasmalemma and inner membrane complex (IMC, which is implicated in parasite motility and invasion. Using live cell imaging and reverse genetics in the rodent malaria model P. berghei, we localise two unique IMC sub-compartment proteins (ISPs and examine their role in defining apical polarity during zygote (ookinete development. We show that these proteins localise to the anterior apical end of the parasite where IMC organisation is initiated, and are expressed at all developmental stages, especially those that are invasive. Both ISP proteins are N-myristoylated, phosphorylated and membrane-bound. Gene disruption studies suggest that ISP1 is likely essential for parasite development, whereas ISP3 is not. However, an absence of ISP3 alters the apical localisation of ISP1 in all invasive stages including ookinetes and sporozoites, suggesting a coordinated function for these proteins in the organisation of apical polarity in the parasite.

  12. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  13. Brachial plexopathy from stereotactic body radiotherapy in early-stage NSCLC: Dose-limiting toxicity in apical tumor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We report frequency of brachial plexopathy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy. Materials and methods: 276 T1-T2, N0 or peripheral T3, N0 lesions were treated in 253 patients with stereotactic radiotherapy at Indiana University and Richard L. Roudebush VAMC from 1998 to 2007. Thirty-seven lesions in 36 patients were identified as apical lesions, defined as epicenter of lesion superior to aortic arch. Brachial plexus toxicity was scored for these apical lesions according to CTCAE v. 3.0 for ipsilateral shoulder/arm neuropathic pain, motor weakness, or sensory alteration. Results: The 37 apical lesions (19 Stage IA, 16 IB, and 2 IIB) were treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy to a median total dose of 57 Gy (30-72). The associated brachial plexus of 7/37 apical lesions developed grade 2-4 plexopathy (4 pts - grade 2, 2 pts - grade 3, 1 pt - grade 4). Five patients had ipsilateral shoulder/arm neuropathic pain alone, one had pain and upper extremity weakness, and one had pain progressing to numbness of the upper extremity and paralysis of hand and wrist. The median of the maximum brachial plexus doses of patients developing brachial plexopathy was 30 Gy (18-82). Two-year Kaplan-Meier risk of brachial plexopathy for maximum brachial plexus dose >26 Gy was 46% vs 8% for doses ≤26 Gy (p = 0.04 for likelihood ratio test). Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiotherapy for apical lesions carries a risk of brachial plexopathy. Brachial plexus maximum dose should be kept <26 Gy in 3 or 4 fractions.

  14. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Lateral Compaction Technique and Vertical Compaction Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahibzada Mohammad Noor; Xie Xiao Li

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the sealing ability of lateral compaction technique and vertical compaction technique using glucose penetration model. Glucose penetration model (GPM) has only twice been used earlier, hence the second aim of the study was to correlate the results of this study to other results and to validate the efficacy of GPM. Materals and Methods: Fifty three straight anterior human maxillary teeth were randomly divided into five groups.Root canals were prepared using crown down technique. Group A had fourteen teeth. They were compacted using vertical compaction technique. AH plus was used as root canal sealer. Group B had eight teeth. These were also compacted with vertical compaction but without AH plus. Group C had thirteen teeth. All the teeth in group C were compacted using lateral compaction using AH Plus. Group D had eight teeth. The teeth in this group were compacted using lateral compaction technique without AH plus. Group E had ten teeth. This group was assigned as negative control group. The specimen of the negative control group were completely coated with aryldite. The roots of the experimental groups were covered with aryldite, except for the root canal orifices, and apical apices. The coronal end of the decoronated tooth was connected to a plastic tube that contained 18% glucose solution. Leakage along the root filling was measured by the concentration of glucose in apical reservoir at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days intervals respectively after treatment. Results: Using repeated measure ANOVA, the leakage was significantly different among test groups A and C at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days interval respectively(P < 0.001). Data from Groups C and D also varied significantly. No statistical difference was found between groups A, B and D. Glucose concentrations at 21,28 days were higher than that at 7, 14 days in all of the four groups. Conclusion:The sealing ability of lateral compaction technique was found to be better than

  15. Estudio histopatológico de las reabsorciones cemento-dentinarias de la región apical de los dientes humanos extraídos con lesión crónica en el periapice A histopathology study of resorption cementum-dentin in the apical region of human teeth extracted chronic apical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nunes da Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Veintiun dientes humanos extraídos con lesión crónica apical fueron analizados por la histopatología buscando determinar la presencia de la reabsorción cemento-dentinaria en la región periapical de estos dientes. En cada diente estudiado fue introducido un instrumento endodoncico para identificar el foramen apical y todos los dientes fueron radiografiados con una técnica estándar de película radiográfica periapical No. 2. Después de la descalcificación de los dientes, éstos fueron sometidos a la técnica histológica de rutina y evaluados histopatologicamente, observandose un diagnóstico de lesión apical y la presencia o no de re absorción y compensación cemento-dentinaria. De estas lesiones crónicas observadas, nueve eran cistos apicales, cinco granulomas y siete abscesos crónicos. De los veintiun dientes estudiados, veinte presentaron re absorción cementaria y diecisiete presentaron re absorción cemento-dentinaria.Twenty-one human teeth extracted with chronic apicallesions were analyzed histopathologically to determine the presence of resorptions of dentin and cementum in the apical region of these teeth. An endodontic file was introduced in each tooth for identification of the apical foramen and a roentgenography was taken with standard technique in number 2 xRay film. After decalcification the teeth were sectioned and only the apical third was analyzed. The teeth underwent the routine histological technic and histopathologically evaluated, the diagnosis of the chronic apicallesion and the presence or not of dentine and cementum resorption and compensation were observed. Nine of the chronic lesions observed were apical cysts, five granulomas and seven chronic abscesses. Out of twenty-one teeth analyzed, twenty teeth presented cementum resorption and seventeen presented dentine and cementum resorption.

  16. Curso Introducción a la accesibilidad web (presentaciones)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Materiales del curso CECLEC "Introducción a la accesibilidad web" impartido en la Universidad de Alicante entre noviembre y diciembre de 2011. Contenido del curso: ¿Qué es la accesibilidad web?; ¿Accesibilidad = usabilidad?; Tecnologías de apoyo para las personas con discapacidad; ¿Cómo hago que mi sitio web sea accesible?; WCAG 1.0; WCAG 2.0; Herramientas; Legislación; Evaluación de la accesibilidad.

  17. T1-nerve root neuroma presenting with apical mass and Horner's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podnar Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of dumbbell neuroma of the first thoracic root is extremely rare. The extradural component of a T1-dumbbell neuroma may present as an apical mass. The diagnosis of hand weakness is complex and may be delayed in T1-neuroma because of absence of the palpable cervical mass. One-stage removal of a T1-root neuroma and its intrathoracic extension demanded an extended posterior midline approach in the sitting position. Case presentation A 51-year old man had suffered a traumatic partial tendon rupture of his wrist flexor muscles 6 years ago. Since the incident he occasionally felt fullness and tenderness in the affected forearm with some tingling in his fingers bilaterally. During the last two years the hand weakness was continuous and hypotrophy of the medial flexor and intrinsic hand muscles had become apparent. Electrophysiological studies revealed an ulnar neuropathy in addition to mild median and radial nerve dysfunction, including a mild contralateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnostic work-up for multiple mononeuropathy in the upper extremity was negative. Repeated electrophysiological studies revealed fibrillations in the C7 paravertebral muscles on the affected side. Chest x-ray revealed a large round apical mass on the affected side. A Horner's syndrome was noted at this point of diagnostic work-up. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine revealed a dumbbell T1 neuroma enlarging the intervertebral foramen at T1-2 and a 5 cm large extradural tumor with extension into the apex of the ipsilateral lung. The patient underwent surgery in sitting position using a left dorsal midline approach. Although the T1 root could not be preserved, the patient's neurological condition was unchanged after the surgery. Conclusion Extended posterior midline exposure described here using hemilaminectomy, unilateral facetectomy and costo-transversectomy is efficient and safe for one-stage removal of dumbbell tumors at the T1

  18. The Effect of Using Patency File on Apical Transportation in Canals Prepared with Passive Step Back Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Hasheminia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of patency file on apical transportation in curved canals prepared with passive step back (P.S.B technique. Methods: This is an interceptive experimental, Invitro, study. Human extracted first permanent molars with 19-23mm length and curvature of 15-35 degrees (Schneider method were considered for use in this study. Simple sampling was done and 35 teeth for each group was selected. In experimental group A canal preparation was done with P.S.B technique and usage of a # 10 file (as Patency file between successive files. In experimental group B preparation was done in the same way except for usage of patency file. Pre and post operative radiographs were taken with similar condition. Radiographs were scanned and changes in canal curvature was determined using four different methods [Schneider, Weine, Long – Axis techniques (L. A.T, and Digital image overlay technique (overlay. T] , using Idrisi for windows and AutoCAD softwares. Results: The mean of canal transportation angle in experimental group A with Schneider, Weine , LAT, and Over Lay techniques was: 7.006 ± 3.478, 12. 285 ± 6.032, 4.376 ± 3.516, 3.147 ± 2.744 respectively. Mean of canal transportation angle in experimental group B with the same methods was also determined: 8.009 ± 4.178, 13.55 ± 7.602, 9.464 ± 5.384, and 9.641 ± 5.382 respectively. T- test statistical analysis shows that there are no significant differences between the mean of canal transportation angles in two groups as measured by Schneider and Weine method (P>0.05. Mann- Whitney test shows that there are statistically significant differences between two groups as measured by LAT and Over Lay techniques (P<0.001. Conclusions: Results of this study shows that patency file in conjunction with P.S.B techniques causes significant reduction in apical transportation angle. Shortcomings of Schneider method in determination of canal curvature and specially

  19. Dormência e dominância apical de diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos de batata Dormancy and apical dominance of different sizes of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Renato Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho dos tubérculos de batata produzidos em uma mesma cova é um indicativo da idade fisiológica e do período necessário para o rompimento da dormência e da dominância apical, o que é fundamental para o adequado manejo pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o período de dormência e de dominância apical em diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos de três clones de batata, produzidos no outono e submetidos a duas temperaturas de armazenamento. Os tubérculos foram produzidos em campo durante o outono de 2008, sendo colhidas dez covas por clone. Os tubérculos de cada cova foram individualmente identificados e avaliados para massa fresca, comprimento e maior e menor diâmetros, divididos em dois lotes de cinco covas e armazenados, respectivamente, nas temperaturas de 10 e 20°C±2°C e 85%±5% de umidade relativa, por 170 dias. O rompimento da dormência e da dominância apical foram anotados quando o tubérculo apresentou, respectivamente, um ou dois brotos. O experimento foi conduzido em um fatorial de três clones (SMINIA00017-6, SMIJ461-1 e Asterix, duas temperaturas de armazenamento (10 e 20°C e três tipos de tubérculo (menor diâmetro inferior a 35mm, entre 35 e 45mm e superior a 45mm, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. A partir dos resultados, concluiu-se que a idade fisiológica varia com o tamanho dos tubérculos de batata, sendo que tubérculos com diâmetro inferior a 35mm apresentam maior período de dormência. Além disso, foi constatado que a temperatura de armazenamento de 20°C é mais eficaz para o rompimento da dormência do que da dominância apical.The size of potato tubers produced in the same hill is an indicator of the physiological age and the time required to break dormancy and apical dominance, which is essential for the proper post-harvest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the period of dormancy and apical dominance of different tuber sizes of three

  20. Mean apical concentration and duration in the comparative bioavailability of slowly absorbed and eliminated drug preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, P T; Freeman, D J; Carruthers, S G

    1988-06-01

    Present criteria for comparing bioavailability are inadequate when the Cmax and tmax cannot be reliably identified in individual subjects. Drug formulations which are slowly absorbed and eliminated have concentration-time profiles with a broad apex, increasing the likelihood that samples taken at the apical region of the curve will have statistically indistinguishable concentrations. Using data from a study of three dosage forms of piroxicam, we propose an alternative approach which decreases the influence of sampling bias and analytical error on the identification of the apex of the concentration-time curve and provides a simple tool for describing the shape of the curve around the apex. An adequate frequency of sampling around the expected apex of the concentration-time curve and consideration of the coefficient of variation (CV) of the analytical assay when assessing the observed Cmax are used in defining new parameters. This approach may be useful for studying the relationship of onset and duration of maximal plasma concentration to the efficacy and toxicity of drugs and in developing standards for comparing the bioavailability of slow-release preparations, which is of increasing interest to pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies. PMID:3171924

  1. A membrane fusion protein αSNAP is a novel regulator of epithelial apical junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayden G Naydenov

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs and adherens junctions (AJs are key determinants of the structure and permeability of epithelial barriers. Although exocytic delivery to the cell surface is crucial for junctional assembly, little is known about the mechanisms controlling TJ and AJ exocytosis. This study was aimed at investigating whether a key mediator of exocytosis, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF attachment protein alpha (αSNAP, regulates epithelial junctions. αSNAP was enriched at apical junctions in SK-CO15 and T84 colonic epithelial cells and in normal human intestinal mucosa. siRNA-mediated knockdown of αSNAP inhibited AJ/TJ assembly and establishment of the paracellular barrier in SK-CO15 cells, which was accompanied by a significant down-regulation of p120-catenin and E-cadherin expression. A selective depletion of p120 catenin effectively disrupted AJ and TJ structure and compromised the epithelial barrier. However, overexpression of p120 catenin did not rescue the defects of junctional structure and permeability caused by αSNAP knockdown thereby suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Such mechanisms did not depend on NSF functions or induction of cell death, but were associated with disruption of the Golgi complex and down-regulation of a Golgi-associated guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1. These findings suggest novel roles for αSNAP in promoting the formation of epithelial AJs and TJs by controlling Golgi-dependent expression and trafficking of junctional proteins.

  2. Fine Mapping of qPAA8, a Gene Controlling Panicle Apical Development in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Cheng; Bi-Gang Mao; Su-Wei Gao; Ling Zhang; Jiu-Lin Wang; Cai-Lin Lei; Xin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In rice,one detrimental factor influencing single panicle yield is the frequent occurrence of panicle apical abortion (PAA) under unfavorable climatic conditions.Until now,no detailed genetic information has been available to avoid PAA in rice breeding.Here,we show that the occurrence of PAA is associated with the accumulation of excess hydrogen peroxide.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping for PAA in an F2 population derived from the cross of L-05261 (PAA line) x IRAT129 (non-PAA variety) identified seven QTLs over a logarithm of the odd (LOD) threshold of 2.5,explaining approximately 50.1% of phenotypic variance for PAA in total.Five of the QTLs with an increased effect from L-05261,were designated as qPAA3-1,qPAA3-2,qPAA4,qPAA5 and qPAA8,and accounted for 6.8%,5.9%,4.2%,13.0% and 12.2%of phenotypic variance,respectively.We found that the PAA in the early heading plants was mainly controlled by qPAA8.Subsequently,using the sub-populations specific for qPAA8 based on markerassisted selection,we further narrowed qPAA8 to a 37.6-kb interval delimited by markers RM22475 and 8-In1 12.These results are beneficial for PAA gene clone.

  3. Identification and characterization of Eimeria tenella apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianlian Jiang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a micronemal protein of apicomplexan parasites that appears to be essential during the invasion of host cells. In this study, a full-length cDNA of AMA1 was identified from Eimeria tenella (Et using expressed sequence tag and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. EtAMA1 had an open reading frame of 1608 bp encoding a protein of 535 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EtAMA1 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second-generation merozoites. The ectodomain sequence was expressed as recombinant EtAMA1 (rEtAMA1 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against the rEtAMA1 recognized a 58-kDa native parasite protein by Western Blotting and had a potent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion, decreasing it by approximately 70%. Immunofluorescence analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis showed EtAMA1 might play an important role in sporozoite invasion and development.

  4. Dental age estimation of growing children by measurement of open apices: A Malaysian formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugati, Navaneetha; Kumaresan, Ramesh; Srinivasan, Balamanikanda; Karthikeyan, Priyadarshini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age estimation is of prime importance in forensic science and clinical dentistry. Age estimation based on teeth development is one reliable approach. Many radiographic methods are proposed on the Western population for estimating dental age, and a similar assessment was found to be inadequate in Malaysian population. Hence, this study aims at formulating a regression model for dental age estimation in Malaysian children population using Cameriere's method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 421 Malaysian children aged between 5 and 16 years involving all the three ethnic origins were digitalized and analyzed using Cameriere's method of age estimation. The subjects’ age was modeled as a function of the morphological variables, gender (g), ethnicity, sum of normalized open apices (s), number of tooth with completed root formation (N0) and the first-order interaction between s and N0. Results: The variables that contributed significantly to the fit were included in the regression model, yielding the following formula: Age = 11.368-0.345g + 0.553No -1.096s - 0.380s.No, where g is a variable, 1 for males and 2 for females. The equation explained 87.1% of total deviance. Conclusion: The results obtained insist on reframing the original Cameriere's formula to suit the population of the nation specifically. Further studies are to be conducted to evaluate the applicability of this formula on a larger sample size. PMID:26816464

  5. Morphine Attenuates Apically-Directed Cytokine Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Response to Enteric Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Brosnahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells represent the first line of host immune defense at mucosal surfaces. Although opioids appear to increase host susceptibility to infection, no studies have examined opioid effects on epithelial immune functions. We tested the hypothesis that morphine alters vectorial cytokine secretion from intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2 monolayers in response to enteropathogens. Both entero-adherent Escherichia coli O157:H7 and entero-invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increased apically-directed IL-6 secretion and bi-directional IL-8 secretion from epithelial monolayers, but only IL-6 secretion evoked by E. coli was reduced by morphine acting through a naloxone-sensitive mechanism. Moreover, the respective type 4 and 5 Toll-like receptor agonists, lipopolysaccharide and flagellin, increased IL-8 secretion from monolayers, which was also attenuated by morphine pretreatment. These results suggest that morphine decreases cytokine secretion and potentially phagocyte migration and activation directed towards the mucosal surface; actions that could increase host susceptibility to some enteric infections.

  6. Cytotoxic effect of the debris apically extruded during three different retreatment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emmanuel J N L; Brito, Mônica E; Ferreira, Vivian D; Belladonna, Felipe G; Neves, Aline A; Senna, Plinio M; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of the debris apically extruded during root canal retreatment on primary human osteoblast (HOb) cells in vitro. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were also measured. We examined three different techniques: conventional hand-files, and Mtwo and Reciproc retreatments. Filled mandibular incisors were prepared for a cytotoxicity assay in an experimental root model. The material was divided into three groups according to the technique used. Ten teeth were used as control. HOb cells were exposed to the extruded content and cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT test (assessing cell metabolic activity). TNF-α and IL-1β production was also analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, all the teeth were radiographed and the residual filling material was quantified. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (P endodontic retreatment techniques led to a significant upregulation of IL-1β levels (P 0.05). The Reciproc system required less time than the other two methods to remove the root-filling materials (P endodontic retreatment with Reciproc was the least cytotoxic and the least time-consuming method of gutta-percha and sealer removal. (J Oral Sci 58, 211-217, 2016). PMID:27349542

  7. Emerging Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in the Control of Shoot Apical Meristem Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta Di Giacomo; Giovanna Serino; Giovanna Frugis

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a population of undifferentiated cells at the tip of the shoot axis that establishes early during plant embryogenesis and gives rise to all shoot organs throughout the plant's life.A plethora of different families of transcription factors (TFs) play a key role in establishing the equilibrium between cell differentiation and stem cell maintenance in the SAM.Fine tuning of these regulatory proteins is crucial for a proper and fast SAM response to environmental and hormonal cues,and for development progression.One effective way to rapidly inactivate TFs involves regulated proteolysis by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (UPS).However,a possible role of UPS-dependent protein degradation in the regulation of key SAM TFs has not been thoroughly investigated.Here,we summarize recent evidence supporting a role for the UPS in SAM maintenance and function.We integrate this survey with an in silico analysis of publicly-available microarray databases which identified ubiquitin ligases that are expressed in specific areas within the SAM,suggesting that they may regulate or act downstream of meristem-specific factors.

  8. Analysis of apical deviation by type of system used to drive NRT® MANI rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Sasso Faccin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the major challenges encountered in treatment of curved canals is maintaining their original features. This study aimed to examine whether the type of system used with NRT® rotary instruments might in fl uence the occurrence of deviation in the apical region. Methods: Twenty simulated curved canals were divided into two experimental groups. In Group 1, canal preparation was performed with the pneumatic hand piece, using constant speed, but without torque control. In Group 2, an electric motor with constant speed and torque control was used. The simulated blocks were photographed before and after preparation using a platform to maintain the same position in both photographs. Images were manipulated in Adobe Photoshop® to evaluate deviation at 1 mm and 3 mm from the working length (WL. The t test was used for statistical analysis of data. The signi fi cance level was set at 1%. Results and Conclusion: Group 2 (electric motor had lower values for deviation at both locations analyzed (1 mm and 3 mm from the WL. In both groups, sites 3 mm from the WL had lower mean deviation than sites 1 mm from WL.

  9. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-12-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber.

  10. Variations of growth in shoot apical domes of spruce seedlings: A study using the growth tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the relative elemental rate of growth within apical domes, for the case when dome geometry changes during development, were modeled. It was ascertained that: 1 the domes of spruce seedlings have a paraboloidal shape; 2 the shape is maintained during growth, but the domes become higher and wider; 3 the relative elemental rate of growth in area on dome surface is isotropic, as indicated by analysis of cell packets in the surface layer. These data were used in modeling by means of the growth tensor and natural coordinate system. Growth of the dome was considered a superposition: 1 of relatively fast steady shape growth, where the isotropy of growth in area on the surface of the dome, was determined, and 2 of relatively slow isogonic growth, which does not disturb the isotropy. The convergent parabolic system was selected as the natural coordinate system. Distributions of the growth rates in the form of computer-made maps for three domes differing in age, were obtained. It appears that the growth rates within the dome are relatively high in the distal part and smaller in the central and peripheral regions. This variation decreases progressively with seedling age when the dome becomes wider. The relative elemental rate of growth in volume, averaged for the whole dome, also decreases.

  11. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  12. MTA apical barrier: In vitro study of the use of ultrasonic vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Escrivá, Begona; Manzano-Saiz, Alberto; Giner-Lluesma, Teresa; Collado-Castellanos, Nicolás; Muwaquet-Rodríguez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Background The apexification is the first alternative treatment on a permanent tooth when, after a tooth trauma and in the presence of immature apex trauma, pulp necrosis occurs. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as apical sealing material of choice in these cases, but has a degree of filtration as all other materials. The objective of this study was to analyze the seal ability of MTA on the duct walls in immature teeth unirradicular apexes, using indirect vibration. Material and Methods The study was conducted on 45 teeth divided into 3 groups: Group A or control group in which no vibration for placing the MTA was used, Group B and C or groups where indirect vibration analysis was used. All samples were immersed in methylene blue to assess filtration. After performing longitudinal cuts millimetric measuring were made of the degree of filtration, divided into 3 degrees (2mm each grade filtration). Results Results obtained confirm our hypothesis, obtaining lesser degree of filtration those groups in which indirect vibration (Groups B and C) was performed. It was shown that the degree of filtration is closely linked to the degree of adaptation. Conclusions MTA vibration offers better results in its adaptation to the canal walls, significantly reducing the degree of filtration. Key words:Apexification, MTA, filtration, indirect vibration. PMID:27398184

  13. Cystic fibrosis: model of pathogenesis based on the apical membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrica Kurbel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of cystic fibrosis (CF is proposed, based on the apical membrane (ApM potential. The ApM of epithelial cells is highly permeable to sodium and activation of CFTRs makes it permeable to chloride. Calculated ApM potentials of cells with activated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTRs are between the sodium and chloride Nernst values and thus allow rapid absorption of both ions in exocrine glands. In CF patients the potential is near the sodium Nernst value and thus more salt is left in the ducts. Simulation predicts that the sodium driving force increases more than 3.5 times if the ApM permeability for Cl- increases from 5-94% of the sodium permeability. In pancreatic ductal cells basolateral sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (pNBC1 allows influx of bicarbonates with sodium. Bicarbonates are exchanged for intraductal chloride by anion exchanger 1 (AE1 in the ApM. Activated CFTRs let some chloride to leak back to ducts, followed by water that dilutes ductal proteins. Replenished intraductal chloride allows more bicarbonate secretion. In CF patients, pancreatic water and bicarbonate secretion is limited by the intraductal chloride pool.

  14. Apical sealing of root canal fillings performed with five different endodontic sealers: analysis by fluid filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sealing ability of five root canal sealers, including two experimental cements (MBP and MTA-Obtura using the fluid filtration method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were divided into 5 study groups: G1-AH Plus; G2-Acroseal; G3Sealapex; G4-MBP; G5-MTA-Obtura; and two controls. Chemical-mechanical preparation was performed with ProFile rotary nickel-titanium instruments 1 mm short of the apical foramen. The sealing ability was evaluated by fluid filtration at 15, 30, and 60 days. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed significant difference between the materials at different periods (p<0.05. AH Plus and MBP had similar leakage values at 15 and 60 days, alternating with significant reduction at 30 days, while the other materials showed progressive increase in leakage values. Acroseal and Sealapex presented the best results at 15 days and the worst at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: All sealers evaluated presented fluid leakage, with AH Plus and MBP showing the best results at the end of the experimental period. Acroseal, Sealapex, and MTA-Obtura presented increase in leakage values at longer observation periods.

  15. The mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 safeguards Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzblasz, Alicja; Smakowska, Elwira; Gola, Edyta M; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Kicia, Marta; Janska, Hanna

    2016-06-20

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) ensures continuous plant growth and organogenesis. In LD 30 °C, plants lacking AtFTSH4, an ATP-dependent mitochondrial protease that counteracts accumulation of internal oxidative stress, exhibit a puzzling phenotype of premature SAM termination. We aimed to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular processes that link AtFTSH4 with SAM arrest. We studied AtFTSH4 expression, internal oxidative stress accumulation, and SAM morphology. Directly in the SAM we analysed H2O2 accumulation, mitochondria behaviour, and identity of stem cells using WUS/CLV3 expression. AtFTSH4 was expressed in proliferating tissues, particularly during the reproductive phase. In the mutant, SAM, in which internal oxidative stress accumulates predominantly at 30 °C, lost its meristematic fate. This process was progressive and stage-specific. Premature meristem termination was associated with an expansion in SAM area, where mitochondria lost their functionality. All these effects destabilised the identity of the stem cells. SAM termination in ftsh4 mutants is caused both by internal oxidative stress accumulation with time/age and by the tissue-specific role of AtFTSH4 around the flowering transition. Maintaining mitochondria functionality within the SAM, dependent on AtFTSH4, is vital to preserving stem cell activity throughout development.

  16. The role of hormone transport and metabolism in apical dominance in oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. A.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    14C-benzyladenine (BA) and 14C-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used to study hormone transport to the tiller bud and hormone catabolism in excised oat stem segments. Acropetal BA transport was greatest from upright stem segments to tiller buds suppressed by apical dominance. IAA, abscisic acid (ABA), and C2H4 inhibited BA transport to the tiller bud. IAA transport to the tiller bud site was inhibited by BA, C2H4, or after gravistimulation, which affected BA transport to a lesser extent than IAA transport. Multiple peaks of radioactivity were observed in 14C-BA- or 14C-IAA-treated stem segments after 9 h of transport. IAA, ABA, and C2H4 promoted BA catabolism. Auxin, ABA, and C2H4 may inhibit tiller bud release by inhibiting cytokinin transport to the tiller bud and by promoting cytokinin catabolism. Gravistimulation may promote tiller release by inhibiting IAA transport to the tiller bud and allowing cytokinins to accumulate there preferentially.

  17. Comparing and studying crack formation during apical cavity preparation using ultrasonic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrabian M.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major goals of periradicular surgery is to create a good apical sea! at the apex. This"nis done by sectioning of 2 to 3mm from the apex, preparation of a class I cavity and filling with a"nbiocompatible material."nThe purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether ultrasonic units used for root end"npreparations could change the surface & structure of resected root ends, as competed to common"nmethods of retropreparation. Eighty-five extracted single rooted teeth were divided into five similar"ngroups. Then instrumented and filled with lateral condensation method. Then three millimeter of apex"nwas resected, retropreparaiions in two groups were done with low speed handpiece and round V ^ur"nand cavities in two other groups prepared with the highest power of dentspiay ultrasonic unit with TFI-"n10 tip and in one other group prepared with the highest power of neo sonic ultrasonic unit with diamond"ncoated CT-1 retro tip."nFollowing root resection and retropreparation the surface of resected root ends were examined for the"npresence of any cracks or structural changes on the surface of resected root ends with stereo microscope"n50x."nThe results of this study showed thai high power settings of ultrasonic units can increase the potential of"ncrack formation on resected root surfaces. In conclusion it is better to use low power setting of ultrasonic"nfor retropreparation.

  18. Morphological analysis of the retrofilled apical dentin surfaces irradiated with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Lage-Marques, Jose L.; Gavini, Giulio; Clasen, Naya F.; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    1998-04-01

    Countless researches conducted in these last years have compared the sealing capacity of various materials for retrofillings. Besides, the association of laser irradiation to traditional procedures inquires to increase the success of this kind of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes on dentin surface and the junction between retrofilling material and apical cavity, with different materials irradiated or not with CO2 laser, in scanning electron microscopy. The following materials were used: Group A yields Super EBA; group B yields Super EBA and CO2 laser irradiation (Luxar System); group C yields Glass Ionomer Cement; group D yields Glass Ionomer Cement and CO2 laser. In groups B and D the power set was 2 watts, 20 msec, with a CT3105 ceramic point, and the power density for the CO2 laser application was 397,93 w/cm2. The morphological analysis permitted to conclude that the dentin laser irradiation showed different and less intense superficial alteration when compared with retrofilling materials. In most cases, the alterations to the material surfaces showed cavities and craters. Group B presented more irregular and affected surfaces, creating blank spaces in the adjacent areas to the radicular dentinal surfaces after laser application, probably because of the carbonization.

  19. Reverse or inverted apical ballooning in a case of refeeding syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo; Robles; Isabel; Monedero; Amador; Rubio; Javier; Botas

    2015-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by the development of transient left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities,in the absence of significant coronary artery obstruction. This syndrome usually occurs in women and is frequently associated with an intense emotional or physical stress. It usually involves apical segments,but in the recent years atypical forms have been described. Inverted or reverse Takotsubo is a variant in which the basal and midventricular segments are hypokinetic,sparing contractile function of the apex. In this report we describe the case of a 54-year-old woman,with chronic malnutrition,initially admitted because of hypoglycemia and severe electrolyte disturbance due to a refeeding syndrome. Within the next hours she experienced acute cardiac symptoms and developed heart failure with low cardiac output. Electrocardiogram(ECG),elevation of troponin and echocardiographic findings were consistent with inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge,this is the first incidence reported of inverted Takotsubo triggered by refeeding syndrome.

  20. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhen Zhao

    Full Text Available Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5 proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  1. Dental age estimation of growing children by measurement of open apices: A Malaysian formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaneetha Cugati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age estimation is of prime importance in forensic science and clinical dentistry. Age estimation based on teeth development is one reliable approach. Many radiographic methods are proposed on the Western population for estimating dental age, and a similar assessment was found to be inadequate in Malaysian population. Hence, this study aims at formulating a regression model for dental age estimation in Malaysian children population using Cameriere′s method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 421 Malaysian children aged between 5 and 16 years involving all the three ethnic origins were digitalized and analyzed using Cameriere′s method of age estimation. The subjects′ age was modeled as a function of the morphological variables, gender (g, ethnicity, sum of normalized open apices (s, number of tooth with completed root formation (N 0 and the first-order interaction between s and N 0 . Results: The variables that contributed significantly to the fit were included in the regression model, yielding the following formula: Age = 11.368-0.345g + 0.553N o -1.096s - 0.380s.N o , where g is a variable, 1 for males and 2 for females. The equation explained 87.1% of total deviance. Conclusion: The results obtained insist on reframing the original Cameriere′s formula to suit the population of the nation specifically. Further studies are to be conducted to evaluate the applicability of this formula on a larger sample size.

  2. Phenotypical and structural characterization of the Arabidopsis mutant involved in shoot apical meristem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe HU; Ping LI; Jinfang MA; Yunlong WANG; Xinyu WANG; Chongying WANG

    2008-01-01

    An Arabidopsis mutant induced by T-DNA insertion was studied with respect to its phenotype, micro-structure of shoot apical meristem (SAM) and histo-chemical localization of the GUS gene in comparison with the wild type. Phenotypical observation found that the mutant exhibited a dwarf phenotype with smaller organs (such as smaller leaves, shorter petioles), and slower development and flowering time compared to the wild type. Optical microscopic analysis of the mutant showed that it had a smaller and more flattened SAM, with reduced cell layers and a shortened distance between two leaf primordia compared with the wild type. In addi-tion, analysis of the histo-chemical localization of the GUS gene revealed that it was specifically expressed in the SAM and the vascular tissue of the mutant, which suggests that the gene trapped by T-DNA may function in the SAM, and T-DNA insertion could influence the functional activity of the related gene in the mutant, lead-ing to alterations in the SAM and a series of phenotypes in the mutant.

  3. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  4. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  5. Estudio morfológico del extremo apical inactivo de diversas limas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido

    OpenAIRE

    Canalda Sahli, Carlos; Berástegui, Esther; Arroyo Bote, Sebastiana; Rais, A.; Brau Aguadé, Esteban

    1995-01-01

    Diversas firmas han manufacturado limas con el extremo apical inactivo para permitir efectuar la instrumentación de los conductos con una acción rotatoria. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el extremo apical de estas limas (diámetros 30, 40 y 50) mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido, comparándolas con otras limas clásicas. Se observó en todas ellas un extremo apical sin espiras, a diferencia de las limas K convencionales.

  6. Uteroglobin, an apically secreted protein of the uterine epithelium, is secreted non-polarized form MDCK cells and mainly basolaterally from Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Suske, G; Beato, M;

    1993-01-01

    A complete cDNA encoding rabbit uteroglobin was constructed and expressed in MDCK and Caco-2 cells. The MDCK cells secrete uteroglobin in approximately equal amounts to the apical and the basolateral side, whereas the Caco-2 cells secrete uteroglobin mainly to the basolateral side. Both MDCK and ...... the endometrial epithelium has an apical default pathway or recognises a sorting signal not recognised by MDCK cells and Caco-2 cells. Our data thus show that a soluble molecule can be secreted at the apical, the basolateral or both membranes depending on the cell type....

  7. Calcium-enriched mixture pulpotomy of a human permanent molar with irreversible pulpitis and condensing apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asgary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a pulpotomy treatment of a permanent mature molar tooth with established irreversible pulpitis and condensing apical periodontitis, using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement. Clinical examination revealed that the first right lower molar had a large carious lesion with history of spontaneous/lingering pain; radiographic examination showed condensing apical periodontitis. Pulpotomy was opted as the treatment; cervical pulpotomy was carried out. Following hemostasis, the radicular pulp stumps were covered with ~2-mm-thick layer of the prepared CEM cement; the tooth was restored with amalgam. Two-year follow-up showed that the treated tooth had been symptomless, and there were no clinical signs/symptoms of either inflammation or infection. Radiographically, the periradicular lesion was completely healed with reconstruction of bone structures to normal appearance; the root canals were not calcified. According to chemical, physical, and biological properties of the CEM cement, this novel biomaterial may be suitable for endodontic treatment.

  8. Activation of embryo during rape (Brassica napus L. seed germination. I. Structure of embryo and organization of root apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezcysław Kuraś

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Structure of the mature rape embryo was examined on longitudirna microtome sections, and1, its developmental interpretation is given, based on the author's own studies and literature data. The boundaries between the epicotyl, hypocotyl and radicle are recognized and identified with the limits between the proembryo segments. The radicle Structure and root apical meristem organization are described. In the dermatogen and periblem cell patterns four segments are distinguished, separated successively from the initial cells. Their position is recognized as almost the same on both sides of the root axis and in different embryos. The easily discernible limits between the dermatogen sectors are to be utilized as reference points in studies on the root apical meristem activation and growth during rape seed germination.

  9. Altered Apical Morphology (Reverse Architecture): Use of Indirect Ultrasonic Technique for Orthograde MTA Placement in Maxillary Premolars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonali, Kapoor; Suresh, Agrawal Vineet; Abhishek, Patel; Jenish, Patel

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To report the management and orthograde technique of MTA placement in case of reverse architecture maxillary premolars. Summary. Two cases of 17-year-old and 21-year-old female patients were referred to endodontic speciality for management of maxillary premolar having reverse architecture with wide immature open apex like a bell mouth. In both the cases, after control of intraradicular infection, it was decided to use MTA for apexification and obturation of canals. Orthograde placement of MTA is a challenging procedure in terms of length control and condensation especially in divergent irregular reverse architecture wide open apex. A novel technique with the help of finger plugger, sterilized paper point, and ultrasonic agitation for 3D compaction of MTA at apical reverse architecture was used. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed one year after the treatment. PMID:27313910

  10. Nerve lesions following apical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: a systematic case review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J J; Thorn, J J; Korsgaard, N; Pinholt, E M

    2014-09-01

    We present two cases of apical extrusion of non-setting, calcium hydroxide paste which had been placed as an interappointment root canal dressing during routine endodontic treatment resulting in tissue necrosis of a large part of the mandible. Surgical intervention consisted of resections in both instances. In relation to the cases presented, a systematic review of similar cases in the literature between 1980 and April 2013 was conducted which resulted in eight cases meeting the criteria outlined. As with the two presented cases, half of these eight cases showed serious adverse effects and the use of an injectable system had most often been related to apical extrusion. Consequently, great care should be taken when applying the paste into the canal system.

  11. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

  12. Apical serine protease activity is necessary for assembly of a high-resistance renal collecting duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Tinning, Anne R;

    2010-01-01

    anchors released prostasin to the medium and attenuated development of TER with time of culture. Disruption of lipid rafts by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin attenuated development of TER in M-1 cells. Omission of dexamethasone impaired development of TER in M-1 cells, while prostasin protein abundance and E......-cadherin distribution did not change. CONCLUSION: Apical, GPI-anchored, lipid raft-associated serine protease activity, compatible with prostasin, is necessary for development of a high-resistance collecting duct epithelium....

  13. Caveolin-2 Is Required for Apical Lipid Trafficking and Suppresses Basolateral Recycling Defects in the Intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Scott; Walker, Denise S.; Ly, Sung; Baylis, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    Caveolins are plasma membrane–associated proteins that colocalize with, and stabilize caveolae. Their functions remain unclear although they are known to be involved in specific events in cell signaling and endocytosis. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes two caveolin genes, cav-1 and cav-2. We show that cav-2 is expressed in the intestine where it is localized to the apical membrane and in intracellular bodies. Using the styryl dye FM4-64 and BODIPY-labeled lactosylceramide, we show that the inte...

  14. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems– An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Koppolu Madhusudhana; Vinod Babu Mathew; Nelaturi Madhusudhan Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in...

  15. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Maryam; Dehghani, Atena; Abesi, Farida; Khafri, Soraya; Ghadiri Dehkordi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha co...

  16. In vitro study of the apical microleakage with resilon root canal filling using different final endodontic irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Lahor Soler, Eduard; Miranda Rius, Jaume; Brunet Llobet, Lluis; Farré Albaladejo, Magí; Pumarola Suñé, José

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontic microleakage or microfiltration refers to the percolation of fluids and micro-organisms at the interface of the obturation material and the walls of the root canal system. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare apical microfiltration of Resilon root canal filling by employing three different final irrigant solutions. Material and Methods 128 single-rooted teeth were employed. The crowns were sectioned horizontally at the cemento-enamel junction and instrumented wi...

  17. Monitoring the effectiveness of root canal procedures on endotoxin levels found in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    MARINHO, Ariane Cassia Salustiano; MARTINHO, Frederico Canato; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of root canal procedures by using different irrigants and intracanal medication on endotoxin levels found in root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: Thirty root canals of teeth with pulpal necrosis associated with periapical lesions were selected and randomly divided into groups according to the irrigants used: GI - 2.5% NaOCl, GII - 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and GIII - saline solution ...

  18. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  19. Alterações transitórias do exame neurológico durante o despertar da anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano Alteraciones transitorias del examen neurológico durante el despertar de la anestesia con enflurano, isoflurano o sevoflurano Transient neurological changes during emergence from enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Soares

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Anormalidades transitórias do exame neurológico ocorrem durante o despertar da anestesia com halotano, enflurano e isoflurano. Pouco se conhece sobre a ocorrência de anormalidades do exame neurológico durante a recuperação da anestesia com sevoflurano. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a prevalência de tais achados durante a recuperação da anestesia com enflurano (Grupo E, isoflurano (Grupo I e sevoflurano (Grupo S. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 44 pacientes que receberam anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano em N2O a 50%. Foram anotados antes da indução, imediatamente após a cessação da administração do anestésico e 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 e 40 minutos após: temperatura timpânica, nível de consciência, tônus muscular, reflexos pupilar, ciliar, bicipital, patelar e cutâneo-plantar, bem como a ocorrência de calafrios. RESULTADOS: As respostas dos reflexos pupilar, ciliar, patelar e cutâneo-plantar correlacionaram-se com o nível de consciência. Os grupos não diferiram quanto à prevalência de hipertonia muscular, hiperreflexia bicipital, clônus plantar e resposta extensora cutâneo-plantar. Hiperreflexia patelar foi mais freqüente no grupo do enflurano do que no grupo do isoflurano. Calafrios foram mais freqüentes nos grupos E e I do que no grupo do sevoflurano. A temperatura timpânica não diferiu entre os pacientes que apresentaram ou não calafrios. CONCLUSÕES: Alterações reversíveis do exame neurológico podem estar presentes por até 40 minutos durante a recuperação da anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Anormalidades transitorias del examen neurológico ocurren durante el despertar de la anestesia con halotano, enflurano e isoflurano. Poco se conoce sobre la ocurrencia de anormalidades del examen neurológico durante la recuperación de la anestesia con sevoflurano. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar la prevalencia de tal

  20. Partial Pulpotomy of Immature Teeth with Apical Periodontitis using Bioceramics and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Cheng Fei

    2016-06-01

    Pulpal necrosis of an immature permanent tooth with an open apex poses a challenge for the clinician. The conventional apexification technique using calcium hydroxide has yielded short-term success, but this technique has inevitable shortcomings. Hence, this case series aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using bioceramics (iRoot BP) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for partial pulpotomies. Three boys aged 9 to 11 years old presented with partial pulp necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis of the mandibular right and left second premolar. The involved teeth were treated with a partial pulpotomy using either iRoot BP (case 1 and 2) or MTA (case 3). At the 8-month follow-up, no abnormal clinical signs or symptoms were observed. Periapical radiographs revealed a significant reduction in periapical radiolucency, a marked increase in the root canal wall thickness and ongoing closure of the apical opening. The bioceramic material (iRoot BP) and MTA both produced successful outcomes in the partial pulpotomy of immature teeth with partial pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. However, iRoot BP was superior in terms of ease of clinical application, and would therefore be a better treatment alternative than MTA. PMID:27379350

  1. A comparison of apical sealing ability between GuttaFlow and AH plus: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prajakta; Rathore, Vishnu P. S.; Hotkar, Chetan; Savgave, Snehal S.; Raghavendra, K.; Ingale, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study aimed to compare apical sealing ability between GuttaFlow and AH Plus. Materials and Method: Eighty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth with fully formed apex and straight root were collected for this study. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using a standard step back preparation to size 60# master apical file at the established working length and divided into four groups: Group 1, GuttaFlow sealer with gutta-percha; Group 2, AH Plus sealer with gutta-percha; Group 3, positive control group (Teeth were instrumented and left without obturation); Group 4, negative control group (Teeth were totally coated with nail varnish) Dye leakage was carried out. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: The GuttaFlow group had a mean leakage of 1.38 mm whereas AH Plus had a mean of 1.425 mm. The standard deviation of GuttaFlow and AH Plus were 0.3861 and 0.3226, respectively. Student's unpaired t-test disclosed no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion: None of the sealers used in the study could completely seal the apical foramen to have a fluid-tight seal. GuttaFlow and AH Plus showed no statistically significant difference in microleakage; the better result was shown by GuttaFlow. PMID:27583228

  2. Comparative in vitro study of the marginal apical sealing capacity of Sealapex® and Endofill® Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Interliche

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the apical seal obtained with two sealers: Sealapex (Kerr-Sybron, Orange, USA a calcium hydroxide-based sealer and Endofill (Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brazil a zinc oxide eugenol-based sealer. Method: Twenty four extracted single-rooted human teeth were divided into two groups, with ten each, instrumented and filled by lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and one of the sealers. Four teeth were used as positive and negative control. After filling, all specimens were coated with nail vernish except around the apical foramen (the negative control group was completely covered, and then immersed in indian ink for 96 hours, decalcified, dehydrated and diaphanized. Results: The extent of staining was examined under a stereo microscope and the data were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test. Numerically Sealapex (Kerr-Sybron, Orange, USA experimental group had lower levels of marginal leakage than Endofill (Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brasil. The negative control exhibited no leakage and in the positive control leakage was complete. There was no statistically significant differencebetween the sealers. Conclusion: The sealers showed similar apical sealing ability. Neither of the sealers in this study completely prevented leakage.

  3. Mechanically, the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis behaves like a shell inflated by a pressure of about 1 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léna eBeauzamy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82 ± 0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex.

  4. CONTRIBUTION OF APICAL DENDRITES TO RECEPTIVE FIELD PROPERTIES IN LAYER 2/3 OF MOUSE V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although slice recordings and model studies provide a lot of information about how neurons integrate their inputs to overall responses, it is still not clear how neurons in the brain integrate their synaptic inputs to derive their functional properties in vivo. Pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 of mouse V1 receive input from LGN via layer 4 and feedback from higher visual areas. Here, we focus on the function of apical dendrites, which play an important role in communicating with higher visual areas. We ablate apical dendrites of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in area V1, in vivo, and monitor their responses to visual stimuli by two photon microscopy. We compare orientation selectivity, contrast sensitivity and other receptive field properties of L2/3 pyramidal neurons before and after selective apical dendritic ablation. This approach provides information on how different dendritic inputs contribute to neuronal receptive field properties of L2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse V1.

  5. Transforming Growth Factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity in heterotopic grafts of adult dental apical papilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo José Mezadri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 in heterotopic grafts of adult dental apical papillae. Methodology: Adult apical papillae of Wistar rats were grafted in the ear of the same donor rats. 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after grafting, rats were perfused and the tissue containing the graft was processed for histological conventional technique and for immunohistochemical detection of transforming growth factor-ß1. Results: Heterotopically grafted apical papilla developed osteoid dentine. In an early post-grafting stage, odontoblast-like cells organized themselves in palisade and synthesized dentine. However, newly formed dentine possessed the structural appearance of reactive osteoid dentine, which was systematically destroyed by the activity of osteoclaste-like cells. Transforming Growth Factor-ß1 was observed in mesenchymal cells, extracellular matrix of the graft and surrounding host tissue, while odontoblast-like cells were systematically devoid of immunoreactivity. Conclusion: The different expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 between normal tissue and grafted tissue development suggests that in heterotopic graft conditions the inflammatory mediation of the transforming growth factor-ß1 prevails against its morphogenetic role.

  6. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using ProTaper™, Hyflex™ and Waveone™ rotary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprada Reddy Surakanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Extrusion of any debris during endodontic treatment may potentially cause post-operative complications such as flare-ups. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 human mandibular first premolars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20 teeth/group. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers′ instructions using the Reciprocating single-file system WaveOne™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland and full-sequence rotary Hyflex CM™ (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland and ProTaper™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland instruments. The canals were then irrigated using bidistilled water. The debris that was extruded apically was collected in preweighed eppendorf tubes and assessed with an electronic balance and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The debris extrusion was compared and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The WaveOne™ and ProTaper™ rotary instruments produced significantly more debris compared with Hyflex CM™ rotary instruments (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all systems that were used resulted in extrusion of apical debris. Full-sequence rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems.

  7. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants. PMID:20390295

  8. Histone demethylase KDM2B inhibits the chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Dong, Rui; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Jin-Song; Du, Juan; Wang, Song-Lin; Shan, Zhao-Chen; Fan, Zhi-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. Histone methylation, controlled by histone methyltransferases and demethylases, may play a key role in MSCs differentiation. Previous studies determined that KDM2B can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2B is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here we used the stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) to study the role of KDM2B on the chondrogenic differentiation potentials in MSCs. In this study, Gain- and loss-of-function assays were applied to investigate the role of KDM2B on the chondrogenic differentiation. Alcian Blue Staining and Quantitative Analysis were used to investigate the synthesis of proteoglycans by chondrocytes. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expressions of chondrogenesis related genes. The Alcian Blue staining and Quantitative Analysis results revealed that overexpression of KDM2B decreased the proteoglycans production, and real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expressions of the chondrogenic differentiation markers, COL1, COL2 and SOX9 were inhibited by overexpression of KDM2B in SCAPs. On the contrary, depletion of KDM2B increased the proteoglycans production, and inhibited the expressions of COL1, COL2 and SOX9. In conclusion, our results indicated that KDM2B is a negative regulator of chondrogenic differentiation in SCAPs and suggest that inhibition of KDM2B might improve MSC mediated cartilage regeneration. PMID:25932147

  9. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2SR) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  10. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  11. Evaluation of dental expertise with intra-oral peri-apical view radiographs for forensic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwalpreet Kaur Bhullar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of a dead person is important in starting the investigation into the circumstances of death. In the absence of forensic odontologist, it is vital that general dentists are able to compare the ante mortem-post mortem (AM-PM records and with their ability, correctly interpret the individuality of the person. Aims: This study wascarried out to find out the accuracy with which undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate dentists can do this comparison, using the simulated AM-PM intra-oral peri-apical (IOPA view radiographs. Setting and Design: A total of 60 investigators of which 20 undergraduate students, 20 general dentists, 20 post-graduate dentists viewed 10 pairs of simulated AM and PM radiographs and recorded their findings. Materials and Methods: Ten pairs of simulated AM-PM IOPA view radiographs were given to 60 dentists to investigate their discriminatory potential for dental identification purposes. The results were statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis: χ2 -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were carried out to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the three types of examiners (UG, G, PG. Results: The results showed sensitivity of 59.8%, specificity of 62.6%, accuracy of 61% for undergraduate students, sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 87.5%, accuracy of 87% for graduate doctors, sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 92.3% and accuracy of 90.5% for post-graduate doctors respectively. Conclusion: Inexperienced investigators in forensic identification showed fairly acceptable results, therefore, introduction of forensic odontology in an undergraduate course may help general dentists to provide better service, if required, in the absence of a forensic odontologist.

  12. Alterations of Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration and Ultrastructure in Spruce Apical Bud Cells during Seasonal Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lingcheng; Sun Delan; Deng Jiangming; Song Yanmei; Paul H. Li

    2004-01-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to localize Ca2+ in the apical bud cells of spruce from July 1999 to May 2000. During the period of active growth (July 14), Calcium precipitates, an indication of Ca2+ localization, were mainly distributed in vacuoles, intercellular spaces and cell walls. Few Ca2+ deposits localized in the cytosol and nucleus, showing a low level of the cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ concentration in the warm summer. In August, some Ca2+ deposits appeared in the cytosol and nuclei, indicating that Ca2+ influx occurred in the cytosol and nucleus as the day length became shorter. From September to November, high levels of the cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ remained. During the mid-winter (December and January), the distribution of Ca2+ deposits and the ultrastructures in the cells were altered dramatically. Plasmolysis occurred in many cells due to the protoplasmic dehydration. In addition plasmalemma invagination and nuclear chromatin aggregation also occurred. A large number of Ca2+ deposits appeared in the space between the plasmalemma and the cell wall. And also some Ca2+ deposits were distributed in the plastids. However, few Ca2+ deposits were observed in the cytosol and nuclei. By spring of the next year (May), when plants were de-acclimated and resumed active growth, Ca2+ subcellular localization essentially restored to that observed in July of the last year, i.e., the cells contained low cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ concentrations; Ca2+ deposits were mainly distributed in the vacuoles, cell walls and intercellular spaces. The relationships between the seasonal changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the development of dormancy/cold acclimation, as well as plasmolysis associated with dormancy and cold hardiness were discussed.

  13. Concordance of transcriptional and apical benchmark dose levels for conazole-induced liver effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Virunya S; Hester, Susan D; Nesnow, Stephen; Eastmond, David A

    2013-11-01

    The ability to anchor chemical class-based gene expression changes to phenotypic lesions and to describe these changes as a function of dose and time informs mode-of-action determinations and improves quantitative risk assessments. Previous global expression profiling identified a 330-probe cluster differentially expressed and commonly responsive to 3 hepatotumorigenic conazoles (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, and propiconazole) at 30 days. Extended to 2 more conazoles (triadimefon and myclobutanil), the present assessment encompasses 4 tumorigenic and 1 nontumorigenic conazole. Transcriptional benchmark dose levels (BMDL(T)) were estimated for a subset of the cluster with dose-responsive behavior and a ≥ 5-fold increase or decrease in signal intensity at the highest dose. These genes primarily encompassed CAR/RXR activation, P450 metabolism, liver hypertrophy- glutathione depletion, LPS/IL-1-mediated inhibition of RXR, and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress pathways. Median BMDL(T) estimates from the subset were concordant (within a factor of 2.4) with apical benchmark doses (BMDL(A)) for increased liver weight at 30 days for the 5 conazoles. The 30-day median BMDL(T) estimates were within one-half order of magnitude of the chronic BMDLA for hepatocellular tumors. Potency differences seen in the dose-responsive transcription of certain phase II metabolism, bile acid detoxification, and lipid oxidation genes mirrored each conazole's tumorigenic potency. The 30-day BMDL(T) corresponded to tumorigenic potency on a milligram per kilogram day basis with cyproconazole > epoxiconazole > propiconazole > triadimefon > myclobutanil (nontumorigenic). These results support the utility of measuring short-term gene expression changes to inform quantitative risk assessments from long-term exposures.

  14. Drying protocol influence on the bond strength and apical sealing of three different endodontic sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne Calixto Freire de PAULA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying protocols (DP on the apical sealing (AS and on the bond strength (BS of teeth filled with different sealers. The root canals of one hundred and fifty-six roots of maxillary canines were prepared with Reciproc rotary files (R50. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 39, according to the DP: GI–paper points; GII–70% isopropyl alcohol + aspiration with NaviTip points; GIII–95% ethanol + paper points; GIV–EndoVac + paper points. Each group was divided into subgroups, according to the sealer used: AH Plus, Sealapex and MTA Fillapex, using a single-cone technique. Evaluation of AS and BS was performed with fluid filtration (FF and push-out (PO methods, respectively. The PO test consisted of sectioning the roots, and subjecting a single slice from each third to testing and analysis for failure type. The data was submitted to two-way and three-way variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey (α = 5%. The AS showed no drying protocol influence. The FF results revealed a statistically significant difference between MTA and Sealapex (p 0.05, but that there was such a difference among the sealers (p < 0.05, among the protocols (p < 0.05, and in the interaction between sealers and protocols (p < 0.05. AH Plus revealed the highest BS values among the sealers; the highest BS results for the sealers occurred with the specimens used with isopropyl alcohol, compared with ethanol and EndoVac.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Various Endodontic Materials on Stem Cells of Human Apical Papilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Karkehabadi, Hamed; Mollashahi, Narges Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine (BD) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) on stem cells of the human apical papilla (SCAP). Methods and Materials: SCAPs were isolated from two semi-impacted third molars. The cells were cultured in wells of an insert 24-well plate and were then incubated. The plates were then removed from the incubator and randomly divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to 1-mm discs of set MTA, CEM, BD or OCP, and one untreated control group. After 24, 48 and 168 h, the plates were removed from the incubator and 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) solution was added to each well. Data were analyzed at different time points using the repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of the four materials was not significantly different from that of the control group at 24, 48 and 168 h (P>0.05). Two-by-two comparison revealed that cytotoxicity of MTA and CEM cement was significantly different from each other at 168 h (P<0.05) although the cytotoxicity of CEM was less than MTA. Cytotoxicity of OCP and MTA was also significantly different from each other at 48 h and OCP had more favorable biocompatibility than MTA (P<0.05). Conclusion: CEM, OCP, BD and MTA showed acceptable biocompatibility when exposed to SCAP. Over time, CEM showed the least cytotoxicity among the materials under study. PMID:26843872

  16. Angiogenic Potential and Secretome of Human Apical Papilla Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Various Stress Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, Athina; Kritis, Aristeidis; Andreadis, Dimitrios; Papachristou, Eleni; Leyhausen, Gabriele; Koidis, Petros; Geurtsen, Werner; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) of human adult teeth are considered an accessible source of cells with angiogenic properties. The aims of this study were to investigate the endothelial transdifferentiation of SCAP, the secretion of pro- and antiangiogenic factors from SCAP, and the paracrine effects of SCAP when exposed to environmental stress to stimulate tissue damage. SCAP were exposed to serum deprivation (SD), glucose deprivation (GD), and oxygen deprivation/hypoxia (OD) conditions, individually or in combination. Endothelial transdifferentiation was evaluated by in vitro capillary-like formation assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and flow cytometric analyses of angiogenesis-related markers; secretome by antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); and paracrine impact on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by in vitro transwell migration and capillary-like formation assays. The short-term exposure of SCAP to glucose/oxygen deprivation (GOD) in the presence, but mainly in deprivation, of serum (SGOD) elicited a proangiogenesis effect indicated by expression of angiogenesis-related genes involved in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR and angiopoietins/Tie pathways. This effect was unachievable under SD in normoxia, suggesting that the critical microenvironmental condition inducing rapid endothelial shift of SCAP is the combination of SGOD. Interestingly, SCAP showed high adaptability to these adverse conditions, retaining cell viability and acquiring a capillary-forming phenotype. SCAP secreted higher numbers and amounts of pro- (angiogenin, IGFBP-3, VEGF) and lower amounts of antiangiogenic factors (serpin-E1, TIMP-1, TSP-1) under SGOD compared with SOD or SD alone. Finally, secretome obtained under SGOD was most effective in inducing migration and capillary-like formation by HUVECs. These data provide new evidence on the microenvironmental factors favoring endothelial

  17. Apical pattern of fruit production in the racemes of Ceratonia siliqua (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): role of pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista, M; Ortiz, P L; Talavera, S

    1999-12-01

    Fruit production and arrangement within the raceme were studied in two dioecious populations of Ceratonia siliqua (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), an arboreal species that produces caulogenous racemes (emerging only from the old branches) with numerous flowers. Fruit production per raceme was low and similar between years and populations and even between individuals. During flowering, there were considerable flower losses from predation and lack of pollination. A mean of nine flowers per raceme began the transformation into fruits, of which 77% aborted. The final fruit production per raceme increased significantly following hand pollination, but was always very much lower than the availability of flowers in the raceme. The results suggest that fruit production of each raceme is limited by both availability of resources and a deficient pollination. In racemes setting fruit arrangement follows a definite pattern that remains constant between years and populations: fruit production was significantly higher in the apical zone of the raceme and lower in the basal zone. The pollinators of C. siliqua (flies and wasps) showed a clear preference for beginning their visits at the apex of a raceme. As a result, the pollen load deposited on the stigmas decreased from apex to base of the raceme. In most of the flowers situated in the central and basal zone of the raceme, the number of pollen grains deposited on their stigmas was lower than the number of their ovules. The high number of seeds in developed fruits suggests that the plant selectively aborts flowers that receive a smaller pollen load. The results indicate that the final pattern of fruit arrangement within the raceme is a direct result of pollinator activity.

  18. Agglutinating secretory IgA preserves intestinal epithelial cell integrity during apical infection by Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Amandine; Longet, Stéphanie; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-08-01

    Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion. PMID:23753631

  19. Plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) isoform 4 is targeted to the apical membrane by the w-splice insert from PMCA2

    OpenAIRE

    Antalffy, Géza; Mauer, Amy S.; Pászty, Katalin; Hegedus, Luca; Padányi, Rita; Enyedi, Ágnes; STREHLER, EMANUEL E.

    2012-01-01

    Local Ca2+ signaling requires proper targeting of the Ca2+ signaling toolkit to specific cellular locales. Different isoforms of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump (PMCA) are responsible for Ca2+ extrusion at the apical and basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells, but the mechanisms and signals for differential targeting of the PMCAs are not well understood. Recent work demonstrated that the alternatively spliced w-insert in PMCA2 directs this pump to the apical membrane. We now show th...

  20. Comparative evaluation of the apical sealing ability and adaptation to dentine of three resin-based sealers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar, S.; Vasundhara Shivanna; Mohan Thomas Naian; G B Shivamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the apical sealing ability and adaptation of three resin-based sealers to the dentine. Materials and Methods : A total of 66 recently extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were subjected for the study. The teeth were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha by a lateral condensation using AH Plus, Endorez and Epiphany sealers. Fifteen teeth from each group were used for the apical leakage test and the remaining five teeth from each group were used for examinatio...

  1. Functional Apical Large Conductance, Ca2+-activated, and Voltage-dependent K+ Channels Are Required for Maintenance of Airway Surface Liquid Volume*

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares, Dahis; Gonzalez, Carlos; Ivonnet, Pedro; Chen, Ren-Shiang; Valencia-Gattas, Monica; Gregory E. Conner; Larsson, H. Peter; Salathe, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Large conductance, Ca2+-activated, and voltage-dependent K+ (BK) channels control a variety of physiological processes in nervous, muscular, and renal epithelial tissues. In bronchial airway epithelia, extracellular ATP-mediated, apical increases in intracellular Ca2+ are important signals for ion movement through the apical membrane and regulation of water secretion. Although other, mainly basolaterally expressed K+ channels are recognized as modulators of ion transport in airway epithelial ...

  2. Evaluation of apical microleakage of teeth sealed with four different root canal sealers Avaliação da microinfiltração apical em dentes obturados com quatro diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Dultra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare the apical sealing ability of four root canal sealers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty extracted human maxillary canines were instrumented 1 mm short of the anatomical apex and randomly assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root canal sealer used for obturation: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ and Epiphany. Root canals were obturated with gutta-percha points, except for the Epiphany group, in which resin points (Resilon were used. The teeth were immersed in India ink for seven days and clarified using methyl salicylate. The extent of apical dye penetration was measured with a measuroscope in all aspects of the canal. RESULTS: AH Plus (0.02 mm ± 0.07, Epiphany (0.00 mm ± 0.00 and EndoREZ (0.32 mm ± 0.62 did not differ statistically to each other (p>0.01. EndoFill presented the highest dye penetration mean (0.83 mm ± 0.73 and was statistically different from the other sealers (pOBJETIVOS: comparar a capacidade de selamento apical de quatro cimentos endodônticos. MÉTODOS: quarenta caninos superiores humanos extraídos foram instrumentados 1 mm aquém do ápice anatômico e distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=10, de acordo com o cimento endodôntico utilizado para a obturação: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ e Epiphany. Os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral com os cimentos e com cones de guta-percha, exceto o grupo do Epiphany, no qual os cones de resina (Resilon foram utilizados. Os dentes foram imersos em nanquim por sete dias e submetidos ao processo de diafanização e, então, clarificados empregando-se o salicilato de metila. A extensão de penetração via apical do corante foi medida por meio de um microscópio de mensuração em todas as faces do terço apical. RESULTADOS: AH Plus (0,02 mm ± 0,07, Epiphany (0,00 mm ± 0,00 e EndoREZ (0,32 mm ± 0,62 não diferiram estatisticamente entre si (p>0,01. EndoFill apresentou a maior média de penetração do corante (0

  3. Apical internal inflammatory root resorption and open apex treated with MTA: a case report = Reabsorção apical inflamatória interna e ápice aberto tratado com MTA: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun, Débora Franzon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A reabsorção radicular interna inflamatória é uma condição rara caracterizada por progressiva perda de substância dentária, que se inicia nas paredes do canal radicular. Geralmente o processo é assintomático e diagnosticado em exame radiográfico de rotina. O presente relato de caso mostra o tratamento de um caso de lesão periapical e reabsorção interna apical que atingiu a superfície radicular externa. Descrição do caso: Um paciente do sexo masculino de 16 anos foi encaminhado para tratamento odontológico de rotina para reabilitação oral. O exame radiográfico mostrou uma lesão de reabsorção no terço apical e lesão periapical no dente 21. O preparo coronário foi realizado e hidróxido de cálcio foi colocado por duas semanas. Um tampão com MTA branco foi condensado na cavidade da reabsorção e então o canal foi obturado com guta-percha e cimento AH Plus. As radiografias de acompanhamento mostraram resolução satisfatória. Conclusão: Este caso mostrou os resultados do tratamento com tampão apical de MTA. A técnica evitou um procedimento invasivo e apresentou algumas vantagens, tais como propriedades biológicas dos materiais e capacidade de selamento

  4. Cimentos endodônticos - selamento marginal apical imediato e após armazenamento de seis meses Endodontic cements - immediate apical sealing and after a six-month storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro VALERA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o selamento marginal apical de canais radiculares obturados com os cimentos endodônticos Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26 e Ketac Endo. Utilizaram-se 136 raízes, cujos canais radiculares, após o preparo biomecânico, foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral ativa com os cimentos em estudo. Metade das amostras, imediatamente após as obturações, foram imersas na solução de azul de metileno a 2% e a outra metade após 6 meses de armazenamento em plasma sangüíneo humano. Observou-se que os cimentos Sealapex e Sealer 26 apresentaram infiltrações médias estatisticamente iguais entre si e menores que as observadas para os demais cimentos (p The aim of this study was to verify the apical sealing of root canals obturated with Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26, and Ketac Endo cements. A hundred and thirty six dental roots were used for the experiment. After biomechanical preparation and lateral condensation filling, half of the roots were placed in human blood plasma storage medium for 6 months. The remaining samples were immediately placed in methylene blue, under a temporary vacuum, and after one week the amount of dye penetration measured. The stored samples were similarly treated after the 6-month storage period. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the groups obturated with Sealapex and Sealer 26 showed the smallest amount of apical leakage (p < 0.05. There were significant differences in the amount of dye penetration after 6 months of storage (1.275 mm, when compared to the results found without storage (0.829 mm (p < 0.05.

  5. The influence of two reciprocating single-file and two rotary-file systems on the apical extrusion of debris and its biological relationship with symptomatic apical periodontitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes-Bucheli, J; Castellanos, F; Vasquez, N; Ulate, E; Munoz, H R

    2016-03-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the influence of the number of files (full-sequence rotary-file versus reciprocating single-file systems) used during root canal preparation on the apical extrusion of debris and its biological relationship with the occurrence of symptomatic apical periodontitis. An extensive literature research was carried out in the Medline, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane databases, for relevant articles with the keyword search strategy. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently rated the quality of each study determining the level of evidence of the articles selected. The primary outcome for the meta-analysis was determined by the amount of debris extruded into the periapical tissue during root canal preparation with multiple- or single-file systems in four laboratory studies. Analysis of in vivo release of neuropeptides (SP and CGRP) after root canal preparation with single- or multiple-file systems was also carried out. Amongst the 128 articles initially found, 113 were excluded for being nonrelevant or not fulfilling the selection criteria. Another four articles were excluded after methodology evaluation. Finally, nine laboratory studies and two in vivo studies were included in the systematic review. Four of the laboratory studies were further included for meta-analysis that revealed greater debris extrusion after the use of single-file techniques when compared to multiple-file systems. Analysis of in vivo neuropeptide expression in the periodontal ligament suggests that the design of the instrument is more important than the number of files used. Both rotary and reciprocating single-file systems generate apical extrusion of debris in laboratory studies, or expression of neuropeptides in vivo. Available evidence is limited, but supports the fact that this inflammatory reaction is not influenced by the number of files but the type of movement and the instrument design.

  6. THE MODEL FOR AUXIN REGULATED AtPIN1 EXPRESSION IN THE ROOT APICAL MERISTEM

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    Ermakov A.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. PIN-FORMED (PIN gene family encodes transmembrane proteins, which mediate auxin efflux. PIN proteins are asymmetrically localized within cells, thereby forming in tissue auxin concentration gradients and maxima. Auxin has various effects on PIN1 expression in a cell providing for both positive and negative feedbacks on its own transport [1]. Earlier we proposed that this dual regulation determines stem cell niche maintenance in root apical meristem [2].Using two reporter lines of Arabidopsis thaliana we investigated dose-response auxin regulation of PIN1 expression at the levels of RNA and protein. PIN1::PIN1-GFP containing part of PIN1 coding region reveals both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, whereas pPIN1::GUS displays only transcriptional regulation. The reporter line pPIN1::GUS[-1388;+82] was created by authors; PIN1::PIN1-GFP was provided by Alexis Peaucelle (INRA, France. PIN1::PIN1-GFP and pPIN1::GUS seedlings were grown in a 16 hours light/8 hours dark cycle at 25/22°C on 1/2MS with sucrose. Before microscopic analysis 3 dag seedlings were incubated for 24 h in liquid 1/2MS supplemented with different IAA concentrations. The experimental images were analyzed using ImageJ program.We found the following changes in PIN1 expression pattern in the root for both lines under low and moderate auxin treatments: (1 increased domain of PIN1 expression in the root meristem; (2 ectopic expression in epidermis and cortex, (3 increased level of PIN1 expression in provascular cells. However, we observed differences in PIN1 expression between the lines: in columella and under high auxin concentrations. The experimental data suggests posttranslational PIN1 regulation by high auxin concentrations. A mathematical model [2] was extended to describe the observed phenomena. The model simulation well agrees with the experimental data and predicts new aspects on the

  7. Transcriptional profiling of the pea shoot apical meristem reveals processes underlying its function and maintenance

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    Singh Mohan B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM in plant development and organ formation, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling its function is limited. Genomic tools have the potential to unravel the molecular mysteries of the SAM, and legume systems are increasingly being used in plant-development studies owing to their unique characteristics such as nitrogen fixation, secondary metabolism, and pod development. Garden pea (Pisum sativum is a well-established classic model species for genetics studies that has been used since the Mendel era. In addition, the availability of a plethora of developmental mutants makes pea an ideal crop legume for genomics studies. This study aims to utilise genomics tools in isolating genes that play potential roles in the regulation of SAM activity. Results In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the SAM, we generated 2735 ESTs from three cDNA libraries derived from freshly micro-dissected SAMs from 10-day-old garden peas (Pisum sativum cv Torsdag. Custom-designed oligonucleotide arrays were used to compare the transcriptional profiles of pea SAMs and non-meristematic tissues. A total of 184 and 175 transcripts were significantly up- or down-regulated in the pea SAM, respectively. As expected, close to 61% of the transcripts down-regulated in the SAM were found in the public database, whereas sequences from the same source only comprised 12% of the genes that were expressed at higher levels in the SAM. This highlights the under-representation of transcripts from the meristematic tissues in the current public pea protein database, and demonstrates the utility of our SAM EST collection as an essential genetic resource for revealing further information on the regulation of this developmental process. In addition to unknowns, many of the up-regulated transcripts are known to encode products associated with cell division and proliferation

  8. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17–75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. Results All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. Conclusions The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length

  9. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); Efecto de la radiacion gamma en la actividad metabolica del meristemo apical de esparrago (Asparagus officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, A.P. 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Melendrez A, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. e-mail: aestrada@cascabel.ciad.mx

    2007-07-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene

  10. 重度根尖周病变根尖手术同期冠延长术短期疗效观察%Evaluation of Simultaneous Apical Surgery with Crown Lengthening for Severe Apical Diseases in Short-Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴王喜; 陈筑苏; 周磊; 邱钧琦; 刘芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate simultaneous apical surgery with crown lengthening for severe periapical diseases in short-term.Method:The total of 6 patients from Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital from Sep 2013 to Oct 2014, 6 cases with 23 roots with severe periapical lesions were treated using simultaneous apical surgery with crown lengthening for resecting apical lesion,trimming gingival margin,shaping alveolar,improving clinical crown height at the same time, provisional restorations before and after surgeries,then final restorations 3 months after surgeries.Evaluation of bone healing by CBCT,soft tissue healing by PES.Result:Periapical defect filled with new bone,gingival margins and restorations were stable 6 months after surgeries.Conclusion:Simultaneous apical surgery and crown lengthening is a valid treatment to severe periapical diseases.%目的:观察重度根尖周病变患者根尖手术同期联合冠延长术近期的治疗效果。方法:选择2013年9月-2014年10月广东省口腔医院门诊重度根尖周病患者6例,采用根尖手术切除根尖病灶,同期冠延长手术增加临床冠高度,修整龈缘及牙槽脊外形,术前术后临时修复体成型牙龈,术后3个月软硬组织改建稳定,进行永久冠修复,每治疗阶段CBCT评估骨组织愈合情况,PES红色美学评分标准评价软组织转归情况。结果:根尖周病灶骨缺损区新骨充填,龈缘形态稳定,附着龈质地色泽协调,修复体稳定。结论:根尖手术同期冠延长术治疗重度根尖周病临床可行。

  11. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  12. Impact of Inhibiting Ileal Apical Versus Basolateral Bile acid Transport on Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bile acid sequestrants have been used for many years to treat hypercholesterolemia by increasing hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, thereby inducing hepatic LDL receptor expression and clearance of apoB-containing particles. In order to further understand the underlying molecular mechanisms linking gut-liver signaling and cholesterol homeostasis, mouse models defective in ileal apical membrane bile acid transport (Asbt null) and ileal basolateral membrane bile acid transport (Ostα null) were studied under basal and hypercholesterolemic conditions. Key Messages Hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is the major pathway for cholesterol catabolism and a major mechanism for cholesterol elimination. Blocking ileal apical membrane bile acid transport (Asbt null mice) increases fecal bile acid excretion, hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and the relative proportion of taurocholate in the bile acid pool, but decreases ileal FGF15 expression, bile acid pool size, and hepatic cholesterol content. In contrast, blocking ileal basolateral membrane bile acid transport (Ostα null mice) increases ileal FGF15 expression, reduces hepatic Cyp7a1 expression, and increases the proportion of tauro-β-muricholic acid in the bile acid pool. In the hypercholesterolemic apoE null background, plasma cholesterol levels and measurements of atherosclerosis were reduced in Asbt/apoE null mice but not in Ostα/apoE null mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal absorption of bile acids at the apical versus basolateral membrane differentially affects bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, including the development of hypercholesterolemia-associated atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanism likely involves altered regulation of ileal FGF15 expression. PMID:26045273

  13. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitra, Nandita [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James [Department of Medical Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Apisarnthanarax, Smith, E-mail: apisarns@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  14. Comparison of Apical Sealing Ability of Lateral Condensation Technique in Room and Body- Simulated Temperatures (An in vitro study

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    Sobhnamayan F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Studies reported that nearly 60% of endodontic failures have been attributed to inadequate obturation of the root canal system. Thus, complete obturation of the root canal system and proper apical seal are essential elements in the long-term success of root canal treatment.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the apical seal of lateral condensation tech-nique in the room and in body- simulated temperature.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 70 extracted, single- rooted, human premolar teeth were instrumented and divided up into four groups. All tooth’s canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique except the teeth in the positive control group. Group 1and 2, each with 30 teeth, were obturated in the room and intracanal temperature respectively. The other two groups were positive and negative control group each with 5 teeth. All groups except negative control were covered by two layers of nail polish. Then linear dye penetration was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed with student-t test and also Kolmogorov- Smirnov Goodness- of- Fit test to make sure of data. Results: Results showed that dye penetration in group one (obturation in room temperature was 0.6mm more than group 2 (obturation in simulated-body temperature although this was not statistically significant (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Under the condition of this invitro study, apical sealing ability was better in the body-simulated temperature than the room temperature, although it was not statistically significant.

  15. Apical aneurysm and myocardial bridging in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: association or consequence of the myocardial bridging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anthony; Hilpert, Loic; Hédoire, Francois; Saloux, Eric; Gomes, Sophie; Pellissier, Arnaud; Scanu, Patrice; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Milliez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The identification of high-risk patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a challenging issue, since major risk factors sometimes lack specificity. We report the case of a patient with HC and association of apical aneurysm and myocardial bridging who had been initially not implanted because she had only one major risk factor. She subsequently experienced a sustained ventricular tachycardia that finally motivated the implantation. We conclude that it is never an easy decision to implant a preventive implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Nevertheless, additional criteria for a better selection of patients who would benefit from an ICD implant are certainly useful.

  16. Apical ballooning syndrome complicated by acute severe mitral regurgitation with left ventricular outflow obstruction – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celermajer David S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apical ballooning syndrome (or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome of transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Although first described in Japanese patients, it is now well reported in the Caucasian population. The syndrome mimicks an acute myocardial infarction but is characterised by the absence of obstructive coronary disease. We describe a serious and poorly understood complication of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Case Presentation We present the case of a 65 year-old lady referred to us from a rural hospital where she was treated with thrombolytic therapy for a presumed acute anterior myocardial infarction. Four hours after thrombolysis she developed acute pulmonary oedema and a new systolic murmur. It was presumed she had acute mitral regurgitation secondary to a ruptured papillary muscle, ischaemic dysfunction or an acute ventricular septal defect. Echocardiogram revealed severe mitral regurgitation, left ventricular apical ballooning, and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with significant left ventricular outflow tract gradient (60–70 mmHg. Coronary angiography revealed no obstructive coronary lesions. She had an intra-aortic balloon pump inserted with no improvement in her parlous haemodynamic state. We elected to replace her mitral valve to correct the outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation. Intra-operatively the mitral valve was mildly myxomatous but there were no structural abnormalities. She had a mechanical mitral valve replacement with a 29 mm St Jude valve. Post-operatively, her left ventricular outflow obstruction resolved and ventricular function returned to normal over the subsequent 10 days. She recovered well. Conclusion This case represents a serious and poorly understood association of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with acute pulmonary oedema, severe mitral regurgitaton and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF APICALLY EXTRUDED DEBRIS AND IRRIGANT AFTER USING TWO ROTARY SYSTEMS (K3, RaCe)

    OpenAIRE

    Elka N. Radeva; Radosveta I. Vassileva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to establish and compare the amount of debris and irrigant extruded apically after root canal preparation with two rotary systems (K3 and RaCe). Methods: Two groups of 24 extracted teeth with single canals were used. In group 1 (12 teeth) the root canals were instrumented using nickel-titanium K3 rotary instruments and “crown-down” technique. In group 2 (12 teeth) the root canals were instrumented using nickel-titanium RaCe rotary instruments and “crown...

  18. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of 60Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene production

  19. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate; Luiz Ferreira Aguiar Ponte; Joerg Landsmann; Francisco de Assis de Paiva Campos

    1999-01-01

    We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transf...

  20. [New echocardiographic para-apical technic for determining the size and thickness of the wall of the right ventricle in probands and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyczynski, J; Schweitzer, L

    1987-12-01

    To evaluate the right ventricular size and free wall thickness a new echocardiographic para-apical technique was developed. All cases were examined from the para-apical window in the extreme left lateral decubitus position, on a special mattress that allowed us to investigate the total apical region. The para-apical transducer position makes it possible to cut the right ventricle cross-sectionally in serial bread-loafing fashion from the apex to the base, like the left ventricle. In this way, using the M-mode technique, either diameters and/or right ventricular free wall thickness as well as shortening fraction could be estimated. To estimate the usefulness of the para-apical technique, a study was performed in 50 normal subjects as well as in 16 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In all patients, standard views and the new para-apical view were performed. In five cases, contrast echocardiography of the heart was performed to verify the right-heart anatomy. In five patients, computer-tomography of the heart was performed to see the position of the right-heart chambers in the chest and to evaluate the new para-apical ultrasound window. The standard values for the right ventricle in the control group were (in mean values): diastolic diameter, 28.61 +/- 3.19 mm; systolic diameter, 19.10 +/- 2.40 mm; free wall thickness, 4.46 +/- 1.06 mm and shortening fraction, 32.42% +/- 4.02%. The examined parameters in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were: diastolic diameter, mean value 38.63 +/- 5.80 mm; systolic diameter, mean value 32.48 +/- 4.96 mm; free wall thickness, mean value 8.70 +/- 1.05 mm and shortening fraction, mean value 15.96 +/- 4.02%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3439250

  1. Evaluación in vitro de la exactitud del localizador apical miniapex (sybronendo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bernal Alfaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El propósito de este estudio fue determinar el grado de exactitud del localizador Mini Ápex (Sybronendo, en la ubicación del CDC (constricción dentino cementaría cuando éste indica la medida de 0.0mm, confirmado con el microscopio de barrido electrónico. Se tomaron 84 conductos provenientes de las raíces mesiales de primeros molares inferiores permanentes, extraídos por motivos periodontales o protésicos, separadas de las raíces dístales, cortándolas a nivel de la unión amelocementaria, con un disco de carburo a baja velocidad, posteriormente se realizó el COE usando fresas gatees gliden # 2 y 3, irrigando entre cada una de ellas con NaOCl al 5.25% y se introdujeron limas k flex de sybronendo # 0.8, 10 o 15 dependiendo del diámetro del conducto. Se utilizó el método de Asako para determinar la longitud de trabajo, se fijaron las limas dentro del conducto con resina fluida, seguidamente se procedió a cortar el mango de las limas con un corta frió y se observó la posición del D0 de la lima con respecto al CDC con el SEM a una magnificación de 400 aumentos. Los resultados muestran que, en el 85.7%(72 conductos de las muestras, el D0 de la lima se encuentra entre 0.0-0.5mm del CDC, y el 14.3%(12 conductos se encuentran por debajo del CDC. La prueba de ANOVA no encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas, demostrando la exactitud del localizador apical miniapex en la determinación de la longitud de trabajo del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento endodóntico. (DUAZARY 2011, 80 - 87AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy`s grade of the mini apex locator in the location of the CDC when this it indicates the measure of 0.0mm, confirmed with the SEM. 84 root canals were taken from permanent extracted lower first molars for periodontics of prostodontics reasons this were separated of the distal roots, cut them to level of the enamel-cementum joint, with a carbide disk to low speed

  2. Phosphatidylcholine passes through lateral tight junctions for paracellular transport to the apical side of the polarized intestinal tumor cell-line CaCo2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Staffer, Simone; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Wannhoff, Andreas; Bach, Margund; Gauss, Annika

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in intestinal mucus, indicative of a specific transport system across the mucosal epithelium to the intestinal lumen. To elucidate this transport mechanism, we employed a transwell tissue culture system with polarized CaCo2 cells. It was shown that PC could not substantially be internalized by the cells. However, after basal application of increasing PC concentrations, an apical transport of 47.1±6.3nmolh(-1)mMPC(-1) was observed. Equilibrium distribution studies with PC applied in equal concentrations to the basal and apical compartments showed a 1.5-fold accumulation on the expense of basal PC. Disruption of tight junctions (TJ) by acetaldehyde or PPARγ inhibitors or by treatment with siRNA to TJ proteins suppressed paracellular transport by at least 50%. Transport was specific for the choline containing the phospholipids PC, lysoPC and sphingomyelin. We showed that translocation is driven by an electrochemical gradient generated by apical accumulation of Cl(-) and HCO3(-) through CFTR. Pretreatment with siRNA to mucin 3 which anchors in the apical plasma membrane of mucosal cells inhibited the final step of luminal PC secretion. PC accumulates in intestinal mucus using a paracellular, apically directed transport route across TJs. PMID:27365309

  3. Comparison of debris extruded apically and working time used by ProTaper Universal rotary and ProTaper retreatment system during gutta-percha removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kinue Nakamune Uezu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of ProTaper retreatment files and ProTaper Universal in the retreatment of mandibular premolars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The amount of debris extruded apically was measured and the time to reach the working length and to complete the removal of gutta-percha was observed. Thirty teeth had their canals prepared using ProTaper Universal files and were obturated by the single cone technique. The teeth were then stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for 7 days. During the use of the rotary instruments for root canal filling removal, the apical portions of the teeth were attached to the open end of a resin tube to collect the apically extruded debris. RESULTS: ProTaper Universal files were significantly faster (p=0.0011 than the ProTaper retreatment files to perform gutta-percha removal, but no significant difference was found between the files regarding the time to reach the working length or the amount of apical extrusion. CONCLUSIONS: ProTaper Universal rotary had better results for endodontic retreatment, and both techniques promote similar apical extrusion of debris.

  4. Root canal filling using MTA in association with parendodontic surgery in the retreatment of an external apical root resorption – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos JACOBOVITZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The treatment of external apical root resorption should be directed to eliminate the endodontic infection. In some cases, the clinical resolution by conventional endodontic treatment cannot be performed, due to instrumentation and root canal filling complexity. In these cases, alternative instrumentation and obturation techniques may be necessary,additionally to apical surgery. Case report: This case report shows an alternative to external apical root resorption retreatment, using obturation with MTA associated to parendodontic surgery. After the removal of obturation material and the root canal cleaning and shaping, calcium hydroxide therapy was performed during 45 days. After that the canal was filled with MTA, and in a posterior session apical curettage and apicoectomy were performed. After 34 months, the periapical healing could be radiographically noticed, with close contact between trabecular bone and MTA. Conclusion: The use of MTA as a root canal filling material associated with parendodontic surgery seemed to be an adequate alternative to external apical root resorptions.

  5. Short communication: Subtyping of Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates from milk and corresponding teat apices to verify the potential teat-skin origin of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Van Coillie, Els; Braem, Gorik; Piessens, Veerle; Verbist, Bert; De Vuyst, Luc; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and they colonize the teat skin. Staphylococcus haemolyticus, one of the more common CNS, has been identified as a highly versatile opportunistic species. The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the adaptation of S. haemolyticus subtypes to the udder ecosystem with respect to IMI development. During a longitudinal observational study conducted over 13 mo on 6 Flemish dairy herds, S. haemolyticus isolates were recovered from milk and teat apices. A total of 44 S. haemolyticus isolates originating from milk (24 isolates) and teat apices (20 isolates) of 6 selected udder quarters were singled out and analyzed using a combined methodology of (GTG)5-PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting to determine intraspecies differences. Combining both fingerprinting methods, 4 S. haemolyticus subtypes were obtained (I to IV). Subtypes I, II, and IV were recovered from both milk and teat apex samples and were found to be associated with persisting IMI. Subtype III, not apparently related to IMI, was isolated solely from teat apices and not from milk. In general, S. haemolyticus subtypes found in milk from infected quarters could be recovered from the corresponding teat apices, although the latter could be colonized with up to 3 different subtypes. Comparing subtypes from milk and teat apices indicates that the IMI-causing agent likely originates from the teat skin.

  6. Ex vivo evaluation of coronal and apical microbial leakage of root canal - Filled with gutta-percha or Resilon/Epiphany root canal filling material

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    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This ex vivo study compared coronal and apical microleakage of root canals filled with Resilon/Epiphany (RE or gutta-percha/Grossman sealer (GP, using either lateral condensation (LC or System B (SB technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens in eight experimental groups were obturated using the following materials and techniques: Groups 1 and 3 - GP and LC; groups 2 and 4 - GP and SB; groups 5 and 7 - RE and LC; groups 6 and 8 - RE and SB. Apical and coronal leakages were tested using bacterial methods. For coronal analysis, the number of days required for complete contamination of the root canals was recorded according to observation of the brain heart infusion broth turbidity for 15 weeks. For apical analysis, the teeth were cleaved and the leakage was measured at 30 days. Data were collected for each sample and analyzed statistically with the Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results: Leakage was found in all groups. The difference between filling materials, obturation techniques, and median time of leakage was not statistically significant for coronal ( P=0.847 and apical ( P=0.5789 leakages. Conclusion: There were no differences between the different filling materials (gutta-percha/Grossman sealer and Resilon/Epiphany and obturation techniques (lateral condensation and system B technique in coronal or apical leakages.

  7. Exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarity, which results in different daughter cell fate and fixes the apical-basal axis of the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingchun; Liu, Yuan; He, Yuqing; Ma, Ligang; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The roles of cell polarity and the first asymmetric cell division during early embryogenesis in apical-basal cell fate determination remain unclear. Previously, a novel Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system was established, by which rape exine-dehisced microspores were induced by physical stress. Unlike traditional microspore culture, cell polarity and subsequent asymmetric division appeared in the exine-dehisced microspore, which finally developed into a typical embryo with a suspensor. Further studies indicated that polarity is critical for apical-basal cell fate determination and suspensor formation. However, the pattern of the first division was not only determined by cell polarity but was also regulated by the position of the ruptured exine. The first division could be equal or unequal, with its orientation essentially perpendicular to the polar axis. In both types of cell division, the two daughter cells could have different cell fates and give rise to an embryo with a suspensor, similar to zygotic apical-basal cell differentiation. The alignment of the two daughter cells is consistent with the orientation of the apical-basal axis of future embryonic development. Thus, the results revealed that exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarization, and this polarity results in a different cell fate and fixes the apical-basal axis of embryogenesis, but is uncoupled from cell asymmetric division. The present study demonstrated the relationships among cell polarity, asymmetric cell division, and cell fate determination in early embryogenesis. PMID:23162119

  8. Correlation Between Endogenous Hormones of Stem Apices and Fruit Locule Numbers in Tomatoes During Floral Bud Differentiation Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; LI Tian-lai; WANG Dan

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to elucidate the changes in the endogenous hormones of stem apices in tomatoes and the function of correlative endogenous hormones in tomatoes during floral bud differentiation stages. The tomato parents were crossed and reverse crossed by using two inbred lines of multi-locule (MLK1) and few-locule (FL1) with significant difference, and the relationship between endogenous hormones GA3, IAA, and ABA levels and ovary locule numbers of parents and progeny during floral bud differentiation initial stage, floral bud differentiation stage, sepal petal formation stage, carpel formation initial stage, and ovary locule complete formation stage was studied. GA3 levels in P1, P2, F3, and RF1 were consistent with locule numbers, and IAA and ABA levels were reverse to ovary locule numbers during the key stage. The correlation showed that, during sepal petal formation stage, the ovary locule numbers were positively correlated with GA3, GA3/IAA, and GA/ABA, and were negatively correlated with IAA and ABA. It was speculated that increasing GA3 levels or decreasing IAA and ABA levels of stem apices in tomato might be able to enhance ovary locule numbers. The sepal petal formation stage was an important stage which regulated endogenous hormones in the ovary locule formation.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of apical deviation of curved root canals after the use of manual and rotary instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Bittencourt PIRES

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of root canal is notable because it is responsible for the cleaning and disinfection of the canal system and for the modeling that will allow adequate accommodation of filling material, favoring the endodontic sealing. Objective: The objective of this research was to study the occurrence of the apical deviation ofcurved root canals instrumented with a manual technique and tworotary systems (Profile and Race. Material and methods: Thirty mesiovestibular canals of inferior molars were used; they were divided into three groups and instrumented with the mixed technique defended by Holland et al. (1991, with the Profile system and with the Race system. For the evaluation of apical deviation the radiographic platform method developed by Sydney et al. (1991 was used, which allows to obtain overlapped images of the first and the last instrument used in the root canal preparation in the same x-ray. Results: The analysis of the results showed that there is no statistically significant difference among the three groups in their relation to the amount of deviated canals; however, when the quality of the deviation is evaluated, there is a significant difference only between group 1 (manual technique and group 2 (Profile system. Conclusion: When the deviation occurred, it was ignificantlysmaller in the group instrumented with the Profile system.

  10. Small GTPases promote actin coat formation on microsporidian pathogens traversing the apical membrane of Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumowski, Suzannah C; Estes, Kathleen A; Popovich, John J; Botts, Michael R; Sek, Grace; Troemel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Many intracellular pathogens co-opt actin in host cells, but little is known about these interactions in vivo. We study the in vivo trafficking and exit of the microsporidian Nematocida parisii, which is an intracellular pathogen that infects intestinal cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We recently demonstrated that N. parisii uses directional exocytosis to escape out of intestinal cells into the intestinal tract. Here, we show that an intestinal-specific isoform of C. elegans actin called ACT-5 forms coats around membrane compartments that contain single exocytosing spores, and that these coats appear to form after fusion with the apical membrane. We performed a genetic screen for host factors required for actin coat formation and identified small GTPases important for this process. Through analysis of animals defective in these factors, we found that actin coats are not required for pathogen exit although they may boost exocytic output. Later during infection, we find that ACT-5 also forms coats around membrane-bound vesicles that contain multiple spores. These vesicles are likely formed by clathrin-dependent compensatory endocytosis to retrieve membrane material that has been trafficked to the apical membrane as part of the exocytosis process. These findings provide insight into microsporidia interaction with host cells, and provide novel in vivo examples of the manner in which intracellular pathogens co-opt host actin during their life cycle. PMID:26147591

  11. Transcytosis of IL-11 and Apical Redirection of gp130 Is Mediated by IL-11α Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Monhasery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-11 signaling is involved in various processes, including epithelial intestinal cell regeneration and embryo implantation. IL-11 signaling is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11R1 or IL-11R2, two IL-11α-receptor splice variants, and gp130. Here, we show that IL-11 signaling via IL-11R1/2:gp130 complexes occurs on both the apical and basolateral sides of polarized cells, whereas IL-6 signaling via IL-6R:gp130 complexes is restricted to the basolateral side. We show that basolaterally supplied IL-11 is transported and released to the apical extracellular space via transcytosis in an IL-11R1-dependent manner. By contrast, IL-6R and IL-11R2 do not promote transcytosis. In addition, we show that transcytosis of IL-11 is dependent on the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 and that synthetic transfer of the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 to IL-6R promotes transcytosis of IL-6. Our data define IL-11R as a cytokine receptor with transcytotic activity by which IL-11 and IL-6:soluble IL-6R complexes are transported across cellular barriers.

  12. Transcytosis of IL-11 and Apical Redirection of gp130 Is Mediated by IL-11α Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monhasery, Niloufar; Moll, Jens; Cuman, Carly; Franke, Manuel; Lamertz, Larissa; Nitz, Rebecca; Görg, Boris; Häussinger, Dieter; Lokau, Juliane; Floss, Doreen M; Piekorz, Roland; Dimitriadis, Eva; Garbers, Christoph; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-07-26

    Interleukin (IL)-11 signaling is involved in various processes, including epithelial intestinal cell regeneration and embryo implantation. IL-11 signaling is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11R1 or IL-11R2, two IL-11α-receptor splice variants, and gp130. Here, we show that IL-11 signaling via IL-11R1/2:gp130 complexes occurs on both the apical and basolateral sides of polarized cells, whereas IL-6 signaling via IL-6R:gp130 complexes is restricted to the basolateral side. We show that basolaterally supplied IL-11 is transported and released to the apical extracellular space via transcytosis in an IL-11R1-dependent manner. By contrast, IL-6R and IL-11R2 do not promote transcytosis. In addition, we show that transcytosis of IL-11 is dependent on the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 and that synthetic transfer of the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 to IL-6R promotes transcytosis of IL-6. Our data define IL-11R as a cytokine receptor with transcytotic activity by which IL-11 and IL-6:soluble IL-6R complexes are transported across cellular barriers.

  13. Apical localisation of crumbs in the boundary cells of the Drosophila hindgut is independent of its canonical interaction partner stardust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumichel, Alexandra; Knust, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs/Crb is a key regulator of apico-basal epithelial cell polarity, both in Drosophila and in vertebrates. In most cases studied so far, the apical localisation of Drosophila Crumbs depends on the interaction of its C-terminal amino acids with the scaffolding protein Stardust. Consequently, embryos lacking either Crumbs or Stardust develop a very similar phenotype, characterised by the loss of epithelial tissue integrity and cell polarity in many epithelia. An exception is the hindgut, which is not affected by the loss of either gene. The hindgut is a single layered epithelial tube composed of two cell populations, the boundary cells and the principal cells. Here we show that Crumbs localisation in the principal cells depends on Stardust, similarly to other embryonic epithelia. In contrast, localisation of Crumbs in the boundary cells does not require Stardust and is independent of its PDZ domain- and FERM-domain binding motifs. In line with this, the considerable upregulation of Crumbs in boundary cells is not followed by a corresponding upregulation of its canonical binding partners. Our data are the first to suggest a mechanism controlling apical Crumbs localisation, which is independent of its conserved FERM- and PDZ-domain binding motifs.

  14. Apical localisation of crumbs in the boundary cells of the Drosophila hindgut is independent of its canonical interaction partner stardust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kumichel

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein Crumbs/Crb is a key regulator of apico-basal epithelial cell polarity, both in Drosophila and in vertebrates. In most cases studied so far, the apical localisation of Drosophila Crumbs depends on the interaction of its C-terminal amino acids with the scaffolding protein Stardust. Consequently, embryos lacking either Crumbs or Stardust develop a very similar phenotype, characterised by the loss of epithelial tissue integrity and cell polarity in many epithelia. An exception is the hindgut, which is not affected by the loss of either gene. The hindgut is a single layered epithelial tube composed of two cell populations, the boundary cells and the principal cells. Here we show that Crumbs localisation in the principal cells depends on Stardust, similarly to other embryonic epithelia. In contrast, localisation of Crumbs in the boundary cells does not require Stardust and is independent of its PDZ domain- and FERM-domain binding motifs. In line with this, the considerable upregulation of Crumbs in boundary cells is not followed by a corresponding upregulation of its canonical binding partners. Our data are the first to suggest a mechanism controlling apical Crumbs localisation, which is independent of its conserved FERM- and PDZ-domain binding motifs.

  15. ASPP2 links the apical lateral polarity complex to the regulation of YAP activity in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Royer

    Full Text Available The Hippo pathway, by tightly controlling the phosphorylation state and activity of the transcription cofactors YAP and TAZ is essential during development and tissue homeostasis whereas its deregulation may lead to cancer. Recent studies have linked the apicobasal polarity machinery in epithelial cells to components of the Hippo pathway and YAP and TAZ themselves. However the molecular mechanism by which the junctional pool of YAP proteins is released and activated in epithelial cells remains unknown. Here we report that the tumour suppressor ASPP2 forms an apical-lateral polarity complex at the level of tight junctions in polarised epithelial cells, acting as a scaffold for protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 and junctional YAP via dedicated binding domains. ASPP2 thereby directly induces the dephosphorylation and activation of junctional YAP. Collectively, this study unearths a novel mechanistic paradigm revealing the critical role of the apical-lateral polarity complex in activating this localised pool of YAP in vitro, in epithelial cells, and in vivo, in the murine colonic epithelium. We propose that this mechanism may commonly control YAP functions in epithelial tissues.

  16. Apical Closure in Apexification: A Review and Case Report of Apexification Treatment of an Immature Permanent Tooth with Biodentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karla; Martin, Gabriela; Lozano, Oscar; Salas, Marco; Trigueros, Jaime; Aguilar, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Materials such as calcium hydroxide paste and mineral trioxide aggregate are used in apexification treatment of immature permanent teeth, but the search for improved materials with higher characteristics of biocompatibility results in different materials. Biodentine is a tricalcium silicate cement that possesses adequate handling characteristics and acceptable mechanical and bioactivity properties. This report describes the case of a 9-year-old boy who was referred to the Department of Dental Clinic of Querétaro Autonomous University of Mexico. One month prior the patient had suffered a dental trauma of his upper left central incisor and had been treated by another dentist. The clinical diagnosis was previously initiated therapy and symptomatic apical periodontitis. The treatment was apexification with Biodentine. At follow-ups performed at 3, 6, and 18 months after treatment the tooth was asymptomatic. The cone-beam computed tomography scan at 18-month postoperative follow-up revealed continuity of periodontal ligament space, absence of periapical rarefactions, and a thin layer of calcified tissue formed apical to the Biodentine barrier. On the basis of sealing ability and biocompatibility, apexification treatment with Biodentine was applied in the present case report. The favorable clinical and radiographic outcome in this case demonstrated that Biodentine may be an efficient alternative to the conventional apexification materials. PMID:26994597

  17. Influence of root curvature’s initial position on apical deviation occurrence after oscillatory preparation in simulated root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de Melo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of root curvature’s initial position on apical deviation occurrence after oscillatory system preparation. Material and methods: For this purpose, we used twenty simulated root canals with 21 mm length and 30 degree angle, which were divided into two experimental groups according to curvature’s initial position: 8 mm (group A and 12 mm (group B short of the canal orifice. The canals were prepared using crown-down technique, and memory instrument was size #30. For apical deviation analysis, before and after preparation, canals were filled with Indian ink and standardly photographed with the aid of a platform. After that, the images were manipulated by Adobe Photoshop® software, through superimposing pre- and post-operative images. Deviation occurrence was measured 1 mm short of working length and at the middle of the curvature by using the ruler tool. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. Results: Although group B showed a significantly greater deviation mean than group A, no significant interaction was verified between the analysis site and the experimental group. Conclusion: According to the present data, it could be observed that the smaller the curvature radius, the greater the deviation. Concerning to the analysis site, it could be noted that the area 1 mm short of working length presented a higher deviation than the point at the middle of the curvature.

  18. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura [School of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil); De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar [Dept. of Dental Radiology, School of Dentistry, State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  19. Magi Is Associated with the Par Complex and Functions Antagonistically with Bazooka to Regulate the Apical Polarity Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Samarasekera, Gayathri; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa J.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian MAGI proteins play important roles in the maintenance of adherens and tight junctions. The MAGI family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and intracellular signaling components. Loss of MAGI leads to reduced junction stability while overexpression of MAGI can lead to increased adhesion and stabilization of epithelial morphology. However, how Magi regulates junction assembly in epithelia is largely unknown. We investigated the single Drosophila homologue of Magi to study the in vivo role of Magi in epithelial development. Magi is localized at the adherens junction and forms a complex with the polarity proteins, Par3/Bazooka and aPKC. We generated a Magi null mutant and found that Magi null mutants were viable with no detectable morphological defects even though the Magi protein is highly conserved with vertebrate Magi homologues. However, overexpression of Magi resulted in the displacement of Baz/Par3 and aPKC and lead to an increase in the level of PIP3. Interestingly, we found that Magi and Baz functioned in an antagonistic manner to regulate the localization of the apical polarity complex. Maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex. PMID:27074039

  20. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  1. Apical and periapical tissues responses after root canal obturation with two calcium hydroxid based sealers in dog’s teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Renata Giazzi NASSRI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the ending of endodontic treatment, is very importantthat the choice of root canal’s sealer will be done by biologicalcompatibility criterial, which could promote less inflammation, turning quicker and more effective the healing process. Objective and material and methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical tissues reactions in dog’s teeth, after pulpectomy and root canal’s cleaning and shaping, which limit was the fisiological barrier of delta apical, and filling with gutta-percha and two calcium hydroxide based endodontics sealers, Sealapex® and Apexit®, by those hystopatological events in observation periods of 7, 21 and 45 days,making a comparison of inflammatory reactions and reparacional evolution that both materials promoted. Past all periods, the dogs were killed and histological cuts of teeth were obtained. Results: Through qualitative-quantitative analysis, Sealapex showed inflammatory level among mild and moderate in all periods, having a great improvement in healing process at 45 days. There was a biggest dispersion of Apexitin periapical tissue, which caused an intense macrophage activity,raising inflammatory level in last period. Conclusion: Regardless of the sealer used, there were observed necrosis in a few of delta apical’s ramifications, being mostly in tooth filling by Apexit. In both ways,Sealapex showed best results than Apexit, about increased inflammatory reaction and healing process.

  2. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm3) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  3. p600 regulates spindle orientation in apical neural progenitors and contributes to neurogenesis in the developing neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Belzil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apical neural progenitors (aNPs drive neurogenesis by means of a program consisting of self-proliferative and neurogenic divisions. The balance between these two manners of division sustains the pool of apical progenitors into late neurogenesis, thereby ensuring their availability to populate the brain with terminal cell types. Using knockout and in utero electroporation mouse models, we report a key role for the microtubule-associated protein 600 (p600 in the regulation of spindle orientation in aNPs, a cellular event that has been associated with cell fate and neurogenesis. We find that p600 interacts directly with the neurogenic protein Ndel1 and that aNPs knockout for p600, depleted of p600 by shRNA or expressing a Ndel1-binding p600 fragment all display randomized spindle orientation. Depletion of p600 by shRNA or expression of the Ndel1-binding p600 fragment also results in a decreased number of Pax6-positive aNPs and an increased number of Tbr2-positive basal progenitors destined to become neurons. These Pax6-positive aNPs display a tilted mitotic spindle. In mice wherein p600 is ablated in progenitors, the production of neurons is significantly impaired and this defect is associated with microcephaly. We propose a working model in which p600 controls spindle orientation in aNPs and discuss its implication for neurogenesis.

  4. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  5. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina [University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil); Meurer, Maria Ines [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa, E-mail: silvio@foar.unesp.b [Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 +- 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 +- 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  6. Cleavage of endogenous γENaC and elevated abundance of αENaC are associated with increased Na+ transport in response to apical fluid volume expansion in human H441 airway epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Chong D.; Selvanathar, Indusha A.; Baines, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    Using human H441 airway epithelial cells cultured at air–liquid interface (ALI), we have uniquely correlated the functional response to apical fluid volume expansion with the abundance and cleavage of endogenous α- and γENaC proteins in the apical membrane. Monolayers cultured at ALI rapidly elevated I sc when inserted into fluid-filled Ussing chambers. The increase in I sc was not significantly augmented by the apical addition of trypsin, and elevation was abolished by the protease inhibitor...

  7. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  8. Deletion of the anion exchanger Slc26a4 (pendrin) decreases apical Cl−/HCO3− exchanger activity and impairs bicarbonate secretion in kidney collecting duct

    OpenAIRE

    Amlal, Hassane; Petrovic, Snezana; Xu, Jie; Wang, Zhaohui; Sun, Xuming; Barone, Sharon; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2010-01-01

    The anion exchanger Pendrin, which is encoded by SLC26A4 (human)/Slc26a4 (mouse) gene, is localized on the apical membrane of non-acid-secreting intercalated (IC) cells in the kidney cortical collecting duct (CCD). To examine its role in the mediation of bicarbonate secretion in vivo and the apical Cl−/HCO3− exchanger in the kidney CCD, mice with genetic deletion of pendrin were generated. The mutant mice show the complete absence of pendrin expression in their kidneys as assessed by Northern...

  9. Effect of different final irrigating solutions on smear layer removal in apical third of root canal: A scanning electron microscope study

    OpenAIRE

    Sayesh Vemuri; Sreeha Kaluva Kolanu; Sujana Varri; Ravi Kumar Pabbati; Ramesh Penumaka; Nagesh Bolla

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the smear layer removal efficacy of different irrigating solutions at the apical third of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and decoronated to standardize the canal length to 14 mm. They were prepared by ProTaper rotary system to an apical preparation of file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10); saline (Group 1; negative control), ethyle...

  10. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  11. Myocardial scarring on cardiovascular magnetic resonance in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with “pure” apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung-Hee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables state-of-the-art in vivo evaluations of myocardial fibrosis. Although LGE patterns have been well described in asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, conflicting results have been reported regarding the characteristics of LGE in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM. This study was undertaken to determine 1 the frequency and distribution of LGE and 2 its prognostic implication in ApHCM. Methods Forty patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic pure ApHCM (age, 60.2 ± 10.4 years, 31 men were prospectively enrolled. LGE images were acquired using the inversion recovery segmented spoiled-gradient echo and phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence, and analyzed using a 17-segment model. Summing the planimetered LGE areas in all short axis slices yielded the total volume of late enhancement, which was subsequently presented as a proportion of total LV myocardium (% LGE. Results Mean maximal apical wall thickness was 17.9±2.3mm, and mean left ventricular (LV ejection fraction was 67.7 ± 8.0%. All but one patient presented with electrocardiographic negative T wave inversion in anterolateral leads, with a mean maximum negative T wave of 7.2 ± 4.7mm. Nine patients (22.5% had giant negative T waves, defined as the amplitude of ≥10mm, in electrocardiogram. LGE was detected in 130 segments of 30 patients (75.0%, occupying 4.9 ± 5.5% of LV myocardium. LGE was mainly detected at the junction between left and right ventricles in 12 (30% and at the apex in 28 (70%, although LGE-positive areas were widely distributed, and not limited to the apex. Focal LGE at the non-hypertrophic LV segments was found in some ApHCM patients, even without LGE of hypertrophied apical segments. Over the 2-year follow-up, there was no one achieving the study end-point, defined as all-cause death, sudden cardiac death and hospitalization for heart failure

  12. Involvement of auxin and CKs in boron deficiency induced changes in apical dominance of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Römheld, Volker; Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2006-04-01

    It has previously been shown that boron (B) deficiency inhibits growth of the plant apex, which consequently results in a relatively weak apical dominance, and a subsequent sprouting of lateral buds. Auxin and cytokinins (CKs) are the two most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of apical dominance. In this study, the possible involvement of these two hormones in B-deficiency-induced changes in apical dominance was investigated by applying B or the synthetic CK CPPU to the shoot apex of pea plants grown in nutrient solution without B supply. Export of IAA out of the shoot apex, as well as the level of IAA, Z/ZR and isopentenyl-adenine/isopentenyl-adenosine (i-Ade/i-Ado) in the shoot apex were assayed. In addition, polar IAA transport capacity was measured in two internodes of different ages using 3H-IAA. In B-deficient plants, both the level of auxin and CKs were reduced, and the export of auxin from the shoot apex was considerably decreased relative to plants well supplied with B. Application of B to the shoot apex restored the endogenous Z/ZR and IAA level to control levels and increased the export of IAA from the shoot apex, as well as the 3H-IAA transport capacity in the newly developed internodes. Further, B application to the shoot apex inhibited lateral bud growth and stimulated lateral root formation, presumably by stimulated polar IAA transport. Applying CPPU to the shoot apex, a treatment that stimulates IAA export under adequate B supply, considerably reduced the endogenous Z/ZR concentration in the shoot apex, but had no stimulatory effect on IAA concentration and transport in B-deficient plants. A similar situation appeared to exist in lateral buds of B-deficient plants as, in contrast to plants well supplied with B, application of CKs to these plants did not stimulate lateral bud growth. In contrast to the changes of Z/ZR levels in the shoot apex, which occurred after application of B or CPPU, the levels of i-Ade/i-Ado stayed more or

  13. Airway Hydration, Apical K(+) Secretion, and the Large-Conductance, Ca(2+)-activated and Voltage-dependent Potassium (BK) Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Adrian; Krick, Stefanie; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated, and voltage-gated K(+) (BK) channels are expressed in many tissues of the human body, where they play important roles in signaling not only in excitable but also in nonexcitable cells. Because BK channel properties are rendered in part by their association with four β and four γ subunits, their channel function can differ drastically, depending on in which cellular system they are expressed. Recent studies verify the importance of apically expressed BK channels for airway surface liquid homeostasis and therefore of their significant role in mucociliary clearance. Here, we review evidence that inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to airway diseases, can lead to reduced BK activity via a functional down-regulation of the γ regulatory subunit LRRC26. Therefore, manipulation of LRRC26 and pharmacological opening of BK channels represent two novel concepts of targeting epithelial dysfunction in inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:27115952

  14. An evolutionarily conserved SSNA1/DIP13 homologue is a component of both basal and apical complexes of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Maude F; Berry, Laurence; Besteiro, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-based cytoskeletal structures have fundamental roles in several essential eukaryotic processes, including transport of intracellular constituents as well as ciliary and flagellar mobility. Temporal and spatial organisation of microtubules is determined by microtubule organising centers and a number of appendages and accessory proteins. Members of the SSNA1/DIP13 family are coiled coil proteins that are known to localise to microtubular structures like centrosomes and flagella, but are otherwise poorly characterised. We have identified a homologue of SSNA1/DIP13 in the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii and found it localises to parasite-specific cytoskeletal structures: the conoid in the apical complex of mature and dividing cells, and the basal complex in elongating daughter cells during cell division. This protein is dispensable for parasite growth in vitro. However, quite remarkably, this coiled coil protein is able to self-associate into higher order structures both in vitro and in vivo, and its overexpression is impairing parasite division. PMID:27324377

  15. Evidence for the Nucleo-Apical Shuttling of a Beta-Catenin Like Plasmodium falciparum Armadillo Repeat Containing Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pallabi; Gupta, Enna Dogra; Sahar, Tajali; Pandey, Alok K; Dangi, Poonam; Reddy, K Sony; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Gaur, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic Armadillo (ARM) repeat proteins are multifaceted with prominent roles in cell-cell adhesion, cytoskeletal regulation and intracellular signaling among many others. One such ARM repeat containing protein, ARM Repeats Only (ARO), has recently been demonstrated in both Toxoplasma (TgARO) and Plasmodium (PfARO) parasites to be targeted to the rhoptries during the late asexual stages. TgARO has been implicated to play an important role in rhoptry positioning i.e. directing the rhoptry towards the apical end of the parasite. Here, we report for the first time that PfARO exhibits a DNA binding property and a dynamic sub-cellular localization between the nucleus (early schizont) and rhoptry (late schizont) during the different stages of the asexual blood-stage life cycle. PfARO possesses a putative nuclear export signal (NES) and the nucleo-apical shuttling was sensitive to Leptomycin B (LMB) suggesting that the nuclear export was mediated by CRM1. Importantly, PfARO specifically bound an A-T rich DNA sequence of the P. falciparum Gyrase A (PfgyrA) gene, suggesting that the DNA binding specificity of PfARO is likely due to the AT-richness of the probe. This is a novel functional characteristic that has not been reported previously for any P. falciparum ARM containing protein and suggests a putative role for PfARO in gene regulation. This study describes for the first time a conserved P. falciparum ARM repeat protein with a high degree of functional versatility. PMID:26828945

  16. Transposon-mediated alteration of TaMATE1B expression in wheat confers constitutive citrate efflux from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, Andriy; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Lewis, David C; Rathjen, Tina M; Ramesh, Sunita; Tyerman, Stephen D; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    The TaMATE1B gene (for multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) was isolated and shown to encode a citrate transporter that is located on the plasma membrane. TaMATE1B expression in roots was induced by iron deficiency but not by phosphorus deficiency or aluminum treatment. The coding region of TaMATE1B was identical in a genotype showing citrate efflux from root apices (cv Carazinho) to one that lacked citrate efflux (cv Egret). However, sequence upstream of the coding region differed between these two genotypes in two ways. The first difference was a single-nucleotide polymorphism located approximately 2 kb upstream from the start codon in cv Egret. The second difference was an 11.1-kb transposon-like element located 25 bp upstream of the start codon in cv Carazinho that was absent from cv Egret. The influence of these polymorphisms on TaMATE1B expression was investigated using fusions to green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa). Fluorescence measurements in roots of rice indicated that 1.5- and 2.3-kb regions upstream of TaMATE1B in cv Carazinho (which incorporated 3' regions of the transposon-like element) generated 20-fold greater expression in the apical 1 mm of root compared with the native promoter in cv Egret. By contrast, fluorescence in more mature tissues was similar in both cultivars. The presence of the single-nucleotide polymorphism alone consistently generated 2-fold greater fluorescence than the cv Egret promoter. We conclude that the transposon-like element in cv Carazinho extends TaMATE1B expression to the root apex, where it confers citrate efflux and enhanced aluminum tolerance.

  17. Evaluating the clinical and esthetic outcome of apically positioned flap technique in augmentation of keratinized gingiva around dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineela Katam Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dental implants though a successful treatment modality there exists controversies regarding the relationship between the adequacy of the keratinized gingiva (KG and peri-implant health. The presence of an adequate amount of peri-implant KG reduces gingival inflammation and hence soft-tissue augmentation should be frequently considered. Among the various periodontal plastic surgical procedures, the apically displaced flap increases the width of keratinized tissue with reduced patient morbidity. The current study aims at evaluating the esthetic improvement in KG around dental implants applying apically positioned flap (APF technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 endosseous dental implants were placed in eight systemically healthy patients. APF surgery was performed at the implant site on the buccal aspect either at the time of implant placement (one stage surgical protocol or during the implant recovery stage (two stage surgical protocols for increasing the width of KG and reviewed until 12 weeks post-operatively. The width of KG was evaluated at baseline and at the end of 12 weeks after surgery. Paired t-test was performed to evaluate the changes in the width of KG at baseline and at 12 weeks post-operatively. In addition, soft-tissue esthetic outcome was assessed by using visual analog scale (VAS. Results: The mean width of KG at baseline was 1.47 mm and 12 weeks post-operatively was 5.42 mm. The gain in KG from baseline was 3.95 mm with the P value of 0.000, which was highly statistically significant. The assessment of esthetic outcome using VAS gave an average score of 7.1 indicating good esthetics. Conclusion: The technique of APF yielded a significant improvement in keratinized tissue, which is both functionally and esthetically acceptable.

  18. High-frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoureh Salehi; Bahman Hosseini; Zohreh Jabbarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an in vitro regeneration system to increase the recovery of Carum copticum L. plantlets as a part of developing a metabolic engineering program.Methods:3-acetic acid and indole butyric acid on direct shoot regeneration and rooting of ajowan from apical bud explants were assessed. All explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8µ The efficacy of different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyladenine, indole-Results: The maximum shoot regeneration frequency (97.5%) and the highest number of shoots produced from apical buds (34 shoots per explant) were obtained on MS medium fortified with BAP (4.4 µmol/L) and IAA (0.5 µmol/L). Low shoot regeneration frequency was observed in BAP free treatments. The effects of different strengths of MS medium and various concentrations of IAA and indole-3- butyric acid on rooting rate, length and average number of roots were also investigated. Application of indole-3- butyric acid (6 µmol/L) in full-strength MS medium, was more effective than IAA and resulted in highest shoot regeneration frequency with the rooting rate of 100% and highest mean number of roots per shoot (41.8). The rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully in greenhouse conditions with a survival rate of 90%. mol/L) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0, 0.5, 1.1, 2.2 µmol/L). Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  19. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  20. Relationship between pulmonary function and degree of spinal deformity, location of apical vertebrae and age among adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Joehaimey; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Omar, Ahmad Sabri; Abdullah, Ahmad Tajudin; Nor, Sobri; Lam, Weii Cheak; Yusof, Mohd Imran

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This retrospective review aimed to examine the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the Cobb angle, location of apical vertebrae and age in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there have been no detailed analyses of preoperative pulmonary function in relation to these three factors in AIS. METHODS A total of 38 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar scoliosis were included. Curvature of spinal deformity was measured using the Cobb method. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function. Statistical methods were used to analyse the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the factors that may contribute to poor pulmonary function. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 16.68 ± 6.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between the degree of the Cobb angle and FVC as well as FEV1; however, the relationships were not statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.072, respectively). There was also a trend towards a significant negative correlation between the thoracic curve and FVC (p = 0.014). Patients with larger thoracic curves had lower pulmonary function. A one-year increase in age significantly decreased FVC by 1.092 units (p = 0.044). No significant relationship between age and preoperative FEV1 was found. The median FVC was significantly higher in patients with affected apical vertebrae located at levels L1–L3 than at T6–T8 or T9–T12 (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION Lung function impairment was seen in more severe spinal deformities, proximally-located curvature and older patients. PMID:26831315

  1. Monitoring the effectiveness of root canal procedures on endotoxin levels found in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis

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    Ariane Cassia Salustiano MARINHO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of root canal procedures by using different irrigants and intracanal medication on endotoxin levels found in root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: Thirty root canals of teeth with pulpal necrosis associated with periapical lesions were selected and randomly divided into groups according to the irrigants used: GI - 2.5% NaOCl, GII - 2% chlorhexidine (CHX gel, and GIII - saline solution (SS (all, n=10. Samples were collected with sterile/apyrogenic paper points before (S1 and after root canal instrumentation (S2, after use of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (S3, and after 30 days of intracanal medication (Ca(OH2+SS (S4. A turbidimetric kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay was used for endotoxin measurement. Results: Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canals investigated (30/30, with a median value of 18.70 EU/mL. After S2, significant median percentage reduction was observed in all groups, irrespective of the irrigant tested: 2.5% NaOCl (99.65% (GI, 2% CHX (94.27% (GII, and SS (96.79% (GIII (all p0.05. Intracanal medication for 30 days was able to significantly reduce residual endotoxins: 2.5% NaOCl (90% (GI, 2% CHX (88.8% (GII, and SS (85.7% (GIII, p<0.05. No differences were found in the endotoxin reduction when comparing s2 and s4 treatment groups. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the mechanical action of the instruments along with the flow and backflow of irrigant enduring root canal instrumentation for the endotoxin removal from root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Moreover, the use of intracanal medication for 30 days contributed for an improvement of endotoxin reduction.

  2. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  3. SPT6L Encoding a Putative WG/GW-Repeat Protein Regulates Apical-Basal Polarity of Embryo in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lu Gu; Hua Wang; Hai Huang; Xiao-Feng Cui

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes,a protein motif consisting of WG/GW repeats,also called the Argonaute (AGO) hook,is thought to be essential for binding AGO proteins to fulfill their functions in RNA-mediated gene silencing.Although a number of WG/GW-containing proteins have been computationally identified in Arabidopsis,their roles in plant growth and development are unknown.Here,we show that the Arabidopsis Suppressor of Ty insertion 6-like (SPT6L) gene,which encodes a protein with C-terminal WG/GW repeats,plays critical roles in embryonic development.SPT6L is evolutionarily conserved only in vascular plants,with varying numbers of C-terminal WG/GW repeats,which are plant-species specific.spt61 mutants formed embryos with an aberrant apical-basal axis,showing insufficient development of the basal domain and embryonic lethality.Expression domains of the class-Ⅲ homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP Ⅲ) genes PHABULOSA (PHB) and PHAVOLUTA (PHV) were expanded in the spt61 embryo.In contrast,the PLETHORA1 (PLT1) gene,which acts antagonistically to the HD-ZIP Ⅲ genes in specification of basal fate,was severely down-regulated in the spt61 mutant.Furthermore,the phb phv double mutations partially rescued aberrant basal development in the spt61 background and restored PLT1 expression.Collectively,our results indicate that SPT6L is essential for specification of the apical-basal axis,partly by controlling the HD-ZIP Ⅲ genes in embryos.

  4. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  5. Effect of energy (J) on temperature changes at apical root surface when using Er:YAG laser to enlarge root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Jesus D.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Daghastanli, Naser A.; Silva, Reginaldo S.

    2000-03-01

    The use of lasers for cleaning, shaping and disinfecting root canals must not produce heat which damages periapical tissue and alveolar bone. The aim of the present study was to determine the increase of external temperature at the apical surface of the root canal after Er:YAG laser irradiation with a 250 micrometer diameter fiberoptic guide with and without distilled and deionized water at 3 different total energies. Thirty single-rooted teeth were instrumented to #25 K-file using distilled and deionized water for irrigation. They were divided into three groups according to total energy (15J, 30J and 45J with 15 Hz and 140 mJ per pulse). Each group was irradiated with water and then without water. The increase in temperature at the apical root surface was measured with a multimeter and a thermocouple. Changes in apical temperature were significantly different in all groups (p less than 0.01; 15 J less than 45 J less than 30 J). Less time was necessary for return to initial room temperature at 15 J. We conclude that in vitro use of the Er:YAG laser (total energy of 15, 30, and 45 J) increased external apical root temperature and that the root canal must be filled with distilled and deionized water to reduce the risk of an increase in temperature.

  6. A polarized cell model for Chikungunya virus infection: entry and egress of virus occurs at the apical domain of polarized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jin Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has resulted in several outbreaks in the past six decades. The clinical symptoms of Chikungunya infection include fever, skin rash, arthralgia, and an increasing incidence of encephalitis. The re-emergence of CHIKV with more severe pathogenesis highlights its potential threat on our human health. In this study, polarized HBMEC, polarized Vero C1008 and non-polarized Vero cells grown on cell culture inserts were infected with CHIKV apically or basolaterally. Plaque assays, viral binding assays and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated apical entry and release of CHIKV in polarized HBMEC and Vero C1008. Drug treatment studies were performed to elucidate both host cell and viral factors involved in the sorting and release of CHIKV at the apical domain of polarized cells. Disruption of host cell myosin II, microtubule and microfilament networks did not disrupt the polarized release of CHIKV. However, treatment with tunicamycin resulted in a bi-directional release of CHIKV, suggesting that N-glycans of CHIKV envelope glycoproteins could serve as apical sorting signals.

  7. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the Self-adjusting File systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant K Vyavahare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complete cleaning of the root canal is the goal for ensuring success in endodontics. Removal of debris plays an important role in achieving this goal. In spite of advancements in instrument design, apical extrusion of debris remains a source of inflammation in the periradicular region. Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the self-adjusting File (SAF system. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four extracted human mandibular teeth with straight root canals were taken. Access openings were done and working length determined. The samples were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - V-Taper files (n = 20, Group II - ProTaper Next (n = 20, Group III - SAF (n = 20. Biomechanical preparation was completed and the debris collected in vials to be quantitatively determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey′s test. Results: All the specimens showed apical debris extrusion. SAF showed significantly less debris extrusion compared to V-Taper and ProTaper Next (P < 0.001. Among Groups I and II, ProTaper Next showed lesser debris extrusion as compared to V-Taper, but it was not significant (P = 0.124. Conclusion: The SAF showed least amount of apical debris extrusion when compared to newer rotary endodontic instruments. This indicates that the incidence of inter-treatment flare-ups due to debris extrusion would be less with the SAF.

  8. Clinical results with two different methods of root-end preparation and filling in apical surgery: mineral trioxide aggregate and adhesive resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Hänni, Stefan; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2010-01-01

    The aim of apical surgery is to hermetically seal the root canal system after root-end resection, thereby enabling periradicular healing. The objective of this nonrandomized prospective clinical study was to report results of 2 different root-end preparation and filling methods, ie, mineral triox...... trioxide aggregate (MTA) and an adhesive resin composite (Retroplast)....

  9. Research progress on the extraradicular biofilm in persistent apical periodontitis%持续性根尖周炎根外生物膜的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红(综述); 侯本祥(审校)

    2013-01-01

    持续性根尖周炎是指通过反复根管治疗后仍迁延不愈的慢性根尖周炎,根外感染阻止了根尖周病变的愈合,根外生物膜是根外感染的主要形式之一。本文就近年来根外生物膜和持续性根尖周炎的关系,以及其形态结构、微生物组成和清除方法等方面的研究现状作一综述。%Persistent apical periodontitis occurs when multiple root canal treatments fail to adequately eliminate intraradicular infection due to chronic apical periodontitis. Extraradicular infections play an unequivocal role as causative agents of persistent apical periodontitis, which is characterized by extraradicular biofilms and other bacterial colonies in the periapical lesion. This review highlights the relationship between extraradicular biofilms and persistent apical periodontitis. In addition, the profiles, structure, microbial composition, and elimination methods of extraradicular biofilms are summarized.

  10. Comparison of dentinal and apical crack formation caused by four different nickel-titanium rotary and reciprocating systems in large and small canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Shan; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared dentinal and apical crack formation after instrumentation with different nickel-titanium systems at two different working lengths (WL) in large and small canals. Two hundred and eighty human teeth were randomly distributed into two control and 12 experimental groups (n=20 each). Large and small canals were instrumented by the WaveOne, Protaper Universal System (PTU), Twisted File (TF), or Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) at 1 mm shorter than canal length (CL-1 mm) or 1 mm beyond apical foreman (CL+1 mm). Horizontal sections were microscopically observed to evaluate the dentinal cracks (only large canals). Scanning electron microscopy images were taken before and after instrumentation to assess apical cracks. All file types caused more apical cracks in small canals than in large canals regardless of the WL. During over-instrumentation (WL=CL+1 mm), the WaveOne and PTU groups developed significantly more dentinal cracks at the 6 and 9 mm sections than the TF and TFA groups.

  11. Asociación entre niveles de TNF-α en fluido crevicular gingival de dientes con periodontitis apical asintomática Levels of TNF-α increase in gingival crevicular fluid of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garrido Flores

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Como consecuencia de necrosis pulpar séptica, el ingreso de productos bacterianos en el periápice induce la producción de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias como el Factor de Necrosis Tumoral (TNF- a, que entre otras funciones participa en la diferenciación y activación de los osteoclastos para inducir reabsorción ósea, fenómeno característico de la periodontitis apical asintomática (PAA. El fluido crevicular gingival (FCG ofrece un gran potencial como fuente de factores asociados con la actividad osteoclástica. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los niveles de TNF- a en FCG de dientes con PAA y controles sanos contralaterales. Métodos: Se incluyeron 14 pacientes en la Clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile con diagnóstico clínico de PAA y se obtuvieron muestras de FCG con tiras de papel a partir de los dientes afectados y sanos contralaterales por un periodo estandarizado de 30 segundos. Se determinaron las concentraciones de proteínas totales mediante el método del ácido bisciconitico y los niveles de TNF- a, mediante ensayo ELISA. Los datos se analizaron con Test-t pareado utilizando el programa StataV11. Resultados: Se detectaron niveles de TNF- a significativamente mayores en el FCG de dientes con PAA estandarizados, tanto por 30 segundos de toma de muestra como por mg de proteínas totales. Conclusiones: Este estudio provee evidencia preliminar de que los niveles de TNF- a en el FCG reflejan la presencia de PAA y podría ser de utilidad como complemento al diagnóstico clínico y monitoreo del estado de salud o enfermedad de los tejidos perirradiculares.Introduction: As a consequence of septic pulp necrosis, the entry of bacterial products into periapical tissues induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF- a. This pleiotropic cytokine is involved in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts to induce bone

  12. Comparison of the Root End Sealing Ability of Four Different Retrograde Filling Materials in Teeth with Root Apices Resected at Different Angles – An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappa, K.C.; Yadav, Pankaj; Rao, Yogesh; Relhan, Nikhil; Gupta, Priyanka; Choubey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Shivanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insufficient apical seal is the significant reason for surgical endodontic disappointment. The root-end filling material utilized should avoid egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials MTA, Portland cement, IRM, RMGIC in teeth with root apices resected at 0 and 45 angle using dye penetration method under fluorescent microscope. Materials and Methods Hundred extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were sectioned horizontally at the cement-enamel junction. After cleaning, shaping and obturation with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, the tooth samples were randomly divided in two groups (the root apices resected at 0° and 45° to the long axis of the root). The root resections were carried out by removing 2 mm and 1 mm in both the groups. Following which 3 mm deep root-end cavities were prepared at the apices and the root were coated with nail varnish except the tip. The teeth in both the group were randomly divided into four subgroups each (Pro root MTA, Portland cement, IRM and Light cure nano GIC Ketac N-100). All the retrofilled samples were stored in acrydine orange for 24 hours after which they were cleaned and vertically sectioned buccolingually. The sectioned root samples were observed under fluorescent microscope. Results The root apex sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was superior to Portland cement, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) and LC GIC. IRM demonstrated the maximum apical leakage value among all the materials. Portland cement and LC GIC showed comparable sealing ability. Conclusion The angulation whether 0° or 45° angle did not affect the sealing ability of all the four materials used, MTA proved to be one of the superior materials for root-end filling. PMID:26894168

  13. 莲藕顶芽繁殖育苗技术应用效果研究%Application Effects of Apical Bud Propagation Technology of Lotus Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常发杰; 张锋; 王开昌

    2013-01-01

      为提升保障莲藕供给能力,节本增效,开展莲藕顶芽繁殖和整藕繁殖对产量和效益影响的对比试验。试验结果表明,自莲藕顶芽下1 cm处切下,经杀菌消毒后,移至育苗床,3周后移栽大田,通过施用有机肥和精细田间管理,其效益明显高于整身种藕常规栽培,可大幅降低种子成本,且主藕顶芽繁殖比子藕顶芽繁殖产量更高,具有较大的推广价值。%  In the paper, we studied the effects of the apical bud propagation and conventional lotus root propagation on yield and benefit of lotus root production. We cut the apical buds of lotus root 1 cm under the buds, and moved the buds to the seedling bed after sterilization and disinfection, and then transplanted the seedlings to field three weeks later. The results showed that, the yield and benefit of the apical bud propagation were obviously higher than those of the conventional lotus root propagation by applying organic fertilizers and strengthening field management, and the apical bud propagation method sharply reduced the seed cost of farmers. In addition, the propagation technology using apical buds of mother lotus root possessed higher yield than that of lateral lotus root, and the propagation technology was more worthy of wide promotion.

  14. Apical Localization of Zinc Transporter ZnT4 in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Its Loss in a Murine Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Murgia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The apical cytoplasm of airway epithelium (AE contains abundant labile zinc (Zn ions that are involved in the protection of AE from oxidants and inhaled noxious substances. A major question is how dietary Zn traffics to this compartment. In rat airways, in vivo selenite autometallographic (Se-AMG-electron microscopy revealed labile Zn-selenium nanocrystals in structures resembling secretory vesicles in the apical cytoplasm. This observation was consistent with the starry-sky Zinquin fluorescence staining of labile Zn ions confined to the same region. The vesicular Zn transporter ZnT4 was likewise prominent in both the apical and basal parts of the epithelium both in rodent and human AE, although the apical pools were more obvious. Expression of ZnT4 mRNA was unaffected by changes in the extracellular Zn concentration. However, levels increased 3-fold during growth of cells in air liquid interface cultures and decreased sharply in the presence of retinoic acid. When comparing nasal versus bronchial human AE cells, there were significant positive correlations between levels of ZnT4 from the same subject, suggesting that nasal brushings may allow monitoring of airway Zn transporter expression. Finally, there were marked losses of both basally-located ZnT4 protein and labile Zn in the bronchial epithelium of mice with allergic airway inflammation. This study is the first to describe co-localization of zinc vesicles with the specific zinc transporter ZnT4 in airway epithelium and loss of ZnT4 protein in inflamed airways. Direct evidence that ZnT4 regulates Zn levels in the epithelium still needs to be provided. We speculate that ZnT4 is an important regulator of zinc ion accumulation in secretory apical vesicles and that the loss of labile Zn and ZnT4 in airway inflammation contributes to AE vulnerability in diseases such as asthma.

  15. Calcium is not involved in the cAMP-mediated stimulation of Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of Necturus gallbladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottra, G

    1995-03-01

    The permeability properties of the forskolin-stimulated Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of Necturus gallbladder epithelium and the possible participation of intracellular Ca2+ in its stimulation have been investigated. The anion selectivity sequence as derived from biionic potential measurements (SCN- > I- approximately NO3- > Br- > Cl- > ISE-) differed from the sequence derived from measurements of apical membrane resistance (NO3- approximately Br- approximately Cl- > SCN- > I- approximately ISE-). Accordingly, the conductance was inhibited by SCN- and I- which, from the potential measurements, appeared to be more permeable than Cl-. This finding agrees with observations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel reported recently. However, none of the commonly used Cl- channel blockers, such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) and glibenclamide reduced this conductance in Necturus gallbladder. In contrast to the situation in most other epithelia, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by ionomycin stimulated only K+ conductance and not that of Cl- in the apical cell membrane. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ did not prevent the stimulation of Cl- conductance by forskolin. This indicates that [Ca2+]i does not have even a permissive role in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-(cAMP)-mediated stimulation process, as would have been expected if exocytosis was involved. Further evidence against the involvement of exocytosis in the stimulation process came from the observation that the stimulation was not associated with an increase in apical membrane capacitance and was not suppressed by disruption of the cytoskeleton by preincubation of the tissue with cytochalasin D. The data indicate that Necturus gallbladder epithelium contains homologues of the CFTR Cl- channel which reside permanently in the

  16. Indução de brotação apical em mudas provenientes de sementes e do enraizamento de estacas de mangostãozeiro = Induction of apical bud sprouting in seedlings and rooting of cuttings of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Alexandra Cardoso Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de induzir a brotação apical de mudas de mangostãozeiro, foi realizado um experimento que consistiu na aplicação de dois reguladores de crescimento: cinetina (0, 100 e 400 mg L-1 e giberelina (50 mg L-1, e outros dois experimentos para obtenção de estacas enraizadas: a aplicação de ácido-indol-3-butírico nas concentrações de 0, 100, 500 e 1000 mg L-1 e b aplicação de ácido a naftaleno acético na concentração de 6000 mg L-1. Nesses ensaios foram utilizadas estacas maduras provenientes de ramosortotrópicos. Os resultados indicaram a possibilidade do uso de reguladores para a obtenção de porta-enxertos mais uniformes e com menor tempo de formação, e apesar da baixa taxa de enraizamento, a obtenção de mudas de estacas enraizadas de mangostãozeiro obtida comfitormônios apresenta grande potencial, equivalendo em tamanho a uma muda de um ano proveniente de sementes apomíticas.With the objective to induce apical bud sprouting in youngmangosteen seedlings an experiment was carried out with the application of the plant growth regulators kinetin (0, 100 and 400 mg L-1 and gibberellin GA4+7 (50 mg L-1. To obtain rooted cuttings two other experiments were performed: a application of indolbutyric acid at the concentrations of 0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 and b application of a naphtaleneacetic acid, at 6000 mg L-1. In these trials cutting from orthotropic branches were utilized. The results indicated the possibility of using plant growth regulators to obtainmore uniform root stocks in a shorter nursery stage and, despite the low percentage of rooting the planting material obtained from cuttings has a great practical potential, since the size of the rooting cuttings is equivalent to that of one year old seedlings.

  17. "In vitro" evaluation of the apical sealing of root canals obturated with different techniques Avaliação "in vitro" do selamento apical dos canais radiculares em função de diferentes técnicas de obturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Haiub Brosco

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apical sealing of root canals obturated with different techniques. One hundred-six human mandibular incisors were submitted to instrumentation by means of the step-back technique. After instrumentation, one hundred teeth received an impermeable coating on the external surfaces of the crown and root (except for the area nearby the apical foramen. Afterwards, they were divided in five groups containing twenty elements each, according to the obturation technique employed: 1. lateral condensation with Kerr file; 2. continuous wave of condensation technique with System B; 3. thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha technique with the Ultrafil system; 4. mechanically thermoplasticized gutta-percha with the JS Quick-Fill system and 5. thermoplasticized gutta-percha associated to a master cone with the Microseal system. The six remaining teeth were employed as negative and positive controls. After obturation, the access cavities were sealed and the teeth were immersed in aqueous 2% methylene blue dye for 72 hours at 37ºC. After that, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and the apical microleakage was evaluated in a stereomicroscope. The Microseal system presented the best apical sealing ability, followed by System B, JS Quick-Fill, Ultrafil and the lateral condensation technique. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that: 1. the Microseal system presented an apical sealing similar to System B and better than the other groups; 2. System B presented better apical sealing than the lateral condensation technique, being similar to the other groups; and 3. the lateral condensation, Ultrafil and JS Quick-Fill groups demonstrated similar sealing ability.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o selamento apical de canais radiculares obturados por diferentes técnicas. Cento e seis incisivos inferiores humanos tiveram seus canais instrumentados através da técnica escalonada regressiva. Após a

  18. 根尖感染的特点和控制技术%The technology of apical infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余擎; 杨扬; 常蓓

    2014-01-01

    根管治疗术是治疗牙髓病、根尖周病的首选方法,其目标是彻底清除根管系统内的感染,并严密充填以防止再感染。由于根管系统解剖复杂性和感染多样化的存在,使得常规化的根管治疗常常难以彻底清除感染,尤其是根尖部(包括根管内根部1/3和根尖外组织)。根尖部的位置隐蔽,根尖分歧、根管侧支等解剖结构多,治疗器械难以达到,感染控制难度大。本文就根尖部感染的特点和难点进行总结,并对根尖内和根尖外的感染控制策略进行简要介绍,包括根尖部的预备方法,根管消毒和严密根管充填的方法等。%Root canal therapy is the most efficient way to treat pulptitis and periapical inflammation, which can clear infections of root canal systems, fill the root canal firmly, and avoid reinfection. However, the variations in root canal morphology and complexity of infection confer difficulty in thoroughly eliminating microorganisms and their by-products in the root canal system, especially in the root apex area (including the top one-third of the root canal and periapical tissue), which is described as the hardest area to clean during endodontic treatment. Infection is difficult to remove entirely because the apex area is hard to approach using dental instruments and because of the existence of special morphological structures, such as apical ramification, intercanal anastomoses, and lateral branch of root canal. This review gives a brief introduction of the characteristics and difficulties of apical infection and knowledge on how to control such infections, including root apex preparation, irrigation and disinfection, and root canal filling.

  19. An Extended Surface Loop on Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1 Governs Ligand Binding Selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Parker

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of globally prevalent diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens have evolved a sophisticated host cell invasion strategy that relies on a parasite-host cell junction anchored by interactions between apical membrane antigens (AMAs on the parasite surface and rhoptry neck 2 (RON2 proteins discharged from the parasite and embedded in the host cell membrane. Key to formation of the AMA1-RON2 complex is displacement of an extended surface loop on AMA1 called the DII loop. While conformational flexibility of the DII loop is required to expose the mature RON2 binding groove, a definitive role of this substructure has not been elucidated. To establish a role of the DII loop in Toxoplasma gondii AMA1, we engineered a form of the protein where the mobile portion of the loop was replaced with a short Gly-Ser linker (TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements with a panel of RON2 peptides revealed an influential role for the DII loop in governing selectivity. Most notably, an Eimeria tenella RON2 (EtRON2 peptide that showed only weak binding to TgAMA1 bound with high affinity to TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. To define the molecular basis for the differential binding, we determined the crystal structure of TgAMA1ΔDIIloop in complex with the EtRON2 peptide. When analyzed in the context of existing AMA1-RON2 structures, spatially distinct anchor points in the AMA1 groove were identified that, when engaged, appear to provide the necessary traction to outcompete the DII loop. Collectively, these data support a model where the AMA1 DII loop serves as a structural gatekeeper to selectively filter out ligands otherwise capable of binding with high affinity in the AMA1 apical groove. These data also highlight the importance of considering the functional implications of the DII loop in the ongoing development of therapeutic intervention strategies targeting the AMA1-RON

  20. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  1. Loss of heat shock protein 70 from apical region of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm head after freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Tincy; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C; Roy, Kajal S

    2016-03-15

    distributed over the apical region of sperm head and/or acrosome, post-acrosomal, and middle piece regions of NC buffalo spermatozoa. However, the fluorescence signal of apical region of sperm head was lost significantly (P freezing and thawing. Thus, the present study confirmed that there was loss of HSP70 from buffalo sperm head after freezing and thawing of buffalo spermatozoa, and this may be one of the causes of the reduced post-thaw fertility of sperm in this species. PMID:26607876

  2. The influence of right ventricular apical pacing on left atrial volume in patients with normal left ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Moaref1

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right ventricular apical (RVA pacing has been reported to induce several deleterious effects particularly in the presence of structural heart disease but can also involve patients with normal left ventricular (LV function. Left atrial (LA enlargement is one of these effects, but the majority of studies have measured LA dimension rather than volume.Objective: The present prospective study was designed to assess the effect of RVA pacing on LA volume in patients with normal LV function.Patients and Methods: The study comprised 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fraction ≥ 45% and LV end diastolic dimension ≤ 56 mm who underwent single-or dual- chamber pacemaker implantation in RVA and followed for LA volume measurement and pacemaker analysis at least during the ensuing 4.2 months. Results: In all, 21 patients were excluded from the study due to five spontaneous wide QRS complex (≥120msec, one recent acute coronary syndrome,one significant valvular heart disease, three pacing frequency <90%, eight death or losing follow up in three cases. In remaining 20 patients, LA volume ragned from 21 to 54 mm3 with mean of 37.3±9.7 mm3 prior to pacemaker implantation that increased to 31 to 103 mm3 (54.3±17.0 during follow-up (P<0.001.Conclusion: RVA pacing might lead to an increase in LA volume even in patients with normal LV function.

  3. A correlative microscopy approach relates microtubule behaviour, local organ geometry, and cell growth at the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Agata; Ludynia, Michal; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Traas, Jan; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2013-12-01

    Cortical microtubules (CMTs) are often aligned in a particular direction in individual cells or even in groups of cells and play a central role in the definition of growth anisotropy. How the CMTs themselves are aligned is not well known, but two hypotheses have been proposed. According to the first hypothesis, CMTs align perpendicular to the maximal growth direction, and, according to the second, CMTs align parallel to the maximal stress direction. Since both hypotheses were formulated on the basis of mainly qualitative assessments, the link between CMT organization, organ geometry, and cell growth is revisited using a quantitative approach. For this purpose, CMT orientation, local curvature, and growth parameters for each cell were measured in the growing shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this approach, it has been shown that stable CMTs tend to be perpendicular to the direction of maximal growth in cells at the SAM periphery, but parallel in the cells at the boundary domain. When examining the local curvature of the SAM surface, no strict correlation between curvature and CMT arrangement was found, which implies that SAM geometry, and presumed geometry-derived stress distribution, is not sufficient to prescribe the CMT orientation. However, a better match between stress and CMTs was found when mechanical stress derived from differential growth was also considered.

  4. Comparison of apically extruded debris associated with several nickel-titanium systems after determining working length by apex locator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Çiçek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To compare apically extruded debris using ProTaper Universal (PTU, ProTaper Next (PTN, WaveOne (WO, Twisted File (TF, M-Two (MT, and Revo-S (RS after determining the working length (WL with root ZX. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were selected. The WL determination was performed with root ZX. The teeth were divided into six experimental groups, randomly. In groups, root canals were prepared with PTU to size F4/0.06, with PTN to size X4/0.06, with WO to size 40/0.08, with TF to size 40/0.04, with MT to size 40/0.06, and with RS to size AS40/0.06. After preparations were completed, final irrigation was performed with 2 mL distilled water, and a total of 10 mL of distilled water was used in each tooth. Tubes were stored in an incubator at 68°C for 5 days to evaporate the distilled water before weighing the dry debris. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The RS group led to the highest amount of extruded debris, however, WO led to the least amount of extruded debris. There was no statistically difference among the groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the results obtained might depend on the apex locator used to determine the WL.

  5. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs.

  6. Genetic polymorphism in domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 among Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun Yik; Wong, Shen Siang; Silva, Jeremy Ryan De; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-12-01

    The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now recognized as a species that can cause human malaria. The first report of large scale human knowlesi malaria was in 2004 in Malaysia Borneo. Since then, hundreds of human knowlesi malaria cases have been reported in Southeast Asia. The present study investigates the genetic polymorphism of P. knowlesi DI domain of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1), a protein considered as a promising vaccine candidate for malaria. The DI domain of AMA-1 gene of P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, then sequenced and analysed. Ninety-seven DI domain sequences were obtained. Comparison at the nucleotide level against P. knowlesi strain H as reference sequence showed 21 synonymous and 25 nonsynonymous mutations. Nonetheless, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity of the DI domain, and it was under purifying (negative) selection. At the amino acid level, 26 different haplotypes were identified and 2 were predominant haplotypes (H1, H2) with high frequencies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 26 haplotypes could be clustered into 2 distinct groups (I and II). Members of the groups were basically derived from haplotypes H1 and H2, respectively.

  7. Gene expression and proteomic analysis of shoot apical meristem transition from dormancy to activation in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huimin; Cao, Dechang; Chen, Yanmei; Wei, Dongmei; Wang, Yanwei; Stevenson, Rebecca Ann; Zhu, Yingfang; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to annual plants, in perennial plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) can undergo seasonal transitions between dormancy and activity; understanding this transition is crucial for understanding growth in perennial plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM development in trees. Here, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that evident changes in starch granules, lipid bodies, and cell walls thickness of the SAM in C. lanceolata during the transition from dormancy to activation. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased from dormant to active stage. Examination of 20 genes and 132 differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of genes and proteins potentially involved in cell division and expansion significantly increased in the active stage, whereas those related to the abscisic acid insensitive 3(ABI3), the cytoskeleton and energy metabolism decreased in the dormant stage. These findings provide new insights into the complex mechanism of gene and protein expression and their relation to cytological and physiological changes of SAM in this coniferous species. PMID:26832850

  8. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Stomatologic Hospital & College, Anhui Medical University, Key Lab of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Hefei (China); Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Niu, Zhongying [Treatment center of oral diseases, The 306th Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, B4 6NN (United Kingdom); He, Wenxi, E-mail: hewenxi@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  9. Long-term aldosterone treatment induces decreased apical but increased basolateral expression of AQP2 in CCD of rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Seigneux, Sophie; Nielsen, Jakob; Olesen, Emma T B;

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effects of high-dose aldosterone and dDAVP treatment on renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) regulation and urinary concentration. Rats were treated for 6 days with either vehicle (CON; n = 8), dDAVP (0.5 ng/h, dDAVP, n = 10), aldosterone (Aldo, 150...... microg/day, n = 10) or combined dDAVP and aldosterone treatment (dDAVP+Aldo, n = 10) and had free access to water with a fixed food intake. Aldosterone treatment induced hypokalemia, decreased urine osmolality, and increased the urine volume and water intake in ALDO compared with CON and d...... of hypokalemia in aldosterone-treated rats, we studied dietary-induced hypokalemia in rats, which also reduced apical AQP2 expression in the CCD but did not induce any increase in basolateral AQP2 expression in the CCD as observed with aldosterone treatment. The aldosterone-induced basolateral AQP2 expression...

  10. Comparison of apical leakage of endodontic sealers AH Plus, Sealapex, Sealer 26 and Endofill through clearing teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina REISS-ARAÚJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to analyze theinfiltration of the sealers AH Plus®, Sealapex®, Sealer 26® and Endofill®,using clearing teeth technique. Material and methods: Fifty single-rooted teeth had its crowns removed and canals prepared by the Oregon modified technique. After the chemical-mechanical preparation, the root canals were filled with gutta-percha and four different sealers:group I: AH Plus®; group II: Sealapex®; group III: Sealer 26® and group IV: Endofill®. The others two groups of five teeth each served as positive and negative control groups. After filling, teeth remained for 60 days in saline solution 0.9%, simulating oral conditions. Following this stage,teeth were covered by three layers of nail polish, immersed in nankin ink and stored in a stove under 37ºC for 48 hours. After this period of time, the samples were washed in current water for 24 hours, the nail varnishes were removed with bistoury blade and the clearing technique was applied to evaluate the results. Results and conclusion: The results showed insignificant differences between the materials tested and so a similar behavior in the apical marginal infiltration.

  11. Spatial expression of CLAVATA3 in the shoot apical meristem suggests it is not a stem cell marker in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chui E; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2013-12-01

    CLAVATA3 (CLV3), a stem cell marker in Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes a secreted peptide that maintains the stem cell population within the shoot apical meristem. This work investigated the CLV3 orthologue in a major legume crop, soybean (GmCLV3). Instead of being expressed in the three outermost layers of the meristem as in Arabidopsis, GmCLV3 was expressed deeper in the central zone beneath the fourth layer (L4) of the meristem, overlapping with the expression of soybean WUSCHEL. Subsequent investigation using an alternative stem cell marker (GmLOG1) revealed its expression within layers L2-L4, indicating that GmCLV3 is not a stem cell marker. Overexpression studies of GmCLV3 in Arabidopsis and complementation of clv3-2 mutant suggest similar functional capacity to that of Arabidopsis CLV3. The expression of soybean CLV1, which encodes a receptor for CLV3 in Arabidopsis, was not detectable in the central zone of the meristem via reverse-transcription PCR analysis of amplified RNA from laser-microdissected samples or in situ, implicating a diverged pathway in soybean. This study also reports the novel expression of GmLOG1 in initials of axillary meristem in the boundary region between the SAM and developing leaf primordia, before the expression of GmWUS or GmCLV3, indicating cytokinin as one of the earliest signals in initiating and specifying the stem cell population. PMID:24179098

  12. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs

  13. Nerve signaling regulates basal keratinocyte proliferation in the blastema apical epithelial cap in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2012-06-15

    The ability of adult vertebrates to repair tissue damage is widespread and impressive; however, the ability to regenerate structurally complex organs such as the limb is limited largely to the salamanders. The fact that most of the tissues of the limb can regenerate has led investigators to question and identify the barriers to organ regeneration. From studies in the salamander, it is known that one of the earliest steps required for successful regeneration involves signaling between nerves and the wound epithelium/apical epithelial cap (AEC). In this study we confirm an earlier report that the keratinocytes of the AEC acquire their function coincident with exiting the cell cycle. We have discovered that this unique, coordinated behavior is regulated by nerve signaling and is associated with the presence of gap junctions between the basal keratinocytes of the AEC. Disruption of nerve signaling results in a loss of gap junction protein, the reentry of the cells into the cell cycle, and regenerative failure. Finally, coordinated exit from the cell cycle appears to be a conserved behavior of populations of cells that function as signaling centers during both development and regeneration.

  14. Contributions of Individual Amino Acid Residues to the Endogenous CLV3 Function in Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Fen Song; Da-Li Yu; Ting-Ting Xu; Shi-Chao Ren; Peng Guo; Chun-Ming Liu

    2012-01-01

    As a peptide hormone,CLV3 restricts the stem cell number in shoot apical meristem (SAM) by interacting with CLV1/CLV2/CRN/RPK2 receptor complexes.To elucidate howthe function of the CLV3 peptide in SAM maintenance is established at the amino acid (AA) level,alanine substitutions were performed by introducing point mutations to individual residues in the peptide-coding region of CLV3 and its flanking sequences.Constructs carrying such substitutions,expressed under the control of CLV3 regulatory elements,were transformed to the clv3-2 null mutant to evaluate their efficiencies in complementing its defects in SAMs in vivo.These studies showed that aspartate-8,histidine-11,glycine-6,proline-4,arginine-1,and proline-9,arranged in an order of importance,were critical,while threonine-2,valine-3,serine-5,and the previously assigned hydroxylation and arabinosylation residue proline-7 were trivial for the endogenous CLV3 function in SAM maintenance.In contrast,substitutions of flanking residues did not impose much damage on CLV3.Complementation of different alanine-substituted constructs was confirmed by measurements of the sizes of SAMs and the WUS expression levels in transgenic plants.These studies established a complete contribution map of individual residues in the peptide-coding region of CLV3 for its function in SAM,which may help to understand peptide hormones in general.

  15. PEG-mediated osmotic stress induces premature differentiation of the root apical meristem and outgrowth of lateral roots in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Liu, Ling; Li, Kexue; Xie, Qingen; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhao, Xuhua; Li, Xia

    2014-09-01

    Water stress is one of the major environmental stresses causing growth retardation and yield loss of plants. In the past decades, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant protection, and stomatal movement have been extensively studied, but much less attention has been paid to the study of root system reprogramming to maximize water absorption and survival under water stress. Here, it is shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated mild and moderate osmotic stress induced premature differentiation of the root apical meristem (RAM). It is demonstrated that RAM premature differentiation is a conserved adaptive mechanism that is widely adopted by various plants to cope with osmotic stress simulated by PEG 8000, and the occurrence of RAM premature differentiation is directly related to stress tolerance of plants. It is shown that the osmotic stress-induced premature differentiation caused growth cessation of primary roots allowing outgrowth of lateral roots. This work has uncovered a key mechanism for controlling the plastic development of the root system by which plants are capable of survival, growth, or reproduction under water stress.

  16. Kip-related protein 3 is required for control of endoreduplication in the shoot apical meristem and leaves of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Eun; Okushima, Yoko; Nam, Jaesung; Umeda, Masaaki; Kim, Gyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The cell cycle plays an important role in the development and adaptation of multicellular organisms; specifically, it allows them to optimally adjust their architecture in response to environmental changes. Kip-related proteins (KRPs) are important negative regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which positively control the cell cycle during plant development. The Arabidopsis genome possesses seven KRP genes with low sequence similarity and distinct expression patterns; however, why Arabidopsis needs seven KRP genes and how these genes function in cell cycle regulation are unknown. Here, we focused on the characterization of KRP3, which was found to have unique functions in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaves. KRP3 protein was localized to the SAM, including the ground meristem and vascular tissues in the ground part of the SAM and cotyledons. In addition, KRP3 protein was stabilized when treated with MG132, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, indicating that the protein may be regulated by 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation. KRP3-overexpressing (KRP3 OE) transgenic plants showed reduced organ size, serrated leaves, and reduced fertility. Interestingly, the KRP3 OE transgenic plants showed a significant reduction in the size of the SAM with alterations in cell arrangement. In addition, compared to the wild type, the KRP3 OE transgenic plants had a higher DNA ploidy level in the SAM and leaves. Taken together, our data suggest that KRP3 plays important regulatory roles in the cell cycle and endoreduplication in the SAM and leaves. PMID:23314608

  17. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao apical de condutos radiculares irradiados in vitro com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass

    2003-07-01

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2S{sup R}) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  18. Role of Cytokinin and Auxin in Shaping Root Architecture: Regulating Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root Initiation, Root Apical Dominance and Root Gravitropism

    OpenAIRE

    Aloni, R; ALONI, E.; Langhans, M.; ULLRICH, C. I.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Development and architecture of plant roots are regulated by phytohormones. Cytokinin (CK), synthesized in the root cap, promotes cytokinesis, vascular cambium sensitivity, vascular differentiation and root apical dominance. Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), produced in young shoot organs, promotes root development and induces vascular differentiation. Both IAA and CK regulate root gravitropism. The aims of this study were to analyse the hormonal mechanisms that induce ...

  19. Calcium absorption by Cav1.3 induces terminal web myosin II phosphorylation and apical GLUT2 insertion in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Oliver J; Morgan, Emma L; Affleck, Julie A; Lister, Norma; Kellett, George L

    2007-04-15

    Glucose absorption in rat jejunum involves Ca(2+)- and PKC betaII-dependent insertion of GLUT2 into the apical membrane. Ca(2+)-induced rearrangement of the enterocyte cytoskeleton is thought to enhance paracellular flow. We have therefore investigated the relationships between myosin II regulatory light chain phosphorylation (RLC(20)), absorption of glucose, water and calcium, and mannitol clearance. ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, diminished the phloretin-sensitive apical GLUT2 but not the phloretin-insensitive SGLT1 component of glucose absorption in rat jejunum perfused with 75 mM glucose. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry revealed marked decreases in RLC(20) phosphorylation in the terminal web and in the levels of apical GLUT2 and PKC betaII, but not SGLT1. Perfusion with phloridzin or 75 mM mannitol, removal of luminal Ca(2+), or inhibition of unidirectional (45)Ca(2+) absorption by nifedipine exerted similar effects. ML-7 had no effect on the absorption of 10 mM Ca(2+), nor clearance of [(14)C]-mannitol, which was less than 0.7% of the rate of glucose absorption. Water absorption did not correlate with (45)Ca(2+) absorption or mannitol clearance. We conclude that the Ca(2+) necessary for contraction of myosin II in the terminal web enters via an L-type channel, most likely Ca(v)1.3, and is dependent on SGLT1. Moreover, terminal web RLC(20) phosphorylation is necessary for apical GLUT2 insertion. The data confirm that glucose absorption by paracellular flow is negligible, and show further that paracellular flow makes no more than a minimal contribution to jejunal Ca(2+) absorption at luminal concentrations prevailing after a meal.

  20. Evaluation of the reinforcement effect on teeth with different apical foramen diameters of retrograde or orthograde MTA application with internal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the apical foramen diameter and different application methods of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA on the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth using a Universal Testing Machine. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety extracted human teeth were used for the fracture resistance test. The apical foramen was prepared to a diameter of 1.0 mm or 1.4 mm to simulate the open apex of immature teeth. MTA was mixed according to manufacturer's recommendations and placed into the root canals with different apical foramen diameter by four different root filling techniques: retrograde, two-phased orthograde, and ortograde with or without internal matrix. Prepared roots were marked 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and embedded in transparent acrylic resin in cylinder moulds. Vertical force was applied along the long axis of the tooth at a speed of 5 mm/min, and the maximum resistance to fracture for each tooth was determined in Newton. A software package was used for the statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference could not be observed between the groups (p>0.05 whereas statistically significant differences were found between the test groups and the control groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between different vertical root filling techniques in increasing the fracture strength of the teeth. The diameter of the apical foramen did not have a significant effect on the fracture resistance.

  1. NHERF1/EBP50 Controls Morphogenesis of 3D Colonic Glands by Stabilizing PTEN and Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin Proteins at the Apical Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena Georgescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Na+/H+ exchanger 3 regulating factor 1/ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM–binding phosphoprotein 50 (NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor molecule that interacts with the ERM–neurofibromatosis type 2 family of cytoskeletal proteins through its ERM-binding region and with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and β-catenin through its PDZ domains, has been recently implicated in the progression of various human malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC. We report here that NHERF1 controls gland morphogenesis, as demonstrated in three-dimensional (3D human intestinal glands developing from a single nonpolarized cell. Starting from the early two-cell developmental stage, NHERF1 concentrates at the cellular interface in a central membrane disc that marks the apical pole delimiting the forming lumen. NHERF1 depletion leads to severe disruption of the apical-basal polarity, with formation of enlarged and distorted cell spheroids devoid of a central lumen. This characteristic and the increased number of mitoses in NHERF1-depleted spheroids, including multipolar ones, mimic high-grade dysplasia lesions observed in CRC progression. NHERF1 ERM-binding or PDZ-domain mutants fail to localize apically and impair gland formation most likely by outcompeting endogenous ligands, with the latter mutant completely aborting gland development. Examination of NHERF1 ligands showed that even if both ezrin and moesin colocalized with NHERF1 at the apical membrane, moesin but not ezrin depletion disrupted morphogenesis similarly to NHERF1. NHERF1 depletion resulted also in membrane displacement of PTEN and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, events contributing to polarity loss and increased proliferation. These findings reveal an essential role of NHERF1 in epithelial morphogenesis and polarity and validate this 3D system for modeling the molecular changes observed in CRC.

  2. Analysis of apical sealing of canals irradiated with Er: YAG and Nd: YAG lasers and filled with AH Plus®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luis Caldeira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laser technology is gaining increasing importance in dental practice and also in the field of Endodontics with its ability to promote disinfection and experimentally in the preparation of root canal. The action of different types of lasers results in changes representing the increase in permeability of dentinal tissue (Er: YAG or sometimes by a decrease in melting and recrystallization of dentin (Nd: YAG. Objective: this study assessed through apical dye leakage, the influence of irradiation with two types of laser, regarding to the quality of apical sealing of endodontic fillings. Material and methods: Thirty-six single-rooted teeth were used after being prepared with the ProFile system up to size #40 instrument and then divided into four experimental and two control groups. The technique used previously to the filling was as follows: G1 – not irradiated; G2 – irradiated with Er: YAG; G3 – irradiated with Nd: YAG and G4 – irradiated with Er: YAG followed by Nd: YAG. After external waterproofing and dry, the specimens were filled with a cold vertical condensation technique, using AH Plus sealer, and immediately immersed into 0.5% methylene blue solution for subsequent cleavage. The linear values of apical marginal leakage were obtained with the aid of an optical microscope connected to a computer using the Image Lab® software. Results: Data analysis showed the non-existence of statistically significant (p = 0.05 differences between different groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the laser does not have influence on the apical sealing.

  3. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  4. Combined effect of compressibility, height and thickness on the nonlinear behaviour of polyurethane, simply-supported spherical shells under apical loads

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Bülent; Yükseler, Recep Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Previously, the effect of compressibility on the nonlinear buckling behaviour of thin, polyurethane, simply-supported spherical shells subjected to apical loads has been presented without considering the orders of the thickness and height of the spherical shells. In the meantime; it has been observed that although the variations of the thickness and height of the spherical shells do not affect the comments made for the effect of the compressibil...

  5. Research progress of stem cells from the apical papilla%根尖牙乳头干细胞的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家媛

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) is a new population of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) residing in the apical papilla of incompletely developed teeth. SCAP are a kind of adult stem cells which possess high proliferation rate, selfrenewal capability and multi-lineage differentiation capability, which play an important role in dental pulp repair, tooth regeneration and bioroot engineering. The research progress of SCAP is reviewed in this paper.%根尖周牙乳头干细胞(Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla,SCAP)存在于未完全发育成形的恒牙根尖周组织中,是具有高度增生、自我更新能力和多向分化潜能的成体干细胞.SCAP是牙根发育时成牙本质细胞的重要来源,在牙根的形成和发育中起着重要的作用,SCAP的研究将对牙髓修复,牙本质再生以及生物学牙根组织工程产生重要作用.该文就其研究现状作一综述.

  6. Discerning apical and basolateral properties of HT-29/B6 and IPEC-J2 cell layers by impedance spectroscopy, mathematical modeling and machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmid

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in partial resistances of epithelial barriers in vitro is a challenging and time-consuming task in physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that electrical properties of epithelial barriers can be estimated reliably by combining impedance spectroscopy measurements, mathematical modeling and machine learning algorithms. Conventional impedance spectroscopy is often used to estimate epithelial capacitance as well as epithelial and subepithelial resistance. Based on this, the more refined two-path impedance spectroscopy makes it possible to further distinguish transcellular and paracellular resistances. In a next step, transcellular properties may be further divided into their apical and basolateral components. The accuracy of these derived values, however, strongly depends on the accuracy of the initial estimates. To obtain adequate accuracy in estimating subepithelial and epithelial resistance, artificial neural networks were trained to estimate these parameters from model impedance spectra. Spectra that reflect behavior of either HT-29/B6 or IPEC-J2 cells as well as the data scatter intrinsic to the used experimental setup were created computationally. To prove the proposed approach, reliability of the estimations was assessed with both modeled and measured impedance spectra. Transcellular and paracellular resistances obtained by such neural network-enhanced two-path impedance spectroscopy are shown to be sufficiently reliable to derive the underlying apical and basolateral resistances and capacitances. As an exemplary perturbation of pathophysiological importance, the effect of forskolin on the apical resistance of HT-29/B6 cells was quantified.

  7. Sequence Analysis of Different Domains of Plasmodium Vivax Apical Membrane Antigen (PvAMA-1 Gene Locus in Iran

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    MR Khoramizade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmodium vivax is responsible for approximately 80 million malaria cases in the world. Apical membrane antigen1 (AMA-1 is a type I integral membrane protein present in all Plasmodium species. AMA-1 interferes in critical steps of invasion of human hepatocytes by sporozoites and red blood cells by merozoites and is one of the most immunodominant antigens for eliciting a protective immune response in human. It is considered as a promising antigen for inclusion in a vaccine against P. vivax. Since more knowledge is needed to lighten the scope of such antigen we compared genetic variation in P. vivax AMA-1from an Iranian isolate with those reported from some of the other malarious countries so far.Methods: P. vivax genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood of an Iranian patient with patent P. vivax infection. The nucleotide sequence for 446 amino acid (AA residues (42-488 of PvAMA-1 was amplified by PCR and cloned in pUC19 vector for sequencing.Results: Sequence analysis of the antigen showed a high degree of identity (99% with strong homology to the PvAMA-1 gene of P. vivax S3 and SKO814 isolates from India and Korea (Asian isolates respectively, and 96% similarity with P. vivax Sal-1 AMA-1 gene from El Salvador.Conclusions: We cloned and characterized three domains of PvAMA-1 gene from an Iranian patient. Predicted protein sequence of this gene showed some discrepancies in corresponding protein in comparing with similar genes reported from other malarious countries.

  8. Sequence diversity and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen 1 among Indian Plasmodium falciparum populations

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    Kumar Ashwani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. The complete AMA1 protein is comprised of three domains where domain I exhibits high sequence polymorphism and is thus named as the hyper-variable region (HVR. The present study describes the extent of genetic polymorphism and natural selection at domain I of the ama1 gene among Indian P. falciparum isolates. Methods The part of the ama1 gene covering domain I was PCR amplified and sequenced from 157 P. falciparum isolates collected from five different geographical regions of India. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses of the sequences were done using DnaSP ver. 4. 10. 9 and MEGA version 3.0 packages. Results A total of 57 AMA1 haplotypes were observed among 157 isolates sequenced. Forty-six of these 57 haplotypes are being reported here for the first time. The parasites collected from the high malaria transmission areas (Assam, Orissa, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands showed more haplotypes (H and nucleotide diversity π as compared to low malaria transmission areas (Uttar Pradesh and Goa. The comparison of all five Indian P. falciparum subpopulations indicated moderate level of genetic differentiation and limited gene flow (Fixation index ranging from 0.048 to 0.13 between populations. The difference between rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations, Tajima's D and McDonald-Kreitman test statistics suggested that the diversity at domain I of the AMA1 antigen is due to positive natural selection. The minimum recombination events were also high indicating the possible role of recombination in generating AMA1 allelic diversity. Conclusion The level of genetic diversity and diversifying selection were higher in Assam, Orissa, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands populations as compared to Uttar Pradesh and Goa. The amounts of gene flow among these populations were moderate. The data reported here will be valuable for the

  9. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés AMOROSO-SILVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10: Sealer 26 (S26; MBPc (experimental; MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO, and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT. The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006, the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44. At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007. The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008. The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  10. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paré

    Full Text Available The Grainy head (GRH family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl. We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2 mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  11. Depletion of histone demethylase KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed members of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. A previous study determined that KDM2A can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2A is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here, we show that depletion of KDM2A by short hairpin RNAs can enhance adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials in human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). We found that the stemness-related genes, SOX2, and the embryonic stem cell master transcription factor, NANOG were significantly increased after silence of KDM2A in SCAPs. Moreover, we found that knock-down of the KDM2A co-factor, BCOR also up-regulated the mRNA levels of SOX2 and NANOG. Furthermore, Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that silence of KDM2A increased the histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation in the SOX2 and NANOG locus and regulates its expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that depletion of KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs by up-regulated SOX2 and NANOG, BCOR also involved in this regulation as co-factor, and provided useful information to understand the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSCs. - Highlights: • Depletion of KDM2A enhances adipogenic/chondrogenic differentiation in SCAPs. • Depletion of KDM2A enhances the differentiation of SCAPs by activate SOX2 and NANOG. • Silence of KDM2A increases histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation in SOX2 and NANOG. • BCOR is co-factor of KDM2A involved in the differentiation regulation

  12. Identification of a highly antigenic linear B cell epitope within Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1.

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    Lilian Lacerda Bueno

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1 is considered to be a major candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. Previous immunoepidemiological studies of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1 have shown a higher prevalence of specific antibodies to domain II (DII of AMA-1. In the present study, we confirmed that specific antibody responses from naturally infected individuals were highly reactive to both full-length AMA-1 and DII. Also, we demonstrated a strong association between AMA-1 and DII IgG and IgG subclass responses. We analyzed the primary sequence of PvAMA-1 for B cell linear epitopes co-occurring with intrinsically unstructured/disordered regions (IURs. The B cell epitope comprising the amino acid sequence 290-307 of PvAMA-1 (SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK, with the highest prediction scores, was identified in domain II and further selected for chemical synthesis and immunological testing. The antigenicity of the synthetic peptide was identified by serological analysis using sera from P. vivax-infected individuals who were knowingly reactive to the PvAMA-1 ectodomain only, domain II only, or reactive to both antigens. Although the synthetic peptide was recognized by all serum samples specific to domain II, serum with reactivity only to the full-length protein presented 58.3% positivity. Moreover, IgG reactivity against PvAMA-1 and domain II after depletion of specific synthetic peptide antibodies was reduced by 18% and 33% (P = 0.0001 for both, respectively. These results suggest that the linear epitope SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK is highly antigenic during natural human infections and is an important antigenic region of the domain II of PvAMA-1, suggesting its possible future use in pre-clinical studies.

  13. Depletion of histone demethylase KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Rui [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Yao, Rui [Department of Pediatrics, Stomatological Hospital of Nankai University, Tianjin 300041 (China); Du, Juan [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Wang, Songlin [Molecular Laboratory for Gene Therapy and Tooth Regeneration, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Capital Medical University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100069 (China); Fan, Zhipeng, E-mail: zpfan@ccmu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed members of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. A previous study determined that KDM2A can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2A is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here, we show that depletion of KDM2A by short hairpin RNAs can enhance adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials in human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). We found that the stemness-related genes, SOX2, and the embryonic stem cell master transcription factor, NANOG were significantly increased after silence of KDM2A in SCAPs. Moreover, we found that knock-down of the KDM2A co-factor, BCOR also up-regulated the mRNA levels of SOX2 and NANOG. Furthermore, Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that silence of KDM2A increased the histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation in the SOX2 and NANOG locus and regulates its expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that depletion of KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs by up-regulated SOX2 and NANOG, BCOR also involved in this regulation as co-factor, and provided useful information to understand the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSCs. - Highlights: • Depletion of KDM2A enhances adipogenic/chondrogenic differentiation in SCAPs. • Depletion of KDM2A enhances the differentiation of SCAPs by activate SOX2 and NANOG. • Silence of KDM2A increases histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation in SOX2 and NANOG. • BCOR is co-factor of KDM2A involved in the differentiation regulation.

  14. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke; Nayir, Yelda; Celik, Kezban; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and maleic acid (MA) on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 6: EDTA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 7: MA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Group 8: EDTA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Another ten roots were used as negative and positive controls. The microleakage of each sample was measured at 2-min intervals for 8 min using the fluid filtration method. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, and paired-samples t tests. The minimum microleakage values were obtained from the teeth obturated with AH Plus and EndoREZ selaers (p < 0.001). The samples with Hybrid Root SEAL showed the maximum leakage (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the groups irrigated with MA or EDTA in terms of microleakage (p < 0.05). Use of MA resulted in higher microleakage values compared with those using EDTA. The type of final irrigation solution seems to influence the postobturation apical seal. Use of AH Plus and EndoREZ sealers showed better sealing ability compared with IRoot SP and Hybrid Root SEAL.

  15. Vasopressin alters the mechanism of apical Cl- entry from Na+:Cl- to Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, A.; Grossman, E.B.; Lombardi, M.; Hebert, S.C. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Experiments were performed using in vitro perfused medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle (MTAL) and in suspensions of MTAL tubules isolated from mouse kidney to evaluate the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on the K+ dependence of the apical, furosemide-sensitive Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter and on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO{sub 2}). In isolated perfused MTAL segments, the rate of cell swelling induced by removing K+ from, and adding one mM ouabain to, the basolateral solution (ouabain(zero-K+)) provided an index to apical cotransporter activity and was used to evaluate the ionic requirements of the apical cotransporter in the presence and absence of AVP. In the absence of AVP cotransporter activity required Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, but not K{sup +}, while the presence of AVP the apical cotransporter required all three ions. {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake into MTAL tubules in suspension was significant only after exposure of tubules to AVP. Moreover, {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was unaffected by extracellular K+ in the absence of AVP while after AVP exposure {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was strictly K{sup +}-dependent. The AVP-induced coupling of K{sup +} to the Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter resulted in a doubling in the rate of NaCl absorption without a parallel increase in the rate of cellular {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake or transport-related oxygen consumption. These results indicate that arginine vasopressin alters the mode of a loop diuretic-sensitive transporter from Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport to Na{sup +}:K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport in the mouse MTAL with the latter providing a distinct metabolic advantage for sodium transport. A model for AVP action on NaCl absorption by the MTAL is presented and the physiological significance of the coupling of K{sup +} to the apical Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter in the MTAL and of the enhanced metabolic efficiency are discussed.

  16. ANÁLISIS DE LA CLARIFICACIÓN DENTAL COMO MÉTODO PARA EVALUAR EL LOCALIZADOR APICAL: UN ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO EXPLORATORIO IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Elián Barona Triviño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar cuatro técnicas de manejo de muestras dentales, propuestas para analizarla precisión de los localizadores electrónicos de ápice radicular. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio in vitro. Previo acceso endodóntico y localización del conducto radicular, 51 dientes uniradiculares fueron montados en modelos de alginato, se midió la longitud del conducto radicular hasta el foramen apical con una lima de acero inoxidable, empleando un localizador apical; en ese momento la lima  se fijó con cianoacrilato dentro del conducto. Los dientes fueron divididos en 4 grupos de manera aleatoria, divididos de la siguiente forma: 3 grupos evaluaron distintas  técnicas de clarificación dental, normalmente utilizadas para observar morfología interna radicular y que se proponen como una nueva alternativa en la evaluación de los localizadores apicales, las técnicas  fueron: 1 Técnica de Okumura, modificada por Aprile, 2 Técnica de Gulavibala, 3 Técnica propuesta por los investigadores del presente estudio. Estas técnicas se compararon contra la Técnica de desgaste apical propuesta por Jakobson la cual se ha reportado recientemente con buenos resultados. Posteriormente bajo estereoscopio se digitalizaron  imágenes  de los dientes y con el Software ImageTool V3.0 ® se tomaron medidas desde la punta de la lima hasta el foramen apical visible, ya sea por clarificación o por desgaste. Estas medidas  se analizaron usando las pruebas estadísticas Anova, Bonferroni, Sidak y Scheffé. Resultados: Las medidas con las técnicas de clarificación presentaron destrucción de tejido dental lo que afectó la evaluación de la medida que hizo el localizador apical. La evaluación con la técnica de desgaste presento los mejores resultados Conclusiones: La técnica de clarificación no es utilizable para evaluar localizadores apicales. La técnica de desgaste se encuentra indicada en la evaluación de

  17. QUEBRA DA DOMINÂNCIA APICAL, POR PROCESSOS FÍSICOS, EM CULTIVO IN VITRO DE BANANEIRA-MAÇÃ APICAL DOMINANCE BRAKE BY PHYSICAL PROCESSES ON BANANA IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos processos físicos para a quebra da dominância apical em explantes iniciais de bananeira (Musa AAB cv. Maçã foram avaliados. Os tratamentos constaram de: 1. explantes subculturados inteiros; 2. Explantes divididos ao meio; 3. explantes divididos em quatro partes; e 4. explantes com três cortes superficiais (estrela, mantendo-se a base do rizoma intacta. O meio utilizado foi o MS suplementado com NaH2PO4 (170 mg L-1, adenina (40 mg L-1, BAP (1,5 mg L-1 e Kin (3,5 mg L-1. Após 80 dias, os explantes originados destes tratamentos foram subculturados para meio MS modificado, semelhante ao anterior, com exceção dos fitorreguladores que foram: BAP (2,3 mg L-1 e AIA (0,18 mg L-1. Durante os primeiros oitenta dias de cultivo, observou-se um aumento linear do número de brotos para todos os tratamentos, embora maiores perdas por oxidação e/ou contaminação tenham ocorrido para os tratamentos em que houve a divisão do explante inicial em duas e quatro partes. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos, aos 80 dias, em relação à produção de brotos; entretanto, maior número foi obtido no sexto subcultivo (aos 164 dias a partir de explantes iniciais divididos ao meio. A taxa de multiplicação teve uma tendência de redução até o sexto subcultivo, para todos os tratamentos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cultura de tecidos; micropropagação; Musa AAB.

    Several physical processes were evaluated for apical dominance brake of banana

  18. Uso do ácido giberélico na quebra de dormência e de dominância apical em batata Use of gibberellic acid to break dormancy and apical dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório e a campo no ano de. 1996 com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do ácido giberélico (GA, aplicado via foliar ou por aspersão nos tubérculos, na quebra de dormência e de dominância apical em diferentes tipos de tubérculos-semente das cultivares Macaca, Baronesa e Monte Bonito. Os tratamentos via foliar foram aplicados sete dias antes da eliminação da parte aérea, nas doses de 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000 g/ha de GA e por aspersão nos tubérculos logo após a colheita, nas concentrações de 10 e 30ppm. Não houve interação entre a aplicação de GA x cultivar ou GA x tipo de tubérculo. A aplicação via foliar resultou em aumento na percentagem de tubérculos brotados e no número de brotos/tubérculo e na redução do número de dias até a emergência. A aspersão nos tubérculos promoveu, na concentração de 30ppm, um aumento estimado de 113,6% no número de brotos/tubérculo e 37,8% no número de hastes/m² e uma redução de 25% no período até a emergência, em relação à testemunha. O aumento do rendimento e número total de tubérculos foi da ordem de 13,8% e 23,2%, e para o rendimento e número de tubérculos-semente esse aumento foi de 25,8% e 27,6%, em relação à testemunha. A aplicação de GA por aspersão nos tubérculos logo após a colheita acelera a brotação, aumenta o número de hastes e de tubérculos produzidos e o rendimento de tubérculos. Tubérculos maiores promovem uma emergência mais rápida, de maior número de hastes, mais altas, que resultam em maior rendimento. Os tipos I, II, III e IV de tubérculo devem ser plantados separadamente e em diferentes densidades para resultar em uma lavoura com densidade adequada de hastes, com estando uniforme e de maior rendimento de tubérculos comercializáveis.A field and a laboratory experiment was carried out in 1996 to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA to break dormancy and apical dominance of potato seed

  19. 根管-根尖周复合体体外模型的建立%Establishment of an in-vitro root canal-apical complex model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王容; 钟晓波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish an in-vitro root canal-apical complex model for studying the mechanisms of the infected root canal to apical periodontitis and periapical biofilm .Methods Single rooted premolar extracted for orthodontic ,was sealed in sterile vial containing LB solid medium ,and the culture medium covered apical thirds .Totally 25 root canal-apical complex models were prepared .Five models were randomly selected for the bacteria detection in periapical by PCR at 1st day .The remained 20 models were randomly subjected to a control group(n=10) and experimental group(n=10) .Extracted teeth were opened in experimental group and control group with no treatment .All models were exposed in air .At 21st day ,bacteria were detected through PCR in root canal and apical;endotoxin content in apical was assayed by chromogenic end-point limulus test .Results In apical ,bacteria was not found in all groups ,but not for the experimental group .The mean endotoxin content was (8 .913 ± 0 .614)EU/mL in control group and (10 .525 ± 0 .981)EU/mL in experimental group .The endotoxin content was increased significantly in experimental group ,when compared with control group(P<0 .01) .Conclusion Root canal-apical complex was established in vitro through this method .Bac-teria was not easy to reach the apical when the infected root canal was not disturbed .Bacteria in the infected root canal caused apical periodontitis through the secretion of virulence factors such as endotoxin .%目的:建立根管-根尖周组织复合体体外模型,以此探索感染根管形成根尖周炎及根尖生物膜的可能机制。方法将因正畸减数拔除的健康单根前磨牙密封于盛有LB固体培养基的无菌小瓶内,使牙根的根尖1/3置于培养基中,制备成根管-根尖周复合体体外模型25个。建模后1 d抽取5个模型通过PCR技术检测根尖周组织有无细菌。将余下的20个模型分为对照组(n=10)及实验组(n=10),实验组

  20. High antibody titer against apical membrane antigen-1 is required to protect against malaria in the Aotus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetij Dutta

    Full Text Available A Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 vaccine, formulated with AS02(A adjuvant, slowed parasite growth in a recent Phase 1/2a trial, however sterile protection was not observed. We tested this AS02(A, and a Montanide ISA720 (ISA formulation of 3D7 AMA1 in Aotus monkeys. The 3D7 parasite does not invade Aotus erythrocytes, hence two heterologous strains, FCH/4 and FVO, were used for challenge, FCH/4 AMA1 being more homologous to 3D7 than FVO AMA1. Following three vaccinations, the monkeys were challenged with 50,000 FCH/4 or 10,000 FVO parasites. Three of the six animals in the AMA+ISA group were protected against FCH/4 challenge. One monkey did not become parasitemic, another showed only a short period of low level parasitemia that self-cured, and a third animal showed a delay before exhibiting its parasitemic phase. This is the first protection shown in primates with a recombinant P. falciparum AMA1 without formulation in Freund's complete adjuvant. No animals in the AMA+AS02(A group were protected, but this group exhibited a trend towards reduced growth rate. A second group of monkeys vaccinated with AMA+ISA vaccine was not protected against FVO challenge, suggesting strain-specificity of AMA1-based protection. Protection against FCH/4 strain correlated with the quantity of induced antibodies, as the protected animals were the only ones to have in vitro parasite growth inhibitory activity of >70% at 1:10 serum dilution; immuno-fluorescence titers >8,000; ELISA titers against full-length AMA1 >300,000 and ELISA titer against AMA1 domains1+2 >100,000. A negative correlation between log ELISA titer and day 11 cumulative parasitemia (Spearman rank r = -0.780, p value = 0.0001, further confirmed the relationship between antibody titer and protection. High titers of cross-strain inhibitory antibodies against AMA1 are therefore critical to confer solid protection, and the Aotus model can be used to down-select future AMA1

  1. Paced QRS duration and myocardial scar amount: predictors of long-term outcome of right ventricular apical pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Cha, Myung-Jin; Cho, Youngjin; Oh, Il-Young; Choi, Eue-Keun; Oh, Seil

    2016-07-01

    Long-term right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) is reportedly associated with heart failure (HF) development. However, the predictors of pacing-induced HF (PHF) remained unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 234 patients without structural heart disease who underwent a permanent pacemaker implantation with RVAP between 1982 and 2004. RVAP-induced HF was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction decrease >5 % with HF symptom without other HF development etiology. The QRS duration of a paced beat (pQRSd) and myocardial scar score were analyzed from each patient's 12-lead ECG. During a mean 15.6 years (range 3.3-30.0 years), 48 patients (20.5 %) patients developed RVAP-induced HF. The PHF group patients had a longer pQRSd (192.4 ± 13.5 vs. 175.7 ± 14.7 ms in non-PHF patients, p scar score (5.2 ± 1.9 vs. 2.7 ± 1.9, respectively p scar score (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.03-1.49, p = 0.037), and a higher percentage of ventricular pacing (HR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.01-1.49, p = 0.010) were independent predictors of PHF. Based on the results of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the pQRSd cutoff was 185 ms (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 66.7 %, specificity 76.3 %) and myocardial scar score cutoff value was 4 (AUC 0.81, sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 66.1 %). The pQRSd was positively correlated with scar score (r = 0.70, p scar score ≥4 might be independent long-term prognostic markers of PHF.

  2. The simulation model of growth and cell divisions for the root apex with an apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna; Nakielski, Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to seed plants, the roots of most ferns have a single apical cell which is the ultimate source of all cells in the root. The apical cell has a tetrahedral shape and divides asymmetrically. The root cap derives from the distal division face, while merophytes derived from three proximal division faces contribute to the root proper. The merophytes are produced sequentially forming three sectors along a helix around the root axis. During development, they divide and differentiate in a predictable pattern. Such growth causes cell pattern of the root apex to be remarkably regular and self-perpetuating. The nature of this regularity remains unknown. This paper shows the 2D simulation model for growth of the root apex with the apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata. The field of growth rates of the organ, prescribed by the model, is of a tensor type (symplastic growth) and cells divide taking principal growth directions into account. The simulations show how the cell pattern in a longitudinal section of the apex develops in time. The virtual root apex grows realistically and its cell pattern is similar to that observed in anatomical sections. The simulations indicate that the cell pattern regularity results from cell divisions which are oriented with respect to principal growth directions. Such divisions are essential for maintenance of peri-anticlinal arrangement of cell walls and coordinated growth of merophytes during the development. The highly specific division program that takes place in merophytes prior to differentiation seems to be regulated at the cellular level. PMID:23989670

  3. The dynamics of filamentous structures in the apical band, oral crescent, fission line and the postoral meridional filament in Tetrahymena thermophila revealed by monoclonal antibody 12G9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerka-Dziadosz, M; Strzyewska-Jówko, I; Wojsa-Lugowska, U; Krawczyńska, W; Krzywicka, A

    2001-05-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila possesses a multitude of cytoskeletal structures whose differentiation is related to the basal bodies - the main mediators of the cortical pattern. This investigation deals with immunolocalization using light and electron microscopy of filaments labeled by the monoclonal antibody 12G9, which in other ciliates identifies filaments involved in transmission of cellular polarities and marks cell meridians with the highest morphogenetic potential. In Tetrahymena interphase cells, mAb 12G9 localizes to the sites of basal bodies and to the striated ciliary rootlets, to the apical band of filaments and to the fine fibrillar oral crescent. We followed the sequence of development of these structures during divisional morphogenesis. The labeling of the maternal oral crescent disappears in pre-metaphase cells and reappears during anaphase, concomitantly with differentiation of the new structure in the posterior daughter cell. In the posterior daughter cell, the new apical band originates as small clusters of filaments located at the base of the anterior basal bodies of the apical basal body couplets during early anaphase. The differentiation of the band is completed in the final stages of cytokinesis and in the young post-dividing cell. The maternal band is reorganized earlier, simultaneously with the oral structure. The mAb 12G9 identifies two transient structures present only in dividing cells. One is a medial structure demarcating the two daughter cells during metaphase and anaphase, and defining the new anterior border of the posterior daughter cell. The other is a post-oral meridional filament marking the stomatogenic meridian in postmetaphase cells. Comparative analysis of immunolocalization of transient filaments labeled with mAb12G9 in Tetrahymena and other ciliates indicates that this antibody identifies a protein bound to filamentous structures, which might play a role in relying polarities of cortical domains and could be a part

  4. Pelvic Floor Support Defect in Apical Anterior Vaginal Prolapse with Cervical Hypertrophy. Review with Case Report in a 20-year-old Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Kalpana

    2015-10-01

    Apical anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP) with central defect is uncommon in young non hysterectomized patients causing considerable mortality after the fourth decade of life. Its high propensity to recurrence poses the greatest challenge to pelvic reconstructive surgeons. Approximately 40% of women with prolapse have hypertrophic cervical elongation and the extent of elongation increases with greater degrees of prolapse. Women with prolapse either have inherent hypertrophic elongation of the cervix which predisposes them to prolapse or the downward traction in prolapse leads to cervical elongation. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) examination includes measurement of the location of the posterior fornix (point D) with the assumption that this measurement is associated with cervical elongation. Multifocal site involvement with apical and perineal descent primarily afflicts elderly, postmenopausal women after the fourth decade while cervical hypertrophic elongation with prolapse is observed in younger women less than 40 years of age. A review of the anatomical implication of the association of cervical hypertrophy in prolapse is carried out in this article. We observed a combination of distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with apical descent and cervical hypertrophy in a 20-year-old cadaver during routine dissection for undergraduate medical students at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences in 2013. Distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with central defect is rarer as most reported cases are of the displacement type, paravaginal defect. Hypertrophic cervical elongation is either the cause or consequence of prolapse and its identification before reconstructive surgery is paramount as uterine suspension in the face of cervical elongation is contraindicated. Inappropriate identification of all support defects and breaking of tissues is the primary cause of failure of laparoscopic pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:26557506

  5. XBAT35, a Novel Arabidopsis RING E3 Ligase Exhibiting Dual Targeting of Its Splice Isoforms,Is Involved in Ethylene-Mediated Regulation of Apical Hook Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofia D.Carvalho; Rita Saraiva; Teresa M.Maia; Isabel A.Abreu; Paula Duque

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis XBAT35 is one of five structurally related ankyrin repeat-containing Really interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ligases involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation,which plays key roles in a wide range of cellular processes.Here,we show that the XBAT35 gene undergoes alternative splicing,generating two transcripts that are constitutively expressed in all plant tissues.The two splice variants derive from an exon skipping event that excludes an in-frame segment from the XBAT35 precursor mRNA,giving rise to two protein isoforms that differ solely in the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS).Transient expression assays indicate that the isoform lacking the NLS localizes in the cytoplasm of plant cells,whereas the other is targeted to the nucleus,accumulating in nuclear speckles.Both isoforms are functional E3 ligases,as assessed by in vitro ubiquitination assays.Two insertion mutant alleles and RNA-interference (RNAi) silencing lines for XBAT35 display no evident phenotypes under normal growth conditions,but exhibit hypersensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) during apical hook exaggeration in the dark,which is rescued by an inhibitor of ethylene perception.Independent expression of each XBAT35 splice variant in the mutant background indicates that the two isoforms may differentially contribute to apical hook formation but are both functional in this ethylene-mediated response.Thus,XBAT35 defines a novel player in ethylene signaling involved in negatively regulating apical hook curvature,with alternative splicing controlling dual targeting of this E3 ubiquitin ligase to the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.

  6. Effect of Diode Laser on Bacteria Beyond the Apex in Relation to the Size of the Apical Preparation – An In-Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Raja Vatsavai Chakradhar; Patil, Jaya Prakash; Singh, Thakur Veerandar; Bhutani, Neha; Kamishetty, Shekar; Ghatole, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microorganisms causing periapical infection are usually difficult to eradicate after conventional endodontic treatment or even in retreatment resulting in poor outcomes. So the purpose of the study was to assess whether disinfection of root canal with laser had any effect on bacteria in the periapex region. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a diode laser when activated in root canals with varying apical diameters, on the bacteria present beyond the apex of the teeth. Materials and Methods Total 30 intact single rooted teeth were taken and decoronated to standardize the root to a length of 12mm. They were divided into three groups depending on last file size used for instrumentation at apex i.e., size 30, 40 and 50 respectively. The samples were then mounted on test tubes such that roots of teeth were in contact with fresh broth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and left for incubation. Later a diode laser (Ezlase 940, Biolase) was used for disinfection of root canals of the samples. Following this the bacterial inoculums from each test tube were cultured and CFU were obtained from which the mean log values were obtained. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA test to compare mean CFU in three groups. Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare inter-group differences. Results There was statistically significant difference in mean log values of CFU in all the three study groups. Inter-group comparisons showed that, Group A had significantly lower mean CFUs than Group B and C respectively. Conclusion The study showed that intracanal irradiation with diode laser had an effect on the bacteria present beyond the apex, and it was influenced by the size of the apical preparation i.e., smaller apical size led to a greater reduction in the bacterial count. PMID:27437362

  7. Growth, 14C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up 14C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up 14C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of 14C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl2 or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP

  8. The dynamics of filamentous structures in the apical band, oral crescent, fission line and the postoral meridional filament in Tetrahymena thermophila revealed by monoclonal antibody 12G9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerka-Dziadosz, M; Strzyewska-Jówko, I; Wojsa-Lugowska, U; Krawczyńska, W; Krzywicka, A

    2001-05-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila possesses a multitude of cytoskeletal structures whose differentiation is related to the basal bodies - the main mediators of the cortical pattern. This investigation deals with immunolocalization using light and electron microscopy of filaments labeled by the monoclonal antibody 12G9, which in other ciliates identifies filaments involved in transmission of cellular polarities and marks cell meridians with the highest morphogenetic potential. In Tetrahymena interphase cells, mAb 12G9 localizes to the sites of basal bodies and to the striated ciliary rootlets, to the apical band of filaments and to the fine fibrillar oral crescent. We followed the sequence of development of these structures during divisional morphogenesis. The labeling of the maternal oral crescent disappears in pre-metaphase cells and reappears during anaphase, concomitantly with differentiation of the new structure in the posterior daughter cell. In the posterior daughter cell, the new apical band originates as small clusters of filaments located at the base of the anterior basal bodies of the apical basal body couplets during early anaphase. The differentiation of the band is completed in the final stages of cytokinesis and in the young post-dividing cell. The maternal band is reorganized earlier, simultaneously with the oral structure. The mAb 12G9 identifies two transient structures present only in dividing cells. One is a medial structure demarcating the two daughter cells during metaphase and anaphase, and defining the new anterior border of the posterior daughter cell. The other is a post-oral meridional filament marking the stomatogenic meridian in postmetaphase cells. Comparative analysis of immunolocalization of transient filaments labeled with mAb12G9 in Tetrahymena and other ciliates indicates that this antibody identifies a protein bound to filamentous structures, which might play a role in relying polarities of cortical domains and could be a part

  9. Apical Scaffolding Protein NHERF2 Modulates the Localization of Alternatively Spliced Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Pump 2B Variants in Polarized Epithelial Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Padányi, Rita; Xiong, Yuning; Antalffy, Géza; Lór, Krisztina; Pászty, Katalin; STREHLER, EMANUEL E.; Enyedi, Ágnes

    2010-01-01

    The membrane localization of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) in polarized cells is determined by alternative splicing; the PMCA2w/b splice variant shows apical localization, whereas the PMCA2z/b and PMCA2x/b variants are mostly basolateral. We previously reported that PMCA2b interacts with the PDZ protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2), but the role of this interaction for the specific membrane localization of PMCA2 is not known. Here we show that co-expressio...

  10. Reflexiones clínicas de la terapéutica endodóntica a partir de un estudio sobre la morfología apical

    OpenAIRE

    Brau Aguadé, Esteban

    1991-01-01

    A partir de un trabajo de investigación sobre la histomorfología de la zona periapical y las repercusiones del turn-orver cementario sobre la anatomía funcional se intenta responder a una serie de cuestiones clínicas que se presentan sistemáticame nte durante la preparación biomecánica de conductos radiculares. Se llega a la conclusión de que, debido a los cambios constantes de la morfología apical, los tratamientos endodóncicos no pueden realizarse mediante bases preestablecidas; que los med...

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits alkaline pH- and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells.

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    Hallows, Kenneth R; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Li, Hui; Gong, Fan; Smolak, Christy; Neumann, Dietbert; Pastor-Soler, Núria M

    2009-04-01

    Acidic luminal pH and low [HCO(3)(-)] maintain sperm quiescent during maturation in the epididymis. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in clear cells is a major contributor to epididymal luminal acidification. We have shown previously that protein kinase A (PKA), acting downstream of soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation by alkaline luminal pH or HCO(3)(-), induces V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation in clear cells. Here we examined whether the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates this PKA-induced V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat and non-human primate epididymides revealed specific AMPK expression in epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat epididymis showed that perfusion in vivo with the AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or A-769662 induced a redistribution of the V-ATPase into subapical vesicles, even in the presence of a luminal alkaline (pH 7.8) buffer compared with that of controls perfused without drug. Moreover, preperfusion with AICAR blocked the PKA-mediated V-ATPase translocation to clear cell apical membranes induced by N(6)-monobutyryl-cAMP (6-MB-cAMP). Purified PKA and AMPK both phosphorylated V-ATPase A subunit in vitro. In HEK-293 cells [(32)P]orthophosphate in vivo labeling of the A subunit increased following PKA stimulation and decreased following RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AMPK. Finally, the extent of PKA-dependent in vivo phosphorylation of the A subunit increased with AMPK knockdown. In summary, our findings suggest that AMPK inhibits PKA-mediated V-ATPase apical accumulation in epididymal clear cells, that both kinases directly phosphorylate the V-ATPase A subunit in vitro and in vivo, and that AMPK inhibits PKA-dependent phosphorylation of this subunit. V-ATPase activity may be coupled to the sensing of acid-base status via PKA and to metabolic status via AMPK. PMID:19211918

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits alkaline pH- and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hallows, Kenneth R.; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Li, Hui; Gong, Fan; Smolak, Christy; Neumann, Dietbert; Pastor-Soler, Núria M.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic luminal pH and low [HCO3−] maintain sperm quiescent during maturation in the epididymis. The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in clear cells is a major contributor to epididymal luminal acidification. We have shown previously that protein kinase A (PKA), acting downstream of soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation by alkaline luminal pH or HCO3−, induces V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation in clear cells. Here we examined whether the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reg...

  13. An unusual case of giant cell myocarditis missed in a Heartmate-2 left ventricle apical-wedge section: a case report and review of the literature

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    Anderson Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we present a case of fulminant myocarditis in a woman previously treated for B-cell lymphoma. While the clinical context was suggestive of adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy, the initial pathology of the Heartmate-2 apical core showed lymphocytic myocarditis. After 8 months of stability, the patient presented with progressive heart failure and recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. An endomyocardial biopsy revealed findings typical of giant cell myocarditis (GCM; poor response to immunosuppressive therapy and marked hemodynamic instability led to urgent transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GCM following an acute lymphocytic myocarditis and the second GCM case associated with B-cell lymphoma.

  14. Apicectomia con obturación retrograda e injerto óseo para el tratamiento de una lesión apical

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    Antonio Diaz Caballero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos fracasos endodónticos ocasionados por transportación, perforaciones, sobreobturación y falta de reparación de una lesión apical conducen en ocasiones a la terapéutica quirúrgica. Con la cirugía periapical consistente en la exposición del ápice, resección radicular y preparación de una cavidad que será sellada herméticamente, corregiremos los defectos anteriores. La combinación de esta técnica quirúrgica con la obturación retrograda arroja excelentes resultados con pocas posibilidades de recidivas. Existen diversos materiales retroobturadores ampliamente utilizados, como son: Diaket, gutapercha, Super EBA, biocem, los cementos de ionómero de vidrio, mineral trióxido agregado (MTA, entre los cuales destacamos el cemento retroobturador Super EBA por las ventajas proporcionadas en cuanto al selle de este tipo de preparaciones. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con lesión apical recidivante y sobreobturación del sistema de conductos radiculares, se describe la técnica quirúrgica de apicectomía con obturación retrograda e injerto óseo como alternativa para una mejor regeneración ósea. (DUAZARY 2010, 228 - 233Palabras clave: Apicectomía; Obturación retrograda; Injerto Óseo.AbstractEndodontic failure caused by transportation, drilling, overfilling and failure to repair an injury apical sometimes lead to surgical therapy. With periapical surgery consisting of exposure of the apex, root resection and preparation of a cavity that is hermetically sealed, we will correct the defects earlier. The combination of this surgical technique with retrograde obturation gives excellent results with little chance of recurrence. There are several widely used retrofilling materials, such as: Diaket, gutta-percha, Super EBA, biocem, glass ionomer cements, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, among which is the Super EBA cement retrofilling benefits provided by the seal in such preparations. A case of a patient with recurrent apical

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2015-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  16. Propagação de estacas apicais de figueira: diferentes ambientes, ácido indolbutríco e tipo de estaca Propagation of fig tree apical cuttings: different ambient, indolbutyric acid and type of cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho verificar a influência de diferentes ambientes, da gema apical e do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas apicais de figueira. Foram coletadas estacas lenhosas apicais de figueira em agosto, padronizadas com 20 cm de comprimento e sem folhas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de estacas com ou sem a gema apical, imersas ou não em solução de AIB a 2000 mg.L-1 por 10 segundos e dois diferentes ambientes de propagação (casa-de-vegetação, com temperatura em torno de 27±2°C e 85% UR; telado, constituído por sombrite a 50% de luminosidade e regas manuais diárias. As estacas foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos (10 x 20 cm, capacidade de 650 cm³, preenchido com substrato terra e areia 2:1 v/v. Após 60 dias foram avaliados a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas e brotadas, número de folhas, brotos, raízes emitidas da estaca e comprimento médio das brotações. Concluiu-se que a casa-de-vegetação representa o ambiente ideal de propagação para estacas apicais de figueira; deve ser mantida a gema apical nas estacas; não há necessidade da utilização de AIB.The aim of work was to verify the influence of different ambient, apical bud and indolbutyric acid in the rooting of fig tree apical cutting. Woody cutting of fig tree apical was collected in August, standardized with 20 cm of length and without leaves. The treatments were constituted of cutting with or without the apical bud, immerged or not in solution of IBA at 2000 mg.L-1 for 10 seconds and two different propagation ambient (green house, with temperature around 27±2°C and 85% UR; telado, constituted by sombrite at 50% of brightness. The cuttings were conditioned in bag plastic (10 x 20 cm, capacity of 650 cm³, filled with substrate soil and sand 2:1 v/v. After 60 days, rooting and sprouting percentage, number of leaves, sprouts and roots emitted the cutting and sprouts lengths were evaluated. It was ended that the green

  17. Endodontic management of nonvital permanent teeth having immature roots with one step apexification, using mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug and autogenous platelet-rich fibrin membrane as an internal matrix: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, Sarang; Dudeja, Pooja; Grover, Shibani

    2016-01-01

    A tooth with blunderbuss canal and open apex can be an endodontic challenge because of difficulty in obtaining an apical seal, and existing thin radicular walls which are susceptible to fracture. To overcome the limitations of traditional long-term calcium hydroxide apexification procedures, nonsurgical one step apexification using an array of materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been suggested. However, adequate compaction of MTA in teeth with wide open apices can be an arduous task, and an internal matrix is required for controlled placement of MTA against which obturating material can be condensed. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a second generation platelet concentrate containing several growth factors that promotes hard and soft-tissue healing, has been used as an internal matrix to create an apical plug of MTA and hence prevent extrusion of filling materials. This case series presents the endodontic management of immature permanent teeth with open apices using internal matrix of autologous PRF membrane and one step apical barrier placement of MTA. PMID:27041904

  18. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using K3, Mtwo, RaCe and protaper rotary systems: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapati, Roopadevi; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Patil, Jayaprakash D; Raju, RVSC; Rammohan, Chintamani

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This aim of this study was to evaluate the number of bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using Four Rotary instrumentation techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 extracted mandibular premolars were selected, access cavities prepared and inserted in to rubber stoppers of 10 mL glass vial. Root canals were contaminated with a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29212 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation was collected into vials. The numbers of Colony-forming units were determined for each sample. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc tukey's test with a P = 0.05 as the level for statistical significance. Results: Results suggested a statistically significant difference in the number of colony forming units between four experimental rotary Nickel-Titanium instrumentation groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Although, extrusion of bacteria was found in all the experimental groups. There was less bacterial extrusion in K3 Group while more bacterial extrusion was seen in Mtwo Group. PMID:23956529

  19. Danger zone analysis using cone beam computed tomography after apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF in a manikin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Juan-Gonzalo; García-Font, Marc; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jose-Antonio; Roig-Cayon, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare how apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments reduces the root thickness in the danger zone and affects canal transportation and centering ability in mandibular molar mesial canals in a manikin extracted tooth model. Material and Methods Seventy-two mesial root canals of first mandibular molars were instrumented. Initial and post-instrumentation Cone Beam Computed Tomography scans were performed after root canal preparation up to size 25, 30, 35 and 40 files. Canal transportation, canal centering and remaining root dentin thickness toward the danger zone were calculated in sections 1, 2 and 3 mm under the furcation level. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of P 0.05). Conclusions Under the conditions of this study K3 removed a significant amount of dentin at the furcation level compared with the R-Phase K3XF rotary system in curved root canals. Enlargement to a 35-40/04 file removed significantly more dentin with both systems. Key words:K3, K3XF, R-phase, center ability, canal transportation, dentin thickness, increased apical enlargement, danger zone, dentin thickness. PMID:27703602

  20. COMBINATION OF APICALLY POSITIONED AND CORONALLY ADVANCED FLAP IN THE TREATMENT OF A COMPLEX MUCOGINGIVAL AND RESTORATIVE PROBLEM. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP. (Case Report

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    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The modern Periodontology has various approaches to achieve a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the mucogingival complex. These techniques include application of flaps with apical or coronal advancement in order to achieve different treatment objectives. Complex cases with different pathology on adjacent teeth require several surgeries thereby increasing treatment time and patient discomfort. New combined approaches are needed to meet the challenges of such cases. OBJECTIVE: This report presents a case with a simultaneous application of a resective and a mucogingival technique in one dental sextant. METHODS: I.C. (36 with a localized chronic periodontitis, Miller Class I gingival recessions (13,14 and subgingival caries lesions (15,16. A combined approach with simultaneous crown lengthening with apically positioned flap for 16,15 and root coverage with enamel matrix derivate and a coronally advanced flap for 14,13 was applied in order to avoid multiple surgical procedures. RESULTS: On the third month after the surgical procedure a complete root coverage (13,14 was achieved. The crown lengthening procedure enabled the restoration of the caries lesions and the placement of new crowns (15,16. The result at the third year demonstrates a stable gingival margin with no recurrence of the gingival recessions. CONCLUSION: The applied combined procedure led to a complete resolution of the existing problems with a single surgery. The simultaneous application of different procedures seems a promising approach aimed to reduce the treatment time and to diminish patient discomfort.