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  1. Takotsubo, discinesia apical transitoria: Presentacion de 4 casos y revisión de la literatura Takotsubo, reversible apical ballooning of the left ventricle: Report of 4 cases

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    Bárbara C. Finn

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available En 1990 se describió un síndrome caracterizado por discinesia apical transitoria, cambios en el electrocardiograma (ECG, mínima elevación de enzimas cardíacas y arterias coronarias normales. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en mujeres añosas y es precedido por un evento de estrés, ya sea físico o psíquico. La fisiopatología aún no está aclarada y se proponen diversas teorías. La de mayor peso es la que postula una afección secundaria a la descarga de catecolaminas desencadenada por el estrés, sobre un corazón incapaz de mantener una respuesta inotrópica adecuada. Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes atendidos en nuestro hospital que se manifestaron con síntomas sugerentes de infarto agudo de miocardio asociados a insuficiencia cardiaca, en el contexto de un episodio estresante. Los síntomas preponderantes fueron dolor precordial opresivo y disnea. En el ECG se evidenciaron tanto supradesnivel del segmento ST, como inversión de la onda T. Todos los pacientes presentaron la imagen ecocardiográfica típica de discinesia apical, y todos tuvieron en la cinecoronariografía coronarias normales. Cabe destacar que tanto el ECG, como el ecocardiograma volvieron a la normalidad a partir de las dos semanas.A syndrome of apical ballooning, with ECG mimicking acute myocardial infarctation, mild or no enzymatic changes, and normal coronary angiogram was described in 1990. It presents mainly in middle aged and elderly women and it is preceded by stress triggering circumstances. Several mechanisms have been proposed although the precise cause remains unclear. The most accepted theory proposes the interaction of catecholamines and an inadequate inotropic response. We report four cases that presented with chest pain and sudden onset of heart failure, all patients had physical or emotional stress as a triggering factor. On ECG, ST segment elevation and inverted T waves were observed in the acute phase. All patients had typical echocardiogram

  2. DISCINESIA ÁNTERO-APICAL TRANSITORIA O SÍNDROME DE TAKO-TSUBO. PRESENTACIÓN DE UN CASO / Transient antero-apical dyskinesia or tako-tsubo syndrome. A case report

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    Dayán A. García Cuesta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient apical ballooning, Tako-tsubo syndrome (and other synonyms, is a clinical condition first described in Japan, and then in other countries, that mimics acute myocardial infarction. Disorders of left ventricular contractility recover within a few weeks. The fatality rate is very low compared with infarction, but it should be known by professionals that see patients with acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department. A patient who was discharged from our department with this diagnosis is presented, and electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and angiographic images are shown.

  3. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

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    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  4. Resúmenes Presentaciones Orales

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    Editor Gabriel Vargas Arana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones orales del III Congreso Latinoamericano de Plantas Medicinales, desarrollado del 12 al 14 de agosto de 2015 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  5. Presentacion

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    Revista Facultad Ingenieria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombiaconsidera de especial importancia resaltar la labor de personas que con su gestióny actitud han dejado una huella grata y contribuido al engrandecimiento de laIngeniería y a la formación de nuevos Ingenieros en nuestro medio.

  6. Osteoporosis transitoria de rodilla en el embarazo

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    López Sagasta, L.; Torres Campos, A.; Seral García, Belén; Albareda Albareda, Jorge Cruz

    2013-01-01

    La osteoporosis transitoria o síndrome de edema óseo transitorio es una enfermedad poco frecuente y autolimitada que puede afectar a la mujer embarazada. La etiología es desconocida y su localización más frecuente es la cadera. Presentamos un caso de osteoporosis transitoria de rodilla durante el embarazo, con resolución clínica y radiológica completa tras 10 meses de evolución. Transient osteoporosis or transient bone edema syndrome is a rare, self-limiting disease that can af...

  7. Regimen de salidas transitorias en la ley de seguridad ciudadana

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    Ana María Mosquera Rial

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Planteo. -- Teorías explicativas. -- Sistemas penitenciarios. -- La ejecución penal en el Uruguay. -- Régimen de salidas transitorias. -- Modificaciones establecidas por la Ley 16.707 al régimen de salidas transitorias. -- Conclusiones

  8. Resúmenes Presentaciones de Pósteres

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    Editor Gabriel Vargas Arana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones de pósteres del III Congreso Latinoamericano de Plantas Medicinales, desarrollado del 12 al 14 de agosto de 2015 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  9. Osteoporosis transitoria del embarazo: caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoponi,Sara; Cuerva G,Marcos; Magdaleno D,Fernando; González G,Antonio

    2011-01-01

    La osteoporosis transitoria del embarazo es una entidad rara y autolimitada, de etiología desconocida. Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 29 años que comenzó en semana 34 con un cuadro de dolor localizado en cadera derecha con impotencia funcional e inestabilidad en la bipedestación y dificultad para la marcha. Tras finalizar su gestación en semana 39 con un parto eutócico sin complicaciones, se incrementó el cuadro doloroso durante el puerperio precoz, con bloqueo de rotación intern...

  10. Osteoporosis regional transitoria y distrofia simpática refleja: ¿una misma enfermedad? Regional transient osteoporosis, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy: the same disease?

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    Karina Castellano

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Síndrome doloroso regional complejo, distrofia simpática refleja, osteoporosis regional, transitoria, y migratriz, representan un espectro de alteraciones que se presentan con dolor, edema, eritema, osteoporosis localizada y en ocasiones disfunción simpática descripta en muchos sitios esqueléticos. Muchos factores, tales como la forma de presentación clínica, los hallazgos radiológicos y la fisiopatología desconocida de estas enfermedades las correlacionan íntimamente. Proponemos entonces, mediante la presentación de un caso clínico, que dichas entidades son estadios y presentaciones diferentes de una misma enfermedad.Complex regional pain syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, regional, transient and migratory osteoporosis, are known as a spectrum of medical conditions that present with pain, edema, erythema, localized osteoporosis and sometimes sympathetic dysfunction. Many factors which are present in these conditions, such as clinical presentation, radiologic findings and a variety of still unclear physiopathologic mechanisms are correlated. We propose that all these conditions are different periods of the same pathology.

  11. Redes sociales y aprendizaje a través de las presentaciones on-line

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    Andrés A. GARCÍA MANZANO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primera vista, parecería que no hay mucha relación entre desarrollar una presentación tipo PowerPoint e interactuar de manera flexible con un auditorio remoto. Sin embargo, recientemente están apareciendo algunas interesantes propuestas de la web social que permiten difundir, comentar e, incluso, construir de colaborativamente todo tipo de presentaciones.En la presente revisión monográfica abordaré el tema desde una perspectiva tecnológica y pedagógica, incidiendo, como de costumbre, en el valor que estos novedosos desarrollos de la Web 2.0 pudieran tener en diferentes situaciones reales de enseñanzaaprendizaje con alumnos de Secundaria y Bachillerato. Los temas a tratar serán:- Presentaciones, estilos cognitivos y netgens.- Presentaciones “on-line” y redes sociales educativas.- Herramientas web para diseñar y compartir presentaciones.- Propuesta para el uso efectivo de las presentaciones on-line.

  12. Osteoporosis transitoria migratoria de cadera: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Valencia, J.; Barrés Carsi, Mariano; Balfagón Ferrer, A.

    2013-01-01

    La osteoporosis transitoria asociada a la gestación es una condición poco usual, idiopática y auto - limitada. Comúnmente asociada al tercer trimestre del embarazo y al periodo postparto; cursa con dolor migra - torio en las articulaciones de carga, osteopenia radiográfica difusa periarticular y patrón de edema medular óseo en la RMN. Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 28 años, en la...

  13. Aprendiendo a hacer presentaciones efectivas en inglés con BusinessApp

    OpenAIRE

    Pareja - Lora, Antonio; Calle-Martínez, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Las presentaciones de productos, negocios y/o servicios en inglés son cada día más habituales en un mundo cuyo nivel de globalización no deja de crecer. Sin embargo, precisamente aquellos que más necesitan aprender cómo realizarlas (directivos y profesionales del mundo empresarial en general), son el colectivo que suele disponer de menos tiempo para el aprendizaje de esta competencia, sobre todo en entornos de enseñanza presencial. Pensando en una solución para este proble...

  14. Oclusión transitoria de comunicación interauricular en el síndrome de Lutembacher

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    Alejandro E. Contreras

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una paciente de 82 años de edad, con síntomas de insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada e hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Un ecocardiograma transtorácico mostró una comunicación interauricular tipo ostium secundum y estenosis valvular mitral concomitante (síndrome de Lutembacher. La valoración ecocardiográfica de la enfermedad mitral se vio dificultada por la presencia del defecto interauricular. Se realizó test de oclusión percutánea transitoria de la comunicación interauricular, observándose la aparición de estenosis valvular mitral grave. El tamaño del defecto interauricular modificó las manifestaciones clínicas y el test de oclusión transitoria ayudó a decidir la conducta terapéutica.

  15. Abceso apical agudo

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Ortiz, M.; López, M.; Gómez Viglino, L.; Maydana, N.; Hervit, M.; Bertola, N.

    2015-01-01

    En casos de urgencia, muchas veces debemos poner a prueba distintos elementos de diagnóstico para encontrar la mejor respuesta posible. En este caso se reporta un absceso apical agudo en la zona palatina del sector 1, que, de acuerdo al test de vitalidad pulpar y correcta interpretación radiográfica se localiza la pieza causal N° 1.8.Asistió a la consulta un paciente masculino 30 años de edad, dolor a la masticación, edema y tumefacción, en zona palatina comprendida en piezas 1.5; 1.6; 1.7 y ...

  16. Un Examen de los Factores Explicativos del Empleo de las Presentaciones a Analistas en la Empresa Española

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    Manuel Larrán Jorge

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas cotizadas organizan regularmente encuentros restringidos con analistas financieros en aras del flujo de información con el mercado y la correcta valoración de sus títulos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las variables que influyen en el empleo de presentaciones a analistas por parte de las empresas integrantes en el Índice General de la Bolsa de Madrid. Los resultados evidencian que, en España, las compañías que se comunican con analistas a través de presentaciones muestran un tamaño significativamente superior frente a aquellas que no emplean este canal, siendo la pertenencia al IBEX 35 y la existencia de departamentos de Relaciones con Inversores los factores determinantes de la celebración de estos encuentros. Palabras clave: canales privados, divulgación de información, analistas financieros, presentaciones a analistas.Presentations to analysts are used by listing companies in order to disclose information and avoid the undervaluation of their securities. The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of presentations to analysts in the Spanish Capital Market and the determinants of the decision to hold these presentations. Our empirical study was performed on the Spanish companies listed in the Madrid Stock Exchange. We found evidence indicating that the decision to hold presentations for analysts is related to the size of the company. In addition, we verify that the firms listed in IBEX 35 and with Investor Relations departments are more likely to host these meetings.

  17. Las presentaciones de correo electrónico como forma de comunicación interpersonal del alumnado

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    Bernárdez Rodal, Asunción; Padilla Castillo, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    La comunicación interpersonal ha cambiado para los más jóvenes, que lo comparten todo en sus textos virtuales. A través del análisis de 2.400 presentaciones de Power Point, chistes, vídeos y viñetas, enviados por correo electrónico, desciframos las necesidades que contienen y que buscan satisfacer los universitarios de hoy. Estas necesidades se corresponden con la pirámide ideada por Abraham Maslow. Consideramos que está de plena actualidad, pues nos ayuda a conocer las taxonomías, tipologías...

  18. Estimador de la carga (aire-GNC) aspirada por el motor de combustión interna duranrte condiciones transitorias de operación.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Andrés; Samat, David; Molina, Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Durante las operaciones transitorias de un motor, se requiere de una exacta relación aire combustible, a los efectos de optimizar la eficiencia y reducir las emisiones. Motores que de fabrica no están acondicionados para funcionar con gas y son transformados para funcionar con combustibles gaseosos (GNC) en los que se utiliza para su dosado mezcladores tipo Venturi, no brindan una respuesta satisfactoria para las condiciones antes expuestas. El presente trabajo describe y desarrol...

  19. La Evolución de la Pobreza en Argentina: Crónica, Transitoria, Diferencias Regionales y Determinantes (1995-2003)

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    María Bongiorno; Jerónimo Carballo

    2006-01-01

    La evolución de los indicadores de pobreza para Argentina presentan un pronunciado deterioro en los últimos años, no uniforme en términos regionales. Utilizando datos para el período 1995-2003 la pobreza es descompuesta en sus componentes crónicos y transitorios y se analizar sus determinantes, considerando las regiones. Se obtiene que la pobreza agregada ha aumentado principalmente por un incremento de la pobreza crónica. Además, la pobreza transitoria de un hogar se asocia en mayor medida c...

  20. Unión transitoria de empresas (UTE) como herramienta de desarrollo para empresas constructoras en licitaciones públicas del Partido de General Pueyrredón

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda el tema de la conformación de uniones transitorias de empresas (UTE) dentro del sector de la construcción para la presentación en licitaciones de obras públicas en la Municipalidad de Partido de General Pueyrredón. Se indica la importancia que tiene la UTE como herramienta en el ámbito de la economía local y la forma en que su uso permite a las empresas constructoras generar beneficios económicos y financieros a partir de la posibilidad de acceso a nuevos mercados y...

  1. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  2. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

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    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  3. Caso clínico-anatomopatológico: Las diversas presentaciones de la nefropatía por IgA

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    B. Rodrigo Orozco, Dr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una paciente de 58 años, sexo femenino, que se presenta con hematuria, proteinuria severa y función renal normal. Pocas semanas después, ella desarrolla una trombosis de vena renal, embolia pulmonar secundaria y un episodio de insuficiencia renal aguda. Este caso clínico ilustra las distintas presentaciones clínicas de una nefropatía por IgA grave, incluyendo hematuria, síndrome nefrótico y trombosis de vena renal. Además muestra otras complicaciones serias, como embolia pulmonar y falla renal aguda. La paciente fue sometida a 2 biopsias renales, que permitieron una correlación adecuada entre las manifestaciones clínicas y la patología renal.

  4. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

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    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  5. Técnica para identificar faltas transitorias y permanentes en líneas de transmisión, utilizando la transformada Wavelet

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    Miguel Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento, se presenta un algoritmo que permite distinguir de forma clara y precisa, las faltas transitorias de las permanentes. Adicionalmente se determina el instante de extinción del arco secundario, para así evitar o controlar de forma efectiva y segura la operación de reconexión monofásica en sistemas de transporte de energía. El método de identificación se basa en la determinación de las características de alta frecuencia que posee la señal de tensión de la fase en falta antes del despeje y de la corriente en una fase sana y las relaciona de forma independiente mediante una auto-correlación cruzada. Para el análisis de la señal y extracción de los componentes de alta frecuencia, se ha utilizado la transformada Wavelet. El algoritmo propuesto se probó en un sistema base de 380 kV, funcionando de forma correcta en todos los escenarios planteados y logrando una identificación precisa en los primeros 25 ms de la falta.

  6. Apical dominance and apical control in multiple flushing of temperate woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Cline; C. Harrington

    2007-01-01

    In young plants of many woody species, the first flush of growth in the spring may be followed by one or more flushes of the terminal shoot if growing conditions are favorable. The occurrence of these additional flushes may significantly affect crown form and structure. Apical dominance (AD) and apical control (AC) are thought to be important control mechanisms in this...

  7. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  8. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  9. El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la educación superior: una reflexión sobre la práctica / Use of digital presentations in higher education: a reflexion on practice

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    Maroto Marín, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la enseñanza universitaria se han extendido ampliamente. En esta reseña temática se realiza una reflexión sobre la pertinencia de su aplicación; además se revisan algunos detalles de su producción. Se recalca la importancia de tomar en cuenta los detalles de las presentaciones para así lograr los objetivos educativos. El uso de un medio audiovisual y digital debería favorecer el establecimiento de una comunicación interactiva entre docentes y estudiantes. Con estas notas se espera aportar ideas sobre las presentaciones digitales especialmente para el personal docente que inicia sus labores dentro de la universidad.Abstract: The use of slide show presentation in higher education has been extending wider through universities. This article is a reflection about its use and pertinence and a review of some details on its production. This research reinforces the importance of review the slide show details to achieve the educational goals. In the classroom is established communication between professor and students and vice versa. The audiovisual media must reinforce communication skills and not only an informational reception. These notes could be helpful for the newest teachers, those who are starting their teaching career into the university, finding in their beginning the way to eliminate some actions that limits their creative capacity to teach.

  10. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  11. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

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    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  12. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Lütfü Bekar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and it can be mistaken for coronary artery disease due to the symptoms and electrocardiography findings. In this report, we aimed to present a patient referred to our clinic with complaints of chest pain and electrocardiography findings who had been misdiagnosed as non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

  13. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present radiographic study was to analyse the resection angle in apical surgery and its correlation with treatment outcome, type of treated tooth, surgical depth and level of root-end filling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the context of a prospective clinical...

  14. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indre Graunaite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period.Material and methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed.Results: In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described.Conclusions: The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression.

  15. Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graunaite, Indre; Lodiene, Greta; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2012-01-01

    This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed. In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described. The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression.

  16. Apical versus Non-Apical Lead: Is ICD Lead Position Important for Successful Defibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Guy; Wang, Jia; Connolly, Stuart J; Glikson, Michael; Hohnloser, Stephan; Wright, David J; Brachmann, Johannes; Defaye, Pascal; Neuzner, Joerg; Mabo, Philippe; Vanerven, Liselot; Vinolas, Xavier; O'Hara, Gilles; Kautzner, Josef; Appl, Ursula; Gadler, Fredrik; Stein, Kenneth; Konstantino, Yuval; Healey, Jeff S

    2016-05-01

    We aim to compare the acute and long-term success of defibrillation between non-apical and apical ICD lead position. The position of the ventricular lead was recorded by the implanting physician for 2,475 of 2,500 subjects in the Shockless IMPLant Evaluation (SIMPLE) trial, and subjects were grouped accordingly as non-apical or apical. The success of intra-operative defibrillation testing and of subsequent clinical shocks were compared. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for the impact of differences in baseline variables between these groups. There were 541 leads that were implanted at a non-apical position (21.9%). Patients implanted with a non-apical lead had a higher rate of secondary prevention indication. Non-apical location resulted in a lower mean R-wave amplitude (14.0 vs. 15.2, P defibrillation was similar between propensity score matched groups (89%). Over a mean follow-up of 3 years, there were no significant differences in the yearly rates of appropriate shock (5.5% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.98), failed appropriate first shock (0.9% vs. 1.0%, P = 0.66), or the composite of failed shock or arrhythmic death (2.8% vs. 2.3% P = 0.35) according to lead location. We did not detect any reduction in the ICD efficacy at the time of implant or during follow-up in patients receiving a non-apical RV lead. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A modern approach to surgical endodontics: ultrasonic apical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, M; Solomon, C; Chalfin, H

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic devices are capable of generating better apical preparations than rotary instruments with less sacrifice of root structure. Regardless of the technique used, good lighting and magnification are necessary to insure an adequate apical preparation.

  18. Regeneration of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-10-25

    Oct 25, 2012 ... The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable concentration of growth regulators for regeneration of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A.

  19. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable concentration of growth regulators for regeneration of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) ...

  20. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  1. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Genç

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. RESULTS: All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05. Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups.

  2. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Graunaite, Indre; Lodiene, Greta; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period. Material and methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords...

  3. Oclusión transitoria de comunicación interauricular en el síndrome de Lutembacher Temporary occlusion of atrial septal defect in the Lutembacher syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Contreras

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una paciente de 82 años de edad, con síntomas de insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada e hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Un ecocardiograma transtorácico mostró una comunicación interauricular tipo ostium secundum y estenosis valvular mitral concomitante (síndrome de Lutembacher. La valoración ecocardiográfica de la enfermedad mitral se vio dificultada por la presencia del defecto interauricular. Se realizó test de oclusión percutánea transitoria de la comunicación interauricular, observándose la aparición de estenosis valvular mitral grave. El tamaño del defecto interauricular modificó las manifestaciones clínicas y el test de oclusión transitoria ayudó a decidir la conducta terapéutica.We report the case of an 82 year-old woman with symptoms of advanced heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. An echocardiogram showed an ostium secundum type atrial septal defect and concomitant mitral valve stenosis (Lutembacher syndrome. Echocardiographic assessment of mitral pathology was hampered by the interatrial septal defect. Transient percutaneous occlusion test of the atrial septal defect was performed and severe mitral valve stenosis was detected. Atrial septal defect size modified the clinical manifestations and the transient occlusion test helped to decide the therapeutic strategy.

  4. Scanning electron microscopic study of apical and intracanal resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzangles, B

    1989-07-01

    Apical radicular and intracanal surfaces of extracted teeth with apical lesions were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of apical and intracanal resorption areas varied with the presence of a granuloma or a cyst. Teeth bearing granulomas showed an apical resorption centered on the main foramina whereas the hard tissue underlying a cyst showed little or no resorption. Intracanal resorption was always marked in the apical third and more scattered in the middle and cervical third. The resorption disrupted the anatomical structures.

  5. La atorvastatina protege las neuronas gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas del sistema nigroestriatal en un modelo experimental de isquemia cerebral focal transitoria en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Sabogal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La isquemia cerebral es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad permanente en el mundo. La atorvastatina es un fármaco neuroprotector prometedor para el tratamiento de la apoplejía; sin embargo, su acción sobre las poblaciones neuronales del sistema nigroestriatal después de la isquemia aún se desconoce. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la atorvastatina sobre poblaciones gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas en regiones exofocales en un modelo de oclusión transitoria de la arteria cerebral media. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 28 ratas Wistar macho de ocho semanas de edad. Los ejemplares con isquemia simulada y los ejemplares sometidos a isquemia fueron tratados con atorvastatina (10 mg/kg y carboximetilcelulosa (placebo administrados por medio de sonda a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas después de la reperfusión. Se analizó la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico y de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido, el putamen caudado y la sustancia negra. Resultados. Los datos confirmaron el daño neurológico y la pérdida celular en el putamen caudado. Se incrementó la inmunorreacción de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata, disminuyendo la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral de los animales isquémicos tratados con placebo; sin embargo, el tratamiento con atorvastatina pudo revertirla, lo que logró una disminución significativa de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata y aumentando los niveles de descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral. Conclusión. Nuestros datos sugieren que la atorvastatina en el tratamiento posterior a la isquemia ejerce neuroprotección en las zonas exofocales, modulando las poblaciones neuronales gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas del sistema nigroestriatal, lo que podría prevenir trastornos neurológicos.

  6. Modelación de sistemas de puesta a tierra para evaluación de sobretensiones transitorias; Modelling large grounding systems to evaluate transient voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandi Anibal Gallego Landera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En plantas generadoras y en subestaciones se requieren sistemas de puesta a tierra (SPT espaciosos, con configuraciones complejas como parte del sistema de protección contra rayos. Las corrientes provocadas por una descarga atmosférica pueden causar altas tensiones en los cables de señales ubicados cerca de los SPT. Estas tensiones transitorias pueden causar falsas señales, las cuales provocan un mal funcionamiento de la instrumentación electrónica. Determinar medidas de protección contra rayos requiere del conocimiento de la máxima elevación de la tensión entre el SPT y la tierra remota. El presente trabajo propone una metodología para analizar el comportamiento transitorio de redes de tierra. La técnica se basa en considerar los diferentes segmentos de la malla de tierra como elementos de líneas de transmisión. Para desarrollar esta metodología se utilizó el software MATLAB-Simulink. Los resultados se validan por comparación con modelos basados en la teoría del campo electromagnético publicados en la literatura. In generating plants and substations spacious grounding systems with complex configuration as part of the protection system against lighting, are required. The current caused by an atmospheric discharge can cause high voltages in the signal cables located near the grounding systems. These transient voltages may be the reason for the occurrence of false signals, which can cause malfunctioning and of electronic instruments. The knowledge of maximum elevation of voltage between the grounding systems and the remote ground is required to determine protection against lightning. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the transient behavior of grounding grid. The technique is based on considering the different segments of the ground grid as elements of transmission lines. For modeling the grounding systems behavior in its transient state faster, the MATLAB-Simulink software was used. The results were validated by

  7. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anwen; Francis, Nick; Wood, Fiona; Mann, Mala K; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-06-26

    Dental pain can have a considerable detrimental effect on an individual's quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis or an acute apical abscess should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics for these conditions. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies both within the individual and within the community as a whole. To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 October 2013); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 October 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 October 2013) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 1 October 2013). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) on 1 October 2013 to identify ongoing trials. We searched for grey literature using OpenGrey (to 1 October 2013) and ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 1 October 2013). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of

  8. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Rosario; Mirabella, Francesca; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Fattori, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease. PMID:25276293

  9. Plataformas de expresión en plantas de péptidos humanos terapéuticos: expresión transitoria y estable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Noguera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas representan un sistema de expresión alternativo para la producción de proteínas heterólogas complejas tales como vacunas, antígenos, anticuerpos, eritroproyetina e insulina humana. Este sistema posee diversas ventajas sobre los sistemas de expresión tradicional basados en el cultivo de células de bacterias, levaduras, insectos y mamíferos, como su bajo costo de producción, menor tiempo para alcanzar la producción a gran escala, expresión, modificación y ensamblaje apropiado de la proteína recombinante y ausencia de riesgo de contaminación con patógenos humanos. En la última década la ingeniería genética de plantas ha utilizado ampliamente los sistemas de expresión estable basados en la bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens y la expresión transitoria basada en los vectores virales de plantas para la obtención de compuestos beneficiosos para la salud y el bienestar del hombre. La introducción de estos elementos virales en los sistemas de producción de proteínas recombinantes ha simplificado la manipulación y el proceso de infección de las plantas con el gen quimérico. Aunado a esto, el entendimiento de la inmunogenicidad que poseen los glicanos de origen vegetal sobre la actividad de los péptidos heterólogos, ha permitido dilucidar cuales son las vías moleculares más convenientes para expresar, ensamblar, compartamentalizar e incrementar la acumulación de las proteínas de interés. Con la presente revisión se busca proporcionar al lector una información detallada acerca de las estrategias de expresión heterólogas que utilizan sistemas vegetales, los principales agentes terapéuticos desarrollados basados en estos sistemas y la importancia biológica de las modificaciones post–traduccionales de los péptidos recombinantes. In plant expression platforms of therapeutic human peptides: transient and stable expression Abstract Plants represent an alternative expression system for the production of

  10. External electromagnetic transient sources: analysis of its effect in underground power cables; Fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas: analisis de su efecto en los cables de potencia subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Paz, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    sistemas electricos de potencia que operan en la actualidad, los cables subterraneos son solo un complemento. El costo de estos cables generalmente es mas alto que el de las lineas aereas, por lo cual su uso se restringe solo a aquellas areas donde la construccion de las lineas aereas no es factible. Se estima que para voltajes menores que 110 kV este costo es hasta siete veces mayor que el de una linea area y para voltajes mayores que 380 kV puede ser hasta veinte veces mayor. Sin embargo, existen razones importantes para construir un sistema de cables subterraneos como: a) el crecimiento rapido de los centros urbanos y las zonas industriales, lo cual provoca restricciones de los derechos de vida para la construccion de lineas aereas, b) los cruces de grandes cuerpos de agua, c) la congestion de lineas aereas cerca de las subestaciones o las plantas generadoras, d) los cruces de lineas aereas y e) las leyes y los reglamentos, por mencionar algunas. La importancia de los sistemas de transmision subterraneos de alto y extra alto voltaje se incrementara en el mediano y el largo plazo, por lo tanto, se considera que los efectos de los fenomenos externos en estos sistemas, como las inducciones producidas por las fuentes transitorias electromagneticas, seran mas severos. En este trabajo de investigacion se define a las descargas atmosfericas como las fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas. Los cables de grandes dimensiones, tales como los cables de potencia, se comportan como grandes recolectores de las interferencias producidas por las descargas atmosfericas, las cuales pueden provocar danos en los componentes de un sistema. Para evitar los danos e incrementar la confiabilidad de los sistemas de cable subterraneos es necesario utilizar dispositivos de proteccion y niveles de aislamiento apropiados, principalmente. Si el fenomeno y el comportamiento del sistema se representan adecuadamente, es posible poder determinar con mayor precision las caracteristicas que deben

  11. An apical granuloma with epithelial integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N; Schmid-Meier, E

    1986-12-01

    A chronic periapicalesion--apical granuloma--of the first left maxillary molar, which had rarefied the bony plate and grown into the maxillary sinus, was observed in a 64-year-old white male patient. Light microscopic study of the epon-embedded specimen showed a lesion that had been infiltrated predominantly by mononuclear cells and that had isolated neutrophil-dominated foci. The lesion contained extensive networks and arcades of proliferating epithelium. Unlike the classic granulomas of the periapex, which are generally delimited by a well-developed connective tissue capsule, this particular lesion was lined with epithelial tissue consisting of ciliated columnar and stratified squamous components. While the former seemed to be an extension of the sinus epithelium, the latter appeared to be an outgrowth of the proliferating epithelium encountered within the lesion.

  12. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using reciprocating (WaveOne, Reciproc, SafeSider) or rotary ... and cross‑sections, and kinematics, and this situation may influence the amount of apically extruded debris through the apical foramen.[15]. The aim of this ...

  13. Association of ST elevation with apical aneurysm in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Ozeke

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Clinicians and specifically echocardiographers must pay special attention on the electrocardiography to correctly detect the frequently overlooked apical aneurysm in HCM patients, and should be careful for apical aneurysm particularly in the presence of STE in V4-6 derivations.

  14. Establishing Apical Patency and its Effect on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    accurate prognosis and improved treatment planning related to establishing apical patency. The preliminary results of this interim analysis indicate there...canal space and periodontal ligament. Establishing apical patency is controversial with only 50% of dental programs in the United States teaching the...concept. Both sides can cite articles favoring their position. However, the clinical impact of establishing patency on endodontic treatment outcome

  15. Apical Shell Sculpture of some African Freshwater Limpets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Scanning Electron Microscope has been used to describe in detail the apical shell sculpture of sevenAfrican species (three genera) of freshwater limpet snails (Ancylidae). The apical sculpture of Ancylus fluviatilis (? syn. strigatus and ? brondeli) is striate, but quite different in basic pattern from the other three striate ...

  16. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  17. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the other groups, with the exception of the Typhoon group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: According to our study, all systems caused apical debris extrusion. However, the Reciproc group was associated with less debris extrusion when compared to the other groups. Key words: Apical extrusion, endodontics, single file systems ...

  18. Diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: T-wave inversion and relative but not absolute apical left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Andrew S; Maestrini, Viviana; Milliken, Don; Fontana, Mariana; Treibel, Thomas A; Harb, Rami; Sado, Daniel M; Quarta, Giovanni; Herrey, Anna; Sneddon, James; Elliott, Perry; McKenna, William; Moon, James C

    2015-03-15

    Diagnosis of apical HCM utilizes conventional wall thickness criteria. The normal left ventricular wall thins towards the apex such that normal values are lower in the apical versus the basal segments. The impact of this on the diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been evaluated. We performed a retrospective review of 2662 consecutive CMR referrals, of which 75 patients were identified in whom there was abnormal T-wave inversion on ECG and a clinical suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These were retrospectively analyzed for imaging features consistent with cardiomyopathy, specifically: relative apical hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, scar, apical cavity obliteration or apical aneurysm. For comparison, the same evaluation was performed in 60 healthy volunteers and 50 hypertensive patients. Of the 75 patients, 48 met conventional HCM diagnostic criteria and went on to act as another comparator group. Twenty-seven did not meet criteria for HCM and of these 5 had no relative apical hypertrophy and were not analyzed further. The remaining 22 patients had relative apical thickening with an apical:basal wall thickness ratio >1 and a higher prevalence of features consistent with a cardiomyopathy than in the control groups with 54% having 2 or more of the 4 features. No individual in the healthy volunteer group had more than one feature and no hypertension patient had more than 2. A cohort of individuals exist with T wave inversion, relative apical hypertrophy and additional imaging features of HCM suggesting an apical HCM phenotype not captured by existing diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1–4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p<0.05. The apical sealing ability of Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness.

  20. Healing of apical periodontitis through modern endodontic retreatment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jarom J; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of apical periodontitis in teeth which have undergone initial root canal treatment is largely attributed to bacteria residing in or invading from the apical root canal space. Bacteria-associated apical periodontitis will not heal spontaneously, nor will systemic antibiotics eradicate the infection. Only endodontic retreatment, endodontic surgery, or extraction will control the bacterial etiology. Modern retreatment is an effective means of addressing apical periodontitis. A mandibular premolar with apical periodontitis, apical root resorption, and overfilled gutta percha was retreated with post removal, retrieval of gutta percha from beyond the apex, ultrasonic irrigation and disinfection, and placement of a collagen internal matrix to facilitate a well-controlled MTA apical fill. The magnification and illumination imparted by the operating microscope was integral to achievement of treatment objectives. The patient's symptoms were resolved and complete osseous healing occurred. During treatment planning, clinicians should consider the capability of modern endodontic techniques to overcome technical challenges, often allowing the natural dentition to be preserved and restored to function days after retreatment.

  1. Apical trafficking in epithelial cells: signals, clusters and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Ora A; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2009-12-01

    In the early days of epithelial cell biology, researchers working with kidney and/or intestinal epithelial cell lines and with hepatocytes described the biosynthetic and recycling routes followed by apical and basolateral plasma membrane (PM) proteins. They identified the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes as the compartments that carried out apical-basolateral sorting. They described complex apical sorting signals that promoted association with lipid rafts, and simpler basolateral sorting signals resembling clathrin-coated-pit endocytic motifs. They also noticed that different epithelial cell types routed their apical PM proteins very differently, using either a vectorial (direct) route or a transcytotic (indirect) route. Although these original observations have generally held up, recent studies have revealed interesting complexities in the routes taken by apically destined proteins and have extended our understanding of the machinery required to sustain these elaborate sorting pathways. Here, we critically review the current status of apical trafficking mechanisms and discuss a model in which clustering is required to recruit apical trafficking machineries. Uncovering the mechanisms responsible for polarized trafficking and their epithelial-specific variations will help understand how epithelial functional diversity is generated and the pathogenesis of many human diseases.

  2. Principios básicos de diseño gráfico aplicados a la preparación de ayudas visuales para presentaciones científicas y de negocios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velásquez Henao, Ph.D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad para hablar en público es una habilidad esencial para los administradores y otros profesionales. Sin embargo, muchas presentaciones son descritas como malas, aburridas, sin foco o incomprensibles. Uno de los principales errores es la falta de ayudas visuales que estén bien diseñadas; ejemplos comunes de ello son una excesiva cantidad de texto, el uso de fondos de bajo contraste, letras muy pequeñas para su lectura y el abuso de efectos artísticos, entre otros. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una revisión sistemática para responder la pregunta: ¿Qué es una ayuda visual correctamente diseñada?. Se encontró que, aplicando varios principios básicos y simples de diseño gráfico, es posible obtener ayudas visuales efectivas. Adicionalmente, se presentan varios ejemplos.

  3. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs in teeth with open apical foramina: a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Johannes; Hage, Nathalie; Pfefferle, Thorsten; Koch, Martin Jean; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Friedman, Shimon

    2009-10-01

    Teeth with open apical foramina present a challenge during root canal treatment, and little is known about the clinical outcome of treatment in such teeth. This retrospective study assessed healing of teeth with open apices managed by the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs. Seventy-two patients with 78 teeth with apical resorption or excessive apical enlargement, treated between 2000 and 2006, were contacted for follow-up examination 12 to 68 months after treatment (median 30.9 months). Treatments were provided by supervised undergraduate students (27%), general dentists (32%), or dentists who had focused on endodontics (41%). The outcome based on clinical and radiographic criteria was assessed by calibrated examiners and dichotomized as "healed" or "disease." Of 56 teeth examined (72% recall), 84% were healed. Teeth without or with preoperative periapical radiolucency had a healed rate of 100% and 78%, respectively. None of the variables analyzed had a significant effect on the outcome. The results supported the management of open apical foramina with mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs.

  4. Efficacy of Biodentine as an Apical Plug in Nonvital Permanent Teeth with Open Apices: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Mehmet; Sungurtekin-Ekçi, Elif; Odabaş, Mesut Enes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of Biodentine and MTA orthograde apical plugs and to compare the effect of thickness of these biomaterials on their sealing ability. A total of eighty maxillary anterior teeth were used. The apices were removed by cutting with a diamond disc (Jota, Germany) 2 mm from the apical root end in an attempt to standardize the working length of all specimens to 15 ± 1 mm. Both materials were placed in 1-4 mm thickness as apical plugs root canal. Root canal leakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. One-way ANOVA was used in order to determine normality of dispersal distribution of parameters; thereafter, results were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Overall, between microleakage values of MTA and Biodentine regardless of apical plug thickness, no difference was observed. In terms of plug thickness, a statistically significant difference was observed between the subgroups of MTA and Biodentine (p Biodentine was comparable to MTA at any apical plug thickness.

  5. INDICACIONES DE ESTIMULACIÓN ELÉCTRICA TRANSITORIA, COMPLICACIONES Y NECESIDAD DE ESTIMULACIÓN CARDÍACA PERMANENTE / Use of temporary cardiac pacing, its complications and need for permanent cardiac pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ramos González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Introducción: La estimulación cardíaca temporal está indicada en diversas situaciones de extrema urgencia, en pacientes con bradiarritmias graves y bloqueos aurículo-ventriculares de II o III grados.Su indicación siempre se considera ante la presencia de síntomas como: compromiso hemodinámico importante, que no responde a los medicamentos, y poca tolerancia el ritmo lento. Objetivo: Describir las principales indicaciones de estimulación eléctrica transitoria que pueden llevar a la estimulación eléctrica permanente, así como las complicaciones que se presentan al utilizarla. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo donde se estudiaron 266 pacientes de 281 ingresados en el Hospital "Arnaldo Milián Castro", a los cuales se les implantó un marcapasos transitorio. Se describen las indicaciones y complicaciones del procedimiento. Resultados: Se observó un mayor número de indicaciones de estimulación eléctrica transitoria cuando aumenta la edad de la población en estudio, 45,86 % para los mayores de 80 años. El sexo femenino predominó (156 pacientes, con una relación mujer-hombre de 1,56:1. La causa degenerativa (42,1 % fue la mayor indicación de estimulación eléctrica permanente. La punción de vasos no deseados fue la complicación más frecuente (7,1 %. Conclusiones: La indicación de estimulación eléctrica transitoria es más frecuente en los mayores de 80 años, principalmente por causa degenerativa, que finalmente lleva a la estimulación eléctrica permanente. El porcentaje de complicaciones no se muestra elevado cuando se tiene en cuenta que este procedimiento no se realizó bajo visión fluoroscópica. / Abstract: Introduction: Temporary cardiac pacing is used in various extreme emergency situations, in patients with severe bradyarrhythmias and second and third degree atrioventricular block. Its use is always considered when there are symptoms such as a significant hemodynamic compromise, not responding

  6. Phenotypic overlap in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: apical hypertrophy, midventricular obstruction, and apical aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yuichiro; Haruki, Shintaro; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2014-12-01

    Within the diverse phenotypic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), subgroups of patients with apical hypertrophy (APH), midventricular obstruction (MVO), and apical aneurysm (APA) have emerged. While previous studies have suggested the existence of considerable overlap between APH, MVO, and APA, there are still many unanswered questions. Therefore, we attempted to clarify the relationship of the above three phenotypes of HCM with respect to prevalence, overlap, and outcomes. Among the 544 study HCM patients (mean follow-up period: 11.6±7.4 years), 170 with APH (31.3%), 51 with MVO (9.4%), and 24 with APA (4.4%) were examined. There was phenotypic overlap between APH and MVO in 17 patients, APH and APA in 14 patients, and MVO and APA in 14 patients. Furthermore, a combination of APH, MVO, and APA was observed in eight patients. Detailed analysis of the relationship between overlapping phenotypes and the prognosis showed that APA patients without a history of APH had an extremely poor outcome (probability of the combined endpoint of sudden death and potentially lethal arrhythmic events ≥50%). Conversely, APH patients without MVO had a strikingly good outcome (probability of the combined endpoint <5%). Other patients had an intermediate outcome (probability of the combined endpoint 10-40%). Our results suggest that overlap between these three forms of HCM is substantial, and that detailed classification of the overlapping phenotypes is clinically meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogenesis of apical periodontal cysts: guidelines for diagnosis in palaeopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, G. J.; Prasad, K.; Santos, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Apical periodontal cysts are benign lesions developing in relation to the apices of non-vital teeth due to inflammatory response from the infective pulp. These are epithelium-lined bony cavities containing fluid. Despite being widely reported in medical/dental literature, this common condition is poorly diagnosed and documented in the archaeological literature. We aim to clarify the correct terminology, demonstrate bony manifestations at different stages of pathogenesis of chronic periapical ...

  8. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  9. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maschietto Pucinelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15; conventional irrigation (n=17; healthy teeth (control (n = 10; and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control (n=10. After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p0.05. However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis.

  10. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3: possible involvement in apical periodontitis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, A; Osorio, C; Mardones, J; Mundi, V; Dutzan, N; Franco, M; Gamonal, J; Oyarzún, A; Overall, C M; Hernández, M

    2010-10-01

    To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, also known as chemokine CCL-7) in tissue from apical lesions (AL) and to associate MCP-3 expression with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis. To determine the expression of MCP-3 in AL, biopsies obtained during tooth extraction procedures were fixed, subjected to routine processing and diagnosed as apical granuloma (AG) (n = 7) or radicular cyst (RC) (n = 5). As controls, apical periodontal ligament (PDL) specimens from healthy premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons were included (n = 7). All specimens were immunostained for MCP-3 and examined under a light microscope. In addition, homogenates from AL (n = 14) and healthy PDL samples (n = 7) were studied through immunowestern blot. Finally, periapical exudates samples were collected from root canals of teeth having diagnosis of symptomatic (n = 14) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 14) during routine endodontic treatments and analysed by immunowestern blot and densitometry.   MCP-3 was detected in AG and RC and localized mainly to inflammatory leucocytes, whereas no expression was observed in healthy PDLs. MCP-3 was also detected in periapical exudate, and its levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MCP-3 was expressed in AL and its levels associated with clinical symptoms. MCP-3 might play a role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by stimulating mononuclear chemotaxis. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  11. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  12. CT findings in apical versus basal involvement of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, In Jae; Im, Hyoung June; Lee, Kwanseop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare clinical features and computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in lower lobe basal segments and upper lobe apical or apicoposterior segments. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and chest CT scans of 986 adults who were diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Active pulmonary TB confined to the basal segments was found in 21 patients. Sixty patients had disease localized to the apical or apicoposterior segments only. Clinical features and CT abnormalities of the lung parenchyma, airways, mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes, and pleura were compared between these two groups. A significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of underlying disease prevalence associated with an immunocompromised state (basal, 6/21, 28.6%; apical or apico- posterior, 3/60, 5%; P = 0.008). Chest CT findings, including consolidation (P = 0.0016), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.0297), and pleural effusion (P = 0.008), were more common in basal segment TB than in apical or apicoposterior segment TB. Small nodules were less common in basal segment TB than in apical or apicoposterior segment TB (P = 0.0299). The tree-in-bud sign was the most common CT finding in both basal segment TB (17/21, 81%) and apical or apicoposterior segment TB groups (53/60, 88.3%) (P = 0.4633). Lower lobe basal segment TB was more commonly present with common CT findings of primary pulmonary TB including consolidation, mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion than apical or apicoposterior segment TB.

  13. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pacífico Lucisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11 had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.

  14. [Histopathology and etiopathogenesis of chronic apical periodontitis--periapical granuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovác, J; Kovác, D

    2011-06-01

    Periapical lesions are among the most frequently diagnosed apical odontogenic pathologies in human teeth. The condition is generally described as apical periodontitis. Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system to the periapical tissue. It is viewed as a dynamic encounter between microbial factors and host defenses at the interface between infected radicular pulp and periodontal ligament that results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. There are also factors located within the inflamed periapical tissue that can interfere with post-treatment healing of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the etiopathogenesis of apical periodontitis and causes of failed endodontic treatment. This study presents a histopathological analysis through optical microscopy of periapical lesions, commonly referred to as solid dental or periapical granuloma.

  15. [Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) a success story in apical surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of apical surgery is to retain teeth with persistent apical pathosis following orthograde root canal treatment if endodontic non-surgical revision is difficult or associated with risks, or is even declined by the patient. Since the most frequent cause of recurrent apical disease is bacterial reinfection from the (remaining) root canal system, the bacteria-tight root-end filling is the most important step in apical surgery. In the early 1990s, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed at the Loma Linda University in California/USA. Preclinical studies clearly showed that MTA has a high sealing capability, a good material stability and an excellent biocompatbility. Multiple experimental studies in animals highlighted the mild tissue reactions observed adjacent to this material. Furthermore, histological analysis of the periapical regions demonstrated a frequent deposition of new cementum not only onto the resection plane (cut dentinal surface), but also directly onto MTA. For these reasons, MTA is considered a bioactive material. In 1997 MTA was cleared for clinical use in patients. Multiple prospective clinical and randomized studies have documented high and constant success rates of MTA-treated teeth in apical surgery. A recently published longitudinal study showed that MTA-treated teeth remained stable over five years; hence the high healed rates documented after one year are maintained during long-term observation.

  16. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.; Ekim, H.; Gunes, Y.; Simsek, H.

    2010-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively uncommon inherited disease. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is also uncommonly observed, which often occurs in pregnant or post partum women but is rare in men. This report describes a 38 years old man with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who developed SCAD leading to acute inferior myocardial infarction. After emergent appendectomy operation at another hospital, he was immediately transferred to the Cardiology Department of our hospital due to acute myocardial infarction. He emergently underwent coronary angiography which showed a long dissection involving the right coronary. He underwent an emergent CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and he was discharged. According to our knowledge, no case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy unrelated to postpartum period or oral contraceptive use has been reported so far. (author)

  17. Mineral trioxide aggregate as apical plug in teeth with necrotic pulp and immature apices: a 10-year case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Riccardo; Giuliani, Valentina; Nieri, Michele; Di Nasso, Luca; Pagavino, Gabriella

    2014-08-01

    This 10-year study evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes of teeth with necrotic pulp, immature apices, and periapical lesions treated with the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug technique. Seventeen single-rooted immature teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesion from 17 patients treated between January 2001 and December 2001 were included in this study. Apical obturation on all teeth included in the study was completed in 2 visits: first using calcium hydroxide as an interappointment intracanal medication and a second visit for the creation of the artificial apical barrier with MTA. The outcome, based on clinical and radiographic criteria, was assessed by 2 calibrated investigators using the periapical index (PAI). The Friedman test was used to verify the differences between baseline and the 1-, 5-, and 10-year PAI scores. Of the 17 patients treated, 1 patient dropped out at 5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, 15 teeth were healed (PAI ≤2), and 1 tooth had been extracted because of the presence of a longitudinal root fracture. The PAI score exhibited a significant decrease between baseline and 1 year and between 1 and 5 years. The difference between 5 and 10 years was not significant. The apical plug with MTA was a successful and effective technique for long-term management of this group of teeth with necrotic pulps with immature root development and periapical lesions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik

    2013-01-01

    . Methods. Twenty-four patients were centrally randomized to apical box preparation (size #60) or cone preparation (apical size #25). The groups were comparable regarding the presence of primary caries and type of coronal restoration. In the course of canal preparation each tooth was irrigated with 2.5% Na......-week post-sampling, a power calculation revealed that over 900 patients are needed to show a difference of 9% between the two protocols tested. Conclusions. Future trials should be conducted using stringent protocols and as multi-centre trials for reaching the required information size....

  19. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibel, M.A.; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V.; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J.; Sailer, L.K.; Ozpeynirci, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  20. In vitro comparison of apical microleakage following canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... The purpose of this study was to compare apical microleakage following canal obturation with lateral .... mm and the maximum was 6.69 mm. Statistical analysis of mean differences for independent groups (Independent samples t-test) showed that there was no ..... Clinical and radiographic evaluation of.

  1. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Root canal preparation and obturation. A size 15 K‑file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was placed into the canal until it was visible at the apical foramen. The working length (WL) was established as. 1 mm shorter than this length. The canals were ...

  2. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  3. Shoot apical meristem arrest in brassica and tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.

    2013-01-01

    A pool of cells known as stem cells located in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are responsible to maintain meristematic activity throughout a plants life in order to produce organs. The maintenance of these stem cells is tightly controlled by a complex genetic and hormonal network. Any

  4. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apical membrane Antigen-1(AMA-1), an asexual blood stage antigen of Plasmodium cynomolgi, is an important candidate for testing as a component of malarial vaccine. The degree of conservation of. AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of Plasmodium. Since the AMA-1 ...

  5. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  6. [Expression of interleukin-17F in human apical periodontitis lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Li, Song

    2012-06-01

    To examine the expression of interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in apical periodontitis lesions. Human apical periodontitis lesions were collected after periapical surgery from November 1, 2009 to August 1, 2011. After histological processing, serial sectioning, HE staining, and microscopic analysis, 33 periapical cysts and 18 periapical granulomas were selected for immunohistochemical analysis for IL-17F. Five alveolar bone samples were obtained from a group of impacted third molars recommended for extraction. These bone samples did not show any inflammation and were used as normal samples. Differences in IL-17F expression between the tissues with periapical cyst and periapica granuloma were subsequently analyzed by rank-sum test. IL-17F was expressed in epithelial cells, lymphocytes, fibroblast and endothelial cells of both types of lesions. Both types of lesions presented increased IL-17F expression when compared to healthy periapical alveolar bone. The expression of IL-17F in apical cyst (0.2365 ± 0.0708) and apical granuloma (0.8852 ± 0.0576) was significantly different (Z = 3.735, P granuloma was significantly different.

  7. Phenotypic plasticity to altered apical bud temperature in Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Ieperen, van Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies investigated temperature effects on leaf initiation and expansion by relating these processes to air temperature or the temperature of a specific organ (e.g. leaf temperature). In reality plant temperature is hardly ever equal to air temperature or spatially uniform. Apical bud

  8. Evaluation of the Amount of Apically Extruded Debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during retreatment (with or without solvent) of root canals filled by two obturation techniques. Materials and Methods: Forty‑eight root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal F3 and filled with Gutta‑percha and AH 26 sealer using single cone or lateral ...

  9. In vitro comparison of apical microleakage following canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... the cause of failing case in which the instructions were not followed and/or the goals of the technique were not achieved. Conclusion. Since the present study did not exhibit any differences in apical microleakage following canal obturation with lateral and thermoplasticized gutta-percha compaction techni-.

  10. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  11. Apical dominance and growth in vitro of Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.

    2012-01-01

    In Alstroemeria, micropropagation is achieved by axillary bud outgrowth. However, the multiplication rate is rather low (1.2–2.0 per cycle of 4 weeks) due to strong apical dominance. Even though several factors (i.e. culture media, growth regulators, and environmental conditions) have been

  12. CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT THE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Gadzhula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The success of endodontic treatment is provided by a thorough instrumental and antiseptic treatment of infected root canals, and it depends on the composition of filling material, the degree of adhesion to dentin, hermetic obturation of apical foramen, solubility of sealer. Objective. The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of root canal obturation with BioRootTM RCS sealer in the treatment of patients with chronic apical periodontitis. Methods. Endodontic treatment of 23 teeth in 20 patients with chronic apical periodontitis by method of lateral compaction of gutta-percha was carried out. In the main group root canals were obturated with BioRootTM RCS, in the control group the canals were filled with Apexit Plus. The percentage of efficient or non-efficient cases was evaluated on the basis of radiographic comparison of treated chronic apical periodontitis immediately after obturation, in three, six months and one year. Radiographic conditions were defined as existing state, improvement and worsening. Results. In a year of dynamic evaluation the final results were: in the main group – 54.55% of the patients had complete bone healing, in 27.27% of cases the focus of bone destruction was decreased by ½ or more of the initial sizes, 18.18% – resorption lesion was decreased by less than ½; in the control group – 33.33% of improvement, 25.0% of existing state and 41.66% of worsening. Conclusions. BioRootTM RCS using for root canals obturation in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis we proved the high effectiveness of the treatment undertaken: complete healing or improvement of radiographic conditions of periapical bone destruction with X-ray signs of bone regeneration.

  13. An Atypical Case of Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Absence of Giant T Waves in spite of Extreme Apical Wall Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Sanidas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an uncommon variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with hypertrophy mainly affecting the apex of the left ventricle. We hereby describe a case of an octogenarian female patient who was randomly diagnosed with AHCM due to other comorbidities.

  14. [Bacterial localization in apical cementum at the epithelial insertion using scanning electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Núñez, J A; Herrera, I; Cerezo Lapiedra, R; Santa María, I

    1989-02-01

    Extracted teeth due to consequence of chronic periodontitis of adult are fractured and the apical cementum to junction epithelium is examined under S.E.M. (scanning electron microscopy) being found bacterias forms inside niches of the apical cementum.

  15. Apical organs in echinoderm larvae: insights into larval evolution in the Ambulacraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Nakajima, Yoko; Chee, Francis C; Burke, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    The anatomy and cellular organization of serotonergic neurons in the echinoderm apical organ exhibits class-specific features in dipleurula-type (auricularia, bipinnaria) and pluteus-type (ophiopluteus, echinopluteus) larvae. The apical organ forms in association with anterior ciliary structures. Apical organs in dipleurula-type larvae are more similar to each other than to those in either of the pluteus forms. In asteroid bipinnaria and holothuroid auricularia the apical organ spans ciliary band sectors that traverse the anterior-most end of the larvae. The asteroid apical organ also has prominent bilateral ganglia that connect with an apical network of neurites. The simple apical organ of the auricularia is similar to that in the hemichordate tornaria larva. Apical organs in pluteus forms differ markedly. The echinopluteus apical organ is a single structure on the oral hood between the larval arms comprised of two groups of cells joined by a commissure and its cell bodies do not reside in the ciliary band. Ophioplutei have a pair of lateral ganglia associated with the ciliary band of larval arms that may be the ophiuroid apical organ. Comparative anatomy of the serotonergic nervous systems in the dipleurula-type larvae of the Ambulacraria (Echinodermata+Hemichordata) suggests that the apical organ of this deuterostome clade originated as a simple bilaterally symmetric nerve plexus spanning ciliary band sectors at the anterior end of the larva. From this structure, the apical organ has been independently modified in association with the evolution of class-specific larval forms.

  16. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  17. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

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    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  18. Characterization of human apical papilla-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantore, S; Ballini, A; De Vito, D; Martelli, F S; Georgakopoulos, I; Almasri, M; Dibello, V; Altini, V; Farronato, G; Dipalma, G; Farronato, D; Inchingolo, F

    2017-01-01

    Dental tissues represent an alternative and promising source of post-natal Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue engineering. Furthermore, dental stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) cells can be obtained from the wisdom tooth which is unnecessary for human masticatory function and frequently extracted for orthodontic reasons or dysodontiasis. More precisely, apical papilla is the immature, mostly uncalcified, precursor of the tooth root, therefore is composed of more undifferentiated cells than dental pulp. In addition, tooth extraction, especially by piezosurgery technique, can be considered less invasive in comparison to bone marrow or other tissues biopsy. Our work is aimed to investigate the safety of and predictable procedure on surgical immature third molar extraction and to provide new insight on SCAP research for future biomedical applications. The isolated cells were examined for stem cell properties by analyzing their colony-forming efficiency, differentiation characteristics and the expression of MSC markers.

  19. Transient apical dyskinesia with a pacemaker: Electrocardiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Feltes, Gisela I; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Biagioni, Corina; De Agustín, J Alberto; Vivas, David; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Transient apical dyskinesia syndromes present features similar to acute coronary syndromes, but with normal coronary arteries and rapid complete resolution of wall motion alterations. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of typical chest pain at rest after her brother's death. She had had a pacemaker implanted in 2001. Troponin levels were elevated and apical hypokinesia was shown by ventriculography and echocardiography, with normal coronary arteries. Evolving ECG alterations were observed in spite of the continued pacing rhythm. All these alterations were fully resolved after discharge. This case shows that, even in the presence of a pacemaker, evolving ECG alterations can be observed in Takotsubo syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Apically Extruded Sealers: Fate and Influence on Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of unintentional overfillings for the fate of the extruded sealers and their influence on treatment outcome. One hundred five teeth treated by a single operator and exhibiting overfillings in the postobturation radiograph were included in the study. Seventy-five teeth exhibited apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment. Sealers included Pulp Canal Sealer (Sybron Dental, Orange, CA), PCS Extended Working Time-EWT (Sybron Dental), Tubli-Seal (Sybron Endo), Endomethasone (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), AH Plus (DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), and Apexit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein). Recall radiographs were compared with immediate postobturation films for removal of the extruded material and status of the periradicular tissues. Data were grouped as 1-, 2- and >4-year recall and statistically analyzed using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. As for the sealers' fate, the only statistically significant differences at the 1-year recall were observed when comparing Tubli-Seal with AH Plus, Apexit, and Endomethasone (P .05). Data from the >4-year recall revealed that 79% of the teeth with apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment had healed in comparison with 100% of the teeth with no apical periodontitis (P extruded sealers were predictably removed from the periradicular tissues. Treatment outcome was not significantly affected by the type of extruded sealer. A significantly better outcome was observed for teeth with no lesion in comparison with teeth with apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of osmotic dehydration on the encapsulated apices survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-1 activated charcoal) prior to encapsulation in alginate (3%) beads with calcium chloride (1.32M). Then, the apices were exposed to osmotic dehydration with two concentrations of sucrose (0.75M and 1.25M) at two durations (24h and 40h) before their culture in M2 medium (MS + 2mg.L-1 BAP, 100?g.L-1 d'ANA and 2g.

  2. Detección de hipoacusia mediante potenciales evocados auditivos tronco-encéfalicos y otoemisiones acústicas transitorias en niños (as del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar. Barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Alonso Palacio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de hipoacusia infantil en una población de 0-5 años de edad atendida en el Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, con análisis correlacional multivariado; muestra de 300 niños. Se realizó la caracterización sociodemográfica, ambiental, domiciliaria y de antecedentes patológicos de los padres, prenatales y perinatales del niño(a, señales de factores relacionados con problemas audiológicos. Los niños(as fueron examinados(as clínicamente y se realizó sistemáticamente prueba de otoemisiones acústicas transitorias evocadas y potenciales evocados auditivos tronco-encefálicos. Los niños con exámenes anormales fueron reevaluados por audiología y aquellos con alteraciones persistentes fueron estudiados por un otorrinolaringólogo y un neurofisiólogo clínico. Resultados: La prevalencia de hipoacusia infantil fue 6,3% tras la primera evaluación y 2,3% tras la segunda: todos con hipoacusia conductiva, de los cuales dos casos correspondieron a hipoacusia leve y cinco fueron moderados. Las causas de hipoacusia fueron: en cuatro casos, hipertrofia amigdalina y/o disfunción de la Trompa de Eustaquio; en dos niños, otitis media serosa y/o rino-sinusitis aguda; y en un niño se diagnosticó otitis media adhesiva con perforación timpánica. El análisis de regresión logística mostró significancia para las variables: escolaridad y otalgia. Conclusiones: Los factores predictores para hipoacusia infantil más prevalentes en la población de estudio fueron medioambientales: cercanía con avenidas, exposición a ruidos industriales, basureros y exposición a humo. La prevalencia de hipoacusia infantil es similar a la descrita en países desarrollados, de Norteamérica y Europa. Asimismo, todos los trastornos identificados fueron causantes de hipoacusia conductiva.

  3. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  4. Does apical root resection in endodontic microsurgery jeopardize the prosthodontic prognosis?

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    Sin-Yeon Cho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Apical surgery cuts off the apical root and the crown-to-root ratio becomes unfavorable. Crown-to-root ratio has been applied to periodontally compromised teeth. Apical root resection is a different matter from periodontal bone loss. The purpose of this paper is to review the validity of crown-to-root ratio in the apically resected teeth. Most roots have conical shape and the root surface area of coronal part is wider than apical part of the same length. Therefore loss of alveolar bone support from apical resection is much less than its linear length.The maximum stress from mastication concentrates on the cervical area and the minimum stress was found on the apical 1/3 area. Therefore apical root resection is not so harmful as periodontal bone loss. Osteotomy for apical resection reduces longitudinal width of the buccal bone and increases the risk of endo-perio communication which leads to failure. Endodontic microsurgery is able to realize 0 degree or shallow bevel and precise length of root resection, and minimize the longitudinal width of osteotomy. The crown-to-root ratio is not valid in evaluating the prosthodontic prognosis of the apically resected teeth. Accurate execution of endodontic microsurgery to preserve the buccal bone is essential to avoid endo-perio communication.

  5. Does apical root resection in endodontic microsurgery jeopardize the prosthodontic prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sin-Yeon; Kim, Euiseong

    2013-05-01

    Apical surgery cuts off the apical root and the crown-to-root ratio becomes unfavorable. Crown-to-root ratio has been applied to periodontally compromised teeth. Apical root resection is a different matter from periodontal bone loss. The purpose of this paper is to review the validity of crown-to-root ratio in the apically resected teeth. Most roots have conical shape and the root surface area of coronal part is wider than apical part of the same length. Therefore loss of alveolar bone support from apical resection is much less than its linear length.The maximum stress from mastication concentrates on the cervical area and the minimum stress was found on the apical 1/3 area. Therefore apical root resection is not so harmful as periodontal bone loss. Osteotomy for apical resection reduces longitudinal width of the buccal bone and increases the risk of endo-perio communication which leads to failure. Endodontic microsurgery is able to realize 0 degree or shallow bevel and precise length of root resection, and minimize the longitudinal width of osteotomy. The crown-to-root ratio is not valid in evaluating the prosthodontic prognosis of the apically resected teeth. Accurate execution of endodontic microsurgery to preserve the buccal bone is essential to avoid endo-perio communication.

  6. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsdag, Simon; Nelson, Stephen; Coleman, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples) and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples). T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049) than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004), Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes)] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008)] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5) relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3). Conclusion Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes) were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies. PMID:27834171

  7. Progressive, generalized, apical idiopathic root resorption and hypercementosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schätzle, Marc; Tanner, Sandro D; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2005-11-01

    Root resorption is a multifactorial process that results in loss of tooth structure. The causes of root resorption may vary, leading to several types of resorptions. Some factors have been identified and may be categorized into physiological resorption, local factors, systemic conditions, and idiopathic resorptions. The objective of this report was to present a case of a 17-year-old white female with progressive, generalized, apical idiopathic root resorption followed up for 34 months. Two panoramic radiographs, 14 and 34 months after initial clinical and radiological examinations, showed the rapid progression of apical root resorption. Two molars, teeth #15 and #16, which had to be extracted, and a bone sample from the distal aspect of tooth #15 were processed for histologic analysis. Two millimeters apical to the cemento-enamel junction, an abrupt increase in the cementum thickness was noted, amounting to 300 and 800 microm in teeth #15 and #16, respectively. The thickening of the cementum layer was due to an accelerated deposition of cellular intrinsic fiber cementum. An unusually high number of mineralization foci were observed in association with acellular extrinsic fiber cementum, and both free and fused cementicles were seen. In contrast to tooth #16, tooth #15 revealed extensive dentin replacement by a bone-like and a cementum-like tissue. Furthermore, ankylosis was demonstrated in tooth #15 and confirmed in the bone sample. At present, there is no preventive or therapeutic regimen for the type of root resorption seen in this case report. Treatment usually consists of the extraction of teeth with advanced lesions.

  8. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  9. Immunoexpression of interleukin 17 in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuz, Natasha C; Antunes, Henrique; Mendonça, Thais A; Pires, Fábio R; Siqueira, José F; Armada, Luciana

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 expression has been detected in apical periodontitis lesions, but its role in the disease process remains unclear. The present study compared the expression of IL-17 in periradicular cysts and granulomas and evaluated the association of this cytokine with clinical and radiographic findings. Apical periodontitis lesions (18 cysts and 20 granulomas) were obtained from 38 patients subjected to periradicular surgery. Some clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computed tomographic features were recorded. Silanized slides containing paraffin sections were used for the immunohistochemical reactions using anti-IL-17 antibody. Image analysis was performed using an optical microscope, and each sample was divided into 5 high-power fields, which were evaluated for the expression of IL-17 in the epithelium and connective tissues. Results were evaluated for correlations with the lesion size and the occurrence of symptoms and sinus tract. Expression of IL-17 was significantly higher in cysts than in granulomas (P = .02). Among the periradicular cysts, a thin epithelium showed significantly increased labeling for IL-17 when compared with a hyperplastic epithelium (P = .003). IL-17 expression was usually associated with focal accumulations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No association of IL-17 expression with symptoms, sinus tract, or lesion size was observed (P > .05). The present study reinforces the notion that IL-17 may take part in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis lesions. A role in the exacerbation of chronic inflammation and cyst formation is suspected. Further studies are required to shed light on the specific functions of IL-17 in periradicular inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dingsdag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049 than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004, Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5 relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3. Conclusion: Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies.

  11. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  12. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  13. Pyogenic granuloma subsequent to apical fenestration of a primary tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Luz; Bagán, José V

    2002-05-01

    The authors present two case reports of patients exhibiting pyogenic granulomas in the maxillary labial mucosa, which were related to an apical fenestration of a primary incisor. Several researchers have reported that the gingival wound and surrounding inflammatory tissue typically heal spontaneously after extraction of a fenestrated primary tooth. However, in the cases presented here, the gingival lesion did not heal after the fenestrated teeth were extracted. After extracting fenestrated teeth, clinicians need to examine the labial area at a follow-up appointment to ensure that the gingival hyperplasia heals properly. The authors suggest performing curettage of the surrounding abnormal tissue at the time of the tooth extraction.

  14. Histological evaluation of the root apices of failed endodontic cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Nicole Pecora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the different causes of the failures of the endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Adult patients who were referred for endodontic surgery and for whom root-end resection was considered suitable were invited to participate in this study. The inclusion criteria were: (1 Patients aged between 18 and 65 years; (2 teeth with apical periodontitis that was diagnosed radiographically; (3 the tooth could not be adequately and better managed by root-canal retreatment; and (4 the crown of the tooth was adequately restored. One hundred root apices were surgically removed together with the periapical pathological tissue from 92 patients (56 males and 36 women.Histological sectioning was performed on calcified specimens that were embedded in a suitable medium. Results: The causes of endodontic failure identified through histological evaluation were as follows: Presence of bacterial and debris into canals (51%, apex transposition and overfilling (3%, presence of the isthmus (21%, bacterial colonization of root surface (2%, untreated canals (11%, and filling material outside root canal (4%. There was no significant difference between the distribution of teeth and the causes of endodontic failures (P = 0.32. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the most common cause of endodontic failure is the insufficient cleaning of the root canal system. It also explores the effectiveness of histological evaluation of the root apex following root-end resection in exploring the causes of endodontic failures.

  15. Apical canal sealing ability of calcium phosphate based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Inamoto, T; Hakata, T; Toda, T

    1996-12-01

    The apical canal sealing ability of newly developed calcium phosphate cement (TDM-C), an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate kneaded with McIlvain's buffer solution containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, was evaluated in a relative comparison with several recognized available products. The latter included BONETRIX (alpha-tricalcium phosphate mixed with citric acid and tannic acid), ARS (alpha-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite mixed with polyacrylic acid), and zine oxide eugenol sealer (ZOE). Canals of forty extracted human maxillary central incisors were prepared to the file size #70, divided into four groups, and obturated with each of the four above materials. Setting of all sealers took place either in 30% bovine serum solution or in phosphate buffered saline solution. Teeth were then decalcified and cleared to measure linear penetration of India ink from the apex into the canal. Results were statistically analyzed by Student's t-test. Surfaces of all materials, after setting, were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We found that TDM-C, BONETRIX, and ZOE all showed excellent apical sealing ability whereas ARS was less effective in this regard. SEM analysis revealed micropores on the surface of every apatitic product, but ZOE was free of such porosity. It was concluded that TDM-C and BONETRIX may prove clinically useful as root canal sealant materials.

  16. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Timothy J; Bultje, Ronald S; Ross, M Elizabeth; Fishell, Gord; Anderson, Stewart A

    2015-11-10

    Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis

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    Sari Dewiyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal infection and periapical diseases are caused by bacteria and their products. Long term infection may spread bacteria throughout the root canal system. Apical periodontitis caused by infectious microbe that persistent in root canals can cause radiographic and histopathology periapical changes. Chemomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing then are recommended to be conducted and used in between visits to eliminate microbes in root canals. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 can be used as intracanal dressing since it can be used as musical physical defense barrier to eliminate re-infection in root canal and to disturb nutrition supply for bacterial development. Purpose: The aim of this study is observe the effectiveness of Ca(OH2 in treating endodontic teeth with apical periodontitis. Cases: Case 1 and 3 are about patients whose left posterior mandibular teeth had spontaneous intermittent pain. Case 2 is about a patient whose left posterior maxillary teeth had gingival abscess and fracture history. Based on the radiographic examination, it was known that the filling of root canal was incomplete and there was radiolucency in the apical area. Case management: The cases were treated with triad endodontics, which involves preparation, disinfection by using 2.5% NaOCl as irrigation substance and calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing, and then the filling of root canal with gutta percha and endomethasone root canal cement. Evaluations were conducted one month, 12 months, and 24 months after the treatment. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide is effective to be used as intracanal dressing in apical periodontitis cases.Latar belakang: Infeksi saluran akar dan penyakit periapeks disebabkan oleh mikroba dan produknya. Infeksi yang berlangsung lama memungkinkan bakteri masuk ke dalam seluruh sistem saluran akar. Periodontitis apikal disebabkan oleh infeksi persisten mikroba di dalam sistem saluran akar disertai perubahan radiografik dan

  18. Trafficking Ion Transporters to the Apical Membrane of Polarized Intestinal Enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engevik, Amy Christine; Goldenring, James R

    2018-01-02

    Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling. Examination of altered apical trafficking in patients with Microvillus Inclusion disease caused by inactivating mutations in MYO5B has led to insights into the regulation of apical trafficking by elements of the apical recycling system. Modeling of MYO5B loss in cell culture and animal models has led to recognition of Rab11a and Rab8a as critical regulators of apical brush border function. All of these studies show the importance of apical membrane trafficking dynamics in maintenance of polarized epithelial cell function. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Different Apical Preparations on Root Canal Cleanliness in Human Molars: a SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Tocci, Luigi; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-04-01

    To compare the influence of type and dimensions of the apical preparation on the cleanliness of the apical area in molars. A total of 120 root canals (MB and DB root canals from 30 maxillary molars and mesial root canals from 30 mandibular molars) were instrumented with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments to a size 25/0.06 taper and were equally divided into three different experimental groups depending on the subsequently apical root canal preparation: Group 1: no further apical preparation, Group 2: apical preparation with Mtwo files to a size 40/0.04 taper, Group 3: apical preparation with Mtwo Apical Files. All root canals were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Presence of superficial debris and smear layer was evaluated using a score system. Data were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests with a level of significance set at P 0.05), while at the apical level, there was a significant difference for both residual debris and presence of smear layer between Group 1 and both Group 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014) and 3 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.021), while no difference was present between Group 2 and Group 3 (P = 0.871 and P = 0.923). Cleanliness of the apical third in terms of debris and smear layer was statistically better when an apical preparation was performed to a size 40/0.04 taper or with the use of the Mtwo Apical Files.

  20. Influence of Different Apical Preparations on Root Canal Cleanliness in Human Molars: a SEM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Plotino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the influence of type and dimensions of the apical preparation on the cleanliness of the apical area in molars. Material and Methods: A total of 120 root canals (MB and DB root canals from 30 maxillary molars and mesial root canals from 30 mandibular molars were instrumented with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments to a size 25/0.06 taper and were equally divided into three different experimental groups depending on the subsequently apical root canal preparation: Group 1: no further apical preparation, Group 2: apical preparation with Mtwo files to a size 40/0.04 taper, Group 3: apical preparation with Mtwo Apical Files. All root canals were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Presence of superficial debris and smear layer was evaluated using a score system. Data were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests with a level of significance set at P 0.05, while at the apical level, there was a significant difference for both residual debris and presence of smear layer between Group 1 and both Group 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014 and 3 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.021, while no difference was present between Group 2 and Group 3 (P = 0.871 and P = 0.923. Conclusions: Cleanliness of the apical third in terms of debris and smear layer was statistically better when an apical preparation was performed to a size 40/0.04 taper or with the use of the Mtwo Apical Files.

  1. Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann; Hartsfield, James Kennedy

    2016-12-01

    When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients' overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR).

  2. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    Okishige, Kaoru; Sasano, Tetsuo; Yano, Kei; Azegami, Kouji; Suzuki, Kou; Itoh, Kuniyasu [Yokohama Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an {sup 123}I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  3. Traumatic bone cyst suggestive of large apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth; Estrela, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    This case report shows the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis to provide the appropriate treatment options The traumatic bone cyst is a pseudocyst, usually asymptomatic and found by a routine radiographic examination. Unicystic radiolucency is almost always observed, which can involve the periradicular area of teeth, simulating an inflammatory lesion of endodontic origin. Differential diagnosis should include other pathologies, such as odontogenic keratocyst, central giant cell granuloma, and unicystic ameloblastoma. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not yet definitely established. In the present study, after review of the medical and dental histories and clinical and radiographic examination of teeth #24-27 (pulpal vitality test showed positive), the primary diagnosis was traumatic bone cyst. The planning was excisional biopsy. After surgical exploration, only one small blood clot was observed in the intraosseous socket, which was carefully curetted and filled with blood. A clinical and radiographic examination after 6 months showed apical formation and pulpal vitality preserved.

  4. Geometry of shoot apical dome and distribution of growth rates

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    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the relative elementary rate of growth (RERG in apical domes of various shapes and patterns of displacement lines can be analytically examined. The geometry of these domes may be described by parabolas of n-th order, the variant of the distribution of linear growth rate should be established along any displacement line (e.g. along the axis and then the RERG can be studied as the function depending on the position coordinates and the parameter n. Such investigations of several aplical domes of various shapes have been performed. The results confirm the occurrence of the minimum of relative, elementary growth rate (in volume in the subapical region of the dome independently of the type of geometry (n parabola order.

  5. Aminopeptidase N is directly sorted to the apical domain in MDCK cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, H P; Hansen, Gert Helge; Fuhrer, C

    1990-01-01

    In different epithelial cell types, integral membrane proteins appear to follow different sorting pathways to the apical surface. In hepatocytes, several apical proteins were shown to be transported there indirectly via the basolateral membrane, whereas in MDCK cells a direct sorting pathway from...

  6. An unusual ST-segment elevation: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shows the ace up its sleeve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Francesco; Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Pero, Gaetano; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is part of the broad clinical and morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities in whom acute coronary syndrome was excluded and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was demonstrated by careful differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  8. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  9. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  10. Apical bud toughness tests and tree sway movements to examine crown abrasion: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Brannon; Wayne Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Apical bud toughness differences were examined for several species to determine if crown abrasion affects shoot growth of determinate and indeterminate species during stand development. Determinate buds will set and harden after initial shoot elongation in the spring, while the indeterminate shoots form leaves from the apical meristem continuously based on the...

  11. HIPOTIROIDISMO CANINO, PRESENTACION DE UN CASO ATIPICO

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    Juan Carlos Ballut P

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe las características clínicas de un caso de hipotiroidismo atípico, catalogado como de presentaciónoculta, caracterizado por signos relacionados con miopatía, neuropatía, deterioro del estado mental, sangrado

  12. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-09

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as a novel apical matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ambica; Chaudhary, Sarika; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as an apical matrix. Summary : An immature tooth with pulpal necrosis and periapical pathology imposes a great difficulty to the endodontist. Endodontic treatment options for such teeth consist of conventional apexification procedure with and without apical barriers. Biodentine™ is new calcium silicate based cement that exhibits physical and chemical properties similar to those described for certain Portland cement derivatives. This article demonstrates the use of the newer material, Biodentine as an apical matrix barrier in root end apexification procedure. This case reports present apexification and successful healing with the use of Biodentine as an apical barrier matrix. Conclusion : Apexification in one step using an apical plug of Biodentine can be considered a predictable treatment and may be an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate apexification.

  14. Laparoscopic pectopexy: initial experience of single center with a new technique for apical prolapse surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kale

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To share our first experience with laparoscopic pectopexy, a new technique for apical prolapse surgery, and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with apical prolapse underwent surgery with laparoscopic pectopexy. The lateral parts of the iliopectineal ligament were used for a bilateral mesh fixation of the descended structures. The medical records of the patients were reviewed, and the short-term clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: The laparoscopic pectopexy procedures were successfully performed, without intraoperative and postoperative complications. De novo apical prolapse, de novo urgency, de novo constipation, stress urinary incontinence, anterior and lateral defect cystoceles, and rectoceles did not occur in any of the patients during a 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Although laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy has shown excellent anatomical and functional long-term results, laparoscopic pectopexy offers a feasible, safe, and comfortable alternative for apical prolapse surgery. Pectopexy may increase a surgeon's technical perspective for apical prolapse surgery.

  15. Cytoskeletal Components of an Invasion Machine—The Apical Complex of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke; Johnson, Jeff; Florens, Laurence; Fraunholz, Martin; Suravajjala, Sapna; DiLullo, Camille; Yates, John; Roos, David S; Murray, John M

    2006-01-01

    The apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii is widely believed to serve essential functions in both invasion of its host cells (including human cells), and in replication of the parasite. The understanding of apical complex function, the basis for its novel structure, and the mechanism for its motility are greatly impeded by lack of knowledge of its molecular composition. We have partially purified the conoid/apical complex, identified ~200 proteins that represent 70% of its cytoskeletal protein components, characterized seven novel proteins, and determined the sequence of recruitment of five of these proteins into the cytoskeleton during cell division. Our results provide new markers for the different subcompartments within the apical complex, and revealed previously unknown cellular compartments, which facilitate our understanding of how the invasion machinery is built. Surprisingly, the extreme apical and extreme basal structures of this highly polarized cell originate in the same location and at the same time very early during parasite replication. PMID:16518471

  16. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  17. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

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    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  18. Intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Smith, Tovia M; Luo, Jiajia; Kolenic, Giselle E; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown how initial cervix location and cervical support resistance to traction, which we term "apical support stiffness," compare in women with different patterns of pelvic organ support. Defining a normal range of apical support stiffness is important to better understand the pathophysiology of apical support loss. The aims of our study were to determine whether: (1) women with normal apical support on clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, but with vaginal wall prolapse (cystocele and/or rectocele), have the same intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness as women with normal pelvic support; and (2) all women with apical prolapse have abnormal intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness. A third objective was to identify clinical and biomechanical factors independently associated with clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C. We conducted an observational study of women with a full spectrum of pelvic organ support scheduled to undergo gynecologic surgery. All women underwent a preoperative clinic examination, including Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification. Cervix starting location and the resistance (stiffness) of its supports to being moved steadily in the direction of a traction force that increased from 0-18 N was measured intraoperatively using a computer-controlled servoactuator device. Women were divided into 3 groups for analysis according to their pelvic support as classified using the clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification: (1) "normal/normal" was women with normal apical (C -5 cm and Ba and/or Bp ≥ 0 cm). Demographics, intraoperative cervix locations, and apical support stiffness values were then compared. Normal range of cervix location during clinic examination and operative testing was defined by the total range of values observed in the normal/normal group. The proportion of women in each group with cervix locations within and outside the normal range was determined. Linear regression

  19. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, F.; Zangouie Booshehri, M.; Behniafar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  20. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  1. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  2. The Apical Complex Provides a Regulated Gateway for Secretion of Invasion Factors in Toxoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katris, Nicholas J.; van Dooren, Giel G.; McMillan, Paul J.; Hanssen, Eric; Tilley, Leann; Waller, Ross F.

    2014-01-01

    The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring—the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites. PMID:24743791

  3. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with hemodynamically unstable ventricular arrhythmia - Atypical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Hemant; Pandey, Rudra Dev; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Makkar, Jitendra Singh; Sharma, Sanjeev K

    2016-09-01

    We present a patient with asymptomatic apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) who recently developed cardiac arrhythmias, and shortly discuss the diagnostic modalities, differential diagnosis, and treatment strategy for this condition. AHCM is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which usually involves the apex of the left ventricle. AHCM can occur with varied presentations such as chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, syncope, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, embolic events, ventricular fibrillation, and congestive heart failure. The most peculiar electrocardiogram findings are giant T-waves inversion in the precordial leads with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. A transthoracic echocardiogram is the initial diagnostic modality in the evaluation of AHCM and shows hypertrophy of the LV apex. Other diagnostic modalities, including left ventriculography, multislice spiral computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imagings, are also valuable tools. Medications used to manage include verapamil, beta-blockers, and antiarrhythmic agents. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is recommended for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Poda apical para uniformizar a colheita de flores de ?tango?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho testou a poda apical das hastes de tango 4 e 6 semanas após a roçada, para homogeneizar a colheita que, comercialmente, necessita ser feita por um período de aproximadamente 5 dias numa mesma área. Foram avaliados altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, número médio de hastes colhidas/planta e a média do peso de matéria seca colhida/haste. Só foi verificada diferença significativa para altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, não se conseguindo reduzir o número de colheitas necessárias por planta. Existem indicações de que há necessidade de reduzir a variabilidade genética da população para homogeneizar a colheita de inflorescências de tango.

  6. Malignant Arrhythmia in Apical Ballooning Syndrome: Risk Factors and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Asirvatham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to determine the frequency and outcomes with symptomatic arrhythmia in patients with apical ballooning syndrome (ABS. Methods: A retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic Angiography database was conducted to identify patients who met the Mayo criteria for ABS. Patients with documented arrhythmias formed the study group, and 31 randomly selected patients with ABS but without arrhythmia formed the control group.Results: Out of 105 patients identified with ABS, 6 (5.7% women aged 69 +/- 9 years experienced significant arrhythmia (ventricular fibrillation, asystole, 2 patients died, and 1 required permanent pacemaker implantation. When compared with controls, the study group showed no significant difference with respect to ECG characteristics (QT, QRS duration or axis except for R-R interval variability (see comments below (30.6±6 vs 14.5±17 p = 0.0004, QTc, and P-R interval. Patients without arrhythmia were more likely to be on beta-blocker therapy than the study population (33% vs 80.6% p = 0.02. Conclusion: Life-threatening arrhythmia is uncommon (5.7% with ABS despite marked, structural abnormalities. When arrhythmias do occur, the outcome is poor. Prominent variability in R-R intervals appears to be predictive of significant arrhythmias in ABS. The role of beta-blocker therapy in preventing arrhythmia with ABS requires further investigation.

  7. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [es

  8. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  9. Embryology meets molecular biology: Deciphering the apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2017-09-15

    More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroelectric Tuning of Cortical Oscillations by Apical Dendrites in Loop Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David LaBerge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bundles of relatively long apical dendrites dominate the neurons that make up the thickness of the cerebral cortex. It is proposed that a major function of the apical dendrite is to produce sustained oscillations at a specific frequency that can serve as a common timing unit for the processing of information in circuits connected to that apical dendrite. Many layer 5 and 6 pyramidal neurons are connected to thalamic neurons in loop circuits. A model of the apical dendrites of these pyramidal neurons has been used to simulate the electric activity of the apical dendrite. The results of that simulation demonstrated that subthreshold electric pulses in these apical dendrites can be tuned to specific frequencies and also can be fine-tuned to narrow bandwidths of less than one Hertz (1 Hz. Synchronous pulse outputs from the circuit loops containing apical dendrites can tune subthreshold membrane oscillations of neurons they contact. When the pulse outputs are finely tuned, they function as a local “clock,” which enables the contacted neurons to synchronously communicate with each other. Thus, a shared tuning frequency can select neurons for membership in a circuit. Unlike layer 6 apical dendrites, layer 5 apical dendrites can produce burst firing in many of their neurons, which increases the amplitude of signals in the neurons they contact. This difference in amplitude of signals serves as basis of selecting a sub-circuit for specialized processing (e.g., sustained attention within the typically larger layer 6-based circuit. After examining the sustaining of oscillations in loop circuits and the processing of spikes in network circuits, we propose that cortical functioning can be globally viewed as two systems: a loop system and a network system. The loop system oscillations influence the network system’s timing and amplitude of pulse signals, both of which can select circuits that are momentarily dominant in cortical activity.

  11. Presentación diferencial de ARN mensajeros e identificación del gen selenocisteína liasa en células de carcinoma hepatocelular con expresión transitoria de la proteína core del virus de la hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Orlando Yepes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El virus de la hepatitis C se asocia a diversas hepatopatías como hepatitis aguda, hepatitis crónica, esteatosis, cirrosis y carcinoma hepatocelular. Numerosos estudios han explorado mecanismos virales implicados en el establecimiento de la infección persistente y en las propiedades oncogénicas e inmunomoduladoras de la proteína core del virus de la hepatitis C. Las investigaciones orientadas a evaluar los cambios en la expresión de genes celulares endógenos inducidos por la proteína core son importantes para identificar genes candidatos responsables de los mecanismos de patogenicidad del virus de la hepatitis C. Objetivos. Comparar perfiles de expresión e identificar genes celulares endógenos en la línea celular derivada de carcinoma hepatocelular humano, HepG2, con expresión transitoria de la proteína core del virus de la hepatitis C. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la técnica de presentación diferencial de ARN mensajero por RT-PCR en células HepG2 con y sin expresión transitoria de la proteína core del virus de la hepatitis C o de la proteína verde fluorescente, obtenidas previamente con el sistema de expresión del Semliki Forest Virus, mediante transducción de partículas recombinantes rSFVCore o rSFV-GFP. Resultados. Se observaron diferencias en las intensidades de las bandas de ARNm expresadas en células HepG2 transducidas con rSFV-Core comparadas con células sin transducir y trasducidas con rSFV-GFP. Un ARNm de 258 pb expresado diferencialmente en células HepG2 transducidas con rSFV-Core fue clonado e identificado como selenocisteína liasa. Conclusión. Los resultados confirman que la expresión de la proteína core del virus de la hepatitis C se asocia con cambios en la expresión de ARN mensajeros específicos, incluido al gen selenocisteina liasa, el cual puede estar involucrado en la fisiopatología del carcinoma hepatocelular.

  12. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    OpenAIRE

    P León; MJ Ilabaca; M Alcota; FE González

    2011-01-01

    La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas v...

  13. Root lengthening with apical closure in two maxillary immature permanent central incisors after placement of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, F; Bourmeche, I; Sebai, A; Baccouche, Z; Maatouk, F

    2018-02-01

    Necrosis of permanent immature teeth is a common reason for consultation in paediatric dentistry. Apexification is a therapeutic procedure aiming to create an apical calcified barrier in open apex teeth. Two cases are presented in which apexification were completed on immature permanent traumatised incisors using a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plug. At 2 and 5 years showed apical closure and radicular elongation beyond the MTA plug. Unexpectedly, a regeneration of mineral tissues beyond the MTA plug occurred which is an uncommon outcome.

  14. Risk Factors for Apical Periodontitis Sub-Urban Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginni, A O; Adeleke, A A; Mejabi, M O; Sotunde, O A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the risk factors of apical periodontitis (AP) in a Nigerian sub-urban adult population and to compare the findings with those previously reported for various population groups. The study was based on a full mouth radiographic survey of 285 patients. Patients' age ranged from 18-60 years. All teeth were assessed individually and data recorded for caries, fractured / cracked teeth, root fillings, and tooth restorations. The gender, smoking habit, and frequency of dental visit were also recorded. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of AP in the individual. The prevalence of AP was 74.4%. The average number of teeth with AP per patient was 2.8 (range 1-5). AP was found to be more prevalent among people 40- 49 years old (87.2%). Primary carious lesions, fractured / cracked teeth, root fillings and coronal fillings were associated with the incidence of AP in the individual. Fractured teeth had a higher risk of developing AP than carious teeth. The presence of root fillings and coronal restorations were also associated with the development of AP. Smoking (OR=3.82; CI=2.17-6.75) and irregular dental visit (OR=6.73; CI=3.75-12.06) were statistically significant risk factors for developing AP. Gender was not a risk factor for AP (OR=0.86; CI=0.50-1.46). The prevalence of AP among adult Nigerians is slightly higher than reported figures for many Western societies. Fractured/cracked teeth had a higher risk of developing AP than carious teeth; hence patients with fractured / cracked teeth should seek treatment early to prevent the development of AP.

  15. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are made of a well-polarized monolayer of epithelial cells, and their morphology is maintained strictly for their proper functions. Previously, we showed that Rac1 activation is suppressed at the apical membrane in the mature organoid, and that such spatially biased Rac1 activity is required for the polarity maintenance. Here we identify Chimaerin, a GTPase activating protein for Rac1, as a suppressor of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane. Depletion of Chimaerin causes over-activation of Rac1 at the apical membrane in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, followed by luminal cell accumulation. Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology.

  16. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assessed...... the length of apicectomy and calculated the loss of root length and changes of RCR after apical surgery. METHODS: In a prospective clinical study, cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken preoperatively and postoperatively. From these images, the crown and root lengths of 61 roots (54 teeth in 47....... The following parameters were assessed for all treated teeth as well as for specific tooth groups: length of root-end resection and percentage change of root length, preoperative and postoperative RCRs, and percentage change of RCR after apical surgery. RESULTS: The mean length of root-end resection was 3...

  17. Comparison of extracted teeth and simulated resin blocks on apical canal transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilak, Zohreh; Fallahdoost, Arjang; Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Rezvani, Gholamreza

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to compare apical canal transportation of extracted teeth and two types of simulated resin blocks. Mesiobuccal root of extracted maxillary molars, high hardness simulated resin blocks (Knoop hardness=40) and low hardness simulated resin blocks (Knoop hardness=22) were prepared with K-files using step-back technique (n=15 canals in each group). Double exposure radiographic technique was used for extracted teeth. Simulated resin blocks were stabilized and scanned before and after preparation. Pre and post-preparation pictures were superimposed and apical transportation was measured. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. There was no significant difference in apical canal transportation between extracted teeth and high hardness resin blocks (P>0.05). Low hardness resin blocks showed more apical transportation than the other groups (Presin blocks were similar.

  18. Mineral trioxide aggregate-induced apical closure in nonvital immature permanent maxillary incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bhola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with calcium hydroxide is associated with few difficulties such as weakened tooth root, root canal reinfection, and long treatment time. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA apical plug method is an alternative treatment method for open apices and has gained popularity in the recent times. This case report describes the management of a late-referral case of periapically involved, traumatized immature permanent incisor by endodontic treatment and the use of MTA apical plug. After preparing the access cavity, the working length was determined. The root canals were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite and disinfected with metapex for 2 weeks. MTA was then placed in the apical 3 mm of the root canal. The remaining part of the root canal was filled with thermoplastic gutta-percha, and the coronal restoration was finished with composite resin. After 1-year follow-up, radiograph showed successful healing of periradicular radiolucency.

  19. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  20. Apical atrophy of retinal pigment epithelial detachments in central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Hamann, Steffen; Larsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    compatible with CSC. RESULTS: A juxtafoveal retinal pigment epithelial detachment with apical atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with corresponding severe attenuation of the pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium was observed in both patients. One of the patients presented with a serous...... neurosensory retinal detachment with smokestack leakage 7 years after first being seen. The other patient was never seen with a neurosensory detachment. CONCLUSION: Isolated pigment epithelial detachment with apical retinal pigment epithelial atrophy may represent a precursor stage of CSC....

  1. Management of Teeth with Persistent Apical Periodontitis after Root Canal Treatment Using Regenerative Endodontic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Huang, George T-J; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Lin, Louis M

    2015-10-01

    Regenerative endodontic therapy (RET) is currently used to treat immature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, recently RET has been used to treat mature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis and resulted in regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and resolution of apical periodontitis. The purpose of this case report was to describe the potential of using RET to treat 2 mature teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy using RET. Two male patients, one 26-year old and another 12-year old, presented for retreatment of persistent apical periodontitis after root canal treatment of 2 mature teeth (#9 and #19). The gutta-percha fillings in the canals of teeth #9 and #19 were removed with Carvene gutta-percha solvent (Prevest DenPro, Jammu, India) and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The canals of both teeth were further chemomechanically debrided with rotary retreatment files and copious amounts of sodium hypochlorite irrigation and dressed with Metapaste (Meta Biomed, Chungbuk, Korea). RET was performed on teeth #9 and #19. Periapical bleeding was provoked into the disinfected root canals. The blood clots were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate plugs, and the access cavities were restored with intermediate restorative material. Teeth #9 and #19 showed regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and healing of apical periodontitis after 13-month and 14-month follow-ups, respectively. Tooth #9 revealed narrowing of the canal space and apical closure by deposition of hard tissue. RET has the potential to be used to retreat teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogenicity of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Actinomyces oris Isolated from an Apical Abscess Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing (Henssge et al. 2009). Materials and methods Bacteria A clinically isolated A. oris...described in many pathogens (Costerton et al. 1987). Although the bacteria in biofilms are considered to be dormant in general, it is conceivable that Actino...June 2012 Introduction Bacteria remaining in the apical part of the root canal are known to be involved in the development of apical abscesses (Nair

  3. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  4. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas vs. crónicas, éxito/fracaso del tratamiento y rehabilitación post-tratamiento. Se recolectó información de 292 dientes de pacientes tratados en dicha clínica, analizándose la información de aquellos con dientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de periodontitis apical clasificándolo según la nueva nomenclatura de la asociación de endodoncia americana. La frecuencia de periodontitis apical fue de un 36.7% (92 pacientes, de los cuales un 77.8% presentaron patologías de tipo crónicas. Un 75% de los pacientes pertenecieron al sexo femenino y la 5ta década representó un 34.8% de los pacientes. El 100% de los pacientes que acudieron a control presentó éxito en sus tratamientos según variables clínico-radiográficas, mientras que la restauración más frecuente post-tratamiento fue la resina compuesta (52.4%. Dado el pequeño número de pacientes que concurrieron a la citación de control para determinar el éxito del tratamiento, esta variable debe ser considerada como preliminar. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la condición mas frecuente fue la periodontitis apical de tipo crónica, afectando más a mujeres y a la 5ta década.Apical periodontitis is a microbially induced inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues. Its treatment requires eliminating microorganism from root canal and sealing it properly to induce further tissue repair. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of apical periodontitis and its distribution by

  5. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes, E-mail: bruna_paloma@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Heck, Richard John [Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  6. Basolateral cholesterol depletion alters Aquaporin-2 post-translational modifications and disrupts apical plasma membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Fuglsang, Cecilia Hvitfeldt; Pedersen, Cecilie Nøhr; Fenton, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Apical plasma membrane accumulation of the water channel Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct principal cells is critical for body water homeostasis. Posttranslational modification (PTM) of AQP2 is important for regulating AQP2 trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cholesterol in regulation of AQP2 PTM and in apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Cholesterol depletion from the basolateral plasma membrane of a collecting duct cell line (mpkCCD14) using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) increased AQP2 ubiquitylation. Forskolin, cAMP or dDAVP-mediated AQP2 phosphorylation at Ser269 (pS269-AQP2) was prevented by cholesterol depletion from the basolateral membrane. None of these effects on pS269-AQP2 were observed when cholesterol was depleted from the apical side of cells, or when MBCD was applied subsequent to dDAVP stimulation. Basolateral, but not apical, MBCD application prevented cAMP-induced apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. These studies indicate that manipulation of the cholesterol content of the basolateral plasma membrane interferes with AQP2 PTM and subsequently regulated apical plasma membrane targeting of AQP2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lats kinase is involved in the intestinal apical membrane integrity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junsu; Shin, Donghoon; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lee, Junho

    2009-08-01

    The roles of Lats kinases in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis have been well established. Here we report new roles for Lats kinase in the integrity of the apical membrane structure. WTS-1, the C. elegans Lats homolog, localized primarily to the subapical region in the intestine. A loss-of-function mutation in wts-1 resulted in an early larval arrest and defects in the structure of the intestinal lumen. An electron microscopy study of terminally arrested wts-1 mutant animals revealed numerous microvilli-containing lumen-like structures within the intestinal cells. The wts-1 phenotype was not caused by cell proliferation or apoptosis defects. Instead, we found that the wts-1 mutant animals exhibited gradual mislocalization of apical actin and apical junction proteins, suggesting that wts-1 normally suppresses the formation of extra apical membrane structures. Heat-shock-driven pulse-chase expression experiments showed that WTS-1 regulates the localization of newly synthesized apical actins. RNAi of the exocyst complex genes suppressed the mislocalization phenotype of wts-1 mutation. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that Lats kinase plays important roles in the integrity of the apical membrane structure of intestinal cells.

  8. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7 HIGH -polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium

  9. Apical foramen morphology according to the length of merged canal at the apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Ho Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the apical foramen morphology and the length of merged canal at the apex in type II root canal system. Materials and Methods This study included intact extracted maxillary and mandibular human premolars (n = 20 with fully formed roots without any visible signs of external resorption. The root segments were obtained by removing the crown 1 mm beneath the cementum-enamel junction (CEJ using a rotary diamond disk. The distance between the file tip and merged point of joining two canals was defined as Lj. The roots were carefully sectioned at 1 mm from the apex by a slow-speed water-cooled diamond saw. All cross sections were examined under the microscope at ×50 magnification and photographed to estimate the shape of the apical foramen. The longest and the shortest diameter of apical foramen was measured using ImageJ program (1.44p, National Institutes of Health. Correlation coefficient was calculated to identify the link between Lj and the apical foramen shape by Pearson's correlation. Results The average value of Lj was 3.74 mm. The average of proportion (P, estimated by dividing the longest diameter into the shortest diameter of the apical foramen, was 3.64. This study showed a significant negative correlation between P and Lj (p < 0.05. Conclusions As Lj gets longer, the apical foramen becomes more ovally shaped. Likewise, as it gets shorter, the apical foramen becomes more flat shaped.

  10. Clinical significance of left ventricular apical aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients: the role of diagnostic electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Masaru; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2014-10-01

    Some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) develop left ventricular apical aneurysm, leading to serious cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were to identify the incidence and clinical course of HCM patients with apical aneurysms in Japan, and to evaluate the role of electrocardiography (ECG) as a screening test to detect apical aneurysms in HCM patients. In a retrospective, single center analysis of a population of 247 HCM patients, 21 patients (8.5%) had left ventricular apical aneurysms. Their mean age was 60 ± 14 years (range: 23-77 years) at study entry. Over 4.7 ± 3.3 years of follow-up, 10 patients (47.6%) experienced an adverse clinical event (annual event rate: 10.1%/y), including five implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantations for ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF), an appropriate discharge of ICD for VT/VF, and four nonfatal thromboembolic strokes. Two patients developed systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%). No sudden cardiac death or progressive heart failure was detected. Fourteen patients showed ST-segment elevation (≥ 1 mm) in V3 through V5 of ECG. In four patients, progression of the ST-segment elevation was recognized. When the ST-segment elevation was used to identify apical aneurysms in HCM patients, the sensitivity was 66.7%, and the specificity was 98.7%. Apical aneurysms in HCM patients in Japan are not rare, and are associated with serious cardiovascular complications. The early diagnosis of apical aneurysms can be achieved by serial ECG. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Parameters Of Irradiation Influences The Apical Sealing Of Er:YAG Laser Apicetomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Failures on the sealing of the tooth apex are responsible for many failures of apical surgeries. The Er:YAG laser has been proposed as an alternative for the use of rotator instruments on surgical endodontics. 12 human extracted canines had root endodontic treatment being the apical limit was set at 1mm before the apical foramen and were distributed into 2 groups. On group I, apicectomy was performed with the Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/15 Hz). Apical cut was performed of perpendicular mode with 3mm from the apical foramen. On Group II, the same procedures and the same sequence as above was used, varying only the parameters of the Er:YAG laser (400 mJ/6 Hz). The specimens were divided into groups and fixed, by the cervical third, on wax. Impermeabilization of the residual root apical third was performed following the same procedures used in the cervical third but the residual apex was left free from the impermeabilization. After that, the roots were immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution and placed in a bacteriological oven for 48 h. The segments were visually observed and the one showing greatest level of dye leakage was selected and kept in individual container and coded accordingly. Apical staining was measured using a stereoscopic magnifying glass; a compass; and caliper. The results showed that Group I showed significantly different higher mean level of dye leakage (5.67±4.9, p<0.05). There was a significantly difference between the groups. It is concluded that the apicectomies carried out with 400 mJ/6 Hz showed the smallest infiltration value.

  12. Size and geometry of apical sesamoid fracture fragments as a determinant of prognosis in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, J L; Bramlage, L R; Schnabel, L V; Ruggles, A J; Embertson, R M; Hopper, S A

    2011-07-01

    Analysis was performed to examine a method for refining the preoperative prognosis for horses that had surgery to remove apical fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs). To determine if: 1) there was a difference in size or configuration of apical fractures between the different anatomical locations of the PSBs, which have been shown to affect the prognosis; and 2) the size or configuration could predict the prognosis for racehorses with these fractures. The study included 110 weanlings and yearlings and 56 training racehorses that underwent surgery to remove apical PSB fractures. Radiographs of the fractures were used for measurement of the abaxial and axial proportion and the abaxial to axial ratio, and race records were used to determine average earnings per start (AEPS) and total post operative starts. Analysis of variance and regression statistics were used to compare the fragment sizes between the specific PSBs on each of the limbs and compare size and configuration of the fractures to prognosis. There was a significantly larger abaxial to axial ratio (more transverse fracture) for the forelimb medial sesamoids than for all other sesamoids in untrained racehorses (P = 0.03). There were no other significant differences in size. There was no relationship between fracture size or configuration and AEPS nor total post operative starts. Apical fractures in weanlings and yearlings tend to be more transverse in the forelimb medial PSBs than the other PSBs. Apical fracture size and geometry does not determine prognosis for apical sesamoid fractures. Horses that undergo surgery to remove larger apical fractures of the PSBs do not have a worse outcome than those horses with smaller fractures. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Novaes, Arthur B; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Santamaria, Milton; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo response of apical and periapical tissues of dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis after one-session endodontic treatment with and without antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Sixty root canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were instrumented and assigned to 4 groups receiving aPDT and root canal filling (RCF) or not: group aPDT+/RCF+ (n = 20): aPDT (photosensitizer phenothiazine chloride at 10 mg/mL for 3 minutes and diode laser [λ = 660 nm, 60 mW/cm(2)] for 1 minute) and RCF in the same session; group aPDT+/RCF- (n = 10); group aPDT-/RCF+ (n = 20), and group aPDT-/RCF- (n = 10). Teeth were restored, and the animals were killed after 90 days. Sections from the maxillas and mandibles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Mallory trichrome and examined under light microscopy. Descriptive (ie, newly formed apical mineralized tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, and mineralized tissue resorption) and quantitative (ie, periapical lesion size and number of inflammatory cells) microscopic analysis was performed. Quantitative data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = .05). In the aPDT-treated groups, the periapical region was moderately/severely enlarged with no inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis and fibrogenesis, and the smallest periapical lesions. Although apical closure by mineralized tissue deposition was not achieved, the absence of inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in the periapical region in the groups treated with aPDT indicate that this can be a promising adjunct therapy to cleaning and shaping procedures in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing one-session endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous idiopathic spinal epidural hematoma: two different presentations of the same disease Hematoma epidural espinal espontáneo: dos diferentes presentaciones clínicas de la misma enfermedad Hematoma epidural espinhal espontâneo: duas diferentes apresentações da mesma doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrúbal Falavigna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with different clinical presentations without precipitating factors and a brief review of the literature. Our case first developed acute and had progressive cervical spinal cord signs that determined emergency decompressive laminectomy. On the other hand, the second patient, who was chronic, was operated almost five months after the initial symptoms and the radiological diagnosis was a large facet cyst. Early surgical intervention is the chosen treatment for spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. Spinal surgeons should bear in mind that spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas may have different clinical presentations according to their location in order to perform a differential diagnosis.Fueron relatados dos casos de hematoma epidural espinal espontáneo con diferentes presentaciones clínicas sin factores precipitantes, y fue hecha una breve revisión de la literatura. Nuestro caso 1 tuvo un desarrollo agudo y mostró señales progresivas en la columna cervical que determinaron una laminectomía descompresiva de emergencia. Por otro lado, el segundo paciente, crónico, fue operado casi cinco meses después de los síntomas iniciales y el diagnóstico radiológico fue de un gran quiste sinovial. La intervención quirúrgica temprana es el tratamiento de elección para hematomas espontáneos epidurales espinales. El tratamiento quirúrgico representa la forma más común de terapia para todos los tipos de presentaciones clínicas. Debemos considerar que el tratamiento conservador (o no sea más común en casos de presentación leve, principalmente en pacientes con hematoma espinal crónico. Para realizar un diagnóstico diferencial, los cirujanos deben recordar que los hematomas epidurales espinales espontáneos pueden tener distintas presentaciones clínicas según su ubicación.Os autores relatam dois casos de hematoma epidural espinhal espontâneo com diferentes apresentações cl

  15. Síndrome do balonamento apical secundário ao uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Síndrome del abombamiento apical secundario al uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Apical ballooning syndrome secondary to nasal decongestant abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso típico de síndrome do balonamento apical em uma paciente octogenária com alteração eletrocardiográfica, de contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo, e que apresentou recuperação da função ventricular. A paciente é portadora de rinite alérgica e fez uso excessivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes do episódio da dor.Describimos un caso típico de síndrome de abombamiento apical en una paciente octogenaria con alteración electrocardiográfica, de contractilidad del ventrículo izquierdo, y que presentó recuperación de la función ventricular. La paciente es portadora de rinitis alérgica y hace uso excesivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes del episodio del dolor.We describe a typical case of apical ballooning syndrome in an octogenarian female patient with left ventricular wall motion abnormality on electrocardiography, whose ventricular function returned to normal. The patient has allergic rhinitis and had used nasal decongestant excessively a few hours prior to the episode of pain.

  16. Midventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Apical Aneurysm: Potential for Underdiagnosis and Value of Multimodality Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sivanandam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate a case of midventricle obstructive HCM and apical aneurysm diagnosed with appropriate use of multimodality imaging. A 75-year-old African American woman presented with a 3-day history of chest pain and dyspnea with elevated troponins. Her electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, prolonged QT, and occasional ectopy. After medical therapy optimization, she underwent coronary angiography for an initial diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Her coronaries were unremarkable for significant disease but her left ventriculogram showed hyperdynamic contractility of the midportion of the ventricle along with a large dyskinetic aneurysmal apical sac. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram provided poor visualization of the apical region of the ventricle but contrast enhancement identified an aneurysmal pouch distal to the midventricular obstruction. To further clarify the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was performed confirming the diagnosis of midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and fibrosis consistent with apical scar on delayed enhancement. The patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent elective implantable defibrillator placement in the ensuing months for recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and was initiated on prophylactic oral anticoagulation with warfarin for thromboembolic risk reduction.

  17. En face optical coherence tomography investigation of apical microleakage after laser-assisted endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Filip, Laura; Kerezsi, Cristina; Calniceanu, Mircea; Negrutiu, Meda; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the detection of apical microleakage after 980 nm and 1,064 nm laser-assisted endodontic treatment. Ninety, human, single-rooted teeth with one straight root canal and closed apices were used. All roots were prepared biomechanically to the working length at an apical size 30 and 0.06 taper. The teeth were divided into three equal groups of 30 samples each, according to the treatment to be applied to the root canal. Group I received 980 nm diode laser (3 W, 0.01 s on time, 0.01 s off time, 5 s per procedure, four procedures); group II received neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 5 s per procedure, four procedures). In group III the root canals were approached conventionally only. In all groups the root canal filling was performed with AH Plus endodontic sealer and gutta-percha points. An en face OCT prototype was used for the investigation of apical microleakage. According to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and en face OCT, the number of defects in the laser groups was significantly lower (P laser groups (P = 0.049). En face OCT imaging proved that laser-assisted endodontic treatment improved the prognosis of root canal filling and led to a reduction in apical microleakage.

  18. Apical Dimension of Root Canal Clinically Assessed with and without Periapical Lesions

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    Andrea Gesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To clinically evaluate the dimension of the more apical extent of the root canal after appropriate preflaring in the case of primary treatment and retreatment with and without the presence of periapical radiolucency, 392 single-rooted teeth with only one canal were evaluated during endodontic therapy. The canals were divided in two groups depending on the presence or absence of periapical radiolucency. After preflaring of the root canal the size of the root canal terminus (apical canal dimension was gauged with hand-held Light Speed LS1 files inserted at the estimated working length and established with the use of an electronic apex locator. The dimension recorded in the computer database was represented by the largest instrument able to reach the electronically established working length. The differences between the treatment groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the significance level was set at P<0.05. Teeth with lesions had a significantly greater diameter in the apical region than teeth without lesions (P<0.001. The dimension of the apical portion of the root canal is larger in the case of periapical radiolucency. This involves verifying this parameter in order to use the correct sized instruments and to obtain an efficient cutting action at the apical level.

  19. Effects of apical meristem loss on sylleptic branching and growth of hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Joseph D. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Plant Sciences Department

    2007-07-15

    The effects of apical meristem loss on the growth and development of hybrid poplar trees was investigated. This was done by clipping back either the apical meristem alone (dividing cells), or the apical meristem plus a small amount of additional stem tissue (expanding cells, <1 cm), at various times during the first growing season. Two clones (NM6-nonsylleptic habit, and DN34-slightly sylleptic habit) were tested at close spacing (0.6 m) in the nursery. Clipping generally increased the number of sylleptic branches formed. Clipping 69 days after planting resulted in the largest number of sylleptic branches while clipping 4 weeks later gave no increase in syllepsis. Clipping temporarily reduced height growth of both clones but total height at the end of the first growing season was not affected by any treatment. There were some slight differences in growth during the second growing season; despite these differences, total stem biomass and total tree biomass after 2 years were not affected by temporary loss of the apical meristem in the first growing season. Results suggest that death or removal of hybrid poplar apical meristems by tip borers or ungulates has no long-term effects on aboveground growth as measured by height or biomass. (author)

  20. Effects of Different Rotary Files Combined with Different Irrigation Needles on Apically Extruded Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Turker, Sevinc Aktemur; Görduysus, Melahat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the apically extruded debris associated with ProTaper Next and OneShape Apical files using two different irrigation needles, open-ended and closed-ended (Max-I-Probe). Forty-eight mandibular premolars were assigned to four groups (n=12) as follows: Group PTN-SN: Root canal was prepared with ProTaper Next (PTN) and irrigated with open-ended standard needle; Group PTN-MP: Root canal was prepared with PTN and irrigated with Max-I-Probe; Group OSA-SN: Root canal was prepared with OneShape Apical (OSA) and irrigated with open-ended needle; Group OSA-MP: Root canal was prepared with OSA and irrigated with Max-I-Probe. Debris extruded during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. After storage in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days, the Eppendorf tubes were weighed to obtain the final weight with extruded debris. The difference between pre-and post-debris weights was calculated and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (pextruded debris (p>0.05). OneShape Apical and ProTaper Next resulted in extrusion of debris beyond the apical foramen, regardless of needle tip.

  1. Apical deficiency triggers JNK-dependent apoptosis in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Bardet, Pierre-Luc; Langton, Paul F.; Alexandre, Cyrille; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial homeostasis and the avoidance of diseases such as cancer require the elimination of defective cells by apoptosis. Here, we investigate how loss of apical determinants triggers apoptosis in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila. Transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridisation show that JNK signalling is upregulated in mutants lacking Crumbs or other apical determinants. This leads to transcriptional activation of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper and to apoptosis. Suppression of JNK signalling by overexpression of Puckered, a feedback inhibitor of the pathway, prevents reaper upregulation and apoptosis. Moreover, removal of endogenous Puckered leads to ectopic reaper expression. Importantly, disruption of the basolateral domain in the embryonic epidermis does not trigger JNK signalling or apoptosis. We suggest that apical, not basolateral, integrity could be intrinsically required for the survival of epithelial cells. In apically deficient embryos, JNK signalling is activated throughout the epidermis. Yet, in the dorsal region, reaper expression is not activated and cells survive. One characteristic of these surviving cells is that they retain discernible adherens junctions despite the apical deficit. We suggest that junctional integrity could restrain the pro-apoptotic influence of JNK signalling. PMID:21693518

  2. Par3 integrates Tiam1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling to change apical membrane identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Travis R; Bryant, David M; Mostov, Keith E; Engel, Joanne N

    2017-01-15

    Pathogens can alter epithelial polarity by recruiting polarity proteins to the apical membrane, but how a change in protein localization is linked to polarity disruption is not clear. In this study, we used chemically induced dimerization to rapidly relocalize proteins from the cytosol to the apical surface. We demonstrate that forced apical localization of Par3, which is normally restricted to tight junctions, is sufficient to alter apical membrane identity through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1. We further show that PI3K activity is required upstream of Rac1, and that simultaneously targeting PI3K and Tiam1 to the apical membrane has a synergistic effect on membrane remodeling. Thus, Par3 coordinates the action of PI3K and Tiam1 to define membrane identity, revealing a signaling mechanism that can be exploited by human mucosal pathogens. © 2017 Ruch et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. How far is the root apex of a unilateral impacted canine from the root apices' arch form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, You-Min; Oh, Sewoong; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the arch form of the root apices of normally erupting teeth and then determine the differences in the location of the apex of impacted canines relative to normally erupting canines. In addition, we sought to determine whether the labiopalatal position of the impacted canines influences the position of the apices. The study included 21 patients with unerupted canines that subsequently had a normal eruption, 21 patients with palatally impacted canines, 27 patients with labially impacted canines, and 17 patients with midalveolus impacted canines. Images were obtained using cone beam computed tomography, and the x, y, and z coordinates of the root apices were determined using Ondemand3D software (Cybermed Co., Seoul, Korea). Two-dimensional coordinates were converted from acquired 3-dimensional coordinates via projection on a palatal plane, and the Procrustes method was used to process the converted 2-dimensional coordinates and to draw the arch forms of the root apices. Finally, we measured the extent of root apex deviation from the arch forms of the root apices. Normally erupting canines showed that even though calcifications may be immature, their positions were aligned with a normal arch form. The root apices of the impacted canines were an average of 6.572 mm away from the root apices' arch form, whereas those of the contralateral nonimpacted canines were an average distance of 2.221 mm away, a statistically significant difference. The palatally impacted canines' root apices distribution tended toward the first premolar root apices. Incompletely calcified, unerupted teeth with a subsequent normal eruption showed a normal arch form of the root apices. The root apices of impacted canines were farther from the arch forms than were the nonimpacted canines. Also, the root apices of impacted canines in the palatal area showed distributions different from those of the other impacted canine groups. Copyright © 2017 American

  4. Tissue reaction to Endométhasone sealer in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen

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    Patrícia Suzuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the response of periapical tissues to the endodontic sealer Endométhasone in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty root canals of premolars and incisors of 2 mongrel dogs were used. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were instrumented up to a size 55 K-file and the apical cemental barrier was penetrated with a size 15 K-file to obtain a main apical foramen, which was widened to a size 25 K-file. The canals were irrigated with saline at each change of file. The root canals were obturated either short of or beyond the apical foramen by the lateral condensation of gutta-percha and Endométhasone, originating 2 experimental groups: G1: Endométhasone/short of the apical foramen; G2: Endométhasone/beyond the apical foramen. The animals were killed by anesthetic overdose 90 days after endodontic treatment. The individual roots were obtained and serial histological sections were prepared for histomorphological analysis (H&E and Brown & Brenn techniques under light microscopy. The following parameters were examined: closure of the apical foramen of the main root canal and apical opening of accessory canals, apical cementum resorption, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and thickness and organization of the apical periodontal ligament. Each parameter was scored 1 to 4, 1 being the best result and 4 the worst. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon nonparametric tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: Comparing the 2 groups, the best result (p<0.05 was obtained with root canal filling with Endométhasone short of the apical foramen but a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present in all specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting the filling material to the root canal space apically is important to determine the best treatment outcome when Endométhasone is used as sealer.

  5. Apical Microleakage in Root Canals Obturated With 2 Different Endodontic Sealer Systems in Canine Teeth of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothamer, Chad W; Anderson, Ashley; Hetzel, Scott J; Adrian, Alex I; Snyder, Christopher; Goldschmidt, Stephanie; Soukup, Jason W

    2017-06-01

    An apical dye leakage test was utilized to compare 2 endodontic sealer systems commonly used in veterinary endodontic treatment. Rotary instrumentation followed by injection of 2 different sealers (GuttaFlow 2 and AH Plus) and a single master cone obturation technique were compared. Following obturation and restoration, specimens were immersed in India ink for 48 hours. A tooth mineral clearing technique was utilized to render the tooth samples transparent. Subsequently, the apices were evaluated for prevalence and magnitude of apical dye penetration under magnification. Statistical analysis of the results revealed no significant differences in the prevalence or magnitude of apical dye penetration between groups.

  6. Src- and Fyn-dependent apical membrane trafficking events control endothelial lumen formation during vascular tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Joong; Norden, Pieter R; Salvador, Jocelynda; Barry, David M; Bowers, Stephanie L K; Cleaver, Ondine; Davis, George E

    2017-01-01

    Here we examine the question of how endothelial cells (ECs) develop their apical membrane surface domain during lumen and tube formation. We demonstrate marked apical membrane targeting of activated Src kinases to this apical domain during early and late stages of this process. Immunostaining for phosphotyrosine or phospho-Src reveals apical membrane staining in intracellular vacuoles initially. This is then followed by vacuole to vacuole fusion events to generate an apical luminal membrane, which is similarly decorated with activated phospho-Src kinases. Functional blockade of Src kinases completely blocks EC lumen and tube formation, whether this occurs during vasculogenic tube assembly or angiogenic sprouting events. Multiple Src kinases participate in this apical membrane formation process and siRNA suppression of Src, Fyn and Yes, but not Lyn, blocks EC lumen formation. We also demonstrate strong apical targeting of Src-GFP and Fyn-GFP fusion proteins and increasing their expression enhances lumen formation. Finally, we show that Src- and Fyn-associated vacuoles track and fuse along a subapically polarized microtubule cytoskeleton, which is highly acetylated. These vacuoles generate the apical luminal membrane in a stereotypically polarized, perinuclear position. Overall, our study identifies a critical role for Src kinases in creating and decorating the EC apical membrane surface during early and late stages of lumen and tube formation, a central event in the molecular control of vascular morphogenesis.

  7. Src- and Fyn-dependent apical membrane trafficking events control endothelial lumen formation during vascular tube morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Joong Kim

    Full Text Available Here we examine the question of how endothelial cells (ECs develop their apical membrane surface domain during lumen and tube formation. We demonstrate marked apical membrane targeting of activated Src kinases to this apical domain during early and late stages of this process. Immunostaining for phosphotyrosine or phospho-Src reveals apical membrane staining in intracellular vacuoles initially. This is then followed by vacuole to vacuole fusion events to generate an apical luminal membrane, which is similarly decorated with activated phospho-Src kinases. Functional blockade of Src kinases completely blocks EC lumen and tube formation, whether this occurs during vasculogenic tube assembly or angiogenic sprouting events. Multiple Src kinases participate in this apical membrane formation process and siRNA suppression of Src, Fyn and Yes, but not Lyn, blocks EC lumen formation. We also demonstrate strong apical targeting of Src-GFP and Fyn-GFP fusion proteins and increasing their expression enhances lumen formation. Finally, we show that Src- and Fyn-associated vacuoles track and fuse along a subapically polarized microtubule cytoskeleton, which is highly acetylated. These vacuoles generate the apical luminal membrane in a stereotypically polarized, perinuclear position. Overall, our study identifies a critical role for Src kinases in creating and decorating the EC apical membrane surface during early and late stages of lumen and tube formation, a central event in the molecular control of vascular morphogenesis.

  8. Gibberellin-enhanced elongation of inverted Pharbitis nil shoot prevents the release of apical dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene evolution resulting from the gravity stress of shoot inversion appears to induce the release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil (L.) by inhibiting elongation of the inverted shoot. It has been previously demonstrated that this shoot inversion release of apical dominance can be prevented by promoting elongation in the inverted shoot via interference with ethylene synthesis or action. In the present study it was shown that apical dominance release can also be prevented by promoting elongation of the inverted shoot via treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3). A synergistic effect was observed when AgNO3, the ethylene action inhibitor, was applied with GA3. Both GA3 and AgNO3 increased ethylene production in the inverted shoot. These results are consistent with the view that it is ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and not any direct effect of ethylene per se which is responsible for the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud.

  9. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  10. Differential Regulation of Apical-basolateral Dendrite Outgrowth by Activity in Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eYuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal pyramidal neurons have characteristic dendrite asymmetry, characterized by structurally and functionally distinct apical and basolateral dendrites. The ability of the neuron to generate and maintain dendrite asymmetry is vital, since synaptic inputs received are critically dependent on dendrite architecture. Little is known about the role of neuronal activity in guiding maintainance of dendrite asymmetry. Our data indicate that dendrite asymmetry is established and maintained early during development. Further, our results indicate that cell intrinsic and global alterations of neuronal activity have differential effects on net extension of apical and basolateral dendrites. Thus, apical and basolateral dendrite extension may be independently regulated by cell intrinsic and network neuronal activity during development, suggesting that individual dendrites may have autonomous control over net extension. We propose that regulated individual dendrite extension in response to cell intrinsic and neuronal network activity may allow temporal control of synapse specificity in the developing hippocampus.

  11. Depth of planting and apical dominance on cuttings of red pitayaProfundidade de plantio e dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Braga Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting depth and breaking apical dominance on cutting of red pitaya Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications in a 2x3 factorial, with two kinds of cuttings (with or without apical dominance, cutting not sectioned and sectioned at 5 cm from the upper portion, and three planting depths (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 cm and each plot consisted of ten 20 cm long cuttings. After 60 days of planting, counts of the number of shoots were began weekly and 90 days after planting survival rooting, number and length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and root dry mass were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression at 5% significance level. The percentage of rooting and the survival were 100% in all treatments. With increasing depth of planting it was observed linear reduction in numbers of shoots, dry weight of shoot and root dry mass. The cladodes with apical dominance had longer shoots. The planting of red pitaya cuttings at 1 cm of planting depth with apical dominance is more suited to the production of nursery plants. O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da profundidade de plantio e da quebra de dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições no esquema fatorial 2x3, sendo dois tipos de estacas (com e sem dominância apical, estacas não seccionadas e seccionadas a 5 cm da porção superior, e três profundidades de plantio (1,0; 5,0; 10,0 cm e cada parcela foi constituída de dez estacas com 20 cm de comprimento. Após 60 dias do plantio, foram iniciadas as avaliações semanais do número de brotações e aos 90 dias após o plantio foram avaliados sobrevivência, enraizamento, número e comprimento de brotações, massa seca das brota

  12. Influence of Hero Apical instruments on cleaning ovoid-shaped root canals

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    Renato Interliche

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning capacity of Hero 642 nickel-titanium files, complemented by the Hero Apical instruments in flattened roots, was determined by histological analysis, considering the area of action of the instruments on the coronal walls and the presence of remaining debris. Twenty-four single-canal, human mandibular incisors were divided into three groups and prepared as follows: GI, instrumented with Hero 642 NiTi files 30/.06, 25/.06, 20/.06, 25/.06, and 30/.06; GII, instrumented as GI followed by Hero Apical size 30/.06; GIII, instrumented as GI followed by Hero Apical sizes 30/.06 and 30/.08, then returning to 30/.06 with pendulum movements. The apical thirds were prepared for histological processing, analyzed at 40× magnification and the images were examined morphometrically. Statistical analysis showed that GIII presented the best results for removing debris (5.22% ± 4.13, with more contact between the instruments and the root canal walls (19.31% ± 0.15. This differed statistically from GI (14.04% ± 4.96 debris removal, with 42.96% ± 7.11 instrument contact and GII (12.62% ± 5.76 debris removal, with 35.01% ± 0.15 instrument contact. Root canal preparation with Hero 642, complemented by Hero Apical instruments (30/.06 and 30/.08, then re-instrumented with Hero Apical 30/.06 using pendulum movements, was more efficient for debris removal and allowed more contact of the instruments with the root canal walls. GII presented the worst results.

  13. Biofilms and apical periodontitis: study of prevalence and association with clinical and histopathologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Siqueira, José F

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of bacterial biofilms in untreated and treated root canals of teeth evincing apical periodontitis. The associations of biofilms with clinical conditions, radiographic size, and the histopathologic type of apical periodontitis were also investigated. The material comprised biopsy specimens from 106 (64 untreated and 42 treated) roots of teeth with apical periodontitis. Specimens were obtained by apical surgery or extraction and were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic techniques. Bacteria were found in all but one specimen. Overall, intraradicular biofilm arrangements were observed in the apical segment of 77% of the root canals (untreated canals: 80%; treated canals: 74%). Biofilms were also seen covering the walls of ramifications and isthmuses. Bacterial biofilms were visualized in 62% and 82% of the root canals of teeth with small and large radiographic lesions, respectively. All canals with very large lesions harbored intraradicular biofilms. Biofilms were significantly associated with epithelialized lesions (cysts and epithelialized granulomas or abscesses) (p granulomas was 95%, 83%, and 69.5%, respectively. No correlation was found between biofilms and clinical symptoms or sinus tract presence (p > 0.05). Extraradicular biofilms were observed in only 6% of the cases. The overall findings are consistent with acceptable criteria to include apical periodontitis in the set of biofilm-induced diseases. Biofilm morphologic structure varied from case to case and no unique pattern for endodontic infections was identified. Biofilms are more likely to be present in association with longstanding pathologic processes, including large lesions and cysts. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado

    OpenAIRE

    León, P.; Ilabaca, M.J.; Alcota, M.; González, F.E.

    2011-01-01

    La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas v...

  16. Criterios Clínicos y Radiológicos de la Periodontitis Apical.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Planas, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Se realiza un trabajo con 271 casos diagnosticados de periodontitis apical, clínica o radiológicamente, en los que se valoran parámetros clínicos y radiológicos que nos permitan delimitar las diferentes formas clínicas de este proceso. se propone, como consecuencia de los resultados, una clasificación clara, simple, coherente y evolutiva de la periodontitis apical y se hacen diversas consideraciones sobre la nomenclatura, etiología, cl...

  17. Reestablishing the Function and Esthetics in Traumatized Permanent Teeth with Large Apical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rubin Cocco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental trauma is a challenge for dental integrity and can lead to pulp necrosis. The clinical case reports the diagnosis of a maxillary right central incisor traumatized and its multidisciplinary treatment. Calcium hydroxide material was used to perform the processing apexification. An apical surgery was carried out to remove the apical periodontitis and to return the aesthetics to the patient; internal and external tooth whitening in maxillary right central incisor was performed. We conclude that surgery associated with the root filling in the central incisor led to a successful completion. Moreover, it is of utmost importance to demonstrate the interaction between the various areas of dentistry.

  18. Periimplantitis apical - presentación de serie de 11 casos clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Stavaru Marinescu, Bogdan; Naval Gías, Luis; Herrera Calvo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: Evaluar el protocolo quirúrgico y discutir los posibles factores predisponentes de la periimplantitis apical. Material y método: En el presente trabajo, se planteó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo analizando una serie de 11 casos clínicos de periimplantitis apical diagnosticados y tratados en el ámbito del Hospital de La Princesa (Madrid) y la Clínica Universidad de Navarra (Pamplona) entre 2002 y 2013. Los pacientes sintomáticos fueron tratados mediante legrado de la zona c...

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of the Position of the Apical Constriction in Single-root and Multiple-root Teeth

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    Alireza Farhad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precise knowledge of the location of the apical constriction is essential to root canal treatment and long-term prognosis. Considering the differences in the apical constriction and size of the roots in single- and multiple-root teeth in various races, examination and comparison of the location of the apical constriction in single-root and multiple-root teeth are of paramount importance. The present studies aimed to measure and compare the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomical apex in single-root and multiple-root teeth. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 roots of single-rooted teeth and 60 roots of multiple-rooted teeth were collected from the patients referring to the health centers in Isfahan, Iran. After cleansing and disinfecting the surface of the roots, the surface of the teeth was washed with hypochlorite. Based on the direction of the apical foramen, a longitudinal cut was made in the same direction, and the roots were examined microscopically at the magnification of 25. Following that, the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomical apex was measured using a digital camera. In addition, mean and standard deviation of the obtained distance values were determined. Distances in the single-root and multiple-root teeth were compared using independent t-test, at the significance level of Results: Mean distance between the apical constriction and apical foramen was 0.86±0.33 mm in the single-root teeth and 0.072±0.27 mm in the multiple-root teeth. Mean distance between the apical constriction and anatomical apex was 1.14±0.36 mm in the single-root teeth and 1.03±0.36 mm in the multiple-root teeth. Moreover, the results of independent t-test showed the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen to be significant between single-root and multiple-rooted teeth (P=0.013. However, the distance between the apical constriction

  20. Predicting placebo response in adolescents with major depressive disorder: The Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Mayes, Taryn L; Byerly, Matthew J; Emslie, Graham J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a composite scoring system to predict the probability of placebo response in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Participants of the current study were 151 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were randomized to the placebo arm (placebo transdermal patches) of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the selegiline transdermal patch with placebo (DelBello et al., 2014). The primary outcome of response was defined as a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 (very much or much improved) at week 12 (study-end) or exit. As a first step, a multiple logistic mixed model was used to estimate the odds of placebo response from each predictor in the model, including age, CDRS-R total at baseline (depressive symptom severity), history of recurrent depression (yes vs. no), sex (female vs. male), and race (non-Caucasian vs. Caucasian). On the basis of the initial logistic mixed model analysis, we then constructed an Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS) that became the sole predictor in a re-specified Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the probability of placebo response. Finally, the AUC for the APICS was tested against a nominal area of 0.50 to evaluate how well the APICS discriminated placebo response status. Among the 151 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.6 years (SD = 1.6) and a mean baseline CDRS-R total of 60.6 (SD = 12.1), 68.2% were females, 50.3% was Caucasian, and 39.7% had a history of recurrent depression. Placebo response rate was 58.3%. Based on the logistic mixed model, the re-specified equation with the highest discriminatory ability to estimate the probability of placebo response was APICS = age + (0.32 × CDRS-R Total at baseline) + (-2.85 × if female) + (-5.50 × if history of recurrent depression) + (-5.85 × if non-Caucasian). The AUC for this model was 0.59 (p = .049). Within a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework, in 95.5% of the time, the 10,000 posterior Monte Carlo samples suggested

  1. A unique approach to demonstrating that apical bud temperature specifically determines leaf initiation rate in the dicot Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Dieleman, Anja; Ieperen, van Wim; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: Leaf initiation rate is largely determined by the apical bud temperature even when apical bud temperature largely deviates from the temperature of other plant organs.We have long known that the rate of leaf initiation (LIR) is highly sensitive to temperature, but previous studies

  2. Correlation between prostate brachytherapy-related urethral stricture and peri-apical urethral dosimetry: A matched case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, James J.; Abdelbaky, Ather M.; Cunningham, Melanie J.; Chadwick, Eliot; Langley, Stephen E.M.; Laing, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation dose to the bulbomembranous urethra has been shown to correlate with urethral stricture formation. This retrospective case–control study was designed to explore the relationship between dose to the apical/peri-apical regions of the urethra and development of brachytherapy (BXT)-related urethral stricture. Materials and methods: Cases were patients who developed urethral stricture after treatment with BXT as monotherapy and who had urethral dosimetry post-implant. Each case was matched with a control that had not developed urethral stricture. Dosimetry was compared between cases and controls. Results: Twenty-three cases were pair matched with 23 controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, presenting Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) or Gleason score. The dose delivered to the peri-apical and apical urethra was significantly higher for cases when compared with controls (peri-apical urethra: mean V 150 1.1 Vs 0.8 cc [p = 0.02]; apical urethra: mean dose 200 Vs 174 Gy [p = 0.01]). The distance from the prostate apex to isodose lines was also found to be significant in predicting stricture formation. Conclusion: There was evidence to suggest that the development of BXT-related stricture was associated with radiation dose at the apical and peri-apical urethra. Attention to the dose delivered to those areas may minimise the risk of developing such morbidity.

  3. Alterations in apical dendrite bundling in the somatosensory cortex of 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Rigter, L.A.; Wadman, W.J.; van Hooft, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In various species and areas of the cerebral cortex, apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons form clusters which extend through several layers of the cortex also known as dendritic bundles. Previously, it has been shown that 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice show hypercomplex apical dendrites of cortical

  4. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  5. Expression of Podoplanin in the Mouse Tooth Germ and Apical Bud Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Yoshihiko; Iwasawa, Kana; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of cells expressing podoplanin in the mouse tooth bud. Podoplanin expression was detected in enamel epithelia of the cervical loop at cell-cell contacts strongly, and weakly on the loosely aggregated stellate reticulum in the center and the neighboring stratum intermedium. Odontoblasts exhibited intense podoplanin expression at the junction with predentin while no expression was detected in the enamel organ containing ameloblasts. These results suggest that proliferating inner and outer enamel epithelia express podoplanin but that the expression is suppressed in the differentiated epithelia containing ameloblasts. On the other hand the podoplanin expression occurs in the differentiating odontoblasts and the expression is sustained in differentiated odontoblasts, indicating that odontoblasts have the strong ability to express podoplanin. In cultured apical bud cells podoplanin was detected at cell-cell contacts. In real-time PCR analysis the amount of podoplanin mRNA of the apical buds was 2-fold compared with the amount of kidney used as a positive control. These findings indicate that apical bud cells have the strong ability to express the podoplanin gene. Podoplanin is a mucin-type glycoprotein negatively charged by extensive O-glycosylation and a high content of sialic acid, which expresses the adhesive property. The podoplanin may contribute to form odontoblastic fiber or function as the anchorage to the tooth development and in proliferating epithelial cells of cervical loop and apical bud. PMID:18989465

  6. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura Saeki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry.

  7. Electric current affects the rate of development in isolated apical parts of rape in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Koscielniak, J.; Marcińska, I.; Krekule, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana; Dubert, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2006), s. 465-468 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : apical meristem differentiation * flowering factors * vernalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  8. Oxidative Stress in the Local and Systemic Events of Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández-Ríos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders. Apical periodontitis (AP usually results in the formation of an osteolytic apical lesion (AL caused by the immune response to endodontic infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by phagocytic cells in response to bacterial challenge represent an important host defense mechanism, but disturbed redox balance results in tissue injury. This mini review focuses on the role of oxidative stress in the local and associated systemic events in chronic apical periodontitis. During endodontic infection, ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs on phagocytes' surface triggers activation, phagocytosis, synthesis of ROS, activation of humoral and cellular responses, and production of inflammatory mediators, such as, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. The increment in ROS perturbs the normal redox balance and shifts cells into a state of oxidative stress. ROS induce molecular damage and disturbed redox signaling, that result in the loss of bone homeostasis, increased pro-inflammatory mediators, and MMP overexpression and activation, leading to apical tissue breakdown. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been strongly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, where a chronic inflammatory process develops in the arterial wall. Chronic AP is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and especially atherogenesis. The potential mechanisms linking these diseases are also discussed.

  9. Clinical sustained uniform ventricular tachycardia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: association with left ventricular apical aneurysm.

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, F; Frenneaux, M P; McKenna, W J

    1989-01-01

    Of 51 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who had episodes of ventricular tachycardia detected during ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring only two had clinical sustained uniform ventricular tachycardia that required medical treatment because of worsening symptoms. In both patients the arrhythmia was associated with the uncommon finding of an apical aneurysm with angiographically normal coronary arteries.

  10. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated gingival recession 1 year following apical surgery of 70 maxillary anterior teeth (central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars). A visual assessment of the mid-facial aspect of the gingival level and of papillary heights of treated teeth was carried out...

  11. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  12. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  13. Coordination of growth in root and shoot apices by AIL/PLT transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Krizek, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT)

  14. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustina Mazzella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In darkness, the dicot seedlings produces an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIE 3/EIN3 like 1-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1 pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1 --both required for hook formation in darkness--, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth.

  15. RECIPROC VERSUS TWISTED FILE FOR ROOT CANAL FILLING REMOVAL:ASSESSMENT OF APICALLY EXTRUDED DEBRIS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet ALTUNBAŞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment with different file systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used in this study. Root canals of the teeth were instrumented and filled before being randomly assigned to three groups. Guttapercha was removed using the Reciproc system, the Twisted File system (TF, and Hedström-files (H-file. Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The Reciproc and TF systems extruded significantly less debris than the H-file (p<0.05. However, no significant difference was found between the Reciproc and TF systems. Conclusion: All tested file systems caused apical extrusion of debris. Both the rotary file (TF and the reciprocating single-file (Reciproc systems were associated with less apical extrusion compared with the H-file.

  16. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Almeida, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates' correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  17. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris using Mtwo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... Extrusion of debris into the periradicular tissue during endodontic treatment is one of the main causes of postoperative flare-ups. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris using Mtwo instruments with single length technique and RaCe system using crown-down approach.

  18. Identification of apical vertebra for grading of idiopathic scoliosis using image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K

    2012-02-01

    Scoliosis is a 3-D deformity of spinal column, characterized by both lateral curvature and vertebral rotation. The disease can be caused by congenital, developmental, or degenerative problems; but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause, and this is known as idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral rotation has become increasingly prominent in the study of scoliosis and the most deformed vertebra is named as apical vertebra. Apical vertebral deformity demonstrates significance in both preoperative and postoperative assessment, providing better appreciation of the impact of bracing or surgical interventions. Precise measurement of apical vertebral rotation in terms of grading is most valuable for the determination of reference value in normal and pathological conditions for better understanding of scoliosis. Routine quantitative evaluation of vertebral rotation is difficult and error prone due to limitations of observer characteristic and specific imaging property. This paper proposes automatic identification of the apical vertebra and its parameter that depends on the objective criteria of measurement using active contour models. The proposed technique is more accurate and is a reliable measurement compared to manual and computer-assisted system.

  19. Role of apical oxygen in 2-1-4 electron-doped superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richard, P.; Riou, G.; Jandl, S.; Poirier, M.; Furnier, P.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Diviš, M.

    408-410, - (2004), s. 830-831 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4 * crystal-field * apical oxygen * HTSC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.072, year: 2004

  20. Three Arabidopsis AIL/PLT genes act in combination to regulate shoot apical meristem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudunkothge, Janaki S; Krizek, Beth A

    2012-07-01

    The shoot apical meristem, a small dome-shaped structure at the shoot apex, is responsible for the initiation of all post-embryonic shoot organs. Pluripotent stem cells within the meristem replenish themselves and provide daughter cells that become incorporated into lateral organ primordia around the meristem periphery. We have identified three novel regulators of shoot apical meristem activity in Arabidopsis thaliana that encode related AIL/PLT transcription factors: AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6)/PLETHORA3 (PLT3) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE7 (AIL7)/PLETHORA7 (PLT7). Loss of these genes results in plants that initiate only a few leaves prior to termination of shoot apical meristem activity. In 7-day-old ant ail6 ail7 seedlings, we observed reduced cell division in the meristem region, differentiation of meristematic cells and altered expression of the meristem regulators WUSCHEL (WUS), CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). Genetic experiments suggest that these three AIL genes do not act specifically in either the WUS/CLV or STM pathway regulating meristem function. Furthermore, these studies indicate that ANT, AIL6 and AIL7 have distinct functions within the meristem rather than acting in a strictly redundant manner. Our study thus identifies three new genes whose distinct functions are together required for continuous shoot apical meristem function. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  2. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  3. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  4. Apically extruded dentin debris by reciprocating single-file and multi-file rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.

  5. Reciproc versus Twisted file for root canal filling removal: assessment of apically extruded debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunbas, Demet; Kutuk, Betul; Toyoglu, Mustafa; Kutlu, Gizem; Kustarci, Alper; Er, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment with different file systems. Sixty extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used in this study. Root canals of the teeth were instrumented and filled before being randomly assigned to three groups. Guttapercha was removed using the Reciproc system, the Twisted File system (TF), and Hedström-files (H-file). Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests. The Reciproc and TF systems extruded significantly less debris than the H-file (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the Reciproc and TF systems. All tested file systems caused apical extrusion of debris. Both the rotary file (TF) and the reciprocating single-file (Reciproc) systems were associated with less apical extrusion compared with the H-file.

  6. Evaluation of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütük, B; Akpınar, K E; Altunbaş, D

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris and irrigant during cleaning and shaping with different file systems. Seventy-five extracted mandibular premolar and canine teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15). The root canals were instrumented by using Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany), Twisted File (TF; Sybron Endo, Orange, California, USA), Reciproc (VDW), Self-Adjusting File (SAF; Re Dent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel) systems, and K-type stainless steel hand file (Mani Inc., Tochigi, Japan). Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. Extruded irrigant was collected from the cannula by using a plastic insulin syringe. After drying, the amount of apically extruded debris was established by subtracting the initial weight from the final weight of the tubes. After performing the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, data were analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis test at a significance level of P value less than 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the file systems in terms of debris and irrigant extrusion. Mtwo group produced the highest mean debris extrusion value and the TF group produced the less compared with the other files. The least mean irrigant extrusion value was associated with the SAF group, whereas the highest mean irrigant extrusion value was associated with the Reciproc group. Under the conditions of the study, all file systems were associated with apical debris and irrigant extrusion.

  7. Absorbable Suture as an Apical Matrix in Single Visit Apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several procedures have been recommended to induce the root end barrier formation in teeth with open apices. Conventional treatment for such cases will require many appointments with an average duration of 12.9 months. During this period, the root canal is susceptible to reinfection from around the provisional restoration, which may promote apical periodontitis and arrest of apical repair. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA has been successfully used for one visit apexification wherein the root canal can be obturated within 24 hours after placement of MTA. Using a matrix prior to the placement of MTA avoids its extrusion, reduces leakage in the sealing material, and allows favorable response of the periapical tissues. This report presents a case of apexification where an absorbable suture was used as an apical matrix. Use of an absorbable suture circumvents all the problems associated with other conventional materials. Conclusion. Placement of the matrix made from the suture material is predictable and is easily positioned at the apex and the length can be adjusted as required. 10-month follow-up of the case shows resorbed matrix and bone healing in the periapical region. The patient was asymptomatic during the whole follow-up period and tooth exhibited mobility within physiologic limits and was functioning normally.

  8. Single Versus Multi-visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] Treatment of AP aims at the removal of cause, i.e., bacteria present in the canal. Single Versus Multi-visit Endodontic Treatment of. Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: An In vivo ... periapical healing of teeth with AP treated in (a) single visit versus (b) two visits, either with or .... The canal was left empty, and access cavity was.

  9. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy of apical cells of Sphacelaria spp. (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Star, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of apical cells of six species of Sphacelaria (S. arctica, S. cirrosa, S. nana, S. racemosa, S. radicans, and S. rigidula) is studied here. In most details such as ultrastructure of chloroplasts, mitochondria, microbodies, nuclei and centrioles all Sphacelaria species studied are

  11. Single Versus Multi‑visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apical periodontitis (AP) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the teeth. Treatment of AP is based on the removal of the cause, i.e., bacteria from the root canals. Achievement of adequate bacterial eradication in one appointment treatment remains a controversy. Aim: This prospective study was conducted ...

  12. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  13. Apical wiring technique in surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: the intermediate outcomes between Lenke types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyamongkol, Weera; Klineberg, Eric O; Gupta, Munish C

    2013-02-01

    Retrospective cohort study of apical wiring technique for surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. To evaluate the intermediate outcome of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with apical wiring technique. Regarding surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, there are reports of the superiority of coronal plane correction using all-screw constructs compared with all-hook or hybrid constructs. Major limitations of all-screw constructs are thoracic hypokyphosis and increased proximal junctional kyphosis. There are few reports about apical wiring technique outcomes and no reports of this surgical technique comparing Lenke types. Consecutive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with apical wiring technique were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were patient 21 years old or younger, who underwent a posterior only surgical correction with a follow-up of at least 2 years. Radiographic data were analyzed according to the criteria given by Lenke and colleagues. The radiographic parameters included global balance, Cobb angle, curve flexibility, apical vertebral translation, tilt angle of lower instrumented vertebra, angle of caudal disk to the lower instrumented vertebra, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and proximal junctional angle preoperatively and postoperatively. There was a significant improvement of Cobb angle in every Lenke type with an average correction of 74.6%. At latest follow-up, the average loss of correction was 3.5% (1.9 degrees). The greatest loss of correction for the minor curve of Lenke 2 was 14.1% (5.8 degrees). There was an improvement of thoracic kyphosis in hypokyphosis group (1.9-21.1 degrees; Pwiring technique for surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis provides an average correction of 71.1% at 3.4 years of average follow-up with harmonious sagittal plane correction even with preexisting abnormal thoracic kyphosis.

  14. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannastasio, Daiana; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Peres, Bernardo Urbanetto; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Dotto, Gustavo Nogara; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2013-01-01

    This study has two aims: 1) to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2) to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy) in superposing and subtracting images. Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature) underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection). Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper) and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus) instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05). ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05). Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop.

  15. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Giannastasio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: 1 to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2 to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy in superposing and subtracting images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection. Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. RESULTS: The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05. ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop.

  16. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  17. Apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using different root canal irrigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross P; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Root canal irrigation carries a risk of extrusion of irrigant into the periapical tissues. The objective of this study was to compare different irrigation systems in matched pairs of teeth prepared to an apical size of 35.06 and 50.06 by measuring the frequency and extent of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) into a simulated periapical environment. The null hypothesis was tested that there is no difference between systems. Bilaterally matched pairs (n = 10) of single-canal extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented to an apical size of either 35.06 or 50.06. Teeth were embedded in a gel containing the pH-sensitive dye M-cresol purple that changes from yellow at pH 7.4 to purple at pH 9. Root canals were irrigated with 6% NaOCl (pH 11) by using EndoActivator (EA), EndoVac (EV), Rispi-Sonic/MicroMega 1500 (MM), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and syringe irrigation with a slot-tipped needle (SN), so that each tooth underwent all irrigation procedures in a randomized crossover design. Apical extrusion was evaluated by image analyses. The frequency of extrusion was less in teeth with apical preparation size 35.06 (36%) compared with 50.06 (60%) (P = .014) and was dependent on the irrigation system in 35.06 (P = .039) but not 50.06 groups. In the 35.06 group the frequency of extrusion was less for EV than for MM and SN (both P = .029). The extent of extrusion was less for MM compared with PUI (P = .024) and SN (P = .046) in the 35.06 group and greater for SN compared with all other systems in the 50.06 group (P root canal irrigation system and apical preparation size. The extent of extrusion depended on the irrigation system, with syringe and slotted-needle irrigation resulting in the greatest extent of extrusion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Clinical characteristics and speech therapy of lingua-apical articulation disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-hua; Jin, Xing-ming; Zhang, Yi-wen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2006-03-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and speech therapy of 62 children with lingua-apical articulation disorder. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Gesell development scales (Gesell), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Preschool Children (WPPSI) and speech test were performed for 62 children at the ages of 3 to 8 years with lingua-apical articulation disorder. PPVT was used to measure receptive vocabulary skills. GESELL and WPPSI were utilized to represent cognitive and non-verbal ability. The speech test was adopted to assess the speech development. The children received speech therapy and auxiliary oral-motor functional training once or twice a week. Firstly the target sound was identified according to the speech development milestone, then the method of speech localization was used to clarify the correct articulation placement and manner. It was needed to change food character and administer oral-motor functional training for children with oral motor dysfunction. The 62 cases with the apical articulation disorder were classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the articulation disorder was the most common (40 cases, 64.5%), the next was apico-dental disorder (15 cases, 24.2%). The third was palatal disorder (4 cases, 6.5%) and the last one was the linguo-alveolar disorder (3 cases, 4.8%). The substitution errors of velar were the most common (95.2%), the next was omission errors (30.6%) and the last was absence of aspiration (12.9%). Oral motor dysfunction was found in some children with problems such as disordered joint movement of tongue and head, unstable jaw, weak tongue strength and poor coordination of tongue movement. Some children had feeding problems such as preference of eating soft food, keeping food in mouths, eating slowly, and poor chewing. After 5 to 18 times of therapy, the effective rate of speech therapy reached 82.3%. The lingua-apical articulation disorders can be classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the

  19. Deviations of Mesial Root Canals of Mandibular First Molar Teeth at the Apical Third: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2018-04-19

    The present study aimed to quantitatively analyze apical foramen deviations of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Micro-CT images of the mesial roots of 109 mandibular first molar teeth with independent mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) root canals were analyzed. The deviations of the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals from the anatomic apex were measured. The vertical distance between the apical foramina of each mesial root canal in relation to each other was also calculated. The distances from the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals to the anatomic apex of the mesial root were up to 2.51 mm, 3.21 mm, and 5.67 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the deviations of MB and ML root canals from each other (P > .05). The middle mesial root canal showed the greatest deviation compared with the MB and ML canals (P < .05). The apical foramina of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth showed greater variations from each other and anatomic apices than previously reported. Clinically, the use of electronic apex locators for the detection of minor apical foramen of each mesial root canal is of the utmost important. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenovirus Entry From the Apical Surface of Polarized Epithelia Is Facilitated by the Host Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Poornima L. N.; Sharma, Priyanka; Kolawole, Abimbola O.; Yan, Ran; Alghamri, Mahmoud S.; Brockman, Trisha L.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian; Excoffon, Katherine J. D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection. PMID:25768646

  1. Facilitation of Endosomal Recycling by an IRG Protein Homolog Maintains Apical Tubule Structure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussendorf, Kelly A.; Trezza, Christopher J.; Salem, Alexander T.; Al-Hashimi, Hikmat; Mattingly, Brendan C.; Kampmeyer, Drew E.; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Göbel, Verena; Ackley, Brian D.; Buechner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Determination of luminal diameter is critical to the function of small single-celled tubes. A series of EXC proteins, including EXC-1, prevent swelling of the tubular excretory canals in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, cloning of exc-1 reveals it to encode a homolog of mammalian IRG proteins, which play roles in immune response and autophagy and are associated with Crohn’s disease. Mutants in exc-1 accumulate early endosomes, lack recycling endosomes, and exhibit abnormal apical cytoskeletal structure in regions of enlarged tubules. EXC-1 interacts genetically with two other EXC proteins that also affect endosomal trafficking. In yeast two-hybrid assays, wild-type and putative constitutively active EXC-1 binds to the LIM-domain protein EXC-9, whose homolog, cysteine-rich intestinal protein, is enriched in mammalian intestine. These results suggest a model for IRG function in forming and maintaining apical tubule structure via regulation of endosomal recycling. PMID:27334269

  2. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Veronica; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndrome often affects post-menopausal women and is triggered by sympathetic overstimulation, like intense physical or emotional stress, so that it is called the “broken heart syndrome”. Although left-ventricular systolic dysfunction usually fully recovers within few days, heart failure can still complicate the early phase. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy that had full recovery after 4 weeks of follow up. The main electrocardiographic, angiographic and imaging features are discussed. PMID:24689016

  3. One versus two appointment endodontic treatment on teeth with apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Jekti Nugroho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological purpose of endodontic treatment on tooth with apical periodontitis is reducing microbes to achieve periradicular tissue healing and prevent microbes recolonized. This is achieved by antimicrobial measures, including chemomechanical procedures and intracanal medication, with root canal obturation steps. One of the problem in endodontic is the planning consideration to treat with one or two visits. Does intra-appointment medication is an absolute measure to promote desinfection and treatment success. To provide a guideline about  one or two visit endodontic treatment decision making for dental professionals. Root canal system on tooth with apical periodontitis treated in two visit endodontic and calcium hydroxide as the intra-appointment medication achieved better microbiological status than the one treated in one visit endodontic.

  4. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başer Can, Elif Delve; Karapınar Kazandağ, Meriç; Kaptan, Rabia Figen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident. PMID:25883812

  5. Apical fenestration and ectopic eruption - effects from trauma to primary tooth: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triches, Thaisa Cezária; Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Filho, Marcos Ximenes; Bolan, Michele

    2011-02-01

    The study describes a multidisciplinary treatment of fenestration in the apical of a primary maxillary right central incisor due a trauma and also its sequel, an ectopic eruption of the permanent maxillary right central incisor, on 7-year-old boy. Clinically, the primary tooth had an enamel and dentin fracture with no pulp exposure. There was an apical fenestration in the vestibular region, and the permanent tooth had an ectopic palatal eruption. The primary tooth was extracted, and for the physiological reposition of the permanent tooth, which was crossed with its antagonist, a Haas appliance was used for the rapid expansion of the maxilla for a period of 9 days. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root...... and radiographs 5 years after surgery were examined. The following data were collected: tooth, operated root, type and quality of the coronal restoration, marginal bone level, length and homogeneity of the root canal filling, presence of a post/screw, periapical index (PAI) of each root, and radiographic healing...... of the operated root. The presence of apical pathosis of the nonoperated root was analyzed statistically in relation to the recorded variables. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Signs of periapical pathosis in the nonoperated root 5 years after surgery (PAI ≥ 3) could be observed...

  7. The control of apical dominance: localization of the growth region of the Pharbitis nil shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The growing region of the upright Pharbitis nil shoot extends over a distance 13 cm basipetal to the shoot apex. When the shoot is inverted, ethylene production in this region is greatly enhanced whereas stem elongation is significantly inhibited. This growth region is ethylene-sensitive and the restriction of its growth by shoot inversion-induced ethylene may mediate the release of apical dominance.

  8. Modified bisecting angle technique in eliminating zygomatic superimposition over apices of maxillary molars

    OpenAIRE

    Anshuman S Jamdade

    2014-01-01

    Background: Image superimposition is a part and parcel of two-dimensional radiography. However, some overlappings are a result of radiographic technique itself. The technique induced superimposition of zygomatic buttress on apices of maxillary molars is common in bisecting angle technique (BAT), which affects the endodontic performance. Certain alterations were carried out in BAT to remove these undiagnostic shadows. The aim of this study was to compare two techniques of periapical radiograph...

  9. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17?75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign?, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengt...

  10. Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-09-01

    The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05), whereas OPG was under the detection limit in most samples. In contrast, IL-8 levels were significantly lower in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analysis between RANKL and IL-8 revealed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation between the two measures (rho = -.44). The results of this study suggest that, in the development of apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  12. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30, which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4. The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05.

  13. Irradiation damage and recovery in shoot apices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saamin, S.; Thompson, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Dormant scions of 'Bing' were exposed to fractionated 6kR gamma rays and then grafted. Irradiated and unirradiated main buds were sampled at 3 day intervals for one month. Buds were fixed in FAA, longitudinally sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin. Both random and localised cell damage was observed in irradiated apices. There was evidence of radiosensitivity gradient in the shoot apex. Recovery from irradiation damage was via flank meristem, central meristem, or leaf primordia and axillary meristems. (author)

  14. Evaluation of three methods in the diagnosis of dentin cracks caused by apical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Aminifar, Soran; Shadan, Leila; Ghanati, Hamed

    2013-03-01

    To compare three various methods in the diagnosis of dentinal cracks formed in the apical third after root resection. One hundred extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected. The root canals were prepared with step-back technique. Then 3mm from the apical end of all roots was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. The apical end of each root was evaluated to make sure there were no cracks. Fifty specimens were randomly chosen and connected to an apparatus especially designed for application of force (50-60N) by a universal testing machine for crack formation. The cracked (no=50) and non-cracked (no=50) specimens were examined by three methods of fiber optic transillumination, methylene blue staining and combination of the two. Sensitivity and specificity of the methods were evaluated. The most suitable method for detecting cracks was determined using Youden index. To compare agreement between studied methods with the gold standard, kappa statistics and odds ratio of McNemar were utilized. The sensitivity of transillumination, staining and the combination method were 82.0, 50.0 and 90.0%, respectively. The staining technique had the lowest sensitivity and the highest specificity. Both transillumination and the combination method had Youden index of 0.56, but the combination method diagnosed truly cracked samples more than the other techniques. The efficacy of transillumination in identification of apical root-end cracks undetectable by unaided vision was similar to the combination method. However, the efficacy of 2% methylene blue without transillumination was significantly lower than the other two methodologies.

  15. Evaluation Value of Three Methods in the Diagnosis of Dentin Cracks Caused by Apical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghorbanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare three various methods in the diagnosis of dentinal cracks formed in the apical third after root resection.Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected. The root canals were prepared with step-back technique. Then 3mm from the apical end of all roots was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. The apical end of each root was evaluated to make sure there were no cracks. Fifty specimens were randomly chosen and connected to an apparatus especially designed for application of force (50-60N by a universal testing machine for crack formation. The cracked (no=50 and non-cracked (no=50 specimens were examined by three methods of fiber optic transillumination, methylene blue staining and combination of the two. Sensitivity and specificity of the methods were evaluated. The most suitable method for detecting cracks was determined using Youden index. To compare agreement between studied methods with the gold standard, kappa statistics and odds ratio of McNemar were utilized.Results: The sensitivity of transillumination, staining and the combination method were 82.0, 50.0 and 90.0%, respectively. The staining technique had the lowest sensitivity and the highest specificity. Both transillumination and the combination method had Youden index of 0.56, but the combination method diagnosed truly cracked samples more than the other techniques.Conclusion: The efficacy of transillumination in identification of apical root-end cracks undetectable by unaided vision was similar to the combination method. However, the efficacy of 2% methylene blue without transillumination was significantly lower than the other two methodologies.

  16. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices of Two Rice Varieties under Aluminum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIFTAHUDIN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the major limiting factor of plant growth and production in acid soils. The target of Al toxicity is the root tip, which affects mainly on root growth inhibition. The aim of this research was to study the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of two rice varieties IR64 (Al-sensitive and Krowal (Al-tolerant, which were grown on nutrient solution containing 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 ppm of Al. The root growth was significantly inhibited in both rice varieties at as low as 15 ppm Al concentration. The adventive roots of both varieties showed stunted growth in respons to Al stress. There was no difference in root growth inhibition between both rice varieties as well as among Al concentrations. Al uptake on root apices was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Histochemical staining of roots using hematoxylin showed dark purple color on 1 mm region of Al-treated root apices. Rice var. IR 64 tended to take up more Al in root tip than Krowal did. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.176 in root Al content of both varieties in response to different concentration and period of Al treatments. Al distribution in root apices was found in the epidermal and subepidermal region in both rice varieties. Based on those results, rice var. Krowal that was previously grouped as Al-tolerant variety has similar root growth and physiological response to Al stress as compared to Al-sensitive variety IR64.

  17. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium). Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  18. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Qiu

    Full Text Available Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium. Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  19. Morphologic analysis of apical resorption on human teeth with periapical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Vier, Fabiana Vieira; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli de; Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares de

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the presence and extension of cementum and dentin resorption in apexes containing different periapical pathosis. Material and method: 31 teeth were selected for the presence of a proliferative tissue compatible with a periapical pathology. Sections were conducted in periapical lesions which were then dyed by the HE. The periapical pathosis were classified in fibrous connective tissue, granuloma and cysts. The apical root surfaces were submitted ...

  20. Assessment of apically extruded debris and irrigant produced by different nickel-titanium instrument systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk; Saygili, Gokhan; Uysal, Banu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparation time and the amounts of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Forty-five extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were selected and divided into three groups. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions, using a reciprocating single-file system, a single-file rotary system and a multiple-file rotary system. Bidistilled water was used as the irrigant solution. The apically extruded debris and irrigant were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amounts of extruded debris and irrigant were assessed with a precision micro-balance. The Eppendorf tubes were incubated at 37°C for 15 days. After the incubation period, they were weighed again to assess the debris extrusion. The time required to prepare the canals was also recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using MANOVA and Bonferroni's adjustment. Considering the apically extruded debris and irrigant, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The Reciproc group produced the highest debris (0.000632 ± 0.000162 gr) and irrigant (0.844587 ± 0.437814 ml) extrusion values. While the least extruded debris was observed with OneShape (0,000431 ± 0,000171 gr), the least extruded irrigant was observed with ProTaper system (0.564147 ± 0.370596 ml). Instrumentation was faster using the Reciproc than the other two instruments (70.27 ± 13.38 s) (p < 0.05). All of the instrumentation systems used in this study produced apical debris and irrigant extrusion. The reciprocating single-file system tended to produce more debris and irrigant extrusion, compared with the rotary systems. Considering the preparation time, the single-file systems appeared to be advantageous due to their working time.

  1. Pyramidal Neurons in Different Cortical Layers Exhibit Distinct Dynamics and Plasticity of Apical Dendritic Spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Tjia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian cerebral cortex is typically organized in six layers containing multiple types of neurons, with pyramidal neurons (PNs being the most abundant. PNs in different cortical layers have distinct morphology, physiology and functional roles in neural circuits. Therefore, their development and synaptic plasticity may also differ. Using in vivo transcranial two-photon microscopy, we followed the structural dynamics of dendritic spines on apical dendrites of layer (L 2/3 and L5 PNs at different developmental stages. We show that the density and dynamics of spines are significantly higher in L2/3 PNs than L5 PNs in both adolescent (1 month old and adult (4 months old mice. While spine density of L5 PNs decreases during adolescent development due to a higher rate of spine elimination than formation, there is no net change in the spine density along apical dendrites of L2/3 PNs over this period. In addition, experiences exert differential impact on the dynamics of apical dendritic spines of PNs resided in different cortical layers. While motor skill learning promotes spine turnover on L5 PNs in the motor cortex, it does not change the spine dynamics on L2/3 PNs. In addition, neonatal sensory deprivation decreases the spine density of both L2/3 and L5 PNs, but leads to opposite changes in spine dynamics among these two populations of neurons in adolescence. In summary, our data reveal distinct dynamics and plasticity of apical dendritic spines on PNs in different layers in the living mouse cortex, which may arise from their distinct functional roles in cortical circuits.

  2. Trans-apical versus surgical implantation of autologous ovine tissue-engineered heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Petra E; Driessen-Mol, Anita; de Heer, Linda M; Kluin, Jolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A; Odermatt, Berhard; Baaijens, Frank P T; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2012-09-01

    Living tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) based on rapidly degrading scaffolds and autologous cells might overcome the limitations of today's valve substitutes. Following minimally invasive trans-apical implantation into an ovine model, TEHVs showed adequate in-vivo functionality, but a thickening of the leaflets was observed. In order to evaluate the impact of the substantial tissue deformations of TEHVs associated with the crimping procedure during minimally invasive delivery, trans-apical and conventional implantation technologies were compared in an ovine model. Trileaflet heart valves (n=11) based on PGA/P4HB-scaffolds, integrated into self-expandable stents, were engineered from autologous ovine vascular-derived cells. After in-vitro culture, the TEHVs were either implanted surgically (n=5), replacing the native pulmonary valve, or delivered trans-apically (n=6) into the orthotopic pulmonary valve position. In-vivo functionality was assessed by echocardiography and by angiography for up to eight weeks. The tissue compositions of the explanted TEHVs and corresponding control valves were analyzed. TEHV implantations were successful in all cases. Independent of the implantation method, the explants demonstrated a comparable layered tissue formation with thickening and deposited fibrous layers. Active remodeling of these layers was evident in the explants, as indicated by vascularization of the walls, invasion of the host cells, and the formation of a luminal endothelial layer on the TEHV leaflets. This direct comparison of trans-apical and conventional surgical implantation techniques showed that crimping had no adverse effect on the integrity or functional outcome of TEHVs. This suggests that a thickening of TEHVs in vivo is neither caused by nor enhanced by the crimping procedure, but represents a functional tissue remodeling process.

  3. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered be...

  4. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  5. Trans-apical aortic valve implantation in a patient with stentless valve degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; MacCarthy, Philip; Monaghan, Mark; Wendler, Olaf

    2011-06-01

    Trans-apical valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has successfully been performed in selected, high-risk patients, who suffered prosthetic degeneration after aortic valve replacement using stented xenografts. We report the case of a 79-year-old male patient who underwent one of the first successful TAVIs in a failing stentless bioprosthesis. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Apical Microleakage of four Materials after Root End Resection (In Vitro Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Radeva E.; Usunov T.; Ivanov I.; Genchev G.

    2016-01-01

    Hermetic sealing of the apical area after root end resection is essential to the success of endodontic surgery. To compare microleakage after root end resection of the two bioceramic sealers without retrograde filling - Total Fill BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex, and two materials for retrograde filling-MTA and Biodentine, using the method of penetration of dye - 2% methylene blue. Forty eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root...

  7. Apical resorption in teeth with periapical lesions: correlation between radiographic diagnosis and SEM examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius; Estivallet, Lisiane; Eickhoff, Sílvia Juliana

    2013-04-01

    This study correlated the radiographic findings and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of external apical resorption (EAR) in teeth with periapical lesions. Standard radiographs were taken from 45 teeth with periapical lesions before their extraction. Using a radiographic examination, the root apex of each tooth was classified according to the EAR into the following categories: radiographic external apical resorption (REAR) absent, superficial and deep. The apical root surface was also examined with SEM. Photomicrographs of EARs were classified as periforaminal (PEAR) and foraminal (FEAR) in three degrees: 0, 1 and 2. REAR was present in 72.5% of cases, of which 20% were deep. Based upon SEM analysis, PEAR and FEAR occurred in 75.6% and 66.7% of cases respectively; 51.2% and 59% respectively, of these teeth received a score of 2. Only 15.4% of the specimens were unaffected by EAR. When teeth with periapical lesions were examined for EAR with both radiography and by SEM, there was no correlation between the findings. © 2009 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2009 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  8. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  9. Effect of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming on removal of apically placed dentinal debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H; Capar, I D; Saygili, G; Gok, T; Akcay, M

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique with conventional, sonic and ultrasonic irrigation on the removal of apically placed dentinal debris from an artificial groove created in a root canal. Root canal preparation was performed up to size 40 on 48 extracted single-rooted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments. The specimens were then split longitudinally, and a standardized groove was prepared in the apical part of each segment. Each groove was filled with dentinal debris mixed with 5% NaOCl. Each tooth was reassembled and irrigated as follows: (i) conventional irrigation with 1% NaOCl, (ii) sonic, (iii) ultrasonic irrigation, and (iv) PIPS. The root segments were disassembled, and the amount of remaining dentinal debris was evaluated under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification, using a four-grade scoring system. The data were evaluated statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with a 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). Photon-induced photoacoustic streaming removed significantly more dentinal debris than conventional irrigation (P streaming was more effective than conventional, sonic and ultrasonic irrigation in the removal of apically placed dentinal debris. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Forces produced by different nonconventional bracket or ligature systems during alignment of apically displaced teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio; Barbato, Ersilia

    2009-05-01

    To analyze the forces released by four types of passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs), and by two nonconventional elastomeric ligature-bracket systems when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional stainless steel brackets during the alignment of apically displaced teeth at the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the seven different ligature-bracket systems with 0.012'' or 0.014'' superelastic nickel titanium wire in the presence of different amounts of apical displacement of the canine (ranging from 1.5 mm to 6 mm). Comparisons between the different types of bracket/wire/ ligature systems were carried out by means of ANOVA on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < .05). When correction of a misalignment greater than 3 mm is attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment is generated by passive SLBs and nonconventional elastomeric ligature-bracket systems, and a null amount of force is released in the presence of conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets. When minimal apical displacement is needed (1.5 mm), the differences in performance between low-friction and conventional systems are minimal. These differences become significant when correction of a misalignment of greater than 3.0 mm is attempted.

  11. Rab11a is required for apical protein localisation in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Sobajima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small GTPase Rab11 plays an important role in the recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane as well as in polarised transport in epithelial cells and neurons. We generated conditional knockout mice deficient in Rab11a. Rab11a-deficient mice are embryonic lethal, and brain-specific Rab11a knockout mice show no overt abnormalities in brain architecture. In contrast, intestine-specific Rab11a knockout mice begin dying approximately 1 week after birth. Apical proteins in the intestines of knockout mice accumulate in the cytoplasm and mislocalise to the basolateral plasma membrane, whereas the localisation of basolateral proteins is unaffected. Shorter microvilli and microvillus inclusion bodies are also observed in the knockout mice. Elevation of a serum starvation marker was also observed, likely caused by the mislocalisation of apical proteins and reduced nutrient uptake. In addition, Rab8a is mislocalised in Rab11a knockout mice. Conversely, Rab11a is mislocalised in Rab8a knockout mice and in a microvillus atrophy patient, which has a mutation in the myosin Vb gene. Our data show an essential role for Rab11a in the localisation of apical proteins in the intestine and demonstrate functional relationships between Rab11a, Rab8a and myosin Vb in vivo.

  12. Apical leakage of three resin-based endodontic sealers after 810-nm-diode laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Pinto, Tiago; Davidowicz, Harry; de Moura, Abilio Albuquerque Maranhão

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of 810-nm-diode laser irradiation, applied before root canal filling, on apical sealing ability of three different resin-based sealers (AH Plus, EndoRez, and RealSeal). Lasers have been widely used in endodontics. The dentin wall changes caused by laser irradiation could improve the sealing ability of endodontic cements. Sixty single-rooted human teeth were divided into six groups, according to the endodontic sealer used and previous 810-nm-diode laser irradiation. The protocol for laser irradiation was 2.5 W in a continuous wave, in scanning mode, with four irradiations per tooth. After sample preparation, they were analyzed according to apical leakage with silver nitrate impregnation. The RealSeal sealer achieved minimum leakage rates (1.24 mm), with significant differences at the 1% level (Tukey's test, plaser was used, there were also significant differences at the 5% level (plaser irradiation did not promote significant differences in apical leakage.

  13. Drosophila Big bang regulates the apical cytocortex and wing growth through junctional tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumpekos, Giorgos; Nemetschke, Linda; Knust, Elisabeth

    2018-03-05

    Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash. This is associated with an increased apical cell surface, decreased junctional tension, and smaller wings. Strikingly, these phenotypic traits of big bang mutant discs can be rescued by expressing constitutively active Spaghetti squash. Big bang colocalizes with Spaghetti squash in the apical cytocortex and is found in the same protein complex. These results suggest that in epithelial cells of developing wings, the scaffolding protein Big bang controls apical cytocortex organization, which is important for regulating cell shape and tissue growth. © 2018 Tsoumpekos et al.

  14. Polarized Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Exhibits Distinct Surface Proteome on Apical and Basal Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristov, Vladimir; Wan, Qin; Sharma, Ruchi; Lotfi, Mostafa; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Bharti, Kapil

    2018-01-01

    Surface proteins localized on the apical and basal plasma membranes are required for a cell to sense its environment and relay changes in ionic, cytokine, chemokine, and hormone levels to the inside of the cell. In a polarized cell, surface proteins are differentially localized on the apical or the basolateral sides of the cell. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an example of a polarized cell that performs a variety of functions that are dependent on its polarized state including trafficking of ions, fluid, and metabolites across the RPE monolayer. These functions are absolutely crucial for maintaining the health and integrity of adjacent photoreceptors, the photosensitive cells of the retina. Here we present a series of approaches to identify and validate the polarization state of cultured primary human RPE cells using immunostaining for RPE apical/basolateral markers, polarized cytokine secretion, electrophysiology, fluid transport, phagocytosis, and identification of plasma membrane proteins through cell surface capturing technology. These approaches are currently being used to validate the polarized state and the epithelial phenotype of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derived RPE cells. This work provides the basis for developing an autologous cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration using patient specific iPS cell derived RPE.

  15. Investigation of cultivable bacteria isolated from longstanding retreatment-resistant lesions of teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério C

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of viable bacteria in tissue samples from persistent apical lesions and to correlate the microbiological findings with the histopathological diagnosis of the lesion. Twenty persistent apical lesions associated with well-performed endodontic retreatment were collected. Tissue samples were processed through culture techniques including serial dilution, plating, aerobic and anaerobic incubation, and biochemical tests for microbial identification followed by histopathological diagnosis. Cysts were more frequently diagnosed (13/20). Strict anaerobic species predominated in both cysts (80.4% of the species detected) and granulomas (65% of the species detected). Viable gram-positive bacteria were frequently recovered from apical lesions (cysts = 70.6%, granulomas = 84.4%). Gemella morbillorum and Propionibacterium acnes were the most frequently recovered species from cysts and granulomas, respectively. At least 1 gram-positive bacterial species was present in almost every sample (cysts = 12/13, granulomas = 7/7). No significant correlation was found between histologic findings and bacterial species. In conclusion, although cysts were more frequent than granulomas in cases of failure of endodontic retreatment, bacteria were isolated from both types of lesions, with a predominance of gram-positive species, suggesting that these species can survive outside the root canal and might be related to the persistence of the pathological process even after accurate endodontic retreatment. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Light microscopic study of periapical lesions associated with asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, S L; Kabak, Y S; Anischenko, S L

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to evaluate the degree of chronic inflammation in tissues surrounding the apex of the tooth root in patients with apical periodontitis in the remission phase. The material included 37 apical granulomas and radicular cysts obtained as a result of apiectomy, and 20 teeth which were removed together with the focus of the periapical inflammation. Routine histological techniques, as well as the immunofluorescent and immuno-chemical methods were used to examine the material. Despite the absence of clinical symptoms in 23 of 57 cases, the morphological signs of chronic inflammation were observed in the apical area of the tooth root. Morphological signs of viral invasion of epithelial and stromal cells in the radicular cyst wall were revealed in six cases. The presence of the virus of Herpes simplex I in epithelial cells (five cases) and adenoviral invasion (one case) was confirmed by immuno-fluorescent and immuno-chemical methods. Histological examination often reveals morphological signs of an active inflammatory process in the periapical tissues of patients treated during clinical remission. In our opinion, the presence of viruses in the epithelial cells of the radicular cyst may contribute to the persistence of the active stage of the inflammatory process.

  17. Comparison of the effect of various irrigants on apically extruded debris after root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Jalali, Shahrzad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Several factors can influence the amount of apically extruded debris. The aim was to quantitatively compare the amount of debris extruded apically from root canals when 3 different irrigants were used during canal preparation with rotary instruments. Ninety-one extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with straight root canals were used. The teeth were randomly divided into 1 control group (group 1, n = 4) and 3 experimental groups of 29 teeth each. Hero 642 instruments were used for root canal preparation in all teeth, and 3 different irrigants were used (group 2, 2% chlorhexidine; group 3, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; group 4, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite). Seven Eppendorf tubes served as a second control group. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference. Group 3 (sodium hypochlorite 5.25%) had the highest amount of extruded debris, which was significantly different from the other groups (P extruded debris. The 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite had the greatest amount of debris. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Instruments Used in Root Canal Preparation on Amount of Apically Extruded Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ertuğrul; Ersoy, İbrahim; Gündüz, Hicran Ateş; Uygun, Ahmet Demirhan; Kol, Elif; Çakıcı, Fatih

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of ProTaper Gold, WaveOne Gold, ProTaper Universal, and WaveOne instruments on the amount of apically extruded debris. Eighty mandibular premolar teeth with straight root canals were selected and assigned to four groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented using ProTaper Gold, WaveOne Gold, ProTaper Universal, and WaveOne systems. Eppendorf tubes containing apically extruded debris were weighed three times, and mean values were calculated. The net mass of the extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial mass from the final mass. The groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests at a significance level of P extruded less debris than the PTU group, and the WOG group extruded less debris than the WO group (P < 0.05). All the instrumentation systems tested in the present study were associated with apical extrusion of debris. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [The effect of various irrigants on apically extruded debris: an in vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Lin-lin; Zhang, Meng-long

    2014-12-01

    To compare the amount of debris extruded apically from root canals when different irrigants were used. Fifty-eight extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars with straight root canals were used. The teeth were randomly divided into control group (group A, n=7) and 3 experimental groups (group B,C,D,n=17). All teeth were prepared for root canal therapy, and 3 different irrigants were used (group B: 1% sodium hypochlorite; group C: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; group D: 17% EDTA). Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal irrigation was collected into tubes and the amount of debris extruded was counted and analyzed. Statistical significance was assessed by Student-Newman-Keuls test with SPSS 13.0 software package. Group B, C, D had more amount of extruded debris, which was significantly different from the control group (Pextruded debris,which was significantly different from the other group (Pextruded debris. 2.5% sodium hypochlorite can produce more apically extruded debris. 1% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA are better than 2.5% sodium hypochlorite in terms of irrigation efficacy.

  20. Efficacy of Laser Activated Irrigation on Apically Extruded Debris with Different Preparation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuştarcı, Alper; Er, Kürşat

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apical extrusion of debris in canals prepared with three nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file systems [Twisted File Adaptive (TFA), SybronEndo, Orange, CA], Reciproc [(RP), VDW, Munich, Germany], and Revo-S [(RS), MicroMega, Besançon, France] and two irrigation [conventional needle (CNI) and laser-activated (LAI)] techniques. Although previous studies have evaluated the amount of apically extruded debris by various instrumentation and irrigation methods, none of them have investigated the effect of LAI during the root canal preparation on debris extrusion. Ninety extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars with straight canals were randomly assigned to six groups (n=15) according to the file and irrigation protocols used: (1) TFA and LAI group, (2) RP and LAI group, (3) RS and LAI group, (4) TFA and CNI group, (5) RP and CNI group, and (6) RS and CNI group. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction to compare groups. LAI groups extruded more debris than CNI groups (p0.017). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the agitation method, such as LAI, had a significant effect on the amount of extrusion.

  1. Effect of solvents on apically extruded debris and irrigant during root canal retreatment using reciprocating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, C; Sariyilmaz, E; Sariyilmaz, O

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of several solvents on the weight of apically extruded debris and irrigant during retreatment using a novel agar gel model. Orange oil, turpentine oil and chloroform were used as solvents. Eighty single straight-rooted extracted human mandibular premolar teeth with a single root canal were divided into four groups (n = 20). All specimens were root canal-filled and weighed prior to their insertion into a prepared 1.5% agar gel model. The mean initial weights were measured by subtracting the weight of the specimen from the weight of the test apparatus and recorded. Following the removal of the coronal 4 mm of root filling, the test solvent was applied onto the root filling. No solvent was used in the control group. A Reciproc R25 instrument was used to remove the root filling in all groups. Apically extruded debris and test solvent were collected during retreatment procedures. The mean weights of apically extruded debris and irrigant were calculated by subtracting the mean initial weights from the weights of test apparatus without the Teflon tape and the specimen following the retreatment procedures. Data were statistically analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Use of solvents resulted in significantly less extruded debris and irrigant compared to the control group (P extruded significantly more debris than orange oil and turpentine oil (P extruded debris and irrigant when compared to no solvent. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Large apical thrombus in a patient with persistent heart failure and hypereosinophilia: Löffler endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincin, A Altug; Ozben, Beste; Tanrikulu, M Azra; Baskan, Ozdil; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2008-10-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is an uncommon leukoproliferative systemic disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils and poor prognosis. A major source of morbidity and mortality of this syndrome is the associated cardiac involvement represented by endocardial thickening and mural thrombi. We report a 64-year-old woman with persistent symptoms of heart failure despite standard medical therapy. Echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular filling due to a large apical mass; an abnormal diastolic filling pattern was also noticed. Complete blood count revealed remarkable hypereosinophilia. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an apical thrombus and intense linear enhancement of the endocardium, which were compatible with Löffler endocarditis. Medical therapy, including corticosteroids and anticoagulation, was initiated promptly. The symptoms improved as the peripheral hypereosinophilia resolved in 15 days. The patient was asymptomatic at the 1-year follow-up visit with complete regression of the apical thrombus and no evidence of restrictive cardiomyopathy. We report this case to draw attention to this particularly rare condition with poor prognosis since quick and accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy may improve symptoms and survival.

  3. Automatic apical view classification of echocardiograms using a discriminative learning dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Hanan; Zurakhov, Grigoriy; Azar, Vered; Raz, Adi; Friedman, Zvi; Adam, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As part of striving towards fully automatic cardiac functional assessment of echocardiograms, automatic classification of their standard views is essential as a pre-processing stage. The similarity among three of the routinely acquired longitudinal scans: apical two-chamber (A2C), apical four-chamber (A4C) and apical long-axis (ALX), and the noise commonly inherent to these scans - make the classification a challenge. Here we introduce a multi-stage classification algorithm that employs spatio-temporal feature extraction (Cuboid Detector) and supervised dictionary learning (LC-KSVD) approaches to uniquely enhance the automatic recognition and classification accuracy of echocardiograms. The algorithm incorporates both discrimination and labelling information to allow a discriminative and sparse representation of each view. The advantage of the spatio-temporal feature extraction as compared to spatial processing is then validated. A set of 309 clinical clips (103 for each view), were labeled by 2 experts. A subset of 70 clips of each class was used as a training set and the rest as a test set. The recognition accuracies achieved were: 97%, 91% and 97% of A2C, A4C and ALX respectively, with average recognition rate of 95%. Thus, automatic classification of echocardiogram views seems promising, despite the inter-view similarity between the classes and intra-view variability among clips belonging to the same class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in a single family: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevaidis Stylianos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an extremely heterogeneous disease. An under recognized and very often missed subgroup within this broad spectrum concerns patients with left ventricular (LV apical aneurysms in the absence of coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a case of HCM with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in 3 patients coming from a single family. This HCM pattern was detected by 2D-echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in one of the patients because of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected in 24-h Holter monitoring and an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure during maximal exercise test. The defibrillator activated 8 months after implantation by suppression of a ventricular tachycardia providing anti-tachycardia pacing. The patient died due to refractory heart failure 2 years after initial evaluation. The rest of the patients are stable after a 2.5-y follow-up period. Conclusion The detection of apical aneurysm by echocardiography in HCM patients may be complicated. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the scarred aneurysm wall may often occur predisposing to sudden death.

  5. The relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianmin; Baumrind, S

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects. 58 growing subjects were collected randomly into the study sample and another 40 non-treated cases were used as control. The apical resoption of the upper central incisors was measured on periapical film and the incisor displacement was measured on lateral cephalogram. Using multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between root resoption and the displacement of the upper incisor apex in each of four direction (retraction, advancement, intrusion and extrusion). The statistically significant negative association were found between resorption and both intrusion (P < 0.001) and extrusion (P < 0.05), but no significant association was found between resorption and both retraction and advancement. The regression analysis implied an average of 2.29 mm resorption in the absence of apical displacement. The likelihood that the magnitude of displacement of the incisor root is positively associated with root resoption in the population of treated growing subjects is very small.

  6. Assessment of Apical Extrusion of Debris during Endodontic Retreatment with 3 Rotary Nickel-Titanium Retreatment Systems and Hand Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkampesi S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically as well as the time needed for removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, MTwo, REndo NiTi rotary retreatment systems and hand files.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of debris extruded apically by using ProTaper Universal Tulsa rotary system in endodontic retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Wei, Xi; Gu, Lisha

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the amount of apical debris during endodontic retreatment by using the ProTaper Universal Tulsa rotary files. Forty-five extracted human anterior teeth were root filled before randomly assigned to 3 groups. In group A, gutta-percha was removed by using the ProTaper Universal Tulsa retreatment system, and canals were re-prepared with ProTaper rotary files. In group B, gutta-percha was removed by using Hedström files with chloroform, and canals were reshaped with ProTaper rotary files. In group C, the same method as that in group B was used for gutta-percha removal, and canals were reshaped with K-flex files. Apical debris was collected and compared among 3 groups. Although all retreatment techniques resulted in apical extrusion, the ProTaper Universal Tulsa rotary technique in group A produced significantly less amount of apical extrusion than other 2 methods (P endodontic retreatment.

  8. Comparative study of apically extruded debris using one manual and two rotary instrumentation techniques for endodontic retreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kustarci

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: All retreatment techniques produced extruded debris during endodontic retreatment; however, both rotary NiTi systems were associated with less apical extrusion than manual instrumentation with Hedström files.

  9. Duration for Apical Barrier Formation in Necrotic Immature Permanent Incisors Treated With Calcium Hydroxide Apexification Using Ultrasonic or Hand Filing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wan Lee

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic filing with 0.2% chlorhexidine as an irrigant is effective for disinfection of the root canal and can shorten the duration for apical barrier formation in necrotic permanent incisors treated with calcium hydroxide apexification.

  10. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  11. The effect of bevel angle on apical microleakage following the use of amalgam and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Achieving appropriate seal in canal obturation is the main goal of endodontic therapy. However, in some cases, it can not be obtained by non-surgical procedures alone. Retrograde surgery is one of the most common procedures in endodontics. Apical seal improvement can be obtained by root end filling and decreasing the root end resection angle (bevel angle. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bevel angle on apical microleakage following the use of amalgam and MTA as root end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 128 extracted human teeth were instrumented and obturated by lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into two groups and the apical root resection was performed by high speed fissure bur (one group perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth and the other 45 to the long axis. The 3 mm root end cavity was prepared by ultrasonic device. Each group was divided into two subgroups: One filled with amalgam and the other with MTA. Teeth were incubated for 72 h, covered by two layers of nail polish (except for apical 3mm and submerged in methylene blue for 48 h. Teeth were washed under tap water and mesiodistally dissected by low speed disc. Dye penetration was evaluated by stereomicroscope. Data were analysed by two way ANOVA and Tukey tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The results showed that retrofill material type had a significant effect on microleakage and MTA was superior to amalgam in this respect. Bevel angle failed to show any significant effect on apical microleakage. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that the use of MTA instead of amalgam in clinical practice can improve the success rate of endodontic surgery whereas the bevel angle can be determined based on the status of each individual case; However, increasing the bevel angle seems to increase microleakage due to exposure of more dentinal tubules.

  12. Influence of Apical Clearance on Mini-Scleral Lens Settling, Clinical Performance, and Corneal Thickness Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Fehim; Toker, Ebru

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to define the timing and magnitude of scleral contact lens settling, the factors influencing settling, and to examine whether the amount of apical clearance has an impact on clinical performance or is associated with hypoxia-induced corneal changes. Eleven patients (22 eyes) with keratoconus were fitted with a mini-scleral lens (Esclera, Brazil). Three different lenses with successively greater sagittal depths were applied to achieve 3 levels of initial apical clearance: 100 to 200 μm (low), 200 to 300 μm (medium), and greater than 300 μm (high). Corneal apical clearance was measured at 15 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Central corneal thickness was measured with OCT and Pentacam, in the morning and immediately after removal of the contact lens. Mean settling was 26.8±18.8 μm (42.7%) at 1 hr, 39.5±26.5 μm (62.9%) at 2 hr, 50.7±31.6 μm (80.8%) at 4 hr, 57.4±34.6 μm (91.4%) at 6 hr, and 62.8±38.4 μm (100%) at 8 hr. Settling rate was significantly lower in low apical clearance group (P=0.01). The smaller diameter lenses settled more (P=0.03). There was a slight statistically significant increase of 1.3% in central corneal thickness measured with OCT (P=0.03). Central corneal thickness measured with Pentacam at three locations increased slightly (P=0.001). Settling showed significant intrasubject and intersubject variations. The amount of corneal swelling and comfort scores did not differ significantly according to apical clearance. The average amount of settling was 62.8 μm after 8 hr, 80% of which occurred during the first 4 hr. Slight corneal swelling (1.3%) occurred after 8 hr of wear.

  13. In vivo PTH provokes apical NHE3 and NaPi2 redistribution and Na-K-ATPase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Norian, J M; Magyar, C E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in vivo administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) provokes diuresis/natriuresis through redistribution of proximal tubule apical sodium cotransporters (NHE3 and NaPi2) to internal stores and inhibition of basolateral Na-K-ATPase activity....../diuresis and NHE3 and NaPi2 internalization, and that Na-K-ATPase inhibition is not secondary to depressed apical Na+ transport....

  14. Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination using Three different Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anand; Deore, Rahul B; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Nanda, Zinnie; Baig, Mirza Osman; Fareez, Md Adil

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the formation of air bubbles in the apical region of root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and (ii) comparative evaluation of the elimination of an established vapor lock by EndoActivator, ultrasonics, and manual dynamic agitation (MDA), using CBCT. A total of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were equally divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. The samples were decoronated 17 mm from the apex, cleaned, and shaped to size F4 Protaper using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite + cesium chloride radiopaque dye, and preoperative CBCT images were obtained. After formation of apical vapor lock in the scanned teeth, EndoActivator (group I), passive ultrasonic irrigation (group II), and MDA with K-file (group III) were performed and the teeth were again placed in CBCT scanner and results analyzed using the chi-square test. The apical vapor lock was formed in all the samples. Out of the 20 teeth in each group, the apical vapor lock was eliminated in 18 samples of EndoActivator group (90%), 16 samples of ultrasonic group (80%), while it was eliminated in 10 samples by MDA (50%). It is concluded that (1) apical vapor lock is consistently formed during endodontic irrigation in closed canal systems and (2) sonic activation performs better than the ultrasonics and MDA in eliminating the apical vapor lock, with statistically significant difference between all the three groups (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the apical vapor lock (dead water zone) is consistently formed during routine endodontic irrigation which impedes irrigant penetration till the working length, thereby leading to inefficient debridement. Hence, to eliminate this vapor lock, techniques, such as sonics or ultrasonics should be used along with the irrigant after shaping and cleaning of the root canal.

  15. A case of multiple coronary microfistulas to the left ventricle and apical myocardial hypertrophy coexisting with stable angina

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Bekir Serhat; Bilgin, Murat; Alihanoglu, Yusuf Izzettin; Evrengul, Harun

    2013-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula consists of a communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber, a great artery or the vena cava. It is the most common congenital anomaly that can affect coronary perfusion. However, coronary fistulas to one of the cardiac chambers and coexisting apical myocardial hypertophy are infrequent anomalies, and usually are found unexpectedly. Herein, we report a case in which all three major coronary arteries emptied into the left ventricle with apical hypertro...

  16. A case of multiple coronary microfistulas to the left ventricle and apical myocardial hypertrophy coexisting with stable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir Serhat; Bilgin, Murat; Alihanoglu, Yusuf Izzettin; Evrengul, Harun

    2013-07-01

    A coronary artery fistula consists of a communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber, a great artery or the vena cava. It is the most common congenital anomaly that can affect coronary perfusion. However, coronary fistulas to one of the cardiac chambers and coexisting apical myocardial hypertophy are infrequent anomalies, and usually are found unexpectedly. Herein, we report a case in which all three major coronary arteries emptied into the left ventricle with apical hypertrophy, through multiple microfistulas.

  17. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: A dye extraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Tandan; Mithra N Hegde; Priyadarshini Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Methodology: Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control g...

  18. A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed Zahedani SM.; Oshagh M.; Momeni Danaei Sh.; Roeinpeikar SMM.

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials a...

  19. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: A dye extraction study

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    Monika Tandan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  20. Participation of IAA in transduction of gravistimulus in apical cells of moss protonema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksyniuk, U. A.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Y.; Lesniak, Y. I.

    Growth movements of vascular plant axis organs -- photo-, gravi- and other tropisms -- are tightly connected with IAA transport (Hertel, 1983; Medvedev, 1996; Kiss, 2000). Moss protonema synthesizes IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and transports it basipetally favouring growth and differentiation of caulonema (Bopp, 1979; Rose, Bopp, 1983; Rose et al., 1983). We aimed at studying the role of IAA in moss protonema gravitropism using exogenous IAA, 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- phytotropins NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) and TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Six-day gravitropic protonema of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans were taken for experiments. Auxin and phytotropins solutions were laid on protonema mats the latters being kept in solutions for 30 min. Then the surplus of solutions were poured off and Petri dishes were placed vertically for 6 h. 20 μ M of IAA and of other synthetic auxins did not significantly influence the angle of protonema gravity bending, 40 μ M of the agents, howewer, reduced the per cent of apical cells bendings and their angles. The most expressed influence on the angles of bending had the inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- NPA. 0,1 -- 3,0 μ M of this phytotropin did not change the form of apical cell, did not disturb the general distribution of amyloplasts and did not significantly lower the per cent and the value of gravity bending angle, though 10 μ M of the phytotropin - inhibited gravity bending. The mixture of 1-NAA and NPA having been added into the medium the influence of NPA was lowered and gravitropic growth renewed in course of time. 10 μ M of other phytopropin TIBA also inhibited gravitropism of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans protonema. The analysis of basipetal transport of IAA in moss rhizoids and protonema may indicate the availability of special IAA transport in these structures (Bopp, Cerier, 1988). On the basis of the

  1. Cardiomiopatia hipertrófica apical associada a doença arterial coronária Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manes Albanesi Fº

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Homem de 59 anos, portador de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica apical há 12 anos, apresentou agudização de quadro anginoso. Foi detectada doença arterial coronária com lesão trivascular, e indicada cirurgia de revascularização, com anastomose de artéria mamária e a colocação de duas pontes de veia safena, tendo evoluído com melhora do quadro anginoso e redução da dimensão do átrio esquerdo.A fifty-nine year old man, known to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, presented worsening of angina. Multivessel coronary artery disease was diagnosed, and he underwent myocardial revascularization (mammary and two safenous grafts were implanted with good evolution and reduction of left atrium dimension.

  2. A Rare Case of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Subendocardial Late Gadolinium Enhancement in an Apical Aneurysm with Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Morita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the development of apical aneurysms in cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM are currently unclear but likely involve multiple factors. Here, we present a case of HCM with marked subendocardial fibrosis involving the apical and proximal portions of the left ventricle. A 71-year-old man with left ventricular hypertrophy presented with signs and symptoms of heart failure. The presence of asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy and bilateral, thickened ventricular walls with an apical aneurysm on transthoracic echocardiography suggested a diagnosis of HCM with ventricular dysfunction. No intraventricular pressure gradients with obstruction were identified. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsies showed subendocardial fibrosis involving the apical aneurysm and proximal portion. Whereas LGE in a transmural pattern is commonly observed in HCM apical aneurysms, subendocardial LGE, as noted in the present case, is a relatively rare occurrence. Thus, the present case may provide unique insights into the adverse remodeling process and formation of apical aneurysms in cases of HCM.

  3. Localization of enzymes of artemisinin biosynthesis to the apical cells of glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mikael E; Olofsson, Linda M; Lindahl, Ann-Louise; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E

    2009-06-01

    A method based on the laser microdissection pressure catapulting technique has been developed for isolation of whole intact cells. Using a modified tissue preparation method, one outer pair of apical cells and two pairs of sub-apical, chloroplast-containing cells, were isolated from glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua. A. annua is the source of the widely used antimalarial drug artemisinin. The biosynthesis of artemisinin has been proposed to be located to the glandular trichomes. The first committed steps in the conversion of FPP to artemisinin are conducted by amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorpha-4,11-diene hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13) reductase. The expression of the three biosynthetic enzymes in the different cell types has been studied. In addition, the expression of farnesyldiphosphate synthase producing the precursor of artemisinin has been investigated. Our experiments showed expression of farnesyldiphosphate synthase in apical and sub-apical cells as well as in mesophyl cells while the three enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were expressed only in the apical cells. Elongation factor 1alpha was used as control and it was expressed in all cell types. We conclude that artemisinin biosynthesis is taking place in the two outer apical cells while the two pairs of chloroplast-containing cells have other functions in the overall metabolism of glandular trichomes.

  4. N-Glycosylation instead of cholesterol mediates oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjeti, Naga Salaija; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Paladino, Simona; de la Fuente, Erwin; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2011-12-01

    Sorting of glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol--anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in polarized epithelial cells is not fully understood. Oligomerization in the Golgi complex has emerged as the crucial event driving apical segregation of GPI-APs in two different kind of epithelial cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells, but whether the mechanism is conserved is unknown. In MDCK cells cholesterol promotes GPI-AP oligomerization, as well as apical sorting of GPI-APs. Here we show that FRT cells lack this cholesterol-driven oligomerization as apical sorting mechanism. In these cells both apical and basolateral GPI-APs display restricted diffusion in the Golgi likely due to a cholesterol-enriched membrane environment. It is striking that N-glycosylation is the critical event for oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells but not in MDCK cells. Our data indicate that at least two mechanisms exist to determine oligomerization in the Golgi leading to apical sorting of GPI-APs. One depends on cholesterol, and the other depends on N-glycosylation and is insensitive to cholesterol addition or depletion.

  5. Fractal dimension of apical dendritic arborization differs in the superficial and the deep pyramidal neurons of the rat cerebral neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puškaš, Nela; Zaletel, Ivan; Stefanović, Bratislav D; Ristanović, Dušan

    2015-03-04

    Pyramidal neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex have specific structure and pattern of organization that involves the presence of apical dendrite. Morphology of the apical dendrite is well-known, but quantification of its complexity still remains open. Fractal analysis has proved to be a valuable method for analyzing the complexity of dendrite morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the fractal dimension of apical dendrite arborization of pyramidal neurons in distinct neocortical laminae by using the modified box-counting method. A total of thirty, Golgi impregnated neurons from the rat brain were analyzed: 15 superficial (cell bodies located within lamina II-III), and 15 deep pyramidal neurons (cell bodies situated within lamina V-VI). Analysis of topological parameters of apical dendrite arborization showed no statistical differences except in total dendritic length (p=0.02), indicating considerable homogeneity between the two groups of neurons. On the other hand, average fractal dimension of apical dendrite was 1.33±0.06 for the superficial and 1.24±0.04 for the deep cortical neurons, showing statistically significant difference between these two groups (pfractal dimension values, apical dendrites of the superficial pyramidal neurons tend to show higher structural complexity compared to the deep ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First Evidence of Cardiac Stem Cells From the Left Ventricular Apical Tip in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, M; Righini, F M; Sparla, S; Tacchini, D; Dokollari, A; Sassi, C G; Di Tommaso, C; Curci, V; Censini, S; Incampo, E; Cassano, F; Droandi, G; Bernazzali, S; Focardi, M; Ietta, F; Sartiani, L; Romagnoli, R; Marotta, G; Mugelli, A; Paulesu, L; Sani, G; Tanganelli, P; Maccherini, M; Mondillo, S

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have challenged the dogma that the adult heart is a postmitotic organ and raise the possibility of the existence of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs). Our study aimed to explore if these CSCs are present in the "ventricular tip" obtained during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation from patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) and the relationship with LV dysfunctional area extent. Four consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage HF submitted to LVAD implantation were studied. The explanted "ventricular tip" was used as a sample of apical myocardial tissue for the pathological examination. Patients underwent clinical and echocardiographic examination, both standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), before LVAD implantation. All patients presented severe apical dysfunction, with apical akinesis/diskinesis and very low levels of apical longitudinal strain (-3.5 ± 2.9%). Despite this, the presence of CSCs was demonstrated in pathological myocardial samples of "ventricular tip" in all 4 of the patients. It was found to be a mean of 6 c-kit cells in 10 fields magnification 40×. Cardiac stem cells can be identified in the LV apical segment of patients who have undergone LVAD implantation despite LV apical fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro analysis of the cement film thickness of two endodontic sealers in the apical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Lucas da Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro film thickness of two endodontic sealers containing epoxy-resin and zinc-oxide-eugenol, respectively in the apical region of the root canal system. Materials and Methods : A total of 20 palatine roots of the first maxillary molars were submitted to instrumentation up to a #40 file by the step-back technique and irrigated with 2 ml of NaOCl after each change of file. The roots were divided at random into two groups of 10 elements; one group was sealed with the Sealer 26® cement and the other one with the EndoFill® cement using the classical technique. The roots were abraded in the apical region until exposure of the filling and cut crosswise at 3 mm to obtain samples. The samples were analyzed by optic microscopy with 40X magnification. The images obtained were recorded using the Adobe Premiere 5.1® software and submitted to morphometric analysis using an integration grid that permitted the quantification of the area filled with the sealer or gutta-percha, and eventual empty spaces. Results : Statistical analysis of the data (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05 revealed no significant differences between the epoxy-resin-based cement Sealer 26® (47.85% and the zinc- oxide- eugenol-based cement EndoFill® (54.16%. Conclusion : We conclude that the two sealers tested showed a similar behavior regarding the cement film thickness in the apical region.

  8. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris during ultrasonic versus rotary instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araquam, Karolline Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a extrusão apical de debris durante a instrumentação rotatória versus ultra-sônica de canais radiculares. Metodologia: A amostra constituiu-se de 20 pré-molares inferiores com dimensões radiculares similares. Para coleta do material extruído apicalmente durante a instrumentação endodôntica, foram fixados recipientes de resina acrílica na superfície externa das raízes. Todos os dentes tiveram os terços cervical e médio dos canais radiculares preparado com brocas Gates-Glidden. Após odontometria, a instrumentação apical foi realizada com sistema ultra-sônico ou sistema rotatório (n=10/grupo. Os recipientes de resina foram pesados antes e após a instrumentação e a diferença de peso foi considerada a quantidade de material extruído. Os dados foram analisados por teste de Mann-Whitney, ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Houve grande variabilidade de quantidade de material extruído para ambas as técnicas de instrumentação, com valores de 0,0009 a 0,0860 g. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos (P>0. 05. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que ambas as técnicas de instrumentação testadas, com ultra-som ou sistema rotatório, apresentaram extrusão apical de debris em quantidade semelhante

  9. Calcium hydroxide induced apexification with apical root development: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J; Santos, S; César, C; Silva, P; Sá, M; Silveira, F; Nunes, E

    2008-08-01

    To report the induction of apical root development by calcium hydroxide in teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical radiolucency. A 10-year-old male patient was admitted to the clinic complaining of an intense pain and oedema on the anterior facial region, compatible with an acute dentoalveolar abscess. There was a previous history of dental trauma; only tooth 11 was negative to pulp sensitivity tests. Radiographically, tooth 11 exhibited incomplete root formation, characterized by a wide root canal, thin and fragile dentinal walls, and an extensive, divergent foraminal opening associated with an apical radiolucency. The first appointment focused on urgent local and systemic treatment. Apexification treatment commenced at the second session after 7 days, by means of chemo-mechanical debridement throughout the entire root canal, using K-files and irrigation with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Subsequently, a calcium hydroxide paste was applied and changed four times over 8 months, when radiographic examination revealed complete closure of the foraminal opening, resulting in resolution of the periapical radiolucency and associated with 5 mm of additional root development. The root canal was filled by thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and sealer. A 3-year follow-up revealed normal periapical tissues and the absence of symptoms. * In young patients, dental trauma may cause pulp necrosis and arrest of root formation. * Under certain circumstances, chemo-mechanical debridement, including the use of a calcium hydroxide paste, is a valid alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate and or surgery for root-end closure. * In teeth with incompletely formed roots associated with periapical lesions, calcium hydroxide can induce periapical repair through the closure of the foramen and apical root development.

  10. Apices of maxillary premolars observed by swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Arata; Iino, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Toshihiko; Hanada, Takahiro; Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Suda, Hideaki

    2015-02-01

    Apicoectomy is performed for the management of apical periodontitis when orthograde root canal treatment is not possible or is ineffective. Prior to the surgery, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination is often performed to evaluate the lesion and the adjacent tissues. During the surgical procedure, the root apex is resected and the resected surface is usually observed under dental operating microscope (DOM). However, it is difficult to evaluate the details and the subsurface structure of the root using CBCT and DOM. A new diagnostic system, swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), has been developed to observe the subsurface anatomical structure. The aim of this study was to observe resected apical root canals of human maxillary premolars using SS-OCT and compare the findings with those observed using CBCT and DOM. Six extracted human maxillary premolars were used. After microfocus computed tomography (Micro CT; for gold standard) and CBCT scanning of the root, 1 mm of the apex was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Each resected surface was treated with EDTA, irrigated with saline solution, and stained with methylene blue dye. The resected surface was observed with DOM and SS-OCT. This sequence was repeated three times. The number of root canals was counted and statistically evaluated. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of detecting root canals among CBCT, DOM and SS-OCT (p > 0.05, Wilcoxon test). Because SS-OCT can be used in real time during surgery, it would be a useful tool for observing resected apical root canals.

  11. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  12. Aging effects in the expression of macrophages in post-treatment apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Natália Freire; Brasil, Sabrina de Castro; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Armada, Luciana

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the CD68 immunoexpression in post-treatment apical periodontitis lesions of older patients and compare them with lesions of younger/middle age adults. Biopsy specimens from 21 apical periodontitis lesions (12 granulomas and 9 cysts) were selected from older patients and 25 apical periodontitis lesions from younger/middle age adults (12 cysts and 13 granulomas) were selected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using silanized slides with anti-CD68 antibody. The slides were subdivided in five high-power fields and the images were observed under an optical microscope to evaluate the epithelial and connective tissues. The results showed that there was no statistical difference for the CD68 expression in epithelial tissue of cysts between younger/middle age adults and older patients. However, for the connective tissue of both cysts and granulomas, there was a statistical difference between the two age groups. There was a statistical difference between the epithelial and the connective tissues in cysts of younger/middle age adults, and also when the epithelial tissue of the cysts was compared with connective tissue of the granuloma. In the group of older patients, there was no statistical difference between the connective tissue of the cysts and granulomas. The intensity of the macrophage staining was greater in the connective tissue of cysts and granulomas alike in the younger/middle age adult patients, suggesting that these cells participate actively in this tissue. Immune responses in older patients may be compromised, suggesting that there is a greater tendency for the endodontic treatment of these patients to fail. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Regaining apical patency after obturation with gutta-percha and a sealer containing mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew T; Sidow, Stephanie J; Lindsey, Kimberly W; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2014-04-01

    MTA Fillapex (Angelus Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina PR, Brazil) was introduced as a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based sealer used for endodontic obturation. There is a lack of research that evaluates the ability of different solvents to soften MTA-based sealers during retreatment. This study tested the ability of 4 commonly used endodontic solvents to soften gutta-percha and MTA Fillapex to allow for the re-establishment of apical patency. Eighty-six extracted maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented to the working length to a size 45 (.04 taper size). Teeth were divided into 2 groups (n = 43 for each group). MTA Fillapex was placed into all canals. Group 1 was obturated with gutta-percha to the working length, and group 2 was obturated 2 mm short of the working length to ensure the apical 2 mm was filled with sealer only. Both groups were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 10). The remaining teeth served as the control group. Each subgroup was exposed to 1 of the following solvents: chloroform, Endosolv R (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France), Endosolv E (Septodont), or eucalyptol. Patency was re-established in 100% of the teeth in groups 1 and 2 when tested with chloroform or Endosolv E, 80% of the teeth in group 1 and 90% in group 2 when tested with eucalyptol, and 10% of the teeth in group 1 and 50% in group 2 tested when with Endosolv R. The chi-square test indicated there was a statistical difference between Endosolv R and the other tested solvents for both groups. Chloroform, Endosolv E, and Eucalyptol soften GP and MTA Fillapex sufficiently to aid in re-establishing apical patency during endodontic retreatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Do the Sealer Solvents Used Affect Apically Extruded Debris in Retreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çanakçi, Burhan Can; Er, Ozgur; Dincer, Asiye

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated apically extruded debris in the retreatment of root canals filled with different root canal sealers and gutta-percha using different solvents. Ninety human mandibular central and lateral teeth were prepared using the Reciproc #25 .08 nickel-titanium system (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) and were divided randomly into 6 groups. In groups 1, 2, and 3, root canals were filled with epoxy resin-based sealer and gutta-percha, and in groups 4, 5, and 6, root canals were filled with zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer and gutta-percha. Each tooth was placed in a glass vial experimental apparatus. All root canal fillings were removed with the ProTaper Retreatment nickel-titanium system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). During the retreatment procedure, in group 1, Resosolv (Pierre Rolland, Merignac, France) was used; in group 4, Endosolv E (Septodont, Paris, France) was used; and in groups 2 and 5, Guttasolv (Septodont) was used as the solvent. In the control groups (groups 3 and 6), no solvent was used. Reciproc #40 .06 was used for the final preparation. The times required for retreatments were recorded. The weight of the extruded debris and the time required for retreatment were decreased significantly in the groups in which a solvent that was intended specifically for the root canal sealer was used (groups 1 and 4). In the Guttasolv groups (groups 2 and 5), the amount of apically extruded debris and the time required decreased for both root canal sealers. The amount of apically extruded debris and the duration of retreatment were reduced by the use of a solvent specific to the sealer compared with a gutta-percha solvent or no solvent. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Apical left ventricular hypertrophy and mid-ventricular obstruction in fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Saccheri, María C; Fernández, Segundo P; Fernández, Cinthia C; Rozenfeld, Paula A; Kisinovsky, Isaac

    2015-05-01

    We report the case of a rare cardiac presentation of Fabry disease. Although concentric left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cardiac finding in Fabry disease, there is no case report of dynamic obstruction at mid-left ventricular level. We describe a 59-year-old-woman suffering from a severe form of Fabry disease, mimicking an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction. Differentiation of Fabry disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is crucial given the therapeutic and prognostic differences. Fabry disease should always be suspected in an adult, independently of the pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes. Effect on the Golgi complex and apical membrane trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Thorsen, Evy

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal brush border enzymes, including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, are associated with "rafts" (membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipids). To assess the functional role of rafts in the present work, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on apical......, the rates of the Golgi-associated complex glycosylation and association with rafts of newly synthesized aminopeptidase N were reduced, and less of the enzyme had reached the brush border membrane after 2 h of labeling. In contrast, the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was neither missorted nor raft...

  18. Impact of different file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Turker, Sevinc Aktemur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of present study was to determine the effect of different nickel?titanium file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment: D-RaCe retreatment systems, EdgeFile XR retreatment rotary files, and Reciproc R40. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six single-rooted prepared mandibular premolar teeth were filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The teeth were then randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) for retreatment. The endodontic ret...

  19. Análise da eficácia do localizador apical do Tri Auto ZX.

    OpenAIRE

    Britto Machado, María Leticia; Tessare Junior, Paulo; de Lima Machado, Mancel; Bernardes Fonseca, Michelle; Fava, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recibido: Junio 2003 Aceptado: Agosto 2003 Falhas na obtenção do comprimento do canal a ser trabalhado podem resultar em alguns problemas como: aumento do desconforto do paciente, possível infecção ou desenvolvimento de cisto e exteriorização de medicação intracanal para os tecidos perirradiculares. O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar o comprimento de trabalho através da utilização de um aparelho - localizador apical – Tri-Auto ZX, onde foram analisados 30 molares, total...

  20. Comparison of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using 4 different root canal irrigation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İriboz, Emre; Bayraktar, Koral; Türkaydın, Dilek; Tarçın, Bilge

    2015-03-01

    We compared the apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite delivered with a 27-G needle, self-adjusting file (SAF), passive ultrasonic irrigation, or the EndoVac system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) during the instrumentation and final irrigation of root canals. Matched paired single-canal teeth were divided into 8 groups. The experimental groups were needle irrigation size #30 (NI30) and #50 (NI50), SAF size #30 (SAF30) and #50 (SAF50), passive ultrasonic irrigation size #30 (PUI30) and #50 (PUI50), and EndoVac size #30 (EV30) and #50 (EV50). Teeth were embedded in 0.2% agarose gel (pH = 7.4) containing 1 mL 0.1% m-Cresol purple (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO), which changes color at a pH level of 9.0. Root canals were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA using 4 different techniques, and the amount of irrigant was controlled. Standardized digital photographs were taken 20 minutes after the first irrigant was used and were analyzed to determine the amount of extrusion (expressed as a percentage of total pixels). The amounts of apical extrusion obtained in the NI30, NI50, SAF30, SAF50, PUI30, PUI50, EV30, and EV50 groups were 30% (3/10), 50% (5/10), 20% (2/10), 70% (7/10), 40% (4/10), 40% (4/10), 10% (1/10), and 10% (1/10), respectively. The overall extrusion frequency, regardless of the apical preparation size, was 40% (8/20) for needle, 45% (9/20) for SAF, 40% (8/20) for ultrasonic irrigation, and 10% (2/20) for EndoVac. Although the SAF group showed more extrusion, the percentage of pixels was significantly higher in the needle irrigation group (P < .01). The EndoVac group showed significantly lower extrusion values than the other techniques in terms of the number of teeth and pixels (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). The risk of apical extrusion is significantly lower with the EndoVac in comparison with the 3 other techniques. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical treatment of adult scoliosis: is anterior apical release and fusion necessary for the lumbar curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngbae B; Lenke, Lawrence G; Kim, Yongjung J; Kim, Young-Woo; Bridwell, Keith H; Stobbs, Georgia

    2008-05-01

    A retrospective study. To analyze radiographic and functional outcomes after posterior segmental spinal instrumentation and fusion (PSSIF) with and without an anterior apical release of the lumbar curve in adult scoliosis patients. No comparison study on PSSIF of adult lumbar scoliosis with apical release versus without has been published. Forty-eight adult patients with lumbar scoliosis (average age at surgery 49.6 years, average follow-up 3.7 years) who underwent PSSIF were analyzed with respect to radiographic change, perioperative and postoperative complications, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome scores. Twenty-three patients underwent an anterior apical release of the lumbar curve via a thoracoabdominal approach followed by PSSIF (Group I). The remaining 25 patients underwent a PSSIF of the lumbar curve followed by anterior column support at the lumbosacral region through an anterior paramedian retroperitoneal or posterior transforaminal approach (Group II). Before surgery, Group I showed a somewhat larger lumbar major Cobb angle (63.2 degrees vs. 55.9 degrees , P = 0.07), and both groups demonstrated significant differences in lumbar curve flexibility (26.9% vs. 37.2%, P = 0.02) and thoracolumbar kyphosis (27.0 degrees vs. 15.0 degrees , P = 0.03). After surgery, at the ultimate follow-up, there were no significant differences in major Cobb angle, C7 plumbline to the center sacral vertical line (P = 0.17), C7 plumbline to the posterior superior endplate of S1 (P = 0.44), and sagittal Cobb angles at the proximal junction (P = 0.57), T10-L2 (P = 0.24) and T12-S1 (P = 0.51). There were 4 pseudarthroses in Group I and one in Group II (P = 0.02). Postoperative total normalized SRS outcome scores at ultimate follow-up were significantly higher in Group II (69% vs. 79%, P = 0.01). Posterior segmental spinal instrumentation and fusion without anterior apical release of lumbar curves in adult scoliosis demonstrated better total SRS outcome scores and no

  2. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  3. Influence of the apical enlargement size on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Cassia Salustiano Marinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role in endodontic infections because they have virulence factors such as endotoxin. Due to its potential cytotoxic activity, special attention has been given to the removal/neutralization of this endotoxin in the root canal system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the apical enlargement size (AES by using rotary instruments on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty root canals of the mandibular premolar teeth were used. Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B55 was inoculated into thirty root canals. Ten teeth served as the negative control group. After the incubation period, the first endotoxin samples were collected from the root canals with a sterile/apyrogenic paper point for the analysis of the endotoxin units (EU/mL present before instrumentation (S1. Specimen instrumentation was performed with the Mtwo® rotary system in the sequence 10/.04, 15/.05, 20/.06, 25/.06, 30/.05, 35/.04 and 40/.04. To monitor the effectiveness of increasing apical enlargement on endotoxin removal, the second endotoxin samples were collected from all the root canals after instrumentation with the following instruments: #25/.06- (S2; #30/.05- (S3; # 35/.04- (S4; and #40/.04- (S5. Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL was used to quantify the levels of endotoxin. The results were statistically compared by using repeated measures of ANOVA with post hoc Tukey testing. RESULTS: Increasing levels of endotoxin removal was achieved by large sized apical enlargement: S2 (AES #25/.06- 89.2%, S3 (AES #30/.05- 95.9%, S4 (AES #35/.04- 97.8% and S5 (AES #40/.04- 98.2%. Substantial reduction of endotoxin content was obtained in S4 and S5 compared to S2 (p<0.05, however, the root canal preparation was not able to eliminate the endotoxin. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the reduction of endotoxin levels of the dental root canals could be

  4. Phosphate depletion in opossum kidney cells: apical but not basolateral or transepithelial adaptions of Pi transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac-Nieto, M; Alfred, M; Spitzer, A

    2001-01-01

    Monolayers of opossum kidney (OK) cells are widely used as models for the renal proximal tubule. OK cells adapt to phosphate (Pi) depletion by increasing their capacity for apical and basolateral Na+-dependent Pi uptake. Because NMR-visible cell Pi was found to be decreased in Pi-deprived kidney cells, we suggested that up-regulation of basolateral Pi efflux also occurs during adaptation to Pi deprivation [American Journal of Physiol 1994;267:C915-919]. In order to test this hypothesis, we measured the cell Pi pool, basolateral Pi efflux and transepithelial Pi fluxes in OK cells grown on permeable plastic filters, exposed overnight to solutions containing either 0.5 mM (deprived) or 2.0 mM (replete) Pi or 32Pi. Following steady state or acute loading with 32Pi, the specific activity (SA) of cell Pi, the cell Pi pool and the basolateral efflux of 32Pi were measured. In the steady state, a 2-fold increase in Pi uptake sustained the intracellular Pi pool at 85% of the control level (30 +/- 5 nmol/mg) in spite of a decrease in extracellular Pi from 2 to 0.5 mM. When the extracellular Pi was acutely (1 h) reduced to 0.1 mM, the cell Pi pool decreased (to 3 +/- 1 nmol/mg) both in cells previously adapted overnight to either 0.5 or to 2 mM Pi (p >0.3). The rates of absolute and fractional basolateral washout of cell 32Pi after 1 h loading with 0.1 mM 32Pi were similar in cells adapted to 0.5 compared to 2 mM Pi. This indicates that Pi depletion did not affect the effective permeability of the basolateral membranes to Pi. Adaptation for 16 h to 0.5 compared to 2 mM Pi did not alter the rate of net transepithelial transport of 0.1 mM Pi from the apical to the basal compartment but reduced (p OK cells grown on plastic support there are no adaptive increases in either basolateral Pi efflux, or in transcellular and paracellular Pi transport, in response to Pi depletion. Adaptations are limited to increases in apical and basolateral sodium-dependent Pi uptakes that can maintain

  5. Similar expression of through-and-through fluid movement along orthograde apical plugs of MTA Bio and white Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, G; Audi, C; Murad, C; Fidel, S; Fidel, R

    2008-12-01

    To compare the sealing ability of four hydraulic cements when used as an apical plug in teeth with wide-open apices. A sample of 70 maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups (n = 15) and a further 10 teeth served as controls. An artificial open apex was created in the teeth using Gates Glidden drills numbers 6-1 in a crown-down manner until the size 1 bur passed through the foramen. A divergent open apex was prepared to a size of 1.24 mm at the foramen by retrograde apical transportation using a number 8 (0.60) Profile Series 29 0.4 taper instrument inserted to the length of the cutting blade. In G1, the open apices were repaired with WMTA Angelus whilst in G2, G3 and G4 MTA Bio, Pro-Root MTA and Portland cement was employed respectively. Each root was assembled in a hermetic cell to allow the evaluation of fluid filtration. Leakage was measured by the movement of an air bubble travelling within a pipette connected to the teeth. Measurements of the air bubble movement were made after 10 min at a constant pressure of 50 cm H(2)O. The Kruskal-Wallis H-test was applied to the fluid flow data to detect differences between the experimental groups (P 0.05). Fluid movement through teeth with open apices and filled with four hydraulic cements was similar. All cements allowed fluid movement.

  6. Mechanical perturbation-induced ethylene releases apical dominance in Pharbitis nil by restricting shoot growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical perturbation (MP, rubbing) or internodes of Pharbitis nil shoots initiates release of lateral buds (LB) from apical dominance within 48 h. Evidence is presented which suggests that MP promotion of LB outgrowth is mediated by ethylene-induced restriction of main shoot growth. Ethylene production in the internodes is stimulated by MP within 2 h. Effects of MP are mimicked by treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and are negated by the inhibitors of ethylene production or action, aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG) and AgNO3. The fact that effects of MP, ACC, and ethylene inhibitors are observed to occur on main shoot growth at least 24 h before they are observed to occur on LB growth suggests a possible cause and effect relationship. MP also causes an increase in internode diameter. MP stimulation of ethylene production appears to be mediated by ACC synthase. The results of this study and our previous studies suggest that apical dominance may be released by any mechanism which induces ethylene restriction of main shoot growth.

  7. External apical root resorption in patients treated by serial extractions followed by mechanotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Ilana; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2011-02-01

    In the course of orthodontic treatment with serial extractions (SE), spontaneous unraveling of crowded incisors occurs. It was hypothesized that SE followed by mechanotherapy will cause less external apical root resorption (EARR) than orthodontic treatment with late extractions (LE). The records of 24 patients who underwent SE and mechanotherapy and 24 control patients who underwent LE and mechanotherapy were examined. The groups were matched for sex, central incisor root development and morphology, malocclusion class, ANB angle, and overjet. Lateral cephalograms taken before mechanotherapy (T1) and after mechanotherapy (T2) were traced and superimposed on the palatal plane with registration on the osseous details superior to the maxillary incisors and on the palatal curve. The T1 and T2 central incisor lengths, changes in the axial inclination, and horizontal and vertical apical movements were measured. The tooth lengths in both groups were reduced: the EARR values were 1.8 mm (± 1.1) in the SE group and 2.1 mm (± 1.4) in the LE group, and the difference between the groups was not significant. The movements of the teeth in both groups were similar in absolute values. The spontaneous unraveling of incisor crowding with SE treatment does not prevent the common EARR seen in patients treated with LE, when the patients are treated by mechanotherapy after the SE. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified bisecting angle technique in eliminating zygomatic superimposition over apices of maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdade, Anshuman S

    2014-01-01

    Image superimposition is a part and parcel of two-dimensional radiography. However, some overlappings are a result of radiographic technique itself. The technique induced superimposition of zygomatic buttress on apices of maxillary molars is common in bisecting angle technique (BAT), which affects the endodontic performance. Certain alterations were carried out in BAT to remove these undiagnostic shadows. The aim of this study was to compare two techniques of periapical radiography namely, BAT and modified BAT (MBAT) in preventing zygomatic superimposition over apices of maxillary molars. A total of 62 patients requiring endodontic treatment for at least one maxillary molar were recruited in this cross-sectional study. One tooth from every patient was subjected for two periapical radiographs, one with each BAT and MBAT respectively giving a total of 124 radiographs. Each radiograph was recorded as acceptable or unacceptable, based on zygomatic superimposition and different technical aspects. Chi-square test was used for data analysis. The kappa statistic was used to test intra-observer reliability. With MBAT, the acceptability was 82.3% (n = 51) compared with 43.5% (n = 27) when BAT was employed. The statistically significant difference was found between these two techniques (P = 0.000). The level of agreement between two oral radiologists in their interpretation was high (kappa index = 0.897). Modified BAT was more accurate for periapical radiography of maxillary molars in preventing zygomatic superimposition and related technical errors than BAT.

  9. Evaluation of apically extruded debris in conventional and rotary instrumentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Maryam; Rastegar, Akbar Fallh; Ghaziani, Pari; Namazikhah, M Sadegh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare two common techniques, conventional and rotary instrumentation, in debris extrusion. Two hundred mature human teeth with mature apices and less than 15 degrees of root curvature as determined by Schneider's method were selected for use. Teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 50 teeth each and prepared using step-back instrumentation and profile 4 percent Taper Series 29 rotary system at three different speeds: 1,000 rpm, 8,000 rpm and 24,000 rpm. All of the speeds were reduced by contra angle to 1/6 rpm. Extruded debris were collected on pre-weighed vials containing distilled water through the apical foramen during instrumentation. The vials were then dried in a microwave oven at 150 degrees Celsius and weighed again. The difference was recorded as "the weight of the extruded debris." Eight control vials, two for each group, were weighed and filled with distilled water, dried, and reweighed. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group was statistically analyzed. T-student, unilateral variance analysis and Pearson tests were used in this study. Step-back instrumentation (Group 1) produced significantly more debris than other groups. The difference in the amount of debris produced among rotary groups was not significant. Rotary technique could reduce the amount of debris extrusion.

  10. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal treatment in an adult Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad A. Al-Nazhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the health status of periradicular tissue and the quality of root canal fillings in an adult Saudi population attending dental clinics for the first time. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the dental clinics at King Saud University, Riyadh and other dental centers (Jeddah, Najran, and Albaha City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between year 2010 and 2012. Good-quality panoramic radiographs of 926 Saudi subjects (540 males and 386 femaleswere analyzed based on the gender, age, health status, smoking habits, periapical status of the endodontically treated teeth, technical quality of the root canal fillings, and the presence or absence of coronal restoration. Data were calibrated and statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 17. Results: Of the 25,028 teeth examined, 1,556 teeth (6.2% had apical periodontitis (AP. Male subjects aged over 55 years and females between 36 and 45 years had higher AP. A total of 36 diabetic and 87 smokers subjects had AP. The AP was more common in male diabetics than female (p=0.383, and in female smokers more than male (p=0.44. Only 42.2% of male and 57.7% of female teeth had adequate root canal treatment. Conclusions: Apical periodontitis was significantly related to diabetes, smoking, and inadequate endodontic treatment.

  11. Immunolocalization of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 during apical periodontitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corotti, Mauro V; Zambuzzi, Willian F; Paiva, Katiúcia B S; Menezes, Renato; Pinto, Lidiane C; Lara, Vanessa S; Granjeiro, José M

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) during apical periodontitis development. Using an experimental design of induced periapical lesions in rats and immunohistochemistry assay as investigative tool, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and distribution were evaluated at 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90 days after coronary access and pulp exposure of the first left mandibular molar to the oral environment. Two blind observers scored the immunoreactivity. A semi-quantitative analysis was performed. Except at day 3, MMP-2 and MMP-9 immunostaining was observed in all experimental periods. The MMP-2 (p=0.004) and MMP-9 (p=0.005) immunostaining was higher in the period between 7 and 21 days. They were mainly observed in cells surrounding the apical foramen and adjacent periapical areas. Cells into the hypercementosis areas were strongly stained while both osteoblasts and osteoclasts presented discrete staining along of this study. No staining was observed on epithelial walls. At 30, 60 and 90 days, the subjacent connective tissue presented intense MMP-2 and MMP-9 immunostaining in mononuclear cells (suggestive of fibroblasts, macrophages, infiltrating neutrophils and lymphocytes). The results observed in this study suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 play a critical role in the development of inflammatory periapical lesions, probably involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation during the initial phase of the lesion development.

  12. Wear promoted in the apical third of simulated canals after instrumentation with protaper universal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein Tapia da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the wear in the apical third of simulate canals after preparation with ProTaper Universal Rotary System. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 sets of instruments were used in 24 simulated canals in transparent epoxy resin blocks with degree of curvature of either 20°or 40°. The canals were photographed preoperatively and after preparation of the apical stop with ProTaper F3, F4 and F5 instruments. The initial and final images were exported to Adobe Photoshop® software and superimposed to detect the root canal wall differences (in mm between them, in two points located 1 (A and 5 (B mm from the point where the working length was established. Data were subjected to analysis of variance to verify the existence of interaction among the factors: canal curvature, instrument size and curve location. Significant level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Regardless of the location and the canal curvature, F4 and F5 instruments produced the greatest wear (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There was a deviation from the original pathway towards the outside of the root curvature in both analyzed points. All instruments produced canal transportation, but the F4 and F5 instruments produced more than the other instruments, and should thus be used with care in curved canals.

  13. A gene regulatory network for apical organ neurogenesis and its spatial control in sea star embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatle Jarvela, Alys M; Yankura, Kristen A; Hinman, Veronica F

    2016-11-15

    How neural stem cells generate the correct number and type of differentiated neurons in appropriate places remains an important question. Although nervous systems are diverse across phyla, in many taxa the larva forms an anterior concentration of serotonergic neurons, or apical organ. The sea star embryo initially has a pan-neurogenic ectoderm, but the genetic mechanism that directs a subset of these cells to generate serotonergic neurons in a particular location is unresolved. We show that neurogenesis in sea star larvae begins with soxc-expressing multipotent progenitors. These give rise to restricted progenitors that express lhx2/9 soxc- and lhx2/9-expressing cells can undergo both asymmetric divisions, allowing for progression towards a particular neural fate, and symmetric proliferative divisions. We show that nested concentric domains of gene expression along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis, which are observed in a great diversity of metazoans, control neurogenesis in the sea star larva by promoting particular division modes and progression towards becoming a neuron. This work explains how spatial patterning in the ectoderm controls progression of neurogenesis in addition to providing spatial cues for neuron location. Modification to the sizes of these AP territories provides a simple mechanism to explain the diversity of neuron number among apical organs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Kanoh, Hatsuho

    2016-01-01

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein–centrin2–labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering “floret” pattern to the linear “alignment.” This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  15. Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Addie M.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James E.; Scanlon, Michael J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling meristem architecture in a recombinant inbred line population. The study presented here expanded on this by investigating shoot apical meristem morphology across a diverse set of maize inbred lines. Crosses of these lines to common parents showed varying phenotypic expression in the F1, with some form of heterosis occasionally observed. An investigation of meristematic growth throughout vegetative development in diverse lines linked the timing of reproductive transition to flowering time. Phenotypic correlations of meristem morphology with adult plant traits showed an association between the meristem and flowering time, leaf shape, and yield traits, revealing links between the control and architecture of undifferentiated and differentiated plant organs. Finally, quantitative trait loci mapping was utilized to map the genetic architecture of these meristem traits in two divergent populations. Control of meristem architecture was mainly population-specific, with 15 total unique loci mapped across the two populations with only one locus identified in both populations. PMID:25748433

  16. Apical transport of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein requires Rab11-positive recycling endosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Momose

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs. Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently in both directions, suggestive of vesicle trafficking. Using a series of Rab family protein, we demonstrated that progeny vRNP localized to recycling endosome (RE in an active/GTP-bound Rab11-dependent manner. The vRNP interacted with Rab11 through viral RNA polymerase. The localization of vRNP to RE and subsequent accumulation to the APM were impaired by overexpression of Rab binding domains (RBD of Rab11 family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs. Similarly, no APM accumulation was observed by overexpression of class II Rab11-FIP mutants lacking RBD. These results suggest that the progeny vRNP makes use of Rab11-dependent RE machinery for APM trafficking.

  17. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

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    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  18. Apical and basal epitheliomuscular F-actin dynamics during Hydra bud evagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analyzed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra. We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells. We then combined live imaging with conventional phalloidin staining to directly follow actin reorganization. Bending of the Hydra epithelial double layer is initiated by a group of epitheliomuscular cells in the endodermal layer. These cells shorten their apical-basal axis and arrange their basal muscle processes in a circular configuration. We propose that this rearrangement generates the initial forces to bend the endoderm towards the ectoderm. Convergent tissue movement in both epithelial layers towards the centre of evagination then leads to elongation and extension of the bud along its new body axis. Tissue movement into the bud is associated with lateral intercalation of epithelial cells, remodelling of apical septate junctions, and rearrangement of basal muscle processes. The work presented here extends the analysis of morphogenetic mechanisms beyond embryonic tissues of model bilaterians. PMID:28630355

  19. Herpesviruses viral loads and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, A; Knezevic, A; Nikolic, N; Soldatovic, I; Jovanovic, T; Milasin, J; Andric, M

    2018-01-09

    This study aimed to analyse Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) viral loads in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions, to determine levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in these lesions and to investigate a possible correlation between herpesviral copy numbers and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. A total of 100 samples of apical periodontitis were subjected to HCMV and EBV copy numbers analysis by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of EBV and HCMV between symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions (p = .686, p = .879, respectively). Only 12 of 74 EBV (16.2%) and four of 54 HCMV (13.5%) nested PCR-positive samples showed increased viral copy numbers above the limit of 125 copies/ml. There was no significant correlation between the levels of analysed proinflammatory cytokines and herpesviral copy numbers in our sample. The observed low viral loads point to a relatively rare occurrence of active EBV and HCMV infection in our sample. Latent herpesviral infection does not enhance the production of investigated proinflammatory cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of apically extruded bacteria associated with different nickel-titanium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Uzunoğlu, Emel; Aslan, Mehtap Hülya

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded bacteria associated with several root canal preparation systems. Forty-four extracted human mandibular premolar root canals were contaminated with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension. After incubation at 37°C for 24 hours, the root canals were instrumented using the Twisted File (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), OneShape (Micro Mega, Besançon, France), and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). During instrumentation, apically extruded bacteria were collected into vials containing 0.9% NaCl. The microbiological samples were taken from the vials and incubated in brain-heart agar medium for 24 hours. The numbers of colony-forming units were determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Welch analysis of variance followed by post hoc Games-Howell tests. ProTaper Next extruded the highest amount of bacteria, whereas OneShape extruded the least compared with all the other instruments (P = .004). There was a significant difference between OneShape and ProTaper Next in the number of colony-forming units (P = .007) but not between OneShape and Twisted File (P > .05). All instrumentation systems extruded bacteria beyond the foramen. The OneShape system extruded less bacteria compared with the Twisted File and ProTaper Next systems. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of apically extruded debris associated with several Ni-Ti systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Y; Çanakçi, B C; Dinçer, A N; Er, O; Düzgün, S

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the apical extrusion of debris associated with several root canal preparation systems in vitro. Forty-five extracted human mandibular premolars with single canals and similar lengths were used. The root canals were instrumented using ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Twisted File (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The Eppendorf tubes were weighed to obtain the final weight of the Eppendorf tubes plus extruded debris. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. The groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on Ranks and Tukey's test. The ProTaper Next group produced the highest mean extrusion value whilst WaveOne produced less debris compared with all the other instruments (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference between the ProTaper Next and WaveOne group (P extruded debris was associated with all instrumentation techniques. The WaveOne system extruded less debris compared with the Twisted File and ProTaper Next. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impact of different file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Turker, Sevinc Aktemur

    2016-01-01

    The goal of present study was to determine the effect of different nickel-titanium file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment: D-RaCe retreatment systems, EdgeFile XR retreatment rotary files, and Reciproc R40. Thirty-six single-rooted prepared mandibular premolar teeth were filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The teeth were then randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) for retreatment. The endodontic retreatment was performed as follows: D-RaCe, EdgeFile XR, Reciproc 40. Debris extruded apically during the retreatment was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. An incubator was used to store tubes at 70(°) C for 5 days. The initial weight was subtracted from final weight of the Eppendorf tubes to calculate the weight of the dry extruded debris for each group. The data obtained were evaluated using Welch analysis of variance and Games-Howell post-hoc tests (P extruded debris during endodontic retreatment.

  3. Visible light responsive photocatalyst induces progressive and apical-terminus preferential damages on Escherichia coli surfaces.

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    Je-Wen Liou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that visible-light responsive photocatalysts have potential usage in antimicrobial applications. However, the dynamic changes in the damage to photocatalyzed bacteria remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Facilitated by atomic force microscopy, this study analyzes the visible-light driven photocatalyst-mediated damage of Escherichia coli. Results show that antibacterial properties are associated with the appearance of hole-like structures on the bacteria surfaces. Unexpectedly, these hole-like structures were preferentially induced at the apical terminus of rod shaped E. coli cells. Differentiating the damages into various levels and analyzing the percentage of damage to the cells showed that photocatalysis was likely to elicit sequential damages in E. coli cells. The process began with changing the surface properties on bacterial cells, as indicated in surface roughness measurements using atomic force microscopy, and holes then formed at the apical terminus of the cells. The holes were then subsequently enlarged until the cells were totally transformed into a flattened shape. Parallel experiments indicated that photocatalysis-induced bacterial protein leakage is associated with the progression of hole-like damages, further suggesting pore formation. Control experiments using ultraviolet light responsive titanium-dioxide substrates also obtained similar observations, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon of E. coli in response to photocatalysis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The photocatalysis-mediated localization-preferential damage to E. coli cells reveals the weak points of the bacteria. This might facilitate the investigation of antibacterial mechanism of the photocatalysis.

  4. Visible Light Responsive Photocatalyst Induces Progressive and Apical-Terminus Preferential Damages on Escherichia coli Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Je-Wen; Gu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yen-Kai; Chen, Wen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent research shows that visible-light responsive photocatalysts have potential usage in antimicrobial applications. However, the dynamic changes in the damage to photocatalyzed bacteria remain unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Facilitated by atomic force microscopy, this study analyzes the visible-light driven photocatalyst-mediated damage of Escherichia coli. Results show that antibacterial properties are associated with the appearance of hole-like structures on the bacteria surfaces. Unexpectedly, these hole-like structures were preferentially induced at the apical terminus of rod shaped E. coli cells. Differentiating the damages into various levels and analyzing the percentage of damage to the cells showed that photocatalysis was likely to elicit sequential damages in E. coli cells. The process began with changing the surface properties on bacterial cells, as indicated in surface roughness measurements using atomic force microscopy, and holes then formed at the apical terminus of the cells. The holes were then subsequently enlarged until the cells were totally transformed into a flattened shape. Parallel experiments indicated that photocatalysis-induced bacterial protein leakage is associated with the progression of hole-like damages, further suggesting pore formation. Control experiments using ultraviolet light responsive titanium-dioxide substrates also obtained similar observations, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon of E. coli in response to photocatalysis. Conclusion/Significance The photocatalysis-mediated localization-preferential damage to E. coli cells reveals the weak points of the bacteria. This might facilitate the investigation of antibacterial mechanism of the photocatalysis. PMID:21589873

  5. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  6. Radiographic and histological evaluation of persistent periapical lesions associated with endodontic failures after apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, M K; Kaval, M E; Tekin, U; Ünal, T

    2016-11-01

    To determine the histology of persistent periapical lesions associated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment failures and to compare radiographically the sizes of periapical lesions and the presence or absence of the radiopaque lamina with the histological findings. Ninety-three anterior teeth designated for apical microsurgery were included in the study. After taking standard radiographs of all cases using the parallel technique, the films were scanned and evaluated for the size of periapical radiolucent lesions and the presence or absence of radiopaque lamina by two calibrated observers. Biopsy specimens were obtained during apical microsurgery and examined under light microscopy by oral pathologists. Histological analysis established diagnoses of granuloma, cyst, abscess and scar tissue. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by the kappa test, and the relationship between histological diagnosis and lesion size was analysed by the Pearson's chi-square test. The 93 specimens consisted of 72% periradicular granulomas; 21.5% radicular cysts, including two keratocysts; 4.3% abscesses; and 2.2% scar tissue. Cystic prevalence increased as the size of the periapical lesion increased; however, there was no correlation between the presence of a radiopaque lamina and histological diagnosis of cyst. Neither radiographic size nor presence of an associated radiopaque line alone was sufficient to determine the type of lesion. Histological examination is required in order to reach to a definitive diagnosis. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. MRI pelvic landmark angles in the assessment of apical pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginath, Shimon; Garely, Alan; Luchs, Jonathan S; Shahryarinejad, Azin; Olivera, Cedric; Zhou, Sue; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Condrea, Alexander; Brodman, Michael; Vardy, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvic landmark angles and lines in the assessment of apical vault prolapse. Seventeen women were evaluated as part of a prospective surgical trial. Baseline data are presented as a pilot study of the utility of MRI in addition to this evaluation of 6 nulliparous volunteers without prolapse and 11 parous women with symptomatic ≥ stage II uterine prolapse. Each patient underwent assessment for pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) and pelvic MRI. Pelvic landmark angles and lines were measured. Mann-Whitney Rank sum test and Spearman's Rank order correlation test were used to assess agreement. Women with prolapse had a significantly larger h angle, g angle, and e angle at rest than those without prolapse. Correlation between apical vault descent was measured clinically by POPQ point C with MRI measurements: h angle (r = 0.61, p = 0.01), g angle (r = 0.64, p = 0.005), and e angle (r = 0.62, p = 0.007). MRI measurements of pelvic landmark angles reliably differentiate between women with and without uterine prolapse and correlate best with POPQ point C.

  8. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings Efeito da irradiação de laser de diodo no selamento apical em retrobturações com MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barbosa de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical sealing is essential for the success of paraendodontic surgery, so any procedure that may favor an adequate sealing of the apical remainder should be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of root-end cavities with MTA retrofillings. Root canals in twenty extracted human teeth were shaped with K-files and filled with gutta-percha. The apexes were cut off and root-end preparations were performed. The roots were divided randomly in 2 groups. Group 1 (ten specimens was retrofilled with MTA. Group 2 was irradiated with diode laser, with 1 W for 20 seconds, on the apical surface and root end cavity before retrofilling with MTA. The specimens had their external surfaces impermeabilized with cyanoacrylate, except for the apical surface, and were then immersed in 1% rhodamine B dye for 72 h and placed in plaster stone. After that, the specimens were submitted to longitudinal abrasion until half of the root remained. The linear dye leakage was observed in these mid-roots between the root canal wall and retrofilling. The linear dye leakage was measured with Image Lab software, and the results were statistically analyzed with Student's t test. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05. The diode laser irradiation did not improve the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings under the conditions of this in vitro study.O selamento apical é fundamental para o sucesso da cirurgia parendodôntica. Assim, procedimentos que melhorem o selamento do remanescente apical devem ser utilizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a irradiação de laser de diodo poderia aumentar o selamento apical em cavidades retrógradas obturadas com MTA. Foram utilizadas 20 raízes de dentes humanos extraídos que, após preparo com lima tipo K, tiveram seus canais obturados com guta-percha. Os ápices foram cortados e sofreram preparo de cavidades retr

  9. Morfologia e biometria do ligamento apical do pênis de touros da raça Girolando Morphology and biometry of the apical ligament of the penis of Girolando race bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Roquete Cardoso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e biometria do ligamento apical do pênis de 32 touros da raça Girolando (Bos taurus indicus X Bos taurus taurus, Linnaeus - 1758, com idade de 36 a 48 meses e pesando de 480 a 540kg. As peças anatômicas foram obtidas em frigorífico e mantidas congeladas até dissecação. O ligamento originou-se a 15,1±2,9cm distalmente à curvatura caudal da flexura sigmoide e inseriu-se a 1,4±0,7cm proximalmente ao colo da glande, medindo 18,9±2,6cm de comprimento. Apresentou largura de 1,9±0,6mm na sua origem, 2,2±0,8mm na inserção e 35,2±10mm na altura da inserção da lâmina interna do prepúcio. A espessura média ao longo de sua extensão variou de 0,7 a 1,9mm. Próximo à coroa da glande, o ligamento apical se posiciona principalmente na superfície dorsolateral esquerda desse órgão, e a característica da sua fixação na albugínea apresentou variações ao longo de sua extensão. Em sua origem e inserção e na face esquerda do pênis, o ligamento apical é firmemente aderido à túnica albugínea, mas na face dorsal e direita do pênis essa união é realizada por meio de tecido conjuntivo frouxo. Verificou-se correlação média entre o comprimento e a circunferência do pênis com o comprimento do ligamento apical, mas a correlação entre essas variáveis do pênis e a largura do ligamento apical foi baixa.The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and biometry of the apical ligament of the penis of Girolando bulls. For this purpose, it was dissected 32 penis of Girolando bulls obtained from slaughterhouses and kept frozen until their dissection. The animals were 36 to 48 month old and weighted between 480 and 540kg. The origin of the apical ligament occurred at 15.1±2.9cm distally to the caudal loop of the sigmoid flexure and its insertion occurred at 1.4±0.7cm proximally to the neck of the glans. The length of the apical ligament was 19.9±2.6cm. The width was 1.9±0.6mm at its

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Rothia mucilaginosa DY-18: A Clinical Isolate with Dense Meshwork-Like Structures from a Persistent Apical Periodontitis Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-25

    chromosome. Regarding stress responsive systems known to affect biofilm formation in many bacteria , DY-18 genome possessed only two sigma factor genes...mucilaginosa strain DY-18 (DY-18), was isolated from the bacteria that were present in a persistent apical periodontitis lesion [8]. Apical periodontitis is a...collection isolated from a persistent apical periodontitis lesion, where the presence of bacteria was noted in root canals after numerous treatments [8

  11. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

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    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  12. INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADO SOBRE EL GRADO DE ACEPTACIÓN DE LA CARNE DE CUY (CAVIA PORCELLUS EN PRESENTACIONES DE AHUMADO, CROQUETAS Y APANADO EN LA CIUDAD DE PASTO MARKET RESEARCH ON THE DEGREE OF ACCEPTANCE OF MEAT FROM CUY (CAVIA PORCELLUS PRESENTATIONS SMOKED, AND BROSTER CROQUETTES IN THE CITY OF PASTO

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    FRANCISCO E ARGOTE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios de hábitos en el consumo de alimentos, insinúan productos de fácil preparación y oportuna adquisición en supermercados, motivo por el cual se hizo necesario indagar a los consumidores de la ciudad de Pasto, su interés y disponibilidad por adquirir Cuy, en presentaciones diferentes a la tradicional. Los objetivos desarrollados fueron valoración de la demanda potencial, realización de test de mercado, determinación de la participación de la carne de Cuy con sustitutos y diseño de estrategias de mercadeo. El modelo de investigación empleado fue el cuantitativo y obedeció a muestreo probabilístico aleatorio con estratificación proporcional. La recolección de la información se realizó mediante encuesta. La población objeto de estudio de la ciudad de Pasto correspondió a 27.428 hogares distribuidos en los estratos, tres, cuatro, cinco y seis. La muestra calculada fue de 383 observaciones, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un margen de error del 5%. Las estrategias se formularon con base en la mezcla de mercadeo (precio, producto, plaza, promoción y publicidad. Como resultados y conclusiones se logró determinar que el consumo de la carne de Cuy es ocasional con cantidades entre una y cuatro canales. El Cuy en el momento no se vende en famas ni en supermercados, los precios se analizaron en asaderos comerciales (700 gramos de Cuy asado $24.000 y plazas de mercados (Kilo de Cuy vivo alrededor de $12.000. El porcentaje de participación de la carne de Cuy fue de 3,3% del consumo total de carnes. El estimativo de la demanda potencial para las nuevas presentaciones fue de: 92.158 unidades/año para el Cuy ahumado, 69.119 unidades/año para el apanado, y croquetas con 65.827 unidades/año, con pesos de 750 g y 500 g. Los encuestados prefirieron la carne de Cuy ahumada.The changes of habits in the consumption of foods, insinuate products of easy preparation and opportune acquisition in supermarkets, reason for which became

  13. Delayed-enhancement MRI of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: assessment of the intramural distribution and comparison with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shinichiro; Takayama, Morimasa; Kitamura, Mitsunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is reported to show patchy midwall myocardial hyper enhancement on delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI). The intramural distribution of myocardial hyper enhancement and its correlation with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac function have not been described for symptomatic apical HCM. Purpose: To evaluate the features and significance of myocardial hyper enhancement on DE-MRI in symptomatic apical HCM. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with symptomatic apical HCM and their 65 apical segments were investigated. Myocardial hyper enhancement and regional and global functional parameters were determined with MRI. We investigated the intramural distribution and frequencies of this myocardial hyper enhancement and compared them with the patients' clinical symptoms, the presence of ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI. Results: Eight (61.5%) patients with symptomatic apical HCM displayed apical myocardial hyper enhancement, and 22 (33.8%) of the 65 apical segments examined showed myocardial hyper enhancement. Of the myocardial hyper enhancement observed, 81.8% showed a subendocardial pattern.The Hyperenhanced apical myocardium had a lower percentage of systolic myocardial thickening, and was associated with serious symptoms (e.g. syncope) and ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic apical HCM showed myocardial hyper enhancement involving the subendocardial layer, which might be related to regional systolic dysfunction, serious clinical symptoms, and ventricular arrhythmias

  14. Delayed-enhancement MRI of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: assessment of the intramural distribution and comparison with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shinichiro (Dept. of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)), email: yas-amano@nifty.com; Takayama, Morimasa (Dept. of Cardiology, Sakakibara Heart Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Kitamura, Mitsunobu (Coronary Care Unit, Chiba-Hokuso Hospital of Nippon Medical School, Chiba (Japan))

    2011-07-15

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is reported to show patchy midwall myocardial hyper enhancement on delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI). The intramural distribution of myocardial hyper enhancement and its correlation with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac function have not been described for symptomatic apical HCM. Purpose: To evaluate the features and significance of myocardial hyper enhancement on DE-MRI in symptomatic apical HCM. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with symptomatic apical HCM and their 65 apical segments were investigated. Myocardial hyper enhancement and regional and global functional parameters were determined with MRI. We investigated the intramural distribution and frequencies of this myocardial hyper enhancement and compared them with the patients' clinical symptoms, the presence of ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI. Results: Eight (61.5%) patients with symptomatic apical HCM displayed apical myocardial hyper enhancement, and 22 (33.8%) of the 65 apical segments examined showed myocardial hyper enhancement. Of the myocardial hyper enhancement observed, 81.8% showed a subendocardial pattern.The Hyperenhanced apical myocardium had a lower percentage of systolic myocardial thickening, and was associated with serious symptoms (e.g. syncope) and ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic apical HCM showed myocardial hyper enhancement involving the subendocardial layer, which might be related to regional systolic dysfunction, serious clinical symptoms, and ventricular arrhythmias

  15. Evaluation of apical deviation in root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems Avaliação do desvio apical em canais instrumentados pelos sistemas K3 e ProTaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Diniz Bisi dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: this study evaluated the apical deviation of curved root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: twenty root canals of human maxillary and mandibular first molars were employed, which were divided into 2 groups: group A (10 teeth was instrumented with the K3 system, and group B (10 teeth with the ProTaper system. Evaluation of deviation was performed by double radiographic exposure. Radiographs were achieved before and after instrumentation, with 0.3-second, thus allowing superimposition of images. Three-dimensional computerized tomograph was performed in 3 specimens in each group, as an additional means to evaluate the apical deviation. RESULTS: were evaluated by the parametric test Student-Newman-Keuls at 5%, which did not reveal significance between groups concerning the apical deviation. The results of computerized tomograph images demonstrated that the larger deviation of the root canal occurred at the distolingual area for both systems. CONCLUSIONS: both techniques produced a mild apical deviation. Computerized microtomography was shown to be accurate for experimental endodontics studies.OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desvio apical de canais radiculares curvos instrumentados pelos sistemas K3 e ProTaper. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 20 canais radiculares de primeiros molares superiores e inferiores humanos, os quais foram divididos em 2 grupos, o grupo A (10 dentes foi instrumentado pelo sistema K3 e o grupo B (10 dentes com o sistema ProTaper, a forma de avaliação do desvio foi a dupla exposição radiográfica. As tomadas radiográficas foram feitas antes e após a instrumentação, com um tempo de 0,3 segundos em cada exposição, ocorrendo assim, sobreposição das imagens. Em 3 espécimes, de cada grupo, foi realizada a tomografia computadorizada tridimensional, como forma adicional de avaliar o desvio apical . Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados pelo teste paramétrico Student

  16. The apical scaffold big bang binds to spectrins and regulates the growth of Drosophila melanogaster wing discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Elodie; Logeay, Rémi; Géminard, Charles; Kantar, Diala; Frayssinoux, Florence; Heron-Milhavet, Lisa; Djiane, Alexandre

    2018-03-05

    During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture. bbg -mutant tissues are smaller, with fewer cells that are less apically constricted than normal. We show that Bbg binds to and colocalizes tightly with the β-heavy-Spectrin/Kst subunit at the apical cortex and promotes Yki activity, F-actin enrichment, and the phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain Spaghetti squash. We propose a model in which the spectrin cytoskeleton recruits Bbg to the cortex, where Bbg promotes actomyosin contractility to regulate epithelial tissue growth. © 2018 Forest et al.

  17. Epicardial deployment of right ventricular disk during perventricular device closure in a child with apical muscular ventricular septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara Rao Koneti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a successful perventricular closure of an apical muscular ventricular septal defect (mVSD by a modified technique. An eight-month-old infant, weighing 6.5 kilograms, presented with refractory heart failure. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed multiple apical mVSDs with the largest one measuring 10 mm. perventricular device closure using a 12 mm Amplatzer mVSD occluder was planned. The left ventricular disk was positioned approximating the interventricular septum; however, the right ventricular (RV disk was deployed on the free wall of the RV due to an absent apical muscular septum and a small cavity at the apex. The RV disk of the device was covered using an autologous pericardium. His heart failure improved during follow-up.

  18. A case of mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treated with a transapical myectomy approach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Thiago Luis; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Oikawa, Fernando Teiichi Costa; da Costa, Leandro Menezes Alves; Hueb, Alexandre Ciappina; Hueb, Whady

    2014-11-11

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic cardiac disease characterized by marked variability in morphological expression and natural history. The hypertrophic myocardium is often confined to the septum or lateral wall of the left ventricle, but it can also be encountered in the middle or apical segments of the myocardium. Treatment is based on medical therapy. Others therapies, such as embolization of the septal artery or ventriculomyectomy, are indicated in special situations. Surgery is the standard treatment, and it is classically done via a transaortic approach; however, in cases in which the hypertrophic myocardium is confined to mid-apical segments, a transapical approach is an option. Only a few cases of mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treated with a myectomy using a transapical approach have been reported in the English-language literature. In this report, we present a case of a patient with mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treated using this new approach. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a history of chest pain and shortness of breath causing significant limitations on her daily life activities. She had a history of coronary artery disease. Her physical examination was unremarkable. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed normal systolic function and significant concentric left ventricular hypertrophy that was greater in the mid-apical region. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging confirmed significant hypertrophy of the median segments of the left ventricle. The patient had persistent symptoms despite receiving optimized medical treatment, and a surgical approach was indicated. As a myectomy using transaortic technique was thought to be difficult to perform in her case, a transapical approach was used. No complications occurred, and her symptoms resolved. A transapical myectomy should be taken into consideration for patients with mid-apical obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is refractory to medical

  19. The effect of irrigating solutions on the apical sealing ability of MTA Fillapex and Adseal root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maximum sealing ability or adhesion of endodontic sealers can be achieved after effective removal of the smear layer. Endodontic irrigants assist in adequate removal of the smear layer, improving the retention mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different root canal irrigation solutions (5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and QMix on the apical sealing ability of two different root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Adseal. Methods. Forty-six single-canal teeth were divided into 4 experimental groups of 10 teeth each and a positive and negative group of 3 teeth each. The root canals were prepared using step-back technique. The teeth in groups 1 and 2 were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and the teeth in groups 3 and 4 were irrigated with QMix. Finally all the teeth were flushed with sterile saline and dried using paper points. Obturation was accomplished by gutta-percha using lateral condensation technique. MTA Fillapex sealer was used in groups 1 and 3 whereas Adseal was used in groups 2 and 4. Dye penetration method was used to evaluate apical leakage. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests using SPSS 14. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Group 3 showed maximum amount of apical leakage (3.7±0.3 mm whereas group 2 exhibited the least amount of apical leakage (2.1 ± 0.4 mm among all the experimental groups. Significant differences were found in the amount of apical leakage between all the groups (P = 0.00001. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% EDTA and Adseal resulted in the best apical seal.

  20. In vitro sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and white Portland cement used as apical plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Zanatta Aranha Coneglian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs made of white and gray MTA-Angelus® and white Portland cement placed via the root canal and having different thicknesses (2, 5 and 7 mm. Ninety extracted human single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a size 40 K-file to standardize the foraminal opening by the stepback technique. The teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n=30, according to the material used for fabrication of the apical plugs: A = gray MTA; B = white MTA; C = white Portland cement. The groups were subdivided into groups of 10 teeth each according to the apical plug thickness (2, 5 and 7 mm. Marginal apical dye leakage was assessed using 0.2% Rhodamine B solution in which the specimens were immersed for 72 hours at 37ºC. The roots were sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction for apical plug exposure, and digital photographs were taken and analyzed by Image Tool image-analysis software. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Significance level was set at 5%. The least percent leakage was observed for 5- and 7-mm-thick plugs (p0.05 was found between gray MTA and white Portland cement. Among the three materials analyzed, white MTA presented the highest marginal leakage (p<0.05. The findings of the present study showed that gray MTA and Portland cement had better sealing ability than white MTA when used as apical plugs. Dye leakage was smaller for 5- and 7-mm-thick plugs compared to 2-mm-thick plugs.

  1. An internal deletion in the cytoplasmic tail reverses the apical localization of human NGF receptor in transfected MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, A; Sambuy, Y; Patzak, A; Patil, N; Chao, M; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1991-11-01

    A cDNA encoding the full-length 75-kD human nerve growth factor receptor was transfected into MDCK cells and its product was found to be expressed predominantly (80%) on the apical membrane, as a result of vectorial targeting from an intracellular site. Apical hNGFR bound NGF with low affinity and internalized it inefficiently (6% of surface bound NGF per hour). Several mutant hNGFRs were analyzed, after transfection in MDCK cells, for polarized surface expression, ligand binding, and endocytosis. Deletionof juxta-membrane attachment sites for a cluster of O-linked sugars did not alter apical localization. A mutant receptor lacking the entire cytoplasmic tail (except for the five proximal amino acids) was also expressed on the apical membrane, suggesting that information for apical sorting was contained in the ectoplasmic or transmembrane domains. However, a 58 amino acid deletion in the hNGFR tail that moved a cytoplasmic tyrosine (Tyr 308) closer to the membrane into a more charged environment resulted in a basolateral distribution of the mutant receptor and reversed vectorial (basolateral) targeting. The basolateral mutant receptor also internalized 125I-NGF rapidly (90% of surface bound NGF per hour), exhibited a larger intracellular fraction and displayed a considerably shortened half-life (approximately 3 h). We suggest that hNGFR with the internal cytoplasmic deletion expresses a basolateral targeting signal, related to endocytic signals, that is dominant over apical targeting information in the ecto/transmembrane domains. These results apparently contradict a current model that postulates that basolateral targeting is a default mechanism.

  2. Multiple Coronary Artery Microfistulas Associated with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Left and Right Coronary Artery to the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Woo Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman underwent coronary angiography for chest pain. On the coronary angiogram, no significant coronary artery atherosclerotic stenosis was observed. Multiple coronary artery microfistulas, draining from the left anterior descending artery to the left ventricle and from the posterior descending artery of the right coronary artery to the left ventricle, were observed. Apical wall thickening and fistula flow from the left anterior descending artery were demonstrated by using transthoracic echocardiography. We describe a rare case of multiple coronary artery microfistulas from the left and right coronary artery to the left ventricle combined with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Derecho Procesal Civil. Materiales teóricos: presentaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz de la Cuesta Fernández, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Constitución y proceso. Competencia. Partes. Legitimación. Postulación. Costas. Procedimiento. Demanda. Contestación a la demanda. Juicio ordinario. Juicio Verbal. Prueba. Diligencias finales. Sentencia. Otros modos de terminación del proceso. Recursos. Ejecución.

  4. Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S. López-Díaz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

  5. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic and periapical radiography for detection of apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Bueno, Mike Reis; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Azevedo, Bruno; Azevedo, José Ribamar

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of imaging methods for detection of apical periodontitis (AP). Imaging records from a consecutive sample of 888 imaging exams of patients with endodontic infection (1508 teeth), including cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic and periapical radiographs, were selected. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of periapical and panoramic radiographs were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the panoramic and periapical images. Prevalence of AP was significantly higher with CBCT. Overall sensitivity was 0.55 and 0.28 for periapical and panoramic radiographs, respectively. ROC curves and area under curve (AUC) with periapical radiography showed a high accuracy for the cutoff value of 5 for both periapical (AUC, 0.90) and panoramic (AUC, 0.84) radiographs. AP was correctly identified with conventional methods when showed advanced status. CBCT was proved to be accurate to identify AP.

  6. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  7. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robert P.; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape. PMID:26190146

  8. Selective formation of apical oxygen vacancies in La2 -xSrxCuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gideok; Christiani, Georg; Logvenov, Gennady; Choi, Sungkyun; Kim, Hun-Ho; Minola, M.; Keimer, B.

    2017-10-01

    The superconducting properties of high-Tc materials are functions of the concentration of charge carriers, which is controlled by the concentration of defects including heterovalent cations, interstitial oxygen ions, and oxygen vacancies. Here we combine low-temperature thermal treatment of La2 -xSrxCuO4 epitaxial thin films and confocal Raman spectroscopy to control and investigate oxygen vacancies. We demonstrate that the apical site is the most favorable position to accommodate oxygen vacancies under low-temperature annealing conditions. Additionally we show that in high-quality films of overdoped La2 -xSrxCuO4 , oxygen vacancies strongly deform the oxygen environment around the copper ions. This observation is consistent with previous defect-chemical studies, and calls for further investigation of the defect-induced properties in the overdoped regime of the hole-doped lanthanum cuprates.

  9. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with hemodynamically unstable ventricular arrhythmia – Atypical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Chaturvedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with asymptomatic apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM who recently developed cardiac arrhythmias, and shortly discuss the diagnostic modalities, differential diagnosis, and treatment strategy for this condition. AHCM is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which usually involves the apex of the left ventricle. AHCM can occur with varied presentations such as chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, syncope, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, embolic events, ventricular fibrillation, and congestive heart failure. The most peculiar electrocardiogram findings are giant T-waves inversion in the precordial leads with left ventricular (LV hypertrophy. A transthoracic echocardiogram is the initial diagnostic modality in the evaluation of AHCM and shows hypertrophy of the LV apex. Other diagnostic modalities, including left ventriculography, multislice spiral computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imagings, are also valuable tools. Medications used to manage include verapamil, beta-blockers, and antiarrhythmic agents. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD is recommended for high-risk patients.

  10. Management of immature teeth with apical infections using mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the young permanent teeth lead to devitalization of the pulp with concomitant arrest in further development of the immature root of the involved tooth. Hermetic seal of the root canal system during obturation is not possible in such cases, due to the lack of an apical constriction. The traditional management technique in such cases has been apexification involving induction of a calcific barrier at the apex using calcium hydroxide, which in turn facilitates obturation of the root canal. However this becomes complicated when there is persistent infection leading to periapical changes. This case report describes the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA for management of a periapically compromised immature tooth.

  11. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated gingival recession 1 year following apical surgery of 70 maxillary anterior teeth (central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars). A visual assessment of the mid-facial aspect of the gingival level and of papillary heights of treated teeth was carried out...... using photographs taken at pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up appointments. In addition, changes in the gingival margin (GM) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were calculated with the use of clinical measurements, that is, pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up pocket probing depth and level of gingival...... margin. Changes in GM and CAL were then correlated with patient-, tooth-, and surgery-related parameters. The following parameters were found to significantly influence changes in GM and CAL over time: gingival biotype (P gingival recession than thick biotype...

  12. Rac1 controls epithelial tube length through the apical secretion and polarity pathways

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    Kévin Sollier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric parameters of epithelial tubes are critical to the physiology and homeostasis of most organs. In addition, many human diseases are associated with tube-size defects. Here, we show that Rac1 limits epithelial tube elongation in the developing fly trachea by promoting Rab5-dependent endocytosis of the apical determinant Crumbs. Rac1 is also involved in a positive feedback loop with the septate junction protein Coracle. Thereby, Rac1 precludes paracellular diffusion and contributes to the septate junction-dependent secretion of the chitin-modifying enzymes Vermiform and Serpentine, which restrict epithelial tube length independently of Crumbs. Thus, Rac1 is a critical component of two important pathways controlling epithelial tube morphogenesis.

  13. A case of transient left ventricular apical ballooning. A condition simulating an acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Fabrizio; Bartesaghi, Giorgio; Romano, Melania; Albonico, Patrizia; Provasoli, Stefano; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A

    2004-10-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning, sometimes associated with intraventricular pressure gradient, is a condition simulating an acute myocardial infarction and may occur in patients presenting with chest pain, electrocardiographic changes and minimal myocardial enzyme release typically without coronary angiographic stenosis. It was originally described in the Japanese population and is often associated with cerebrovascular accidents, surgical procedures and emotional and physical stress. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with chest pain typical of myocardial ischemia, dyspnea, electrocardiographic abnormalities and signs of hemodynamic instability, occurring after a severe emotional stress. Echocardiography and contrast ventriculography showed normokinesis confined to the basal segments of the left ventricle, with a markedly decreased ejection fraction. Scintigraphy was suggestive of a large perfusion defect. The electrocardiographic abnormalities and dyskinesis persisted for many hours. Coronary angiography, performed in the acute phase, was completely normal. Five months later, the functional and electrocardiographic abnormalities had totally disappeared.

  14. Lenticonus diagnosis in Alport's syndrome: Anterior capsule apical angle calculation using Scheimpflug imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, E; Jarrín, I; Arnalich-Montiel, F

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simplified method to detect anterior lenticonus. Three eyes of 2 patients with anterior lenticonus, plus 16 eyes from 16 healthy controls underwent Scheimpflug imaging of their anterior segment with Pentacam. The anterior capsule apex angle was manually identified and automatically measured by AutoCAD. The mean angle was 173.06° (SD: 1.91) in healthy subjects, and 158.33° (SD: 3.05) in anterior lenticonus eyes. The angle obtained from patients was more than 3 SD steeper than those from healthy subjects. The apical angle calculation method seems to discriminate well between normal eyes and eyes suspected of having anterior lenticonus. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Trichome isolation with and without fixation using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting followed by RNA amplification: expression of genes of terpene metabolism in apical and sub-apical trichome cells of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Linda; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of fixation on plant material prior to Laser Microdissection and Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) and to identify an appropriate method for preserving good RNA quality after cell isolation. Therefore, flower buds from Artemisia annua L. were exposed to either the fixative formaldehyde or a non-fixative buffer prior to cell isolation by LMPC. Proteinase K was used after cell isolation from fixed plant tissue, in an attempt to improve the RNA yield. The ability to detect gene expression using real-time quantitative PCR with or without previous amplification of RNA from cells isolated by LMPC was also evaluated. Conclusively, we describe a new technique, without fixation, enabling complete isolation of intact glandular secretory trichomes and specific single trichome cells of A. annua. This method is based on LMPC and preserves good RNA quality for subsequent RNA expression studies of both whole trichomes, apical and sub-apical cells from trichomes of A. annua. Using this method, expression of genes of terpene metabolism was studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis was observed in both apical and sub-apical cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcome of orthograde retreatment after failed apicoectomy: use of a mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Johannes; Leo, Meltem; Michel, Annemarie; Gehrig, Holger; Saure, Daniel; Pfefferle, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    This controlled, single-center historic cohort study project evaluates treatment outcomes of a nonsurgical treatment approach after failed apicoectomy. The treatment outcomes of nonsurgical retreatment after a failed apicoectomy were evaluated clinically and radiographically. The study cohort consisted of teeth that had received primary root canal treatment and subsequent apicoectomy elsewhere before the patients presented with post-treatment disease. Orthograde retreatment and obturation using an apical mineral trioxide aggregate plug was performed by postgraduate students and endodontic specialists in 25 cases between 2004 and 2012. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative information and the potential effect on the retreatment outcome were evaluated and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Twenty-two patients with 23 teeth attended the follow-up examinations (recall rate = 92%). The follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 102 months (median = 35 months). Twenty teeth (87%) were classified as "success," and 3 teeth were considered (17%) "failure." The chi-square test confirmed that the preoperative factor "number of roots" had a statistically significant effect on treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.08; 95% confidence interval, 0-1.76; P = .03). The factor "tooth location" was of borderline significance (odds ratio = 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0-2.14; P = .05). The results of the present study suggest that orthograde retreatment combined with orthograde placement of an apical mineral trioxide aggregate plug is a promising long-term treatment option for teeth with postsurgical pathosis. The success rates were higher for single-rooted teeth. The use of cone-beam computed tomographic imaging in cases of inconclusive periapical radiographs is recommended to minimize the risk of misinterpretation when assessing treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The sound sensation of apical electric stimulation in cochlear implant recipients with contralateral residual hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane S Lazard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies using vocoders as acoustic simulators of cochlear implants have generally focused on simulation of speech understanding, gender recognition, or music appreciation. The aim of the present experiment was to study the auditory sensation perceived by cochlear implant (CI recipients with steady electrical stimulation on the most-apical electrode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five unilateral CI users with contralateral residual hearing were asked to vary the parameters of an acoustic signal played to the non-implanted ear, in order to match its sensation to that of the electric stimulus. They also provided a rating of similarity between each acoustic sound they selected and the electric stimulus. On average across subjects, the sound rated as most similar was a complex signal with a concentration of energy around 523 Hz. This sound was inharmonic in 3 out of 5 subjects with a moderate, progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For these subjects, the sound sensation created by steady electric stimulation on the most-apical electrode was neither a white noise nor a pure tone, but a complex signal with a progressive increase in the spacing between the frequency components in 3 out of 5 subjects. Knowing whether the inharmonic nature of the sound was related to the fact that the non-implanted ear was impaired has to be explored in single-sided deafened patients with a contralateral CI. These results may be used in the future to better understand peripheral and central auditory processing in relation to cochlear implants.

  18. Comparison of panoramic radiography and cone beam CT in the assessment of juxta-apical radiolucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oenning, Anne Caroline Costa; Freire, Bernardo Barbosa; Gaêta-Araujo, Hugo; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2018-01-01

    To compare the performance of panoramic radiography (PAN) and cone beam CT (CBCT) in the detection of juxta-apical radiolucency (JAR), as well as to investigate, in CBCT images, if there are factors associated with the detection of JAR on PAN. Two oral radiologists assessed the presence of JAR in PAN and CBCT images of 175 individuals (308 mandibular third molars). The cortical plates involvement and the JAR size and location were assessed on CBCT to evaluate if these factors were related to JAR detection on PAN. McNemar's test and multiple logistic regression were performed. PAN and CBCT differed significantly in the detection of JAR (p = 0.001). On PAN, JAR was identified on 24% of the patients while on CBCT its detection increased to 32.6%. JAR was detected only on CBCT and only on PAN in 26 and 7 cases, respectively. Distal/mesial surfaces of dental roots were where JAR was mostly located (84.5%), cortical thinning was found in 59.2% of cases and the mean (SD) of JAR size was 5.03 (±1.8) mm. However, these factors were not associated with JAR detection on PAN (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the location of the cortical involvement (if buccal or lingual) was associated with JAR detection on PAN, which was more detectable when the thinning was on buccal cortical. Juxta-apical radiolucency is more often detected on CBCT than on PAN. JAR detection on PAN was improved when it was related to the buccal cortical plate of the mandible.

  19. Influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis identified by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo Cesar Lyra; Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth; Bueno, Mike Reis; Pecora, Jesus Djalma

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the success of endodontic treatment has been often discussed based on outcome obtained by periapical radiography. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A consecutive sample of 1020 images (periapical radiographs and CBCT scans) taken from 619 patients (245 men; mean age, 50.1 years) between February 2008 and September 2009 were used in this study. Presence and intracanal post length (short, medium and long) were associated with apical periodontitis (AP). Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.01. The kappa value was used to assess examiner variability. From a total of 591 intracanal posts, AP was observed in 15.06%, 18.78% and 7.95% using periapical radiographs, into the different lengths, short, medium and long, respectively (p=0.466). Considering the same posts length it was verified AP in 24.20%, 26.40% and 11.84% observed by CBCT scans, respectively (p=0.154). From a total of 1,020 teeth used in this study, AP was detected in 397 (38.92%) by periapical radiography and in 614 (60.19%) by CBCT scans (p<0.001). The distribution of intracanal posts in different dental groups showed higher prevalence in maxillary anterior teeth (54.79%). Intracanal posts lengths did not influenced AP. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT method was used. (author)

  20. Accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography and periapical radiography in apical periodontitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Fernanda Ullmann; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Cucco, Carolina; Della Bona, Alvaro; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation and the agreement between periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) correlating to histologic findings in the diagnosis of apical periodontitis (AP). One hundred thirty-four premolar root canals from 10 dogs were treated after AP induction. Four months later, the animals were killed, and standard digital PRs were obtained. The area of AP was measured by using ImageJ software. CBCT (i-CAT) images from each arch were obtained, and AP area and volume were measured by using Osiri-X software. The apical inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated under light microscopy. The correlation between imaging methods was evaluated by using the Pearson coefficient. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess the agreement between PR and CBCT data. The Spearman coefficient was used to correlate the imaging data and histologic findings. Despite a strong correlation between PR and CBCT areas, the agreement limits were very broad (95% limits of agreement, 0.19-1.08). PR only measured, on average, 63% of CBCT values. Although there was a strong correlation between PR area and CBCT volume, the Bland-Altman method suggests that the larger the CBCT volume, the more underestimated the PR value. When APs had a volume smaller than 6 mm(3), the PR estimation of CBCT data was unpredictable. A positive correlation was found for PR area, CBCT area, CBCT volume, and histology data. The diagnosis of AP based on PR data is clinically limited, and it should not be used for scientific investigations. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of apical bone lesions: Comparison of MRI and CBCT with histological findings - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, Margrit-Ann; Schreiber, Elena; Bracher, Anna-Katinka; Hell, Erich; Ulrici, Johannes; Sailer, Leif-Konradin; Rasche, Volker

    The aim of this case series was to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the representation of periapical osteolyses. Based on the histological findings, the potential of MRI for further lesion characterisation was investigated. Thirteen patients (average age: 41 ± 27 years) with a total of 15 periapical lesions (five molars, five premolars, and five front teeth) were examined. Lesion characterisation was based on the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the lesions, the signal intensity within the lesion compared to the surrounding tissue and differences in the signal intensities between different MRI contrast weightings. Results were compared with CBCT and histological findings. Although all patients presented with dental restorations, such as fixed partial dentures and filling materials, all periapical lesions could be diagnosed with either imaging modality. Histologically, 13 cysts and two apical granuloma were confirmed. In CBCT, the similar appearance of all lesions did not allow any further characterisation. In MRI, radicular cysts and granuloma could be characterised by their appearance in the MRI images with different contrast weightings. The MRI-derived characterisations were consistent with the histological findings. The presented study shows that the application of multi-contrast MRI may lead to better characterisation of apical lesions, thus enabling an improved patient-specific selection of the optimal treatment option. Conflict-of-interest statement: MAG, ESS, and LKS do not report any potential conflict-of-interest; EH and JU are employees of Sirona Dental Systems; VR is receiving a research grant by Sirona Dental Systems.

  2. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  3. Apical Microleakage of four Materials after Root End Resection (In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeva E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic sealing of the apical area after root end resection is essential to the success of endodontic surgery. To compare microleakage after root end resection of the two bioceramic sealers without retrograde filling - Total Fill BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex, and two materials for retrograde filling-MTA and Biodentine, using the method of penetration of dye - 2% methylene blue. Forty eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root tip at an angle of 90 degree to the long axis of the tooth. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1st group (n = 9 - root canal obturation with Total Fill BC Sealer without retrograde filling; 2nd group (n = 8 - root canal obturation with MTA Fillapex without retrograde filling. 3rd group (n = 10 - retrograde ultrasonic cavity preparation and filling with MTA. 4th group (n = 8 - retrograde ultrasonic cavity preparation and filling with Biodentine. The outer surface of the root was covered with two layers of varnish, with the exception of the apical 3 mm and then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 72 h. The degree of penetration of the dye is measured in millimeters. The data was entered and processed with the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. We reject the null hypothesis when p < 0.05. With significantly higher value is the arithmetic mean of the group with the root canal obturation with Total Fill BC Sealer without retrograde filling - 2,01 mm; versus a retrograde filling with MTA - 0,68 mm and Biodentin - 0,51 mm; and no statistically significant difference with the group root canal obturation with MTA Fillapex - 1,76 mm. In the four material microleakage dye was observed, but to varying degrees.

  4. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  5. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  6. Influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis identified by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo Cesar Lyra; Rodrigues, Cleomar Donizeth [Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Dental School; Bueno, Mike Reis [University of Cuiaba (UNIC), MT (Brazil). Dental School; Pecora, Jesus Djalma, E-mail: estrela3@terra.com.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dental School

    2009-07-01

    The determination of the success of endodontic treatment has been often discussed based on outcome obtained by periapical radiography. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of intracanal post on apical periodontitis detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A consecutive sample of 1020 images (periapical radiographs and CBCT scans) taken from 619 patients (245 men; mean age, 50.1 years) between February 2008 and September 2009 were used in this study. Presence and intracanal post length (short, medium and long) were associated with apical periodontitis (AP). Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Significance level was set at p<0.01. The kappa value was used to assess examiner variability. From a total of 591 intracanal posts, AP was observed in 15.06%, 18.78% and 7.95% using periapical radiographs, into the different lengths, short, medium and long, respectively (p=0.466). Considering the same posts length it was verified AP in 24.20%, 26.40% and 11.84% observed by CBCT scans, respectively (p=0.154). From a total of 1,020 teeth used in this study, AP was detected in 397 (38.92%) by periapical radiography and in 614 (60.19%) by CBCT scans (p<0.001). The distribution of intracanal posts in different dental groups showed higher prevalence in maxillary anterior teeth (54.79%). Intracanal posts lengths did not influenced AP. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT method was used. (author)

  7. Inducción del cierre apical en el diente con necrosis pulpar y el ápice no formado

    OpenAIRE

    Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Se efectúa una revisión del proceso de apicoformación en dientes con necrosis pulpar y ápice no formado, analizando el mecanismo de cierre apical inducido por el hidróxido de calcio y otras substancias, así como la histopatología del mismo.

  8. MHV-A59 enters polarized murine epithelial cells through the apical surface but is released basolaterally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. Entry and release of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells, as we have recently shown (J. W. A. Rossen, C. P. J. Bekker, W. F. Voorhout, G. J. A. M. Strous, A.

  9. ION-EXCHANGE IMMUNOAFFINITY PURIFICATION OF A RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM APICAL MEMBRANE ANTIGEN, PF83/AMA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NARUM, DL; WELLING, GW; THOMAS, AW

    1993-01-01

    A two-step purification regime has been developed for a quantitatively minor, putatively transmembrane, M(r) 83 000, apical membrane blood stage vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (PF83/AMA-1), that has been expressed as a full-length baculovirus recombinant protein, PF83-FG8-1. The

  10. Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem development after ipt transcriptional activation in pOp/LhG4 system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubová, J.; Ryšavá, Hana; Reková, Alena; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), S22 [2nd International Symposium Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Development. Prague, 07.07.2005-12.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600380507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : shoot apical meristem * cytokinin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  12. Assessment of age of majority by measurement of open apices of the third molars using Cameriere's third molar maturity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Wadhwan, Vijay; Ravi Prakash, S M; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of biological age of a living subject around the legal cutoff age for adulthood has become a grave concern for forensic experts in India, mainly due to the consequences of criminal obligations in judicial proceedings. Thus, this study was planned to examine the open apices of third molars in discriminating between individuals who are aged 18 years or older and who are not 18 years or older and to assign a cutoff for estimation of the age of 18 years. Orthopantomographs of 1062 individuals (14 and 23 years) were assessed, to verify Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ). The apical ends of the roots of the left mandibular third molar were analyzed. If the apical ends of the roots are completely closed, then I 3M is zero; otherwise, it is calculated as the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices divided by the tooth length. The sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 74.7% for males and 66% for females. Specificity was 83.6% for males and 79.6% for females. The probability that an Indian individual with an I 3M age in Indian population.

  13. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (Pextruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  14. Apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using Vortex Blue, K3XF, ProTaper Next and Reciproc instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, H S; Zan, R; Akpek, F; Topçuoğlu, G; Ulusan, Ö; Aktı, A; Düzgün, S; Ağırnaslıgil, M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Vortex Blue (VB; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA), K3XF (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. Vortex Blue and PTN files were associated with significantly less apically extruded debris than the K3XF and Reciproc files (P  0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. VB and PTN files were associated with less debris extrusion compared to the other systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oncostatin M-stimulated apical plasma membrane biogenesis requires p27(Kip1)-regulated cell cycle dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Théard, Delphine; Van Der Wouden, Johanna M; Visser, Willy; Wojtal, Kacper A; Hoekstra, Dick

    Oncostatin M regulates membrane traffic and stimulates apicalization of the cell surface in hepatoma cells in a protein kinase A-dependent manner. Here, we show that oncostatin M enhances the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)2 inhibitor p27(Kip1), which inhibits G(1)-S-phase

  16. Comparison of apical centring ability between incisal-shifted access and traditional lingual access for maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Yoshio; Masuda, Yoshiko; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the apical centring ability of incisal-shifted access (ISA) with that of traditional lingual access (TLA). Fifteen three-dimensional printed resin models were prepared from the computed tomography data for a human maxillary central incisor and divided into ISA (n = 7), TLA (n = 7) and control (n = 1) groups. After access preparation, these models were shaped to the working length using K-files up to #40, followed by step-back procedures. An apical portion of the model was removed at 0.5 mm coronal to the working length. Microscopic images of each cutting surface were taken to measure the preparation area and the distance of transportation. TLA created a larger preparation area than ISA (P < 0.05). The distance of transportation (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.4 ± 0.1 mm for ISA and 0.7 ± 0.1 mm for TLA (P < 0.05). Access cavity preparation has a significant effect on apical centring ability. ISA is beneficial to maintaining apical configuration. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  17. Quality of the calcium-enriched mixture apical plug in simulated apexification model; Effect of different mixing and placement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Razi, Tahmineh; Rezaiepour, Akbar

    2017-10-01

    Presence of voids at root canal wall‒apical seal material interface gives rise to the entrapment of toxins and microorganisms, which might have a relationship with post treatment disease. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different mixing (manual and ultrasonic) and placement (manual and manual in association with indirect ultrasonic) methods of Calcium-enriched Mixture (CEM) cement on the number and dimensions of voids in the apical plug in simulated apexification models. A total of 80 human maxillary central incisors with mature apices were selected. After simulation of the open apices, the teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=20) based on the mixing and placement techniques of CEM cement: group 1, manual mixing‒manual placement; group 2, manual mixing‒manual placement in association with indirect ultrasonic technique; group 3, ultrasonic mixing‒manual placement; and group 4, ultrasonic mixing‒manual placement in association with indirect ultrasonic technique. The samples were placed within gypsum sockets in which the periodontal ligament was reconstructed with polyether impression material. After placement the apical plugs, a wet piece of cotton was placed on canal orifices, followed by dressing with Cavit. The samples were incubated at 37°C and 100% relative humidity for 7 days. Then the voids between the material and root canal walls were counted with the CBCT technique. The void dimensions were scored with the following scoring system: score 1, no voids; score 2, the void size less than half of the size of the evaluated cross-section; score 3, the void size larger than half of the size of the evaluated cross-section. Statistical analyses were carried out with chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Statistical significance was defined at P 0.05). Void dimensions in all the study groups were in score 2 category and no score 3 was recorded in the study groups. Under the limitations of the present study, manual placement in

  18. Alterações transitórias do exame neurológico durante o despertar da anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano Alteraciones transitorias del examen neurológico durante el despertar de la anestesia con enflurano, isoflurano o sevoflurano Transient neurological changes during emergence from enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Soares

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Anormalidades transitórias do exame neurológico ocorrem durante o despertar da anestesia com halotano, enflurano e isoflurano. Pouco se conhece sobre a ocorrência de anormalidades do exame neurológico durante a recuperação da anestesia com sevoflurano. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a prevalência de tais achados durante a recuperação da anestesia com enflurano (Grupo E, isoflurano (Grupo I e sevoflurano (Grupo S. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 44 pacientes que receberam anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano em N2O a 50%. Foram anotados antes da indução, imediatamente após a cessação da administração do anestésico e 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 e 40 minutos após: temperatura timpânica, nível de consciência, tônus muscular, reflexos pupilar, ciliar, bicipital, patelar e cutâneo-plantar, bem como a ocorrência de calafrios. RESULTADOS: As respostas dos reflexos pupilar, ciliar, patelar e cutâneo-plantar correlacionaram-se com o nível de consciência. Os grupos não diferiram quanto à prevalência de hipertonia muscular, hiperreflexia bicipital, clônus plantar e resposta extensora cutâneo-plantar. Hiperreflexia patelar foi mais freqüente no grupo do enflurano do que no grupo do isoflurano. Calafrios foram mais freqüentes nos grupos E e I do que no grupo do sevoflurano. A temperatura timpânica não diferiu entre os pacientes que apresentaram ou não calafrios. CONCLUSÕES: Alterações reversíveis do exame neurológico podem estar presentes por até 40 minutos durante a recuperação da anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Anormalidades transitorias del examen neurológico ocurren durante el despertar de la anestesia con halotano, enflurano e isoflurano. Poco se conoce sobre la ocurrencia de anormalidades del examen neurológico durante la recuperación de la anestesia con sevoflurano. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar la prevalencia de tal

  19. Rab8a and Rab8b are essential for several apical transport pathways but insufficient for ciliogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Iwano, Tomohiko; Kunii, Masataka; Matsuda, Shinji; Mizuguchi, Rumiko; Jung, Yongwook; Hagiwara, Haruo; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Harada, Reiko; Harada, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small GTP-binding protein Rab8 is known to play an essential role in intracellular transport and cilia formation. We have previously demonstrated that Rab8a is required for localising apical markers in various organisms. Rab8a has a closely related isoform, Rab8b. To determine whether Rab8b can compensate for Rab8a, we generated Rab8b-knockout mice. Although the Rab8b-knockout mice did not display an overt phenotype, Rab8a and Rab8b double-knockout mice exhibited mislocalisation of apical markers and died earlier than Rab8a-knockout mice. The apical markers accumulated in three intracellular patterns in the double-knockout mice. However, the localisation of basolateral and/or dendritic markers of the double-knockout mice seemed normal. The morphology and the length of various primary and/or motile cilia, and the frequency of ciliated cells appeared to be identical in control and double-knockout mice. However, an additional knockdown of Rab10 in double-knockout cells greatly reduced the percentage of ciliated cells. Our results highlight the compensatory effect of Rab8a and Rab8b in apical transport, and the complexity of the apical transport process. In addition, neither Rab8a nor Rab8b are required for basolateral and/or dendritic transport. However, simultaneous loss of Rab8a and Rab8b has little effect on ciliogenesis, whereas additional loss of Rab10 greatly affects ciliogenesis. PMID:24213529

  20. Unusual positional effects on flower sex in an andromonoecious tree: Resource competition, architectural constraints, or inhibition by the apical flower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; Cayuela, Luis; Méndez, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences. We experimentally increased the availability of resources for the inflorescences by removing half of the inflorescences per twig or reduced resource availability by removing leaves. We also removed the apical flower to test its inhibitory effect on subapical flowers. The apical flower had the highest probability of being hermaphroditic. Further down, however, the probability of finding a hermaphroditic flower decreased from the base to the tip of the inflorescences. An experimental increase of resources increased the probability of finding hermaphroditic flowers at each position, and vice versa. Removal of the apical flower increased the probability of producing hermaphroditic flowers in proximal positions but not in subapical positions. These results indicate an interaction between resource competition and architectural constraints in influencing the arrangement of the hermaphroditic and male flowers within the inflorescences of the wild olive tree. Subapical flowers did not seem to be hormonally suppressed by apical flowers. The study of these unusual positional effects is needed for a general understanding about the functional implications of inflorescence architecture. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Comparison of the accuracies of multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with enlarged apical foramina: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı Ekici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed multi-frequency electronic apex locator iPex II with three different multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with different sizes of apical foramina. Materials and Method: Twenty-six extracted mandibular premolars were used in this study. The teeth were decoronated, and the root canals were coronally flared. Actual working length was determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip was visualized just within apical foramen. Actual working length was established 0.5 mm short of the distance between the rubber stopper and the file tip. Using Protaper F1, F2 and F3 files (Dentsply Maillefer, over-instrumentation 1 mm beyond the apical foramen was done. The teeth were embedded in teflon molds with alginate exposing the coronal 5 mm. Electronic working length measurements were done by using Raypex 5 (VDW, Raypex 6 (VDW, iPex (NSK Inc. and iPex II (NSK Inc. electronic apex locators. Differences between the electronic and actual working lengths were calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis of the accuracies of the electronic apex locators (α=0.05. Results: Inter-group comparisons revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracies of the different electronic apex locators (p>0.05. Intra-group comparisons also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between different apical foramen sizes (p>0.05. Conclusion: iPex II and the other electronic apex locators provided similar endodontic working length measurements in teeth with enlarged apical foramina. All electronic apex locators tested in this study were found clinically acceptable for working length determination.

  2. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and bone resorption regulators in apical periodontitis lesions infected by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, A; Andric, M; Nikolic, N; Coric, V; Krezovic, S; Carkic, J; Knezevic, A; Beljic-Ivanovic, K; Pljesa-Ercegovac, M; Miletic, M; Soldatovic, I; Radosavljevic, T; Jovanovic, T; Simic, T; Ivanovic, V; Milasin, J

    2018-01-09

    To investigate whether apical periodontitis lesions infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress biomarkers [8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] and bone resorption regulators [receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)] compared to EBV-negative periapical lesions and healthy pulp tissues. The experimental group consisted of 30 EBV-positive and 30 EBV-negative periapical lesions collected in conjunction with apicoectomy. The pulp tissues of 20 impacted third molars were used as healthy controls. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of EBV was performed by nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The levels of RANKL and OPG were analysed by reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. The levels of 8-OHdG and GSSG were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. The levels of RANKL, OPG, 8-OHdG and GSSG were significantly higher in apical periodontitis lesions compared to healthy pulp controls (P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). RANKL and OPG mRNA expression was significantly higher in EBV-positive compared to EBV-negative periapical lesions (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between EBV copy numbers and levels of RANKL, OPG, 8OH-dG and GSSG in apical periodontitis. Levels of bone resorption regulators and oxidative stress biomarkers were increased in apical periodontitis compared to healthy pulp tissues. EBV-positive periapical lesions exhibited higher levels of RANKL and OPG compared to EBV-negative periapical lesions. EBV may contribute to progression of apical periodontitis via enhanced production of bone resorption regulators. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

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    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  4. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: a dye extraction study.

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    Tandan, Monika; Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control group and four experimental groups. Group A: No intracanal medicament. Group B: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with distilled water. Group C: Calcium hydroxide gutta percha points (calcium hydroxide points). Group D: 1% chlorhexidine gel (hexigel). Group E: Chlorhexidine gutta percha points (Roeko Activ Points). The medication was left in canals for 14 days. Following removal of the intracanal medicament, all the groups were obturated with lateral compaction technique. The apical leakage was then evaluated using dye extraction method with the help of a spectrophotometer. RESULTS were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test, which showed statistically significant difference among the five groups tested. It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  5. [Effect of thermal conductivity on apical sealing ability of 4 dental gutta-percha cones].

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    Fan, C; Yuan, C Y; Zhang, J C; Wang, X Y

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the effect of thermal conductivity on the apical sealing ability of different dental gutta-percha cones during the warm vertical condensation obturation. Four kinds of dental gutta-percha cones were used in this study: Bio-GP points (BP, B&L, Korea), large-tapered gutta-percha (DP, DENTSPLY, America), PROTAPER Universal gutta-percha points (DPP, DENTSPLY, America) and mtwo gutta-percha points (VP, VDW, Germany). Volume differences method was used to determine the main components and the thermal conductivity determinator was used to measure the thermal conductivity of these dental gutta-percha cones. Furthermore, 20 cones randomly selected from each kind of dental gutta-percha cones. And 10 cones of each dental gutta-percha cones, which were cut out the part of 4 mm in length from the apical end, were heated (200 °C) from the upper end without compression, and the temperature of the gutta perchacones surface was monitored in time by the infrared thermal imager during the whole heating process. In addition, the rest of the 10 cones of each dental gutta-percha cones were used to obturate the root canal in the transparent root canal resin model using warm vertical condensation technique. The cross-sectional surface was observed by stereomicroscope (× 40) at 1 mm and 3 mm from the working length and the gutta-percha obturation area proportion was measured and analyzed. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The proportion of inorganic fillers (80.90%±1.14 %) (Pthermal conductivity (2.247±0.002) of DP was significantly higher than BP (79.28%±3.88%, 1.179±0.003), DPP (68.46%±5.09%, 0.604±0.001), VP (78.86%±1.87%, 1.150±0.001) (Pthermal obturation without compression at the setting temperature (200 °C), DP could achieve 65 °C beyond 1 mm from the heating point, and BP, DPP and VP only reached 65 °C within 1 mm. After warm vertical condensation obturation, all the groups showed increased gutta-percha obturation area proportion. At the position

  6. Emergency management of acute apical abscesses in the permanent dentition: a systematic review of the literature.

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    Matthews, Debora C; Sutherland, Susan; Basrani, Bettina

    2003-11-01

    To perform a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of interventions used in the management of acute apical abscess in the permanent dentition. Electronic databases were searched from their inception to March 2002. These searches, combined with manual searching, yielded 85 citations, of which 35 were relevant. Independent application of inclusion criteria by 3 reviewers yielded 8 eligible randomized controlled studies. Data on population, interventions, outcomes (reduction of pain or swelling or both, as reported by patients or clinicians) and methodological quality were determined by independent triplicate review. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. All papers included in the meta-analysis compared an antibiotic with an active control, a placebo or no pharmacotherapy as an adjunct for patients who had received concomitant therapy (i.e., incision and drainage, endodontic therapy or extraction). The 8 trials were randomized; in 3 of these, the method of randomization was described and appropriate. Five studies were double-blinded, and 2 of these described the method of blinding. Four trials described withdrawals, but none included an intention-to-treat analysis. Six studies compared 2 antibiotics. For the outcomes "absence of infection"and "absence of pain" the pooled odds ratios (ORs) were not statistically significant; for the outcome "absence of pain and infection," 3 studies showed an equivalent treatment effect in both treatment and control groups. One open-label study (with a quality score of 2) showed a result favouring azithromycin over co-amoxiclav (OR 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.96). Two studies compared adjunctive antibiotic therapy with placebo; no benefit to patients was demonstrated with this intervention. In the management of localized acute apical abscess in the permanent dentition, the abscess should be drained through a pulpectomy or incision and drainage. This analysis indicated that antibiotics are of

  7. The effect of Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the apical leakage of retrograde cavity

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    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Fekrazad, Reza; Dehghan Menshadi, Fatemeh; Seifi, Massoud

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Controversial results have been reported when organic acids, ultrasonic instruments and laser techniques were used to remove smear layer in endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing debris and smear layer by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the apical leakage of retrograde cavities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this ex vivo study, 24 extracted mandibular single-rooted teeth were selected and instrumented up to K-file size #35. Approximately 3 mm of root apices were dissected perpendicular to the root’s long axis. Retrograde cavities with 3 mm depth were prepared and the teeth were randomly assigned to two groups. In one group, the retrograde cavities were filled with amalgam and in the other group, the dentinal surface of the retrograde cavities were lased with Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2W, 15 seconds, G4 tip). The cavities were filled with amalgam; all tooth surfaces except for dissected outsides were covered with blue wax. Then the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 48 hours. The amount of dye penetration into sagittal sections was measured by stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification by two independent observers who were blinded to the experiment. Data were statistically analyzed using student t-test. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that dye penetration was 0.8 mm (±0.53) in the lased and 0.97 mm (±0.54) in the non-lased group. It showed that, Er,Cr:YSGG laser can remove the debris and smear layer and consequently reduces the amount of dye penetration, although, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study showed that dye penetration was less in lased group because of the better seal of the dissected surface due to the better removal of the debris and smear layer by laser; further investigations are recommended in this field. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):144-8] PMID:24019836

  8. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Accelerates Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Stem Cells from Apical Papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bin; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Dental caries, the most prevalent oral disease in dental patients, involves the phases of demineralization and destruction of tooth hard tissues like enamel, dentin, and cementum. Dentin is a major component of the root and is also the innermost layer that protects the tooth nerve, exposure of which results in pain. In this study, we used human stem cells from apical papilla (hSCAP), which are early progenitor cells, to examine the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on odontogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that rhPAI-1 promoted the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hSCAP and increased the expression levels of odontoblast-associated markers. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the expression of Smad4, nuclear factor I-C (NFI-C), Runx2, and osterix (OSX) during odontogenic differentiation. Notably, transplantation of rhPAI-1-treated hSCAP effectively induced odontoblastic differentiation and dentinal formation. And the differentiated odontoblast-like cells showed numerous odontoblast processes inserted in dentin tubules and arranged collagen fibers. Furthermore, odontoblast-associated markers were more highly expressed in the rhPAI-1-induced differentiated odontoblast-like cells compared with the control group. These markers were also more highly expressed in the newly formed dentin-like tissue of the rhPAI-1-treated group compared with the control group. Consistent with our in vitro results, the expression levels of Smad4, NFI-C, and OSX were also increased in the rhPAI-1-treated group compared with the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that rhPAI-1 promotes odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation of hSCAP, and Smad4/NFI-C/OSX may play critical roles in the rhPAI-1-induced odontogenic differentiation. Thus, dental stem cells from apical papilla combined with rhPAI-1 could lead to dentin regeneration in clinical implications.

  9. T1-nerve root neuroma presenting with apical mass and Horner's syndrome

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    Podnar Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of dumbbell neuroma of the first thoracic root is extremely rare. The extradural component of a T1-dumbbell neuroma may present as an apical mass. The diagnosis of hand weakness is complex and may be delayed in T1-neuroma because of absence of the palpable cervical mass. One-stage removal of a T1-root neuroma and its intrathoracic extension demanded an extended posterior midline approach in the sitting position. Case presentation A 51-year old man had suffered a traumatic partial tendon rupture of his wrist flexor muscles 6 years ago. Since the incident he occasionally felt fullness and tenderness in the affected forearm with some tingling in his fingers bilaterally. During the last two years the hand weakness was continuous and hypotrophy of the medial flexor and intrinsic hand muscles had become apparent. Electrophysiological studies revealed an ulnar neuropathy in addition to mild median and radial nerve dysfunction, including a mild contralateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnostic work-up for multiple mononeuropathy in the upper extremity was negative. Repeated electrophysiological studies revealed fibrillations in the C7 paravertebral muscles on the affected side. Chest x-ray revealed a large round apical mass on the affected side. A Horner's syndrome was noted at this point of diagnostic work-up. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine revealed a dumbbell T1 neuroma enlarging the intervertebral foramen at T1-2 and a 5 cm large extradural tumor with extension into the apex of the ipsilateral lung. The patient underwent surgery in sitting position using a left dorsal midline approach. Although the T1 root could not be preserved, the patient's neurological condition was unchanged after the surgery. Conclusion Extended posterior midline exposure described here using hemilaminectomy, unilateral facetectomy and costo-transversectomy is efficient and safe for one-stage removal of dumbbell tumors at the T1

  10. Effect of different mixing and placement methods on the quality of MTA apical plug in simulated apexification model.

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    Ghasemi, Negin; Janani, Maryam; Razi, Tahmineh; Atharmoghaddam, Faezeh

    2017-03-01

    It is necessary apical plug material to exhibit proper adaptation with the root canal walls. Presence of voids at the interface between the root canal wall and this material result in micro leakage, which might have a relationship with post treatment disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing (manual and ultrasonic) and placement (manual and manual in association with indirect ultrasonic) method of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) on the void count and dimension in the apical plug in natural teeth with simulated open apices. Eighty human maxillary central incisors were selected. After simulation of the open apex model, the teeth were assigned to 4 groups based on the mixing and placement techniques of MTA: group 1, manual mixing and manual placement; group 2, manual mixing and manual placement in association with indirect ultrasonic; group 3, ultrasonic mixing and and manual placement; and group 4, ultrasonic mixing and manual placement in association with indirect ultrasonic. The prepared samples were placed within gypsum sockets in which the periodontal ligament was reconstructed with polyether impression material. In group 1, after mixing, the material was condensed with a hand plugger. In group 2, after mixing, the ultrasonic tip was contacted with the hand plugger for 2 seconds. In groups 3 and 4, mixing was carried out with the ultrasonic tip for 5 seconds and in groups 3 and 4, similar to groups 1 and 2, respectively, the materials were placed as apical plugs, measuring 3 mm in length. A wet cotton pellet was placed at canal orifices and dressed with Cavit. After one week, the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) technique was used to count the number of voids between the material and root canal walls. The void dimensions were determined using the following scoring system: score 1, absence of voids; score 2, the void size less than half of the dimensions of the evaluated cross-section; score 3, the void size larger

  11. The 3D structure of the apical complex and association with the flagellar apparatus revealed by serial TEM tomography in Psammosa pacifica, a distant relative of the Apicomplexa.

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    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The apical complex is one of the defining features of apicomplexan parasites, including the malaria parasite Plasmodium, where it mediates host penetration and invasion. The apical complex is also known in a few related lineages, including several non-parasitic heterotrophs, where it mediates feeding behaviour. The origin of the apical complex is unclear, and one reason for this is that in apicomplexans it exists in only part of the life cycle, and never simultaneously with other major cytoskeletal structures like flagella and basal bodies. Here, we used conventional TEM and serial TEM tomography to reconstruct the three dimensional structure of the apical complex in Psammosa pacifica, a predatory relative of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates that retains the archetype apical complex and the flagellar apparatus simultaneously. The P. pacifica apical complex is associated with the gullet and consists of the pseudoconoid, micronemes, and electron dense vesicles. The pseudoconoid is a convex sheet consisting of eight short microtubules, plus a band made up of microtubules that originate from the flagellar apparatus. The flagellar apparatus consists of three microtubular roots. One of the microtubular roots attached to the posterior basal body is connected to bypassing microtubular strands, which are themselves connected to the extension of the pseudoconoid. These complex connections where the apical complex is an extension of the flagellar apparatus, reflect the ancestral state of both, dating back to the common ancestor of apicaomplexans and dinoflagellates.

  12. Comparison of apical transportation and change of working length in K3, NRT AND PROFILE rotary instruments using transparent resin block

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    Min-Jung Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the apical transportation and working length change in curved root canals created in resin blocks, using 3 geometrically different types of Ni-Ti files, K3, NRT, and Profile. Materials and Methods The curvature of 30 resin blocks was measured by Schneider technique and each groups of Ni-Ti files were allocated with 10 resin blocks at random. The canals were shaped with Ni-Ti files by Crown-down technique. It was analyzed by Double radiograph superimposition method (Backman CA 1992, and for the accuracy and consistency, specially designed jig, digital X-ray, and CAD/CAM software for measurement of apical transportation were used. The amount of apical transportation was measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 mm from 'apical foramen - 0.5 mm' area, and the alteration of the working length before and after canal shaping was also measured. For statistics, Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis was used. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the amount of working length change and apical transportation at 0, 1, and 3 mm area (p = 0.027, however, the amount of apical transportation at 5 mm area showed significant difference between K3 and Profile system (p = 0.924. Conclusions As a result of this study, the 3 geometrically different Ni-Ti files showed no significant difference in apical transportation and working length change and maintained the original root canal shape.

  13. Dormência e dominância apical de diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos de batata Dormancy and apical dominance of different sizes of potato tubers

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    Douglas Renato Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho dos tubérculos de batata produzidos em uma mesma cova é um indicativo da idade fisiológica e do período necessário para o rompimento da dormência e da dominância apical, o que é fundamental para o adequado manejo pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o período de dormência e de dominância apical em diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos de três clones de batata, produzidos no outono e submetidos a duas temperaturas de armazenamento. Os tubérculos foram produzidos em campo durante o outono de 2008, sendo colhidas dez covas por clone. Os tubérculos de cada cova foram individualmente identificados e avaliados para massa fresca, comprimento e maior e menor diâmetros, divididos em dois lotes de cinco covas e armazenados, respectivamente, nas temperaturas de 10 e 20°C±2°C e 85%±5% de umidade relativa, por 170 dias. O rompimento da dormência e da dominância apical foram anotados quando o tubérculo apresentou, respectivamente, um ou dois brotos. O experimento foi conduzido em um fatorial de três clones (SMINIA00017-6, SMIJ461-1 e Asterix, duas temperaturas de armazenamento (10 e 20°C e três tipos de tubérculo (menor diâmetro inferior a 35mm, entre 35 e 45mm e superior a 45mm, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. A partir dos resultados, concluiu-se que a idade fisiológica varia com o tamanho dos tubérculos de batata, sendo que tubérculos com diâmetro inferior a 35mm apresentam maior período de dormência. Além disso, foi constatado que a temperatura de armazenamento de 20°C é mais eficaz para o rompimento da dormência do que da dominância apical.The size of potato tubers produced in the same hill is an indicator of the physiological age and the time required to break dormancy and apical dominance, which is essential for the proper post-harvest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the period of dormancy and apical dominance of different tuber sizes of three

  14. CLINICAL CASE OF AN ISOLATED LEFT VENTRICULAR APICAL HYPOPLASIA IN RSO–ALANIA

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    T. B. Kasokhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplasia of the left ventricle is characterized by underdevelopment and functional weakness of the left ventricle. Defect occurs with  a frequency of from 0.5 to 7.5% of all congenital heart defects. In newborns, this anomaly is the most frequent death cause. Isolated  left ventricular apical hypoplasia is extremely rare, recently recognized congenital heart defect, which has characteristic magnetic  resonance and echocardiographic symptoms. Complexity of the diagnostics is an asymptomatic clinical current, so timely diagnostics  and therapy can help to delay possible complications and improve the quality of the life of these patients. 

  15. Intramolecular apical metal-H-Csp3 interaction in molybdenum and silver complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclosi, Marco; Lloret, Julio; Estevan, Francisco; Sanaú, Mercedes; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2009-07-14

    The reaction of HTIMP3 (HTIMP3=tris[1-diphenylphosphino)-3-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl]methane) with AgBF4 and Mo(CO)3(NCCH3)3 leads to Ag(HTIMP3)BF4 and Mo(CO)3(HTIMP3), respectively. The metal centre is coordinated to the three phosphorus atoms of the HTIMP3 ligand, which adopts a facial coordination mode, placing a H-Csp3 hydrogen atom at the apical position close to the metal centre. The solid-state structure of Mo(CO)3(HTIMP3) has been determined by X-ray crystallography, and the data have been used as input parameters for obtaining the optimised geometry of the complex using the B3PW91 functional. The silver structure has been modelled from the X-ray parameters of the molybdenum structure. In addition, theoretical calculations on the H-Csp3 downfield shift upon metal coordination has also been performed. They reproduce the experimental H-Csp3 chemical shifts well and supports that proton deshielding is mainly due to the presence of the metal, since the hydrogen is already located in the cone created by the aromatic-phosphino arms in the free ligand.

  16. PrPC Undergoes Basal to Apical Transcytosis in Polarized Epithelial MDCK Cells.

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    Alexander Arkhipenko

    Full Text Available The Prion Protein (PrP is an ubiquitously expressed glycosylated membrane protein attached to the external leaflet of the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI. While the misfolded PrPSc scrapie isoform is the infectious agent of prion disease, the cellular isoform (PrPC is an enigmatic protein with unclear function. Of interest, PrP localization in polarized MDCK cells is controversial and its mechanism of trafficking is not clear. Here we investigated PrP traffic in MDCK cells polarized on filters and in three-dimensional MDCK cysts, a more physiological model of polarized epithelia. We found that, unlike other GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs, PrP undergoes basolateral-to-apical transcytosis in fully polarized MDCK cells. Following this event full-length PrP and its cleavage fragments are segregated in different domains of the plasma membrane in polarized cells in both 2D and 3D cultures.

  17. Cyclic fatigue of NiTi rotary instruments in a simulated apical abrupt curvature.

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    Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Melo, M C; Bahia, M G; Testarelli, L; Gambarini, G

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of five NiTi rotary systems in an abrupt apical curvature. Cyclic fatigue testing was performed in stainless-steel artificial canals with a 2-mm radius of curvature and an angle of curvature of 90 degrees constructed to the dimensions of the instruments tested. The middle of the simulated curvature was 2.5 mm from the tip of the instrument that was placed at full working length. All instruments were new and 25 mm in length. Ten ProTaper Universal F2 (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland); FlexMaster (VDW, Munich, Germany) tip size 25, taper 0.06; Mtwo (Sweden & Martina, Padova, Italy) tip size 25, taper 0.06; ProFile tip size 25, taper 0.06 from Dentsply Maillefer (Ballaigues, Switzerland); and ProFile tip size 25, taper 0.06 from Dentsply Tulsa (Tulsa, OK, USA) were rotated passively at 300 rpm until fracture occurred, and the number of cycles to failure (NCF) recorded. Length of the fractured tip was measured. Data were analysed by one-way anova and Tukey HSD test to determine any statistical difference amongst groups. Mtwo had the highest fatigue resistance compared to the other instruments (NCF 124 +/- 25) (P ProFile from Maillefer > ProFile from Tulsa > FlexMaster > ProTaper.

  18. Comparison of cone-beam computed tomography and periapical radiography for detecting simulated apical root resorption.

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    Ren, Hongyu; Chen, Jun; Deng, Feng; Zheng, Leilei; Liu, Xiong; Dong, Yanling

    2013-03-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and periapical radiography for detecting simulated external apical root resorption (EARR) in vitro. The study sample consisted of 160 single-rooted premolar teeth for simulating EARR of varying degrees according to four setups: no (intact teeth), mild (cavity of 1.0 mm in diameter and depth on root surface), moderate (0.4 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.2 mm, and 1.6 mm root shortening), and severe (2.4 mm, 2.8 mm, 3.2 mm, and 3.6 mm root shortening). Two groups of radiographic images were obtained via CBCT and periapical radiography. The absence or presence and the severity for all resorption lesions were evaluated blindly by two calibrated observers. With the CBCT method, the rates of correct classification of no, mild, moderate, and severe EARR were 96.3%, 98.8%, 41.3%, and 87.5%, respectively; with the periapical radiography method, the rates were 82.5%, 41.3%, 68.8%, and 92.5%, respectively. Highly significant differences were found between the two imaging methods for detection of mild (P periapical radiography. CBCT is a reliable diagnostic tool to detect simulated EARR, whereas periapical radiography underestimates it. However, if a periapical radiograph is already available to the diagnosis of EARR, CBCT should be used with extreme caution to avoid additional radiation exposure.

  19. Coordination of growth in root and shoot apices by AIL/PLT transcription factors.

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    Scheres, Ben; Krizek, Beth A

    2018-02-01

    Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) transcription factor family, a clade of two-AP2 domain proteins, specify both stem cell fate and control cellular progression of stem cell daughter cells toward differentiation. Here we highlight the importance of an AIL/PLT protein gradient in controlling distinct cellular behaviors in the root through the regulation of distinct targets in different parts of the root tip. Within the shoot, AIL/PLT proteins also promote organ growth and inhibit differentiation pointing to conserved roles in meristem function. However, they exhibit unequal genetic redundancy in these functions and do not always act in a purely additive manner. Differences in AIL/PLT regulation and perhaps transcriptional targets in roots and shoots suggest that these growth regulators have adapted to mediate growth control in distinct ways in these organ systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

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    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  1. Influence of cigarette smoking on synthesis of eicosanoids, isoprostanes and lipoxygenase metabolites in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas; Koegl, Elke; von Duvillard, Serge P; Sinzinger, Helmut; Berent, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to eicosanoids and isoprostanes (IPs) via different pathways. The presence of granuloma in apical periodontitis (AP) is linked with inflammation and the synthesis of metabolites of AA. We investigated the conversion rate of (14)C labelled arachidonic acid ((14)C-AA), the lipoxygenases (LOX) products and the endogenous synthesis of eicosanoids and IPs in extracted granuloma. Furthermore, we assessed if there are markers for bone destruction and the influence of cigarette smoking. In 46 patients with symptoms and corresponding radiological signs of AP, teeth were extracted including the periapical granuloma. The endogenous synthesis of eicosanoids and IPs, the conversion rate of (14)C-AA and LOX products in extracted granuloma were analyzed. We found that smoking increases significantly the synthesis of IPs and LOX-metabolites in granuloma. Furthermore, smoking may have contributed to significant differences in qualitative and quantitative profile of eicosanoids, IPs and the conversion rate of (14)C-AA independent of the size of the granuloma. Our data demonstrate that in smokers with granuloma due to AP products of lipid peroxidation as 8-iso-PGF(2α) and products of the LOX-pathway are increased at the expense of cyclooxygenase products. The size of granuloma did not influence the amount of synthesized eicosanoids, IPs or LOX-metabolites out of (14)C-AA whereas cigarette smoking was a significantly influencing and modifiable risk factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between giant negative T wave-apical hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Ichiro; Anzai, Teisuke; Kakinoki, Shigeo; Mikami, Taisei; Kanamori, Katsushi; Kudo, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Sanya; Yasuda, Hisakazu

    1986-01-01

    To assess a relationship between giant negative T wave (GNT) and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophic patterns, and to clarify the pathogenesis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHC), 12 patients (pts) with AHC (group A : GNT (+), mid-ventricular hypertrophy at chorda level in echocardiography (mVH) (-)) and 24 pts with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group B : GNT (+), mVH (+), n = 12, and group C : GNT (-), mVH (+), n = 12 were studied with multi-slice ECG gated X-ray computed tomography (MSECT) and left ventriculography (LVG). In MSECT images pts in group A showed LV hypertrophy (LVH) localized at the apex and pts in group B showed LVH relatively thicker at the apex ; however pts in group C had more severe LVH spreading towards the base. End-diastolic LVG patterns were spade or spade-like pattern in group A, although non-spade pattern in group C. Left ventricular mass (LVM) calculated from MSECT was significantly heavier in group C than in groups A and B. In groups A and B there was a wide variation in LVM from as light as that in normal controls to as heavy as that in group C. In conclusion, LVH relatively localized at the apex was assumed to generate GNT. AHC pts showed a wide variation in the severity of LVH and their pathogeneses might be different. (author)

  3. Identification and characterization of Eimeria tenella apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianlian Jiang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a micronemal protein of apicomplexan parasites that appears to be essential during the invasion of host cells. In this study, a full-length cDNA of AMA1 was identified from Eimeria tenella (Et using expressed sequence tag and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. EtAMA1 had an open reading frame of 1608 bp encoding a protein of 535 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EtAMA1 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second-generation merozoites. The ectodomain sequence was expressed as recombinant EtAMA1 (rEtAMA1 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against the rEtAMA1 recognized a 58-kDa native parasite protein by Western Blotting and had a potent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion, decreasing it by approximately 70%. Immunofluorescence analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis showed EtAMA1 might play an important role in sporozoite invasion and development.

  4. Characterization of a subtilisin-like protease with apical localization from microsporidian Nosema bombycis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiaoqun; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Tian; Lin, Lipeng; Ma, Qiang; Geng, Lina; He, Yuanli; Zhou, Zeyang

    2013-02-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is the pathogen causing pébrine leading to heavy economic loss in sericulture. Little is known of the proteases of microsporidia that are important for both parasite development and pathogenesis. Here we identified a subtilisin-like serine protease NbSLP1 which contains an inhibitor_I9 and a peptidase_S8 domain. Three dimensional modeling of the catalytic domain of the NbSLP1 exhibited a typical 3-layer sandwich structure with S1 pocket substituted by Y(359). Phylogenetic analysis confirms that subtilisin-like serine proteases of microsporidia fall into two clades: SLP1 and SLP2, suggesting the initial subtilisin gene duplication events preceded microsporidia speciation. Furthermore, transcripts of Nbslp1 were detected in the midgut of Bombyx mori infection by N. bombycis by RT-PCR. Antibodies against NbSLP1 recognized both the precursor and mature enzyme by 2D Western blotting. Besides, indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the NbSLP1 is mainly localized at the two poles of spore which make the spore look like "safety pins". Remarkably, the mature protease is only detected in the apical region of the spore after germination. These studies demonstrate that NbSLP1 is a conserved subtilisin protease in microsporidia and suggest that NbSLP1 play a significant role in polar tube extrusion process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  6. Cytotoxicity of Various Endodontic Materials on Stem Cells of Human Apical Papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Karkehabadi, Hamed; Mollashahi, Narges Farhad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine (BD) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) on stem cells of the human apical papilla (SCAP). SCAPs were isolated from two semi-impacted third molars. The cells were cultured in wells of an insert 24-well plate and were then incubated. The plates were then removed from the incubator and randomly divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to 1-mm discs of set MTA, CEM, BD or OCP, and one untreated control group. After 24, 48 and 168 h, the plates were removed from the incubator and 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) solution was added to each well. Data were analyzed at different time points using the repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Cytotoxicity of the four materials was not significantly different from that of the control group at 24, 48 and 168 h (P>0.05). Two-by-two comparison revealed that cytotoxicity of MTA and CEM cement was significantly different from each other at 168 h (Pcytotoxicity of CEM was less than MTA. Cytotoxicity of OCP and MTA was also significantly different from each other at 48 h and OCP had more favorable biocompatibility than MTA (Pcytotoxicity among the materials under study.

  7. Quality of life after Uphold™ Vaginal Support System surgery for apical pelvic organ prolapse-A prospective multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahkola-Soisalo, Päivi; Altman, Daniel; Falconer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects on quality of life in women operated for apical pelvic organ prolapse using the Vaginal Uphold™ System. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, women (n=207) with symptomatic apical prolapse, with or without cystocele, were operated using the Uphold™ Vaginal...... Support System. Follow-up for quality of life was performed at 12 months after surgery, and assessed by the PFDI-20, and PFIQ-7, and sexual function by the PISQ-12. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcome association analyses using logistic regression. RESULTS: At one......-year follow-up majority of women experienced an overall postoperative improvement in quality of life (p

  8. Calcium-enriched mixture pulpotomy of a human permanent molar with irreversible pulpitis and condensing apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a pulpotomy treatment of a permanent mature molar tooth with established irreversible pulpitis and condensing apical periodontitis, using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Clinical examination revealed that the first right lower molar had a large carious lesion with history of spontaneous/lingering pain; radiographic examination showed condensing apical periodontitis. Pulpotomy was opted as the treatment; cervical pulpotomy was carried out. Following hemostasis, the radicular pulp stumps were covered with ~2-mm-thick layer of the prepared CEM cement; the tooth was restored with amalgam. Two-year follow-up showed that the treated tooth had been symptomless, and there were no clinical signs/symptoms of either inflammation or infection. Radiographically, the periradicular lesion was completely healed with reconstruction of bone structures to normal appearance; the root canals were not calcified. According to chemical, physical, and biological properties of the CEM cement, this novel biomaterial may be suitable for endodontic treatment. PMID:21691516

  9. Comparison of periapical radiography and limited cone-beam tomography in posterior maxillary teeth referred for apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Kenneth M T; Dula, Karl; Bürgin, Walter; von Arx, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    This study compared periapical (PA) radiography and cone-beam tomography (CBT) for preoperative diagnosis in posterior maxillary teeth of consecutive patients referred for possible apical surgery. Images were concurrently analyzed by an oral radiologist and an endodontist to reach consensus in interpretation of the radiographic findings. The final material included 37 premolars and 37 molars with a total of 156 roots. CBT showed significantly more lesions (34%, p radiography. Detecting lesions with PA radiography alone was most difficult in second molars or in roots in close proximity to the maxillary sinus floor. Additional findings were seen significantly more frequently in CBT compared with PA radiography including expansion of lesions into the maxillary sinus (p < 0.001), sinus membrane thickening (p < 0.001), and missed canals (p < 0.05). The present study highlights the advantages of using CBT for preoperative treatment planning in maxillary posterior teeth with apical pathology.

  10. Nerve lesions following apical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: A systematic case review and report of two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Jared; Thorn, Jens Jørn; Korsgaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of resections in both instances. In relation to the cases presented, a systematic review of similar cases in the literature between 1980 and April 2013 was conducted which resulted in eight cases meeting the criteria outlined. As with the two presented cases, half of these eight cases showed serious adverse......We present two cases of apical extrusion of non-setting, calcium hydroxide paste which had been placed as an interappointment root canal dressing during routine endodontic treatment and which resulted in tissue necrosis of a large part of themandible, while. Surgical intervention consisted...... effects and the use of an injectable system had most often been related to apical extrusion. Consequently, great care should be taken when applying the paste into the canal system. 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Comparing a conventional and three rotary instrumentation techniques with regard to the amount of apically extruded debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrabi MH.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Mechanical preparation of canal is one of the most important stages in root canal therapy. Various kinds of hand or rotary techniques are used for mechanical preparation of canal and each of them has advantages and disadvantages. During canal preparation, extrusion of debris from the apical foramen can result in periapical inflammation and increased pain and edema. The aim of this study was to compare hand instrumentation technique with three rotary systems (Profile, Race, Flex Master regarding the amount of extruded debris from apical foramen during canal preparation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, one hundred human extracted single rooted mandibular premolars with curvature between 0-10 degrees were selected and divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. All teeth were shortened to 15 mm length by cutting the crown. Group H was prepared by hand step back technique, group P by Profile system, group R by Race system and group F by Flex Master system. For debris collection, vials containing distilled water were used which were weighed before preparation. After the end of canal preparation, vials were completely dried and weighed again. The difference between weights of vials in two stages was the weight of debris extruded from apical foramen. The groups were compared by One-way ANOVA with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Results: Group H had the highest mean weight of debris which showed significant difference with all three rotary groups (P<0.001. The lowest mean weight of debris was observed in group R (Race which was significantly different from group F (Flex Master but not significantly different from group P (Profile. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, race rotary system caused less debris extrusion from apical foramen compared to hand step back technique and Flex Master rotary system.

  12. Estudio comparativo del sellado apical de obturaciones con gutapercha con distintas concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio asociado con Edta.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Spagna Souza, Arlindo; Schmitt, P

    2005-01-01

    Recibido: Diciembre 2004 Aceptado: Febrero 2005 El objetivo de esta comparación fue evaluar la capacidad de sellado apical marginal de las obturaciones realizadas mediante la técnica de condensación lateral, variando las concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio utilizado en la preparación de los canales radiculares,y agregandole EDTA. Para ello fueron usados 44 premolares inferiores. Estos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de diez dientes con sus respectivas preparaciones. Grupo 1...

  13. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB.

  14. Redescription of Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of clariid catfishes in Africa with a unique glandular apical organ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.; Beletew, M.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2009), s. 443-449 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Proteocephalidae * Africa * catfishes * apical organ * morphology * redescription Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  15. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-03-01

    Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (palkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH.

  16. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation: a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsioukis, C; Kastrinakis, E; Lambrianidis, T; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2014-02-01

    (i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to investigate whether the irrigant contact angle affects bubble entrapment, (iii) to examine if an established vapor lock can be removed by syringe irrigation. Bubble entrapment during irrigation of straight artificial root canals of size 35 or 50 was evaluated by real-time visualizations. The irrigant was delivered by a closed-ended or an open-ended needle positioned at 1 or 3 mm short of working length (WL) and at a flow rate of 0.033-0.260 mL s(-1) . Results were analysed by nonparametric tests at 0.05 significance. Selected cases were also simulated by a two-phase CFD model. A vapor lock was observed in 48% of the cases investigated experimentally. Increasing the apical size, using an open-ended needle, positioning the needle closer to WL and delivering the irrigant at higher flow rate resulted in significantly smaller vapor lock. An increased contact angle resulted in the entrapment of a larger bubble when a low flow rate was used. Both brief insertion of the needle to WL whilst irrigating at a flow rate of 0.083 mL s(-1) and delivering the irrigant at 0.260 mL s(-1) without changing the needle position were capable of removing an established vapor lock. Apical vapor lock may occur under certain conditions, but appears to be easily prevented or removed by syringe irrigation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Retrospective analysis of nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as endodontic apical periodontitis lesions in a population of Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsun-Yu; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Ko, Edward Cheng-Chuan; Chuang, Fu-Hsiung; Chen, Ping-Ho; Chen, Ching-Yi; Wang, Wen-Chen

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate nonendodontic periapical lesions clinically misdiagnosed as endodontic periapical pathoses in a population of Taiwanese patients. Cases (2000-2014) of histopathological diagnoses of nonendodontic periapical lesions were retrieved from all cases with a clinical diagnosis of radicular cyst, apical granuloma, or apical periodontitis in the institution. These cases were regarded as misdiagnosed nonendodontic periapical lesions, of which the types and frequencies, in addition to the demographic data, were determined. Four thousand and four specimens were clinically diagnosed as endodontically associated pathoses, of which 118 cases (2.95%) received a histopathological diagnosis of a nonendodontic pathologic entity, the most frequent lesion being keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT, n = 38, 32.20%), followed by fibro-osseous lesion (n = 18, 15.25%), and dentigerous cyst (n = 13, 11.02%). Nine malignant lesions in the periapical area [squamous cell carcinoma (n = 7, 5.93%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1, 0.85%), and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (n = 1, 0.85%)] were also noted. A wide variety of histopathological diagnoses, including benign odontogenic and non-odontogenic cystic and tumorous lesions and infectious diseases, as well as malignant lesions, was noted in these 118 cases of nonendodontic periapical lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most predominant malignancy of nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as apical periodontitis lesions from imaging examination overlooking the clinical findings. The current data form a useful basis for clinicopathological investigation and educational teaching regarding nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as endodontic apical periodontitis lesions.

  18. EBIO, an agent causing maintained epithelial chloride secretion by co-ordinate actions at both apical and basolateral membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVinish, L J; Keogh, J; Cuthbert, A W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (EBIO) on electrogenic chloride secretion in murine colonic and nasal epithelium was investigated by the short-circuit technique. In the colon, EBIO produces a sustained current increase in the presence of amiloride, which is sensitive to furosemide. In nasal epithelium EBIO causes only a small, transient current increase. Sustained increases in current were obtained in response to forskolin in both epithelia. To examine the mechanisms by which EBIO increases chloride secretion, the effects on intracellular mediators were measured in colonic crypts. There was no effect on [Ca(2+)]i but cAMP content was increased, more so in the presence of IBMX, indicating a direct effect on adenylate cyclase. In colonic epithelia in which the apical surface was permeabilized by nystatin, and the tissue subjected to an apical to basolateral K(+) gradient, EBIO caused a current increase that was entirely sensitive to charybdotoxin (ChTX). In similarly permeabilized colons Br-cAMP caused a current increase that was entirely sensitive to 293B. Thus EBIO increases chloride secretion in the colon by coordinated actions at both the apical and basolateral faces of the cells. These include direct and indirect actions on Ca(2+)-sensitive and cAMP-sensitive K(+) channels respectively, and indirect actions on the basolateral cotransporter and apical CFTR chloride channels via cAMP. In CF colonic epithelia EBIO did not evoke chloride secretion. It is not clear why the nasal epithelium responds poorly to EBIO whereas it gives a sustained response to the related compound chlorzoxazone.

  19. Comparison of apical debris extrusion during root canal preparation using instrumentation techniques with two operating principles: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Mudita; Meena, N.; Kumari, R. Anitha; Mallandur, Sudhanva; Vikram, R.; Gowda, Vishwas

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to quantify the debris extruded apically from teeth using rotary and reciprocation instrumentation systems. Subjects and Methods: Eighty extracted human mandibular premolars with single canals and similar lengths were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (40, 06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (40, 06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), WaveOne (40, 06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and Reciproc (R40; ...

  20. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  1. Evaluating the clinical and esthetic outcome of apically positioned flap technique in augmentation of keratinized gingiva around dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Vineela Katam; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Lochana, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dental implants though a successful treatment modality there exists controversies regarding the relationship between the adequacy of the keratinized gingiva (KG) and peri-implant health. The presence of an adequate amount of peri-implant KG reduces gingival inflammation and hence soft-tissue augmentation should be frequently considered. Among the various periodontal plastic surgical procedures, the apically displaced flap increases the width of keratinized tissue with reduced patient...

  2. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  3. Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke in Danon Disease with Formation of Left Ventricular Apical Thrombus despite Normal Systolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, skeletal myopathy, and mild intellectual disability. Early morbidity and mortality due to heart failure or sudden death are known in Danon disease, more in males than in females. Here, we present a 17-year-old female adolescent with Danon disease and severe concentric hypertrophy with normal left ventricular (LV systolic function, who has been complaining of intermittent headache and weakness for about 3 years, initially diagnosed with hemiplegic migraine. Subsequently, her neurological manifestation progressed to transient ischemic attack (TIA and eventually to ischemic stroke confirmed by CT scan with 1-day history of expressive aphasia followed by persistent left side weakness and numbness. Detailed echocardiogram for the first time revealed a small LV apical thrombus with unchanged severe biventricular hypertrophy and normal systolic function. This unexpected LV apical thrombus may be associated with a wide spectrum of neurological deficits ranging from TIA to ischemic stroke in Danon disease. Possibility of cerebral ischemic events should be suspected in Danon disease when presenting with neurological deficits even with normal systolic function. Careful assessment for LV apical thrombus is warranted in such cases.

  4. Asymmetric inheritance of the apical domain and self-renewal of retinal ganglion cell progenitors depend on Anillin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Alessio; Duchemin, Anne-Laure; Albadri, Shahad; Patzel, Eva; Bornhorst, Dorothee; González Avalos, Paula; Lemke, Steffen; Machate, Anja; Brand, Michael; Sel, Saadettin; Di Donato, Vincenzo; Del Bene, Filippo; Zolessi, Flavio R; Ramialison, Mirana; Poggi, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Divisions that generate one neuronal lineage-committed and one self-renewing cell maintain the balance of proliferation and differentiation for the generation of neuronal diversity. The asymmetric inheritance of apical domains and components of the cell division machinery has been implicated in this process, and might involve interactions with cell fate determinants in regulatory feedback loops of an as yet unknown nature. Here, we report the dynamics of Anillin - an essential F-actin regulator and furrow component - and its contribution to progenitor cell divisions in the developing zebrafish retina. We find that asymmetrically dividing retinal ganglion cell progenitors position the Anillin-rich midbody at the apical domain of the differentiating daughter. anillin hypomorphic conditions disrupt asymmetric apical domain inheritance and affect daughter cell fate. Consequently, the retinal cell type composition is profoundly affected, such that the ganglion cell layer is dramatically expanded. This study provides the first in vivo evidence for the requirement of Anillin during asymmetric neurogenic divisions. It also provides insights into a reciprocal regulation between Anillin and the ganglion cell fate determinant Ath5, suggesting a mechanism whereby the balance of proliferation and differentiation is accomplished during progenitor cell divisions in vivo. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Quantification of cultivable bacteria and endotoxin in post-treatment apical periodontitis before and after chemo-mechanical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, M S; Martinho, F C; Zaia, A A; Ferraz, C C R; Almeida, J F A; Gomes, B P F A

    2012-10-01

    This clinical study was conducted to quantify cultivable bacteria and endotoxin in root canals with post-treatment apical periodontitis by correlating their levels with clinical features and to evaluate the effect of chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP) with 2 % chlorhexidine gel + 17 % EDTA on bacterial and endotoxin removal/elimination. Moreover, target strict Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifteen teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis were sampled before (s1) and after (s2) CMP. Culture techniques determined the number of colony-forming units (CFU). PCR (16S rDNA) and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay were used for bacterial and endotoxin detection, respectively. Prevotella nigrescens (4/15), Prevotella intermedia (2/15), and Tannerella forsythia (2/15) were the most frequently detected species. Endotoxin was recovered in 100 % of the samples. At s1, bacteria and endotoxin were detected at a median value of 5.14 × 10(3) CFU/mL and 3.96 EU/mL, respectively. Higher levels of endotoxin were related to a larger size of radiolucent area (>5 mm) (p area in the periapical region. Moreover, CMP was effective in reducing both bacterial and endotoxin contents in post-treatment apical periodontitis.

  6. Irrigation dynamics associated with positive pressure, apical negative pressure and passive ultrasonic irrigations: a computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, José Enrique; Nurbakhsh, Babak; Layton, Gillian; Bussmann, Markus; Kishen, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Complexities in root canal anatomy and surface adherent biofilm structures remain as challenges in endodontic disinfection. The ability of an irrigant to penetrate into the apical region of a canal, along with its interaction with the root canal walls, will aid in endodontic disinfection. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the irrigation dynamics of syringe irrigation with different needle tip designs (open-ended and closed-ended), apical negative pressure irrigation with the EndoVac® system, and passive ultrasonic-assisted irrigation, using a computational fluid dynamics model. Syringe-based irrigation with a side-vented needle showed a higher wall shear stress than the open-ended but was localised to a small region of the canal wall. The apical negative pressure mode of irrigation generated the lowest wall shear stress, while the passive-ultrasonic irrigation group showed the highest wall shear stress along with the greatest magnitude of velocity. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. The V0-ATPase mediates apical secretion of exosomes containing Hedgehog-related proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Samuel; Benedetto, Alexandre; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Schwab, Yannick; Labouesse, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Polarized intracellular trafficking in epithelia is critical in development, immunity, and physiology to deliver morphogens, defensins, or ion pumps to the appropriate membrane domain. The mechanisms that control apical trafficking remain poorly defined. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we characterize a novel apical secretion pathway involving multivesicularbodies and the release of exosomes at the apical plasma membrane. By means of two different genetic approaches, we show that the membrane-bound V0 sector of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) acts in this pathway, independent of its contribution to the V-ATPase proton pump activity. Specifically, we identified mutations in the V0 “a” subunit VHA-5 that affect either the V0-specific function or the V0+V1 function of the V-ATPase. These mutations allowed us to establish that the V0 sector mediates secretion of Hedgehog-related proteins. Our data raise the possibility that the V0 sector mediates exosome and morphogen release in mammals. PMID:16785323

  8. Zonula occludens-1 and -2 regulate apical cell structure and the zonula adherens cytoskeleton in polarized epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Alan S.; Van Itallie, Christina M.; Anderson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of both adherens (AJ) and tight (TJ) junctions are dependent on the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and -2 proteins have context-dependent interactions with both junction types and bind directly to F-actin and other cytoskeletal proteins, suggesting ZO-1 and -2 might regulate cytoskeletal activity at cell junctions. To address this hypothesis, we generated stable Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines depleted of both ZO-1 and -2. Both paracellular permeability and the localization of TJ proteins are disrupted in ZO-1/-2–depleted cells. In addition, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy revealed a significant expansion of the perijunctional actomyosin ring associated with the AJ. These structural changes are accompanied by a recruitment of 1-phosphomyosin light chain and Rho kinase 1, contraction of the actomyosin ring, and expansion of the apical domain. Despite these changes in the apical cytoskeleton, there are no detectable changes in cell polarity, localization of AJ proteins, or the organization of the basal and lateral actin cytoskeleton. We conclude that ZO proteins are required not only for TJ assembly but also for regulating the organization and functional activity of the apical cytoskeleton, particularly the perijunctional actomyosin ring, and we speculate that these activities are relevant both to cellular organization and epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:22190737

  9. Comparative in vitro study of the marginal apical sealing capacity of Sealapex® and Endofill® Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Interliche

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the apical seal obtained with two sealers: Sealapex (Kerr-Sybron, Orange, USA a calcium hydroxide-based sealer and Endofill (Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brazil a zinc oxide eugenol-based sealer. Method: Twenty four extracted single-rooted human teeth were divided into two groups, with ten each, instrumented and filled by lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and one of the sealers. Four teeth were used as positive and negative control. After filling, all specimens were coated with nail vernish except around the apical foramen (the negative control group was completely covered, and then immersed in indian ink for 96 hours, decalcified, dehydrated and diaphanized. Results: The extent of staining was examined under a stereo microscope and the data were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test. Numerically Sealapex (Kerr-Sybron, Orange, USA experimental group had lower levels of marginal leakage than Endofill (Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brasil. The negative control exhibited no leakage and in the positive control leakage was complete. There was no statistically significant differencebetween the sealers. Conclusion: The sealers showed similar apical sealing ability. Neither of the sealers in this study completely prevented leakage.

  10. Mechanically, the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis behaves like a shell inflated by a pressure of about 1 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léna eBeauzamy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82 ± 0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex.

  11. Alpha-enolase on apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells serves as a calcium oxalate crystal receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-10-01

    To search for a strategy to prevent kidney stone formation/recurrence, this study addressed the role of α-enolase on apical membrane of renal tubular cells in mediating calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhesion. Its presence on apical membrane and in COM crystal-bound fraction was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Pretreating MDCK cells with anti-α-enolase antibody, not isotype-controlled IgG, dramatically reduced cell-crystal adhesion. Immunofluorescence staining also confirmed the direct binding of purified α-enolase to COM crystals at {121} > {100} > {010} crystal faces. Coating COM crystals with urinary proteins diminished the crystal binding capacity to cells and purified α-enolase. Moreover, α-enolase selectively bound to COM, not other crystals. Chemico-protein interactions analysis revealed that α-enolase interacted directly with Ca2+ and Mg2+. Incubating the cells with Mg2+ prior to cell-crystal adhesion assay significantly reduced crystal binding on the cell surface, whereas preincubation with EDTA, a divalent cation chelator, completely abolished Mg2+ effect, indicating that COM and Mg2+ competitively bind to α-enolase. Taken together, we successfully confirmed the role of α-enolase as a COM crystal receptor to mediate COM crystal adhesion at apical membrane of renal tubular cells. It may also serve as a target for stone prevention by blocking cell-crystal adhesion and stone nidus formation.

  12. Adenylyl cyclase alpha and cAMP signaling mediate Plasmodium sporozoite apical regulated exocytosis and hepatocyte infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria starts with the infection of the liver of the host by Plasmodium sporozoites, the parasite form transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Sporozoites migrate through several hepatocytes by breaching their plasma membranes before finally infecting one with the formation of an internalization vacuole. Migration through host cells induces apical regulated exocytosis in sporozoites. Here we show that apical regulated exocytosis is induced by increases in cAMP in sporozoites of rodent (P. yoelii and P. berghei and human (P. falciparum Plasmodium species. We have generated P. berghei parasites deficient in adenylyl cyclase alpha (ACalpha, a gene containing regions with high homology to adenylyl cyclases. PbACalpha-deficient sporozoites do not exocytose in response to migration through host cells and present more than 50% impaired hepatocyte infectivity in vivo. These effects are specific to ACalpha, as re-introduction of ACalpha in deficient parasites resulted in complete recovery of exocytosis and infection. Our findings indicate that ACalpha and increases in cAMP levels are required for sporozoite apical regulated exocytosis, which is involved in sporozoite infection of hepatocytes.

  13. Effect of Propylene Glycol on the Sealing Ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement Apical Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, Alireza; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte; Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Tahmasebi Azad, Fateme; Bahmani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) improves the handling, physical, and chemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PG on the sealing ability of MTA and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) apical barriers. A total of 70 extracted human maxillary single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProTaper rotary system. The apical 3 mm of the root tips were resected and the root canals were enlarged with Peeso reamers up to #4, to create open apex teeth. The teeth were then randomly divided into four experimental ( n =15) and two control ( n =5) groups. Group1: MTA+ MTA liquid, group2; MTA+MTA liquid (80%) + PG (20%), group3; CEM+CEM liquid, group4; CEM+ liquid (80%) + PG (20%). Cements were mixed with their respective mixing agents and a 4-mm thick apical plug was fabricated. The microleakage was measured on day 1, 3, 7 and 21 using a fluid filtration technique. The repeated measures ANOVA and Sidak test were used to analyze the data. All experimental groups demonstrated various amounts of microleakage. No significant difference was found between MTA and CEM cement ( P =0.193), regardless of time and liquid components. There was no significant difference was observed between liquids ( P =0.312) in all time intervals. The rate of microleakage decreased over time and a significant differences was observed between all intervals ( P MTA and CEM cement.

  14. Comparison of apically extruded debris after root canal instrumentation using Reciproc(®) instruments with various kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H; Doğanay, E; Alsancak, M; Çapar, I D; Karataş, E; Gündüz, H A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the amount of apically extruded debris using Reciproc(®) instruments with different kinematics (150° counter clockwise [CCW]-30° clockwise [CW], 270° CCW-30° CW, 360° CCW-30° CW and continuous rotation). Forty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected and assigned to four root canal shaping groups as follows (n = 12): 150° CCW-30° CW, 270° CCW-30° CW, 360° CCW-30° CW and continuous rotation. Reciproc R25 and R50(®) instruments were used in all groups. Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. The data were analysed with one way analysis of variance and LSD post hoc tests (P = 0.05). The 150° CCW-30° CW and 270° CCW-30° CW reciprocating motions extruded significantly less debris than continuous rotation (P 0.05). All instrument movements were associated with apically extruded debris. However, the 150° CCW-30° CW and 270° CCW-30° CW reciprocating motions were associated with less extrusion than continuous rotation. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Influence of Cervical Preflaring on the Amount of Apically Extruded Debris after Root Canal Preparation Using Different Instrumentation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Pereira, Thiago Machado; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; de Araújo Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues; Miranda Pedro, Fabio Luis; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cervical preflaring on the amount of apically extruded debris after root canal preparation using different instrumentation systems. One hundred eighty human maxillary central incisors were selected and randomly divided into 12 groups (n = 15). Root canals were instrumented according to manufacturers' instructions using 2 reciprocating single-file systems (Reciproc [VDW, Munich, Germany] and WaveOne [Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland]), 3 full-sequence rotary systems (ProTaper Universal [Dentsply Maillefer], ProTaper Next [Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK], and ProFile [Dentsply Maillefer]), and K-files (Dentsply Maillefer) driven by an oscillatory system with and without cervical preflaring. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. Apically extruded debris was collected in preweighed glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was determined using a microbalance. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests followed by the Tukey post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. K-files produced significantly more debris than all of the other systems (P extruded debris when compared with no cervical preflaring (P extruded debris, irrespective of the preparation technique used (with or without cervical preflaring). Cervical preflaring was associated with the extrusion of smaller quantities of apical debris. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudi, S. M.; Luddin, N.; Mohamad, D.; Alkashakhshir, J. J.; Adnan, R.; Ramli, R. A.

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the apical sealing ability of experimental nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-filled epoxy resin based endodontic sealer and to compare it with the commercial AH26 sealant. A total of 76 extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using NiTi files and randomly divided into two groups of 33 teeth each and two control groups of 5 teeth each. The first group was obturated using gutta-percha with AH26 sealer. The second group was obturated with the nano HA-filled epoxy resin based sealer. All teeth were coated with nail polish except 2 mm from foramen apical and then suspended in 2% methylene blue for 7 days. All teeth were sectioned longitudinally for measuring penetration of the dye using stereo-microscope (x36). The result showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in apical sealing ability between AH26 silver-free sealer and nano HA sealer.

  17. Aldosterone induction of electrogenic sodium transport in the apical membrane vesicles of rat distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, V.M.; Kashgarian, M.; Binder, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Na-H exchange is present in apical membrane vesicles (AMV) isolated from distal colon of normal rats. Because in intact tissue aldosterone both induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium transport and inhibits electroneutral sodium absorption, these studies with AMV were designed to establish the effect of aldosterone on sodium transport. An outward-directed proton gradient stimulated 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from distal colon of normal and dietary sodium depleted (with elevated aldosterone levels) experimental rats. Unlike normal AMV, proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in experimental AMV was inhibited when uptake was measured under voltage-clamped conditions. 10 microM amiloride inhibited the initial rate of proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in AMV of normal and experimental rats by 30 and 75%, respectively. In contrast, 1 mM amiloride produced comparable inhibition (90 and 80%) of 22Na uptake in normal and experimental AMV. Intravesicular-negative potential stimulated 22Na uptake in experimental but not in normal AMV. This increase was inhibited by 90% by 10 microM amiloride. An analogue of amiloride, 5-(N-ethylisopropyl) amiloride (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of electroneutral Na-H exchange in AMV of normal rat distal colon, did not alter potassium diffusion potential-dependent 22Na uptake. Increasing sodium concentration saturated proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in normal AMV. However, in experimental AMV, 22Na uptake stimulated by both proton gradient and potassium diffusion potential did not saturate as a function of increasing sodium concentration. We conclude from these results that an electrically sensitive conductive channel, not electroneutral Na-H exchange, mediates 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from the distal colon of aldosterone rats

  18. A viroid from Solanum pseudocapsicum closely related to the tomato apical stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, R L; Marinkovic, S; Sänger, H L

    1996-01-01

    A viroid was isolated from symptomless Solanum pseudocapsicum cultivar (cv) 'New Patterson' plants using the bidirectional PAGE method for analysis of small circular RNA molecules. The viroid was transmitted to tomato by mechanical inoculation. Infected tomato plants developed symptoms similar to those caused by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Cloning and sequencing revealed that the viroid from Solanum pseudocapsicum is closely related to the tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd). Therefore, the new viroid sequence variant has been named TASVd-S. The circular RNA of TASVd-S consists of 360 nucleotides which can potentially form a rod-like structure with a high degree of base-pairing like all the other known viroids. The nucleotide composition is 99 G, 72 A, 101 C and 88 U, corresponding to 200 G + C, 160 A + U with a GC content of 55.6%. In total 71% of the residues are base-paired and the basepaired residues consist of 73 G:C (57%), 43 A:U (34%) and 11 G:U (9%) base pairs. The most stable rod-like secondary structure of this viroid has 80 G:C, 39 A:U and 11 G:U base pairs with a minimum free energy of -147.5 kcal/mol (-616.6 kJ/mol). The sequence similarity of the left terminal (T1) domain of TASVd-S and the T1 domain of tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) is higher than the sequence similarity of these domains of TASVd-S and TASV-d.

  19. Prevalence of migraine and Raynaud phenomenon in women with apical ballooning syndrome (Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Dawn C; Prasad, Abhiram; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Best, Patricia J M

    2013-05-01

    Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), migraine, and Raynaud phenomenon are characterized by female predominance, identifiable triggers, and, likely, vascular dysfunction. Estrogen deficiency, such as in menopause, is considered to be a predisposing factor for ABS. We investigated the association of ABS with migraine, Raynaud phenomenon, and hormonal factors. We compared 25 consecutive residents (all women) of Olmsted County, Minnesota, presenting with ABS, to 2 age-matched control groups from the same community: 25 women presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), matched for the index ABS event date, and 50 women with neither diagnosis. The patients with ABS were more likely to have a migraine history (11 [44%] vs 4 [16%] STEMI controls, p = 0.031, and vs 6 [12%] population controls, p = 0.003), and "possible migraine" (including other headache syndromes suggestive of migraine; 15 [60%] vs 6 [24%] STEMI controls, p = 0.012; and vs 12 [24%] population controls, p = 0.003). Of the patients with ABS, 4 (16%) had Raynaud phenomenon compared to no STEMI controls and 1 (2%) population control (p = 0.038). No differences were present in parity, menopausal status, years since the onset of menopause, and frequency of oophorectomy. Current hormonal replacement therapy use was greater in those with ABS than in the population controls: 4 (16%) versus none (p = 0.002). In conclusion, the association of ABS with migraine and Raynaud phenomenon supports a role of vasomotor dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ABS. The absence of an association with reproductive characteristics and the finding that ABS occurred despite exogenous hormonal use in some patients suggests that estrogen deficiency per se is not the primary factor in the pathophysiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of apical contractility in determining cell morphology in multilayered epithelial sheets and tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen Tan, Rui; Lai, Tanny; Chiam, K.-H.

    2017-08-01

    A multilayered epithelium is made up of individual cells that are stratified in an orderly fashion, layer by layer. In such tissues, individual cells can adopt a wide range of shapes ranging from columnar to squamous. From histological images, we observe that, in flat epithelia such as the skin, the cells in the top layer are squamous while those in the middle and bottom layers are columnar, whereas in tubular epithelia, the cells in all layers are columnar. We develop a computational model to understand how individual cell shape is governed by the mechanical forces within multilayered flat and curved epithelia. We derive the energy function for an epithelial sheet of cells considering intercellular adhesive and intracellular contractile forces. We determine computationally the cell morphologies that minimize the energy function for a wide range of cellular parameters. Depending on the dominant adhesive and contractile forces, we find four dominant cell morphologies for the multilayered-layered flat sheet and three dominant cell morphologies for the two-layered curved sheet. We study the transitions between the dominant cell morphologies for the two-layered flat sheet and find both continuous and discontinuous transitions and also the presence of multistable states. Matching our computational results with histological images, we conclude that apical contractile forces from the actomyosin belt in the epithelial cells is the dominant force determining cell shape in multilayered epithelia. Our computational model can guide tissue engineers in designing artificial multilayered epithelia, in terms of figuring out the cellular parameters needed to achieve realistic epithelial morphologies.

  1. Effect of apical dominance on bud take in Citrus vegetative propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mataa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the grafting method, which will have a higher success rate of scion development. The study was conducted at Mount Makulu Central Research station in Chilanga, Zambia (15o33’S / 28o11’E from April 2010 to November 2011. The study had 4 vegetative propagation methods that varied in the treatment of the rootstock and scion. The four methods were Standard T- budding (STB; Modified TBudding with decapitation (TBD; T- budding with scion bending (TBB; Crown grafting (CG. Bud take, shoot growth, leaf emergence and Leaf area index were measured up to 11 weeks after treatment (WAT. With CG there was 100 % bud take. STB had a bud take of 58.3 %. TBD had a bud take of 50 %. The lowest bud take percentage was recorded in TBB, which had a bud take of 41.7 %. At 5 weeks the STB and TBB treatment had shoot length of 0.7 and 1.0 cm respectively which were the shortest; this was followed by the CG treatment at 15.3 cm and the modified TBD with apical shoot decapitation (21.7 cm. STB shoots did not start growing until about 5 weeks, which was 2 weeks after the rootstock was cut off. At 5 weeks, the TBB and STB were yet to form leaves. The CG had close to 20 leaves and the TBD had almost 15.2 leaves. At the end of 11 weeks, the TBB had the highest number of leaves. Across the grafting methods; the Leaf area exhibited a pattern similar to leaf number; it kept on doubling every 2 weeks to until the 9th week after which the increase was negligible. At 11 weeks, the highest leaf area was in the TBD followed by the STB and lowest in the CG treatment.

  2. Cell size and growth regulation in the Arabidopsis thaliana apical stem cell niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Lisa; Refahi, Yassin; Wightman, Raymond; Landrein, Benoit; Teles, José; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3–4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems. We found that a cell size checkpoint is not the trigger for G2/M or cytokinesis, refuting the unexamined assumption that meristematic cells trigger cell cycle phases upon reaching a critical size. Our data also rule out models in which cells undergo G2/M at a fixed time after birth, or by adding a critical size increment between G2/M transitions. Rather, cell size regulation was intermediate between the critical size and critical increment paradigms, meaning that cell size fluctuations decay by ∼75% in one generation compared with 100% (critical size) and 50% (critical increment). Notably, this behavior was independent of local cell–cell contact topologies and of position within the tissue. Cells grew exponentially throughout the first >80% of the cell cycle, but following an asymmetrical division, the small daughter grew at a faster exponential rate than the large daughter, an observation that potentially challenges present models of growth regulation. These growth and division behaviors place strong constraints on quantitative mechanistic descriptions of the cell cycle and growth control. PMID:27930326

  3. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  4. Assessing apical transportation in curved canals: comparison between cross-sections and micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Gonzales Freire

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessing apical transportation in curved canals after rotary instrumentation, namely, cross-sections and micro-computed tomography (µCT. Thirty mandibular molars were divided into two groups and prepared according to the requirements of each method. In G1 (cross-sections, teeth were embedded in resin blocks and sectioned at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex. Pre- and postoperative sections were photographed and analyzed. In G2 (µCT, teeth were embedded in a rubber-base impression material and scanned before and after instrumentation. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented with the Twisted File (TF system (SybronEndo, Orange, USA, and mesiolingual canals, with the EndoSequence (ES system (Brasseler, Savannah, USA. Images were reconstructed, and sections corresponding to distances 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex were selected for comparison. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test at a 5% significance level. The TF and ES instruments produced little deviation from the root canal center, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05. The canal transportation results were significantly lower (0.056 mm in G2 than in G1 (0.089 mm (p = 0.0012. The µCT method was superior to the cross-section method, especially in view of its ability to preserve specimens and provide results that are more closely related to clinical situations.

  5. Assessing apical transportation in curved canals: comparison between cross-sections and micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Laila Gonzales; Gavini, Giulio; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Santos, Marcelo dos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessing apical transportation in curved canals after rotary instrumentation, namely, cross-sections and micro-computed tomography (µCT). Thirty mandibular molars were divided into two groups and prepared according to the requirements of each method. In G1 (cross-sections), teeth were embedded in resin blocks and sectioned at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex. Pre- and postoperative sections were photographed and analyzed. In G2 (µCT), teeth were embedded in a rubber-base impression material and scanned before and after instrumentation. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented with the Twisted File (TF) system (SybronEndo, Orange, USA), and mesiolingual canals, with the EndoSequence (ES) system (Brasseler, Savannah, USA). Images were reconstructed, and sections corresponding to distances 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex were selected for comparison. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test at a 5% significance level. The TF and ES instruments produced little deviation from the root canal center, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05). The canal transportation results were significantly lower (0.056 mm) in G2 than in G1 (0.089 mm) (p = 0.0012). The µCT method was superior to the cross-section method, especially in view of its ability to preserve specimens and provide results that are more closely related to clinical situations.

  6. Patients' Values Related to Treatment Options for Teeth with Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Dao, Thuan; Ungar, Wendy J; Da Costa, Jose; Figueiredo, Rafael; Krahn, Murray; Friedman, Shimon

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore patients' values when selecting treatment for a tooth with apical periodontitis (AP), namely retention via root canal treatment (RCT) and extraction without replacement or replacement with implant-supported crowns or fixed or removable partial prostheses. Through 2 surveys of patients (800 university patients and 200 community patients, response rate = 43%) and dentists (498 Ontario endodontists, periodontists, prosthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, response rate = 40% and 1983 Ontario general dentists, response rate = 15%), the importance of values that might be considered important to patients when selecting treatment options for a tooth with AP were recorded. Chi-square and Kendall's tau tests were used to respectively compare the importance rating frequency by each surveyed group and its correlation to their demographic variables (P ≤ .05). Patients considered communication and trust (94%), tooth retention (90%), esthetic outcome (84% regardless of location), cost (83%), longevity (83%), and preoperative pain (81%) as the most important decision values. Dentists overrated the importance of patients' previous experience with the treatment options (94% vs. 72%), dental insurance (90% vs. 70%), and intraoperative pain (79% vs. 60%) while underestimating the importance of maintenance cost (60% vs. 79%). Dentists should respect patients' views about esthetic outcome, longevity, and cost associated with treatment options for a tooth with AP. In particular, this survey highlights the value of communication and trust between patient and dentist and preservation of the natural tooth through RCT over implant-supported crown replacement when planning treatment for a tooth with AP. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass

    2003-01-01

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2S R ) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  8. Treponema species detected in infected root canals and acute apical abscess exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério C; Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2010-11-01

    Different microbial communities have been associated with acute endodontic infections. The majority of the microorganisms are as yet uncultivable or difficult to grow under current laboratory conditions. Treponema species are strict anaerobic bacteria that are involved in several oral diseases. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Treponema species in infected root canals (RCs) and exudates related to acute apical abscesses (AAAs) as well as to determine positive association between targeted species and clinical signs/symptoms. Paired samples of infected RCs and AAAs were collected from 20 subjects. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay with species-specific primers for 16S rDNA and downstream intergenic spacer region was used for microbial detection. The frequency of species and statistical associations between species and signs/symptoms of endodontic origin as well as their simultaneous detection in both milieus were investigated. The most frequently detected species were T. socranskii (RC, 17/20; AAA, 15/20), T. denticola (RC, 8/20; AAA, 11/20); T. medium (RC, 6/20; AAA, 9/20); and T. amylovorum (RC, 5/20; AAA, 9/20). Positive correlation was found for simultaneous presence of T. denticola in both RCs and AAAs (p = 0.01). Positive association was observed between T. medium and T. vincentii (p = .037). No positive statistical association was observed between the targeted species and signs/symptoms. The high incidence of Treponema species in RC and AAA samples from the same tooth indicated that they are important pathogens in acute endodontic infections. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of three obturation techniques in the apical third of mandibular first molar mesial root canals using micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soram Oh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: CLC demonstrated lower filling densities in isthmuses in the apical region than either CW or OrthoMTA. Orthograde MTA obturation showed comparable filling quality to gutta-percha with sealer.

  10. Uteroglobin, an apically secreted protein of the uterine epithelium, is secreted non-polarized form MDCK cells and mainly basolaterally from Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Suske, G; Beato, M

    1993-01-01

    A complete cDNA encoding rabbit uteroglobin was constructed and expressed in MDCK and Caco-2 cells. The MDCK cells secrete uteroglobin in approximately equal amounts to the apical and the basolateral side, whereas the Caco-2 cells secrete uteroglobin mainly to the basolateral side. Both MDCK...... and Caco-2 cells thus secrete uteroglobin in a non-sorted manner. It has, however, previously been shown that uteroglobin is secreted exclusively at the apical membrane in primary cell culture of endometrial epithelial cells [S.K. Mani et al. (1991) Endocrinology 128, 1563-1573]. This suggests that either...... the endometrial epithelium has an apical default pathway or recognises a sorting signal not recognised by MDCK cells and Caco-2 cells. Our data thus show that a soluble molecule can be secreted at the apical, the basolateral or both membranes depending on the cell type....

  11. Efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming on apically extruded debris with different preparation systems in curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, D; Kustarci, A

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) on the extrusion of debris using multiple-file (ProTaper Next-PTN) and single-file (One Shape-OS) continuous rotary systems in curved canals in human molar teeth. Sixty extracted maxillary first molar teeth with curved mesial roots, mature apices and of similar lengths were selected. Teeth having canals with apical diameters larger than size 15 were discarded. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 15 teeth per group) according to the file used and irrigation systems: (i) OS with PIPS with a 2940 nm Er:YAG laser (0.3 W, 15 Hz, and 20 mJ), (ii) OS with conventional needle irrigation (CNI) with a 27-G needle, (iii) PTN with PIPS and (iv) PTN with CNI. The PIPS and CNI was applied during each file change for 20 s. Total irrigation and activation time was 1 min, and a total volume of 7.5 mL of bidistilled water was used as the irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of dry extruded debris was assessed by subtracting the initial weight of the tube from the final weight. The results were analysed statistically using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests. Bonferroni correction was used to compare the groups. The PIPS irrigation technique was associated with significantly more debris extrusion than the CNI system (P  0.05). The total amount of debris extruded apically by PIPS activation was significantly greater than that by CNI (P extruded debris apically. PIPS activation was associated with significantly more extrusion debris in curved canals compared with no activation. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Apical Localization of Zinc Transporter ZnT4 in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Its Loss in a Murine Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Chiara; Grosser, Dion; Truong-Tran, Ai Q.; Roscioli, Eugene; Michalczyk, Agnes; Ackland, Margaret Leigh; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Danscher, Gorm; Lang, Carol; Knight, Darryl; Perozzi, Giuditta; Ruffin, Richard E.; Zalewski, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The apical cytoplasm of airway epithelium (AE) contains abundant labile zinc (Zn) ions that are involved in the protection of AE from oxidants and inhaled noxious substances. A major question is how dietary Zn traffics to this compartment. In rat airways, in vivo selenite autometallographic (Se-AMG)-electron microscopy revealed labile Zn-selenium nanocrystals in structures resembling secretory vesicles in the apical cytoplasm. This observation was consistent with the starry-sky Zinquin fluore...

  13. Evaluation of apical microleakage of teeth sealed with four different root canal sealers Avaliação da microinfiltração apical em dentes obturados com quatro diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Dultra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare the apical sealing ability of four root canal sealers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty extracted human maxillary canines were instrumented 1 mm short of the anatomical apex and randomly assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root canal sealer used for obturation: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ and Epiphany. Root canals were obturated with gutta-percha points, except for the Epiphany group, in which resin points (Resilon were used. The teeth were immersed in India ink for seven days and clarified using methyl salicylate. The extent of apical dye penetration was measured with a measuroscope in all aspects of the canal. RESULTS: AH Plus (0.02 mm ± 0.07, Epiphany (0.00 mm ± 0.00 and EndoREZ (0.32 mm ± 0.62 did not differ statistically to each other (p>0.01. EndoFill presented the highest dye penetration mean (0.83 mm ± 0.73 and was statistically different from the other sealers (pOBJETIVOS: comparar a capacidade de selamento apical de quatro cimentos endodônticos. MÉTODOS: quarenta caninos superiores humanos extraídos foram instrumentados 1 mm aquém do ápice anatômico e distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=10, de acordo com o cimento endodôntico utilizado para a obturação: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ e Epiphany. Os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral com os cimentos e com cones de guta-percha, exceto o grupo do Epiphany, no qual os cones de resina (Resilon foram utilizados. Os dentes foram imersos em nanquim por sete dias e submetidos ao processo de diafanização e, então, clarificados empregando-se o salicilato de metila. A extensão de penetração via apical do corante foi medida por meio de um microscópio de mensuração em todas as faces do terço apical. RESULTADOS: AH Plus (0,02 mm ± 0,07, Epiphany (0,00 mm ± 0,00 e EndoREZ (0,32 mm ± 0,62 não diferiram estatisticamente entre si (p>0,01. EndoFill apresentou a maior média de penetração do corante (0

  14. Cimentos endodônticos - selamento marginal apical imediato e após armazenamento de seis meses Endodontic cements - immediate apical sealing and after a six-month storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro VALERA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o selamento marginal apical de canais radiculares obturados com os cimentos endodônticos Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26 e Ketac Endo. Utilizaram-se 136 raízes, cujos canais radiculares, após o preparo biomecânico, foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral ativa com os cimentos em estudo. Metade das amostras, imediatamente após as obturações, foram imersas na solução de azul de metileno a 2% e a outra metade após 6 meses de armazenamento em plasma sangüíneo humano. Observou-se que os cimentos Sealapex e Sealer 26 apresentaram infiltrações médias estatisticamente iguais entre si e menores que as observadas para os demais cimentos (p The aim of this study was to verify the apical sealing of root canals obturated with Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26, and Ketac Endo cements. A hundred and thirty six dental roots were used for the experiment. After biomechanical preparation and lateral condensation filling, half of the roots were placed in human blood plasma storage medium for 6 months. The remaining samples were immediately placed in methylene blue, under a temporary vacuum, and after one week the amount of dye penetration measured. The stored samples were similarly treated after the 6-month storage period. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the groups obturated with Sealapex and Sealer 26 showed the smallest amount of apical leakage (p < 0.05. There were significant differences in the amount of dye penetration after 6 months of storage (1.275 mm, when compared to the results found without storage (0.829 mm (p < 0.05.

  15. Apical internal inflammatory root resorption and open apex treated with MTA: a case report = Reabsorção apical inflamatória interna e ápice aberto tratado com MTA: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun, Débora Franzon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A reabsorção radicular interna inflamatória é uma condição rara caracterizada por progressiva perda de substância dentária, que se inicia nas paredes do canal radicular. Geralmente o processo é assintomático e diagnosticado em exame radiográfico de rotina. O presente relato de caso mostra o tratamento de um caso de lesão periapical e reabsorção interna apical que atingiu a superfície radicular externa. Descrição do caso: Um paciente do sexo masculino de 16 anos foi encaminhado para tratamento odontológico de rotina para reabilitação oral. O exame radiográfico mostrou uma lesão de reabsorção no terço apical e lesão periapical no dente 21. O preparo coronário foi realizado e hidróxido de cálcio foi colocado por duas semanas. Um tampão com MTA branco foi condensado na cavidade da reabsorção e então o canal foi obturado com guta-percha e cimento AH Plus. As radiografias de acompanhamento mostraram resolução satisfatória. Conclusão: Este caso mostrou os resultados do tratamento com tampão apical de MTA. A técnica evitou um procedimento invasivo e apresentou algumas vantagens, tais como propriedades biológicas dos materiais e capacidade de selamento

  16. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-08-14

    Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. The sample comprised 100 patients (17-75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length reduction was found in every patient. On average, 7.36 teeth

  17. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  18. Population genetic structure and natural selection of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 in Myanmar isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Moe, Mya; Jun, Hojong; Lê, Hương Giang; Kim, Tae Im; Thái, Thị Lam; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Lin, Khin; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2018-02-07

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) is one of leading blood stage malaria vaccine candidates. However, genetic variation and antigenic diversity identified in global PfAMA-1 are major hurdles in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PfAMA-1 among Myanmar P. falciparum isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 58 Myanmar patients with falciparum malaria. Full-length PfAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. PfAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced. Polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed with using DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Polymorphic nature and natural selection in 459 global PfAMA-1 were also analysed. Thirty-seven different haplotypes of PfAMA-1 were identified in 58 Myanmar P. falciparum isolates. Most amino acid changes identified in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were found in domains I and III. Overall patterns of amino acid changes in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were similar to those in global PfAMA-1. However, frequencies of amino acid changes differed by country. Novel amino acid changes in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were also identified. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed in global PfAMA-1. Among 51 commonly identified amino acid changes in global PfAMA-1 sequences, 43 were found in predicted RBC-binding sites, B-cell epitopes, or IUR regions. Myanmar PfAMA-1 showed similar patterns of nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphisms compared to those of global PfAMA-1. Balancing natural selection and intragenic recombination across PfAMA-1 are likely to play major roles in generating genetic diversity in global PfAMA-1. Most common amino acid changes in global PfAMA-1 were located in predicted B-cell epitopes where high levels of nucleotide diversity and balancing natural selection were found. These results highlight the

  19. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); Efecto de la radiacion gamma en la actividad metabolica del meristemo apical de esparrago (Asparagus officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, A.P. 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Melendrez A, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. e-mail: aestrada@cascabel.ciad.mx

    2007-07-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene

  20. Na+/HCO3- Cotransporter NBCn2 Mediates HCO3- Reclamation in the Apical Membrane of Renal Proximal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Mei; Wang, Jin-Lin; Xie, Zhang-Dong; Chen, Kang-Jing; Wang, Deng-Ke; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F; Chen, Li-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The kidney maintains systemic acid-base balance by reclaiming from the renal tubule lumen virtually all HCO 3 - filtered in glomeruli and by secreting additional H + to titrate luminal buffers. For proximal tubules, which are responsible for about 80% of this activity, it is believed that HCO 3 - reclamation depends solely on H + secretion, mediated by the apical Na + /H + exchanger NHE 3 and the vacuolar proton pump. However, NHE3 and the proton pump cannot account for all HCO 3 - reclamation. Here, we investigated the potential contribution of two variants of the electroneutral Na + /HCO 3 - cotransporter NBCn2, the amino termini of which start with the amino acids MCDL (MCDL-NBCn2) and MEIK (MEIK-NBCn2). Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry revealed that MEIK-NBCn2 predominantly localizes at the basolateral membrane of medullary thick ascending limbs in the rat kidney, whereas MCDL-NBCn2 localizes at the apical membrane of proximal tubules. Notably, NH 4 Cl-induced systemic metabolic acidosis or hypokalemic alkalosis downregulated the abundance of MCDL-NBCn2 and reciprocally upregulated NHE 3 Conversely, NaHCO 3 -induced metabolic alkalosis upregulated MCDL-NBCn2 and reciprocally downregulated NHE 3 We propose that the apical membrane of the proximal tubules has two distinct strategies for HCO 3 - reclamation: the conventional indirect pathway, in which NHE 3 and the proton pump secrete H + to titrate luminal HCO 3 - , and the novel direct pathway, in which NBCn2 removes HCO 3 - from the lumen. The reciprocal regulation of NBCn2 and NHE 3 under different physiologic conditions is consistent with our mathematical simulations, which suggest that HCO 3 - uptake and H + secretion have reciprocal efficiencies for HCO 3 - reclamation versus titration of luminal buffers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Comparison between Radiographic (2-dimensional and 3-dimensional) and Histologic Findings of Periapical Lesions Treated with Apical Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Bingisser, Andreas C; Reichart, Peter A; Sendi, Pedram; Bosshardt, Dieter D; von Arx, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance of 2- and 3-dimensional radiography and histopathology in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Patients were consecutively enrolled in this study provided that preoperative periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging of the tooth to be treated with apical surgery were performed. The periapical lesional tissue was histologically analyzed by 2 blinded examiners. The final histologic diagnosis was compared with the radiographic assessments of 4 blinded observers. The initial study material included 62 teeth in the same number of patients. Four lesions had to be excluded during processing, resulting in a final number of 58 evaluated cases (31 women and 27 men, mean age = 55 years). The final histologic diagnosis of the periapical lesions included 55 granulomas (94.8%) and 3 cysts (5.2%). Histologic analysis of the tissue samples from the apical lesions exhibited an almost perfect agreement between the 2 experienced investigators with an overall agreement of 94.83% (kappa = 0.8011). Radiographic assessment overestimated cysts by 28.4% (cone-beam computed tomographic imaging) and 20.7% (periapical radiography), respectively. Comparing the correlation of the radiographic diagnosis of 4 observers with the final histologic diagnosis, 2-dimensional (kappa = 0.104) and 3-dimensional imaging (kappa = 0.111) provided only minimum agreement. To establish a final diagnosis of an apical radiolucency, the tissue specimen should be evaluated histologically and specified as a granuloma (with/without epithelium) or a cyst. Analysis of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional radiographic images alike results only in a tentative diagnosis that should be confirmed with biopsy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcome of Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Miguel R; Carvalho, Manuel F; Pina-Vaz, Irene; Capelas, Jose A; Martins, Miguel A; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    As clinical studies conducted to explore the safety and efficacy of new procedures are considered an important focus in endodontic research, the aim of this controlled clinical study was to compare a laser-assisted endodontic treatment using an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and radial firing tips (RFT) versus the conventional use of 3% sodium hypochlorite and interim calcium hydroxide paste, in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Forty-three single-rooted and premolar teeth were randomly assigned. In group 1, teeth were prepared and irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide inter-appointment dressing was applied; in group 2 teeth were prepared with saline solution and irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser using RFT2 (140 μs, 37.5 mJ, 20 Hz) and RFT3 (140 μs, 62.5 mJ, 20 Hz) at the first and second appointments, respectively, four times each, moving at 2 mm/sec(-1) from apical to coronal. The primary outcome measure was change in apical bone density at 12 months, using the periapical index (PAI) for blind radiographic assessment. Thirty teeth were examined and subjected to statistical analysis, 12 in the control group and 18 in the test group. There were two treatment failures in the control group that were not included for analysis; both groups exhibited statistically significant decreases in PAI scores. The present findings suggest that for single-rooted and premolar teeth, this laser-assisted protocol can achieve predictable endodontic outcomes, comparable to conventional strategies in 1 year of follow-up.

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of regional myocardial sympathetic activity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Comparison between asymmetrical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and apical hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eno, Shin; Takeo, Eiichiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Keiji; Fujii, Hideaki; Kanazawa, Ikuo [Chugoku Rosai General Hospital, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Using {sup 123}I-MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) and {sup 201}Tl imagings, an examination concerning the relation between the hypertrophic region and its sympathetic nervous function was done. Subjects were 12 normal adults (4 males and 8 females, mean age 61.3 yr), 13 patients with asymmetrical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (10 males and 3 females, 63.9 yr) and 13 patients with apical hypertrophy (9 males and 4 females, 67.2 yr). The SPECT apparatus was Toshiba two-gated gamma camera GCA 7200A. At 20 min and 3 hr after intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIBG, myocardial SPECT and planar images were obtained with collimator LEHR under following conditions: photoelectric peak 159 KeV, window width 20%, matrix size 64 x 64 (256 x 256 for the planar image), step angle 6deg, 40 sec/step and 180deg for 1 camera. In another day, {sup 201}Tl SPECT and planar imagings were performed 10 min after intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 201}Tl for the photoelectric peak 72 KeV under similar conditions to above. SPECT images were reconstructed using Butterworth filter and Shepp and Logan filter. Images were examined for the defect score, myocardium/mediastinum ratio, whole heart washout rate and regional washout rate. In the asymmetrical hypertrophic myopathy, abnormal sympathetic nerve function was recognized on the regions regardless of their disease severity while in the apical hypertrophy, abnormality was restricted on the apical region. Therefore, the two diseases were found different from each other from the aspect of sympathetic nerve functions. (K.H.)

  4. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitra, Nandita [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James [Department of Medical Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Apisarnthanarax, Smith, E-mail: apisarns@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received {>=}50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received {<=}78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving {>=}1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  5. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received ≥50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received ≤78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving ≥1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  6. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  7. Renoguanylin stimulates apical CFTR translocation and decreases HCO3-secretion through PKA activity in the Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhr, Ilan M; Schauer, Kevin L; Takei, Yoshio; Grosell, Martin

    2018-03-26

    The guanylin peptides - guanylin, uroguanylin and renoguanylin (RGN) - are endogenously produced hormones in teleost fish enterocytes that are activators of guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C) and are potent modulators of intestinal physiology, particularly in seawater teleosts. Most notably, they reverse normal net ion-absorbing mechanisms that are vital to water absorption, an important process for seawater teleost survival. The role of guanylin-peptide stimulation of the intestine remains unclear, but it is hypothesized to facilitate the removal of solids from the intestine by providing fluid to enable their removal by peristalsis. The present study used one member of this group of peptides - RGN - to provide evidence for the prominent role that protein kinase A (PKA) plays in mediating the effects of guanylin-peptide stimulation in the posterior intestine of the Gulf toadfish ( Opsanus beta ). Protein kinase G was found to not mediate the intracellular effects of RGN, despite previous evidence showing that GC-C activation leads to higher cyclic guanosine monophosphate formation. RGN reversed the absorptive short-circuit current and increased conductance in the Gulf toadfish intestine. These effects are correlated to increased trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl - channel to the apical membrane, which is negated by PKA inhibition. Moreover, RGN decreased HCO 3 - secretion, likely by limiting apical HCO 3 - /Cl - exchange (possibly by reducing SLC26a6 activity), a reduction that was enhanced by PKA inhibition. RGN seems to alter PKA activity in the posterior intestine to recruit CFTR to the apical membrane and reduce HCO 3 - secretion. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. An evaluation of canal curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars using the radius and angle of curvature. Materials and Methods Total 100 mandibular molars were selected. Following an endodontic access in the teeth, their distal roots were removed. #15 H- or K-files (Dentsply Maillefer were inserted into the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals of the teeth. Radiographs of the teeth were taken for the proximal view. Among them, type II canals were selected and divided into two subgroups, IIa and IIb. In type IIa, two separate canals merged into one canal before reaching the apex and in type IIb, two separate canals merged into one canal within the apical foramen. The radius and angle of curvature of specimens were examined. Results In type II, mean radius of curvature in mesiolingual and mesiobuccal canals were 2.82 mm and 3.58 mm, respectively. The radius of the curvature of mesiolingual canals were significantly smaller than that of mesiobuccal canals in type II, and especially in type IIa. However, there were no statistically significant differences in radius of curvature between mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals in type IIb and there were no significant differences in angle of curvature between type IIa and IIb. Conclusion In this study, type II mesial canals of mandibular molars showed severe curvature in the proximal view. Especially, mesiolingual canals of type IIa had more abrupt curvature than mesiobuccal canals at the apical one third.

  9. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apically extruded debris and irrigant with two Ni-Ti systems and hand files when removing root fillings: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Wang, R; Zhang, L; Li, H L; Zheng, Q H; Zhou, X D; Huang, D M

    2013-12-01

    To compare the amount of apically extruded debris and irrigant produced by two Ni-Ti instruments and hand files when removing root fillings, and to compare two experimental models. Sixty single straight root canals in human mandibular premolars were prepared with K-files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 20 for removal of the root filling material with Reciproc files (Group 1, RP), Mtwo retreatment files (Group 2, MR) or hand files (Group 3, H). Each group was then equally divided into experimental subgroups: A, with 1.5% agar gel model (AG); B, with empty tube model (ET). Apically extruded debris and irrigant was quantified by subtracting the initial weight of the test apparatus without a tooth from its weight after the root canal retreatment. Comparative analysis of the amount of apically extruded debris and irrigant for each of the instruments and the experimental models was performed. Time for gutta-percha removal was recorded. Data were statistically analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Removal of root fillings with two Ni-Ti instruments produced less apically extruded debris and irrigant than hand files in both experimental models (P extruded debris and irrigant was produced with Reciproc files than Mtwo retreatment files using the 1.5% agar gel model (P > 0.05). Significantly more apically extruded debris and irrigant was produced with Reciproc files than Mtwo retreatment files using the empty tube model (P extruded debris and irrigant. The two Ni-Ti instruments produced less apically extruded debris and irrigant than hand files. A 1.5% agar gel can provide resistance to apically extruded debris and irrigant and may represent the clinical situation better than the empty tube model. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E.; Melendrez A, R.

    2007-01-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of 60 Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene production

  12. Apical ballooning syndrome complicated by acute severe mitral regurgitation with left ventricular outflow obstruction – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celermajer David S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apical ballooning syndrome (or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome of transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Although first described in Japanese patients, it is now well reported in the Caucasian population. The syndrome mimicks an acute myocardial infarction but is characterised by the absence of obstructive coronary disease. We describe a serious and poorly understood complication of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Case Presentation We present the case of a 65 year-old lady referred to us from a rural hospital where she was treated with thrombolytic therapy for a presumed acute anterior myocardial infarction. Four hours after thrombolysis she developed acute pulmonary oedema and a new systolic murmur. It was presumed she had acute mitral regurgitation secondary to a ruptured papillary muscle, ischaemic dysfunction or an acute ventricular septal defect. Echocardiogram revealed severe mitral regurgitation, left ventricular apical ballooning, and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with significant left ventricular outflow tract gradient (60–70 mmHg. Coronary angiography revealed no obstructive coronary lesions. She had an intra-aortic balloon pump inserted with no improvement in her parlous haemodynamic state. We elected to replace her mitral valve to correct the outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation. Intra-operatively the mitral valve was mildly myxomatous but there were no structural abnormalities. She had a mechanical mitral valve replacement with a 29 mm St Jude valve. Post-operatively, her left ventricular outflow obstruction resolved and ventricular function returned to normal over the subsequent 10 days. She recovered well. Conclusion This case represents a serious and poorly understood association of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with acute pulmonary oedema, severe mitral regurgitaton and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The

  13. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  14. Differential diagnosis at admission between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute apical-anterior myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Baritussio, Anna; ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Siciliano, Mariachiara; Migliore, Federico; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Iliceto, Sabino; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) typically affects postmenopausal women and clinically presents with chest pain, ST-segment elevation, elevated cardiac enzymes and apical left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities that mimic 'apical-anterior' acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study assessed whether at-admission clinical evaluation helps in differential diagnosis between the two conditions. The study compared at-admission clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic findings of 31 women (median age 67 years, interquartile range (IQR) 62-76) with typical TTC and 30 women (median age 73 years, IQR 61-81) with apical-anterior AMI due to acute occlusion of the mid/distal left anterior descending coronary artery. Women with TTC significantly more often showed PR-segment depression (62% versus 3%, p<0.001), J-waves (26% versus 3%, p=0.03), maximum ST-segment elevation ⩽2 mm (84% versus 37%, p<0.001) and ST-segment elevation in lead II (42% versus 10%, p=0.01) than those with AMI. At multivariate analysis, PR-segment depression (odds ratio (OR)=37.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.4-424, p=0.002) and maximum ST-segment elevation ⩽2 mm (OR=11.1, 95% CI=1.7-99.4, p=0.01) remained the only independent predictors of TTC and the co-existence of both parameters excluded AMI with a 100% specificity. The two groups did not differ with regard to age, first troponin-I value, echocardiographic LV ejection fraction and distribution of hypo/akinetic LV segments. At-admission electrocardiogram (but no clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic features) allows differential diagnosis between TTC and apical-anterior AMI in postmenopausal women. The combination of PR-segment depression and mild (⩽2 mm) ST-segment elevation predicted TTC with greater accuracy than traditional parameters such as localisation of ST-segment elevation and reciprocal ST-segment depression. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  15. Eficacia clínica del localizador apical electrónico YC-RAF-1 Root Apex Finder.

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos Fassi, Jorge; Garcia Rusco, Ana; Dilascio, María J.; Urmendiz Villamil, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito de este trabajo fue comparar “in vivo” la eficacia del localizador apical electrónico YC-RAF-1 Root apex finder (Shanghai Yicheng Industrial Co.,LTD) con la técnica radiográfica convencional utilizando como irrigante clorhexidina 2%. Materiales y método: Se realizaron registros de 39 conductos radiculares pertenecientes a 20 pacientes tratados en la clínica de postgrado de la Carrera de Especialización en Endodoncia de la FOUNT en el año 2007. En cada element...

  16. Impacted stapler pin in fractured maxillary central incisor with open apex: Advanced endodontic management using biodentine as innovative apical matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of foreign objects in the pulp chamber of fractured permanent teeth is a rare phenomenon and often diagnosed accidently .These foreign bodies are most commonly self inflicted by young patients and remain impacted within the pulp canal thereby acting as potential source of infection and painful conditions1. In the present case report, we present successful endodontic management of stapler pin lodged in fractured maxillary central incisor with challenge of open apex in young patient using biodentine as a novel apical matrix.

  17. Evaluación in vitro de la exactitud del localizador apical miniapex (sybronendo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bernal Alfaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El propósito de este estudio fue determinar el grado de exactitud del localizador Mini Ápex (Sybronendo, en la ubicación del CDC (constricción dentino cementaría cuando éste indica la medida de 0.0mm, confirmado con el microscopio de barrido electrónico. Se tomaron 84 conductos provenientes de las raíces mesiales de primeros molares inferiores permanentes, extraídos por motivos periodontales o protésicos, separadas de las raíces dístales, cortándolas a nivel de la unión amelocementaria, con un disco de carburo a baja velocidad, posteriormente se realizó el COE usando fresas gatees gliden # 2 y 3, irrigando entre cada una de ellas con NaOCl al 5.25% y se introdujeron limas k flex de sybronendo # 0.8, 10 o 15 dependiendo del diámetro del conducto. Se utilizó el método de Asako para determinar la longitud de trabajo, se fijaron las limas dentro del conducto con resina fluida, seguidamente se procedió a cortar el mango de las limas con un corta frió y se observó la posición del D0 de la lima con respecto al CDC con el SEM a una magnificación de 400 aumentos. Los resultados muestran que, en el 85.7%(72 conductos de las muestras, el D0 de la lima se encuentra entre 0.0-0.5mm del CDC, y el 14.3%(12 conductos se encuentran por debajo del CDC. La prueba de ANOVA no encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas, demostrando la exactitud del localizador apical miniapex en la determinación de la longitud de trabajo del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento endodóntico. (DUAZARY 2011, 80 - 87AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy`s grade of the mini apex locator in the location of the CDC when this it indicates the measure of 0.0mm, confirmed with the SEM. 84 root canals were taken from permanent extracted lower first molars for periodontics of prostodontics reasons this were separated of the distal roots, cut them to level of the enamel-cementum joint, with a carbide disk to low speed

  18. The influence of apical and basal defoliation on the canopy structure and biochemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz grapes and wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Wu, Xiwen; Needs, Sonja; Liu, Di; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms. The influence of canopy structure changes on the chemical compositions of grapes and wines was investigated over two vintages (2010-11 and 2015-16) in Yarra Valley, Australia. The Shiraz grapevines were subjected to five different treatments: no leaf removal (Ctrl); basal (TB) and apical (TD) leaf removal at veraison and intermediate ripeness, respectively. Basal leaf removal significantly reduced the leaf area index and foliage cover and increased canopy porosity, while apical leaf removal had limited influences on canopy parameters. However, the latter tended to result in lower alcohol level in the finished wine. Statistically significant increases in pH and decreases in TA was observed in shaded grapes, while no significant changes in the color profile and volatile compounds of the resultant wine were found. These results suggest that apical leaf removal is an effective method to reduce wine alcohol concentration with minimal influences on wine composition.

  19. Comparison of debris extruded apically and working time used by ProTaper Universal rotary and ProTaper retreatment system during gutta-percha removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    UEZU, Mary Kinue Nakamune; BRITTO, Maria Leticia Borges; NABESHIMA, Cleber K.; PALLOTTA, Raul Capp

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of ProTaper retreatment files and ProTaper Universal in the retreatment of mandibular premolars. Material and methods The amount of debris extruded apically was measured and the time to reach the working length and to complete the removal of gutta-percha was observed. Thirty teeth had their canals prepared using ProTaper Universal files and were obturated by the single cone technique. The teeth were then stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for 7 days. During the use of the rotary instruments for root canal filling removal, the apical portions of the teeth were attached to the open end of a resin tube to collect the apically extruded debris. Results ProTaper Universal files were significantly faster (p=0.0011) than the ProTaper retreatment files to perform gutta-