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Sample records for apatite treatability test

  1. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  2. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  3. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  4. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  5. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

  6. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment

  7. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  8. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications

  9. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  10. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  11. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  12. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  13. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  14. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  15. 118-B-1 burial ground excavation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This treatability investigation focused on the feasibility of excavating, analytical screening, and handling waste materials from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground located in the 100 B/C Area of the Hanford Site. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground consists of approximately 24 trenches on a 7-acre parcel. Solid low-level radioactive wastes and other debris and trash associated with reactor operations were disposed in 28 burial grounds in the 100 Area between 1944 and 1973. The majority of waste generated from routine reactor operations was placed in seven primary burial grounds, including 118-B-1. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground was selected as the location to perform this treatability test based on the availability of historical data for this site, and because it was thought to be representative of other primary-use burial grounds in the 100 Area. Geophysical surveys were conducted over the burial ground to map the concentrations of waste and aid in the selection of test pit excavation locations. The test plan developed for this study integrated the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER), a US Department of Energy (DOE) initiative based on both the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach. This treatability test is the first one at the Hanford Site to use the SAFER approach. The purpose of this study was (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision, which would identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. The results of the treatability test can be used to determine the feasibility of performing excavation, analytical screening, and handling of burial ground materials from similar burial grounds

  16. 300-FF-1 physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separations soil treatability tests in the north process pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. The overall objective of these tests is to evaluate the use of physical separations systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions, and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful, the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils at Hanford and other sites. In this document, physical separations refers to a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils without the use of chemical processes. Removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils may require additional treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or stabilization. Investigations/testing of these technologies are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of additional treatment, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for two proposed treatability tests: one to be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company; and another proposed as competitive bid service contract. The main body of this test plan discusses the tests in general and items that are common to both tests. Attachment A discusses in detail the EPA system test and Attachment B discusses the vendor test

  17. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  18. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co., Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, John E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Anderson L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths where direct exposure pathways are not of concern, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Department of Energy developed a treatability test program for technologies to address Tc-99 and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment, have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. The treatability test of desiccation described herein was conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation was shown to be a potentially effective vadose zone remediation technology to protect groundwater when used in conjunction with a surface infiltration barrier.

  19. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: An update on Barrier Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2011-05-01

    This report updates a previous report covering the performance of a permeable reactive barrier installed at 100N. In this report we re-evaluate the results after having an additional year of performance monitoring data to incorporate.

  20. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-11-29

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented.

  1. Treatability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Studds, Phil

    The fundamental information that a well-designed treatability study can provide is essential to the success of all remediation systems. Over the past years several new techniques for in situ and on site remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater have been used with varying degrees of succes...... the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, and kinetics etc........ Based on the wide selection of different techniques several screening matrices have been developed in order to make it easier to choose the best suited technique for a given situation. However, these matrices only provide an indication of which technology that might be effective and often the assessor...... construction of the test unit makes it possible to combine different techniques in order to obtain more aggressive and effective remediation technologies, e.g. UV/ozone or electrochemical/H2O2. Actual case study data is presented to illustrate the benefits of in situ treatability tests prior to full scale...

  2. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  5. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  6. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  7. Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Parker, Kyle R.

    2012-09-28

    A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.

  8. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  9. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  10. TREATABILITY TEST FOR REMOVING TECHNETIUM-99 FROM 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; TORTOSO AC; ELLIOTT WS; BYRNES ME

    2007-11-29

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg/m{sup 3} (2000 {micro}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to

  11. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells

  12. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  13. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-01

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na 2 O 6 S 2 ) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment

  14. FIELD TEST INSTRUCTION 100-NR-2 OPERABLE UNIT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR SEQUESTRATION OF SR-90 SATURATED ZONE APATITE PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER EXTENSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWLES NA

    2010-10-06

    The objective of this field test instruction is to provide technical guidance for aqueous injection emplacement of an extension apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRE) for the sequestration of strontium-90 (Sr-90) using a high concentration amendment formulation. These field activities will be conducted according to the guidelines established in DOE/RL-2010-29, 100-NR-2 Design Optimization Study, hereafter referred to as the DOS. The DOS supports the Federal Facility Agreement Consent Order (EPA et al., 1989), Milestone M-16-06-01, and 'Complete Construction of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at 100-N.' Injections of apatite precursor chemicals will occur at an equal distance intervals on each end of the existing PRE to extend the PRB from the existing 91 m (300 ft) to at least 274 m (900 ft). Field testing at the 100-N Area Apatite Treatability Test Site, as depicted on Figure 1, shows that the barrier is categorized by two general hydrologic conceptual models based on overall well capacity and contrast between the Hanford and Ringold hydraulic conductivities. The upstream portion of the original barrier, shown on Figure 1, is characterized by relatively low overall well specific capacity. This is estimated from well development data and a lower contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formations. Comparison of test results from these two locations indicate that permeability contrast between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation is significantly less over the upstream one-third of the barrier. The estimated hydraulic conductivity for the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation over the upstream portion of the barrier based on observations during emplacement of the existing 91 m (300 ft) PRB is approximately 12 and 10 m/day (39 and 32 ft/day), respectively (PNNL-17429). However, these estimates should be used as a rough guideline only, as significant variability in hydraulic conductivity is likely to be observed in

  15. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  16. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU

  17. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  18. Novel test procedure to evaluate the treatability of wastewater with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler Wildhaber, Yael; Mestankova, Hana; Schärer, Michael; Schirmer, Kristin; Salhi, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-05-15

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, estrogens or pesticides enter the environment continuously through the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Enhanced treatment of wastewater (WW) by ozone (O3) is probably one of the simplest measures for abatement of organic micropollutants to avoid their discharge to the aquatic environment. During ozonation most organic micropollutants present in treated WW are oxidized either by a direct reaction with O3 or by secondarily formed hydroxyl radicals (OH). However, undesired oxidation by-products from the oxidative transformation of matrix components can also be formed. A modular laboratory decision tool based on the findings of previous investigations is presented to test the feasibility of ozonation as an option to upgrade specific WWTPs. These modules consist of investigations to assess (i) the matrix effects on ozone stability, (ii) the efficiency of micropollutant removal, (iii) the oxidation by-product formation, as well as (iv) bioassays to measure specific and unspecific toxicity of the treated WWs. Matrix effects on ozone stability (quantified as O3 and OH exposures) can give first indications on the suitability of an ozonation step. Ozonation of WWs yielding O3 and OH exposures and micropollutant abatement similar to reference values evoked a significant improvement of the water quality as indicated by a broad range of bioassays. Irregular behavior of the ozonation points towards unknown compounds, possibly leading to the formation of undesired degradation products. It has been observed that in such WWs ozonation partly enhanced toxicity. In summary, the presented tiered laboratory test procedure represents a relatively cheap and straight-forward methodology to evaluate the feasibility of ozonation to upgrade specific WWTPs for micropollutant removal based on chemical and biological measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to (1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, (2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, (3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, (4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and (5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone

  20. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  1. Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project

  2. Assessment of copper removal from highway stormwater runoff using Apatite II(TM) and compost : laboratory and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    -Stormwater runoff introduces heavy metals to surface waters that are harmful to aquatic organisms, : including endangered salmon. This work evaluates Apatite II, a biogenic fish bone based adsorbent, for removing metal : from stormwater. The meta...

  3. Safety assessment for the proposed pilot-scale treatability tests for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 groundwater operable units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This safety assessment provides an analysis of the proposed pilot-scale treatability test activities to be and conducted within the 200 Area groundwater operable units on the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units are located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. These tests will evaluate an ion exchange (IX) water purification treatment system and granular activated carbon (GAC). A detailed engineering analysis of (GAC) adsorption for remediation of groundwater contamination. A detailed engineering analysis of the IX treatment system. The principal source of information for this assessment, states that the performance objective of the treatment systems is to remove 90% of the uranium and technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from the extracted groundwater at the 200-UP-1 site. The performance objective for 200-ZP-1 is to remove 90% of the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the extracted groundwater

  4. Comparison of two carbonated apatite ceramics in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Juhl, Maria V.; Clyens, Stuart; Martinetti, Roberta; Dolcini, Laura; Theilgaard, Naseem; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Carbonated apatite ceramics, with a composition similar to that of bone mineral, are potentially interesting synthetic bone graft substitutes. In the present study, two porous carbonated apatite ceramics were developed, characterized and tested for their bone repair capacity and osteoinductive

  5. A calcium isotope test of end-Permian ocean acidification using biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.; Paytan, A.; Shen, S.; Chen, J.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine erosional truncation of uppermost Permian carbonate strata has been interpreted to reflect ocean acidification coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction. Although this scenario is consistent with carbon isotope and paleontological data, several alternative scenarios, such as ocean overturn or collapse of the biological pump, can also account for the carbon isotope and paleontological evidence. Calcium isotopes provide a geochemical proxy to test between acidification and alternative scenarios. Specifically, a negative shift in the calcium isotope composition (δ44/40Ca) of seawater is predicted under the acidification scenario but not the alternatives. The δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks from south China exhibits a negative excursion of approximately 0.3%, but this shift could result from either a change in the δ44/40Ca of seawater or a change in carbonate mineralogy because calcite and aragonite exhibit substantially different fractionation factors relative to seawater. To test whether the negative shift in δ44/40Ca reflects seawater δ44/40Ca or carbonate mineralogy, we measured the δ44/40Ca of conodont microfossils (calcium hydroxyapatite) from the global stratotype section for the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, China. The conodont δ44/40Ca record shows a negative excursion similar in stratigraphic position and magnitude to that previously observed in carbonate rocks. Parallel negative excursions in the δ44/40Ca of carbonate rocks and conodont microfossils cannot be accounted for by a change in carbonate mineralogy but are consistent with a negative shift in the δ44/40Ca of seawater. These data add further support for the ocean acidification scenario, pointing toward strong similarities between the greatest catastrophe in the history of animal life and anticipated global change during the 21st century.

  6. The lunar apatite paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J W; Tomlinson, S M; McCubbin, F M; Greenwood, J P; Treiman, A H

    2014-04-25

    Recent discoveries of water-rich lunar apatite are more consistent with the hydrous magmas of Earth than the otherwise volatile-depleted rocks of the Moon. Paradoxically, this requires H-rich minerals to form in rocks that are otherwise nearly anhydrous. We modeled existing data from the literature, finding that nominally anhydrous minerals do not sufficiently fractionate H from F and Cl to generate H-rich apatite. Hydrous apatites are explained as the products of apatite-induced low magmatic fluorine, which increases the H/F ratio in melt and apatite. Mare basalts may contain hydrogen-rich apatite, but lunar magmas were most likely poor in hydrogen, in agreement with the volatile depletion that is both observed in lunar rocks and required for canonical giant-impact models of the formation of the Moon.

  7. Treatability study operational testing program and implementation plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This Treatability Study (TS) Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan identifies operational testing to be performed to: (1) Demonstrate the technical feasibility of methods proposed for the removal of radiochemical sludge heels from the underground storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), known as the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU). (The bulk of the radiochemical waste, which was previously stored in the tanks, was removed during the 1980s, and only a sludge heel remains.) (2) Reduce the uncertainty in meeting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the GAAT OU. (3) Minimize the overall costs to accomplish the first two objectives. An initial Feasibility Study (FS) effort identified uncertainties in the evaluation of various alternatives for addressing the remediation of the GAAT OU. To support future decision making, the US. Department of Energy is performing a TS to identify cost-effective remediation approaches for the GAAT OU by providing information to reduce cost and technical uncertainty and better define acceptable remediation strategies. The testing activities will be initially conducted in a nonradioactive environment at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF) at ORNL. This will permit the design and initial performance testing and training activities to be completed while minimizing the risk, employee exposure, and costs associated with the testing effort. The component design and functional testing and initial system performance testing will be completed in the TTCTF. After the component and initial system performance testing have been completed, the operations testing will continue in the North Tank Farm (NTF). This testing has an associated higher cost and risk, but is necessary to provide results for actual waste heel removal

  8. Treatability study sample exemption: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published

  9. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  10. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: ON-SITE INCINERATION OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE PILOT TEST UNIT, TIMES BEACH, MISSOURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the period of July 8 - July 12, 1985, the Shirco Infrared Systems Portable Pilot Test Unit was in operation at the Times Beach Dioxin Research Facility to demonstrate the capability of Shirco's infrared technology to decontaminate silty soil laden with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorod...

  11. Treatability testing of intrinsic bioremediation, biostimulation, and bioaugmentation of diesel-oil contaminated soil at 5 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The likely success of in-situ bioremediation on diesel-contaminated soil was studied at 5 degrees C under four conditions of soil amendments. The four conditions were: (1) intrinsic bioremediation where the soil received only water, (2) biostimulation with one application of slow-release fertilizer, (3) bioaugmentation with one application of fertilizer and a cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial culture, and (4) surfactant enhanced bioavailability, where the soil received one application of fertilizer and treatment with a biodegradable surfactant solution. All tests showed significant reduction in diesel range under aerobic conditions after a 40-day incubation. The intrinsic control (No.1) was least effective, with 66 per cent of extractable hydrocarbons (TEH) at 5 degrees C. The biostimulated soil (No.2) was most effective, allowing a reduction in TEH of 86 per cent. The bioaugmented soil and surfactant treated soil allowed TEH reduction of about 75 per cent. Based on these results, biostimulation with slow-release fertilizer will be implemented as the most cost-effective means of bioremediation, combined with appropriate monitoring of results. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  13. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  14. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level

  16. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  17. Biomimetic synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of carbonated apatites template-mediated by heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Yuhua [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Xiaofang [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Peizhi, E-mail: pzzhu@umich.edu [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the broadening application of apatites for bone tissue engineering. Most researchers were interested in collagen or gelatin-based templates for synthesis of apatite minerals. Inspired by recent findings about the important role of polysaccharides in bone biomineralization, here we reported that heparin, a mucopolysaccharide, was used to synthesize carbonated apatites in vitro. The results indicated that the Ca/P ratio, carbon content, crystallinity and morphology of the apatites varied depending on the heparin concentration and the initial pH value. The morphology of apatite changed from flake-shaped to needle-shaped, and the degree of crystallinity decreased with the increasing of heparin concentration. Biocompatibility of the apatites was tested by proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results suggested that carbonated apatites synthesized in the presence of heparin were more favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with traditional method. In summary, the heparin concentration and the initial pH value play a key role in the chemical constitution and morphology, as well as biological properties of apatites. These biocompatible nano-apatite crystals hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Heparin was used as a template to synthesize needle-shaped nano-apatite. • Changing the pH value and concentration led to different properties of apatite. • Apatite prepared by heparin was more favorable to the osteogenic differentiation. • Possible synthesis mechanism of apatite templated by heparin was described.

  18. BIOMINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF APATITE PIEZOELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of apatite piezoelectricity was conducted in order to assess piezoelectric properties of bone. In the first stage, mineralogical analysis of different apatite crystals, regarding their purity and fitness for the experiments was performed. After the crystals had been chosen, 0.8 mm-thick plates were cut, perpendicular and parallel to the crystallographic Z axis. The plates were then polished and dusted with gold. Electrodes were attached to the opposite surfaces of the plates with conductive glue. So prepared plates were hooked up to the EEG machine used for measuring electrical activity in the brain. The plates were then gently tapped to observe and register currents generated in them. Acquired data was processed by subtracting from the resulting graphs those generated by a hand movement, without tapping the plate. Results indicate that apatite plates have weak piezoelectric properties. Observed phenomenon may be translated to bone apatite, which would explain, at least partially, piezoelectric properties of bone. Acquired results suggest that there is a relation between the mechanical workload of bones (bone apatite and theirelectrical properties. Considering the massive internal surface of bones, they may be treated as a kind of internal “antenna” reacting not only to mechanical stimuli, but to changes in electromagnetic field as well. Observed phenomena no doubt significantly influence the biological processes occurring in bones and the whole human body.

  19. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  1. Electrochemical Studies of Paraquat Adsorbed onto Crystalline Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The carbon paste electrode (CPE has been used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of paraquat (PQ adsorbed onto synthesized hydroxyapatite phosphocalcique (HAP in K2SO4 (0.1M. The cyclic voltammetry results obtained corrobate with square wave voltammetry. The influence of variables such as the concentration of paraquat adsorbed onto apatite (PQ/HAP, and the potential scan rate was tested.X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP, AES were used for characterization of the apatite.

  2. Treatability Study Pilot Test Operation Field Photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Photos in each group are in chronological order as captured: Group I Tank Platform Setup, November 14, 2017; Group II Tank Setup, November 15, 2017; Group III Aboveground Injestion System (AIS) Setup, November 20, 2017; Group IV Chemical Mixing, November 21, 2017; Group V KB-1 Bacteria Injection, November 27, 2017; Group VI Miscellaneous.

  3. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital

  4. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: a digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Houben, Roderick F A; Lafek, Mirafe; Giannasi, Wynona; Stockler, Sylvia

    2012-07-23

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a 'disease page' serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital tool is designed to motivate health care

  5. Mineralogical studies of apatites of Gara-aghaj deposit from mineral processing viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdilo, A.; Irannajad, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gara-aghaj deposit located 36 km northwest of urumieh is one of the titanium phosphorous resources in Iran. The previous exploration studies indicated that there is 102 Mt phosphorous ore deposit with average grading of 2.3 p ercent P 2 O 5 . In this research, the mineralogical studies of collected representative samples were performed by XRD, XRF, optical microscopy and SEM equipped by EDX. These studies indicated that ilmenite, magnetite and apatite are the main valuable minerals. The gangue minerals consist of the silicate minerals such as pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and some secondary minerals. Analysis of apatite by EDX showed the presence of fluor-apatite in the ore. From textural viewpoint, apatites is mainly interlocked with ilmenite, magnetite and some gangue minerals with 60 microns liberation degree but there are some inclusions of apatite inside ilmenite and magnetite. The heavy liquid separation tests indicated that the first type of apatites, with density of 3, is mainly concentrated in tailing of gravity separation methods. This type of apatites is recoverable by flotation method. So, apatite concentrate can be obtained as a by-product of ilmenite concentration process by gravity methods.

  6. Apatite glass-ceramics: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminis, Tomas; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert Graham

    2016-12-01

    This article is a review of the published literature on apatite glass-ceramics (GCs). Topics covered include crystallization mechanisms of the various families of the apatite GCs and an update on research and development on apatite GCs for applications in orthopedics, dentistry, optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid-liquid phase separation. Careful control of the base glass composition and heat-treatment conditions, which determine the nature and morphology of the crystal phases in the GC can produce GC materials with exceptional thermal, mechanical, optical and biological properties. The GCs reviewed for orthopedic applications exhibit suitable mechanical properties and can chemically bond to bone and stimulate its regeneration. The most commercially successful apatite GCs are those developed for dental veneering. These materials exhibit excellent translucency and clinical esthetics, and mimic the natural tooth mineral. Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications in optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. One of the drawbacks of the commercial apatite GCs used in orthopedics is the lack of resorbability, therefore the review provides a direction for future research in the field.

  7. Biomimetic magnesium–carbonate-apatite nanocrystals endowed with strontium ions as anti-osteoporotic trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafisco, Michele, E-mail: michele.iafisco@istec.cnr.it; Ruffini, Andrea; Adamiano, Alessio; Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigates the preparation of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO{sub 3} and Sr to be used as starting materials for the development of nanostructured bio-devices for regeneration of osteoporotic bone. Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO{sub 3} ions were inserted in the apatite structure to mimic the composition of bone apatite, whereas the addition of increasing quantities of Sr ions, from 0 up to 12 wt.%, as anti-osteoporotic agent, was evaluated. The chemical–physical features, the morphology, the degradation rates, the ion release kinetics as well as the in vitro bioactivity of the as-prepared apatites were fully evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of 12 wt.% of Sr can be viewed as a threshold for the structural stability of Mg–CO{sub 3}-apatite. Indeed, incorporation of lower quantity of Sr did not induce considerable variations in the chemical structure of Mg–CO{sub 3}-apatite, while when the Sr doping extent reached 12 wt.%, a dramatically destabilizing effect was detected on the crystal structure thus yielding alteration of the symmetry and distortion of the PO{sub 4}. As a consequence, this apatite exhibited the fastest degradation kinetic and the highest amount of Sr ions released when tested in physiological conditions. In this respect, the surface crystallization of new calcium phosphate phase when immersed in physiological-like solution occurred by different mechanisms and extents due to the different structural chemistry of the variously doped apatites. Nevertheless, all the apatites synthesized in this work exhibited in vitro bioactivity demonstrating their potential use to develop biomedical devices with anti-osteoporotic functionality. - Highlights: • Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO{sub 3} and Sr were prepared. • Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO{sub 3} were inserted to mimic the composition of bone apatite. • The addition of increasing

  8. Biomimetic magnesium–carbonate-apatite nanocrystals endowed with strontium ions as anti-osteoporotic trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafisco, Michele; Ruffini, Andrea; Adamiano, Alessio; Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates the preparation of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO 3 and Sr to be used as starting materials for the development of nanostructured bio-devices for regeneration of osteoporotic bone. Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO 3 ions were inserted in the apatite structure to mimic the composition of bone apatite, whereas the addition of increasing quantities of Sr ions, from 0 up to 12 wt.%, as anti-osteoporotic agent, was evaluated. The chemical–physical features, the morphology, the degradation rates, the ion release kinetics as well as the in vitro bioactivity of the as-prepared apatites were fully evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of 12 wt.% of Sr can be viewed as a threshold for the structural stability of Mg–CO 3 -apatite. Indeed, incorporation of lower quantity of Sr did not induce considerable variations in the chemical structure of Mg–CO 3 -apatite, while when the Sr doping extent reached 12 wt.%, a dramatically destabilizing effect was detected on the crystal structure thus yielding alteration of the symmetry and distortion of the PO 4 . As a consequence, this apatite exhibited the fastest degradation kinetic and the highest amount of Sr ions released when tested in physiological conditions. In this respect, the surface crystallization of new calcium phosphate phase when immersed in physiological-like solution occurred by different mechanisms and extents due to the different structural chemistry of the variously doped apatites. Nevertheless, all the apatites synthesized in this work exhibited in vitro bioactivity demonstrating their potential use to develop biomedical devices with anti-osteoporotic functionality. - Highlights: • Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO 3 and Sr were prepared. • Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO 3 were inserted to mimic the composition of bone apatite. • The addition of increasing quantities of Sr (from 0 to 12

  9. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  10. Fatigue in a heat treatable high silicon containing aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. A.; Talamantes-Silva, J.; Valtierra, S.; Colás, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The use of cast aluminium alloys in automobiles contributes to reductions in weight and fuel consumption without impairing the safety for the occupants or the performance of the car. Most of the alloys used are heat treatable hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, which have the drawback of exhibiting low wear resistance. So industry relies in wear resistant alloys, such as grey iron, for the liners of the combustion chambers in engine blocks, which increase the weight of the engine. Therefore, it is of interest to cast high silicon containing alloys into engine components that are able to resist wear while maintaining the mechanical properties required by the components. This work presents the result of the work carried out in a high silicon containing heat treatable aluminium alloy as it is subjected to high cycle fatigue. The alloy was prepared and cast in ingots designed to promote one dimensional solidification gradient to obtain samples to study the high cycle fatigue. The material was machined into hour-glass specimens that were tested at room temperature in a servohydraulic machine under load control following the stair case method. The results show that the resistance to fatigue depends on the microstructure of the sample, as the fatigue cracks originate in pores close to the surface of the sample and propagate through the eutectic aggregate. The results from this work are compared with those from previously obtained with hypoeutectic alloys.

  11. Apatite-Melt Partitioning at 1 Bar: An Assessment of Apatite-Melt Exchange Equilibria Resulting from Non-Ideal Mixing of F and Cl in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Ustunisik, G.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    The mineral apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] is present in a wide range of planetary materials. Due to the presence of volatiles within its crystal structure (X-site), many recent studies have attempted to use apatite to constrain the volatile contents of planetary magmas and mantle sources. In order to use the volatile contents of apatite to precisely determine the abundances of volatiles in coexisting silicate melt or fluids, thermodynamic models for the apatite solid solution and for the apatite components in multi-component silicate melts and fluids are required. Although some thermodynamic models for apatite have been developed, they are incomplete. Furthermore, no mixing model is available for all of the apatite components in silicate melts or fluids, especially for F and Cl components. Several experimental studies have investigated the apatite-melt and apatite-fluid partitioning behavior of F, Cl, and OH in terrestrial and planetary systems, which have determined that apatite-melt partitioning of volatiles are best described as exchange equilibria similar to Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. However, McCubbin et al. recently reported that the exchange coefficients may vary in portions of apatite compositional space where F, Cl, and OH do not mix ideally in apatite. In particular, solution calorimetry data of apatite compositions along the F-Cl join exhibit substantial excess enthalpies of mixing. In the present study, we conducted apatite-melt partitioning experiments in evacuated, sealed silica-glass tubes at approximately 1 bar and 950-1050 degrees Centigrade on a synthetic Martian basalt composition equivalent to the basaltic shergottite Queen Alexandria Range (QUE) 94201. These experiments were conducted dry, at low pressure, to assess the effects of temperature and apatite composition on the partitioning behavior of F and Cl between apatite and basaltic melt along the F-Cl apatite binary join, where there is non-ideal mixing of F and Cl

  12. Influence of agitation intensity on flotation rate of apatite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gregianin Testa

    Full Text Available Abstract The agitation intensity has a directly influence on flotation performance, lifting the particles and promoting the contact of bubbles and particles. In this paper, the energy input by the agitation on apatite flotation was investigated. The influence of pulp agitation in the flotation rate of particles with different sizes and two dosage levels was evaluated by batch testing. The flotation tests were conducted in an oscillating grid flotation cell (OGC, developed to promote a near isotropic turbulence environment. The cell is able to control the intensity of agitation and measure the energy transferred to the pulp phase. A sample of pure apatite was crushed (P80=310µm, characterized and floated with sodium oleate as collector. Four levels of energy dissipation, from 0.1 to 2 kWm-3, and two levels of collector dosage are used during the tests. The flotation kinetics by particle size were determined in function of the energy transferred. The results show a strong influence of the agitation intensity on the apatite flotation rate with both low and high dosage. For fine particles, when increasing the energy input, the flotation rate increase too, and this fact can be attributed to elevation of bubble-particle collisions. The kinetic result for the coarse particles demonstrated a reduction of the flotation rate whenever the energy input for this particle size was increased, whereby the turbulence caused by the agitation promotes the detachment of bubble-particle.

  13. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  14. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  15. Phosphate-induced metal stabilization: Use of apatite and bone char for the removal of soluble radionuclides in authentic and simulated DOE groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Jarabek, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The apatite group of minerals is a family of calcium phosphate phases. Apatite is the principal component of bone tissue, and it also occurs naturally as mineral deposits in the geosphere. Bone char is calcined (coked) animal bone, containing activated carbon as well as calcium phosphate mineral phases. Apatite IItrademark is a more reactive form of apatite, supplied by UFA Ventures, Inc., at a cost of approximately 1/4 that of commercial bone char. Apatite is shown to be effective for the removal of select heavy metal impurities in groundwater. Previous investigations have demonstrated that apatite is an effective medium for the stabilization of soluble lead, cadmium, and zinc from mine waste leachate by the formation of highly insoluble precipitate phases. The performance of bone char and apatite II are compared with other candidate sorption media (including granular activated carbon and anion exchange resin) for the removal of soluble uranyl ion in synthetic DOE Site groundwater supplemented with varying levels of interfering nitrate ion. Apatite II has a greater affinity for U(VI), especially in the presence of nitrate ion, as evidenced by a larger value for the conditional distribution coefficient (Kd) in batch test experiments. Contact of uranyl nitrate solution with apatite II is shown to produce highly insoluble mineral phases of the autunite group (calcium uranyl phosphate hydrates). Apatite II is also demonstrated to be moderately effective for the removal of soluble radioactive isotopes of strontium, but not cesium, when these ions are supplemented into authentic DOE Site groundwater

  16. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-09-01

    Functions and requirements for the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System to be deployed in Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) and tested and evaluated as a candidate tank waste retrieval technology by the GAAT Treatability Study (GAAT TS)

  17. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-01-01

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  18. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  19. Neonatal screening for treatable congenital disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Boonwanich, W.; Krasao, P.; Waiyasilp, S.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a treatable disease if detected at the early stage of life. It is one of the most frequent cause of mental retardation in children. In 85 % of cases, congenital hypothyroidism is a consequence of thyroid disgenesis, in which the gland is either absent, located ectopically and/or severely reduced in size. Early detection and treatment with thyroid hormone supplement can significantly reduce mental damage. In 1996, Thailand initiated a neonatal screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) and phenylketonuria (PKU), with the objective of bringing a better quality of life to people throughout the country, but especially in the remote areas. The programme involves implementing routine screening nationwide. The plan of action was designed with the goal of having public health service units throughout the country provide neonatal screening by year 2002 for the 1.2 million babies born per annum in Thailand. The government supported the programme by allocating a five-year budget of approximately US$15 million. The programme received additional assistance through technical support and human resource development from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Centers for Disease Control. This assistance promoted self-sustainability and strengthened the programme's technical base. The programme is on track. It is expected that by year 2002 all new born babies in Thailand will be screened for CHT and PKU

  20. Polyethylene encapsulation of simulated blowdown waste for SEG treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental and Waste Technology Center is a participating subcontractor in the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) Treatability Study for Westinghouse Savannah River Co.'s Blowdown Waste. This waste will be generated at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) and will consist of the neutralized aqueous scrubber solution from the incinerator. Since the facility is designed to burn low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes, the blowdown waste will likely be a mixed waste. Polyethylene encapsulation is an improved treatment method that has been developed at BNL over the last 10 years. Polyethylene is an inert, thermoplastic polymer with a melt temperature of 120 C. The BNL process is a modification of standard plastics extrusion technology that has been utilized successfully by the plastics industry for over 50 years. Polyethylene binder and dry waste material are fed through separate calibrated feeders to the extruder, where the materials are thoroughly mixed, heated to a molten condition, and then extruded into a suitable mold. A monolithic solid waste form results on cooling. The objective of the Phase 1 screening effort was to prepare test specimens of CIF surrogate waste encapsulated in polyethylene for leach testing using EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). BNL received aqueous CIF surrogate from SEG, pretreated the stimulant for processing, and fabricated TCLP test specimens for analysis at an independent laboratory. Laboratory and processing procedures are described in this letter report

  1. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  2. Treatable bacterial infections are underrecognized causes of fever in Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Sara J; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lockamy, Kameron P; Mulu-Droppers, Ruth; Mulu, Moges; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2012-07-01

    Febrile illnesses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries, but too often, tests are not available to determine the causes, leading to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. To determine the cause of febrile illnesses, we recovered the malaria smears from 102 children presenting with fever to Soddo Christian Hospital in Wolaitta Soddo, Ethiopia. DNA was isolated from the smears and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We identified pathogen DNA with probes for Plasmodium spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rickettsia spp., Salmonella spp., and Borrelia spp. Overall, we showed that it is possible to isolate high-quality DNA and identify treatable pathogens from malaria blood smears. Furthermore, our data showed that bacterial pathogens (especially Pneumococcus, Rickettsia spp., and Borrelia spp.) are common and frequently unrecognized but treatable causes of febrile illnesses in Ethiopian children.

  3. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes

  4. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  5. Freeze-casting for PLGA/carbonated apatite composite scaffolds: Structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardosim, M; Soulié, J; Poquillon, D; Cazalbou, S; Duployer, B; Tenailleau, C; Rey, C; Hübler, R; Combes, C

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the fabrication of three-dimensional porous PLGA-biomimetic carbonated apatite composite scaffolds by freeze-casting and using dimethyl carbonate as a solvent. Several charge/polymer ratios were tested in order to finely understand the influence of the filler rate on the scaffold porosity and mechanical and degradation properties using complementary characterization techniques (SEM, mercury porosimetry and X-ray microtomography). It was demonstrated that the apatite ratio within the composite scaffold has a strong influence in terms of architecture, material cohesion, mechanical properties and in vitro degradation properties. An optimum biomimetic apatite ratio was reached to combine good mechanical properties (higher rigidity) and material cohesion. In vitro degradation studies showed that higher apatite filler rates limited PLGA degradation and enhanced the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds which is expected to improve the biological properties of the scaffolds in addition to the bioactivity related to the presence of the apatite analogous to bone mineral. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  7. Treatability of stabilize landfill leachate by using pressmud ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azme, N. N. Mohd; Murshed, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the landfill that contains high concentration of heavy metals, chemicals and nutrient loading. The treatability of these contaminants are complicated since the current treatment technology are costly and site specific. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of stabilized landfill leachate by using waste (pressmud ash) as an absorbent. Pressmud ash was prepared by burning at different temperature from 100 to 700 degree Celsius and test at 24 hours shaking time, pH 8, and 4000 rpm. Leachate samples were collected from municipal solid waste (MSW) Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) and were analyzed for heavy metal, COD, ammonia and colour. This study was performed in two phases i) leachate characteristic, ii) treatability assessment by using pressmud ash. Pressmud was sampled from the sugar mill, Malaysian Sugar Manufacturing (MSM) Sdn Bhd, Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang. The pressmud with 400°C are highly potential material with a low cost which can be a good adsorbent was capable reducing efficiencies of COD (60.76%), ammonia (64.37%) and colour (35.78%) from real wastewater leachate. Pressmud showed good sorption capability. Surface modification with burning greatly enhanced the reducing efficiency of sugar waste based adsorbent with adsorption efficiency.

  8. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  9. Developing biogeochemical tracers of apatite weathering by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.; Meana-Prado, M. F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2012-12-01

    Chronic acid deposition has depleted calcium (Ca) from many New England forest soils, and intensive harvesting may reduce phosphorus (P) available to future rotations. Thin glacial till soils contain trace amounts of apatite, a primary calcium phosphate mineral, which may be an important long-term source of both P and Ca to ecosystems. The extent to which ECM fungi enhance the weathering rate of primary minerals in soil which contain growth-limiting nutrients remains poorly quantified, in part due to biogeochemical tracers which are subsequently masked by within-plant fractionation. Rare earth elements (REEs) and Pb isotope ratios show some potential for revealing differences in soil apatite weathering rates across forest stands and silvicultural treatments. To test the utility of these tracers, we grew birch seedlings semi-hydroponically under controlled P-limited conditions, supplemented with mesh bags containing granite chips. Our experimental design included nonmycorrhizal (NM) as well as ectomycorrhizal cultures (Cortinarius or Leccinum). Resulting mycorrhizal roots and leachates of granite chips were analyzed for these tracers. REE concentrations in roots were greatly elevated in treatments with granite relative to those without granite, demonstrating uptake of apatite weathering products. Roots with different mycorrhizal fungi accumulated similar concentrations of REEs and were generally elevated compared to the NM cultures. Ammonium chloride leaches of granite chips grown in contact with mycorrhizal hyphae show elevated REE concentrations and significantly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures relative to bulk rock, also supporting enhanced apatite dissolution. Our results in culture are consistent with data from field-collected sporocarps from hardwood stands in the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, in which Cortinarius sporocarp Pb isotope ratios were more radiogenic than those of other ectomycorrhizal sporocarps. Taken together, the experimental

  10. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  11. Waste treatability guidance program. User's guide. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, C.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User's Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan

  12. Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Stolper, Edward M; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2010-07-22

    The Moon is thought to be depleted relative to the Earth in volatile elements such as H, Cl and the alkalis. Nevertheless, evidence for lunar explosive volcanism has been used to infer that some lunar magmas exsolved a CO-rich and CO(2)-rich vapour phase before or during eruption. Although there is also evidence for other volatile species on glass spherules, until recently there had been no unambiguous reports of indigenous H in lunar rocks. Here we report quantitative ion microprobe measurements of late-stage apatite from lunar basalt 14053 that document concentrations of H, Cl and S that are indistinguishable from apatites in common terrestrial igneous rocks. These volatile contents could reflect post-magmatic metamorphic volatile addition or growth from a late-stage, interstitial, sulphide-saturated melt that contained approximately 1,600 parts per million H(2)O and approximately 3,500 parts per million Cl. Both metamorphic and igneous models of apatite formation suggest a volatile inventory for at least some lunar materials that is similar to comparable terrestrial materials. One possible implication is that portions of the lunar mantle or crust are more volatile-rich than previously thought.

  13. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE USING TIN(II)APATITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY K; MOORE WP; RHODES RN; JOHNSON JM; MOORE RC

    2012-06-01

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mo bile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period oftime (6 weeks). Previous work (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine) indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table A shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit. The loaded sample (200 mg of Sn(II)apatite loaded with O.311 mg of Tc-99) was subjected to different molarities of nitric acid to determine if the Sn(II)apatite would release the sequestered technetium. The acid was allowed to contact for 1 minute with gentle shaking ('1st wash'); the aqueous solution was then filtered, and the filtrate was analyzed for Tc-99. Table B shows the results ofthe nitric acid exposure. Another portion of acid was added, shaken for a minute, and filtered ('2nd wash'). The

  14. Hanford Site Annual Treatability Studies Report Calendar Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohs, Eugene L.

    2002-02-20

    This report provides information required to be reported annually by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-071 (3)(r)(ii)(F) and (3)(s)(ix) on the treatability studies conducted on the Hanford Site in 2000. These studies were conducted as required by WAC 173-303-071, "Excluded Categories of Waste," sections (3)(r) and (s). Unless otherwise noted, the waste samples were provided by and the treatability studies were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identification number for these studies is WA7890008967.

  15. RBS and RNRA studies on sorption of europium by apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Isobe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murakami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Aoki, Yasushi; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    The sorption mechanism of europium, alternative of trivalent TRU has been studied based on the depth profiles of elements obtained by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (RNRA). The positive peak for Eu and the negative peak for Ca were observed in the subtracted RBS spectra of the apatites on which Eu was sorbed from that of the fresh apatite. This indicates that Eu was sorbed on apatite, while a fraction of Ca was released from apatite. The peak height for Eu in the RBS spectrum of the apatite obtained at 75degC was higher than that of the apatite at 40degC. The depth profile of hydrogen of the apatite on which Eu was sorbed was similar to that of the fresh apatite. The concentration of Eu in the solution decreased with increasing temperature. On the contrary, the concentration of Ca increased with increasing temperature. Thus, it is concluded that a fraction of Eu is exchanged for Ca in the structure of apatite. (author)

  16. Characterisation and biological treatability of "Izmit industrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the conventional characterisation and biological treatability of wastewaters of the "Izmit Industrial and Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant". Respirometric procedures were carried out for the experimental assessment of organic contents of wastewater. The mean value of total COD was 1201 mg.l-1 and ...

  17. A potentially treatable cause of dementia | Katsidzira | Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potentially treatable cause of dementia. L Katsidzira, T Machiridza, A Ndlovu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  18. Treatability of chromite ore processing waste by leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, K; Haskök, S

    2001-06-01

    Developing treatment and disposal strategies and health-based clean-up standards for chromium containing wastes continues to be an important environmental regulatory issue because of the opposing solubility and toxicity characteristics of chromium species under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, leaching characteristics of total Cr and Cr(VI) were investigated using laboratory column studies. The data obtained from the experimental studies were analysed to assess the treatability of chromite ore processing waste (COPW) by leaching and to identify the leaching strategies that enhance mass removal rates of chromium species. COPW used for laboratory soil column studies was obtained from an industrial plant producing sodium chromate in Mersin, Turkey. Laboratory investigations involved chemical characterisation of waste material and column studies. For waste characterisation, U.S. EPA toxicity characterisation leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed on COPW to determine the concentrations of metal species in the TCLP extract. For column studies, various laboratory columns containing plain COPW material, 1:1 COPW/reducing agent (elemental iron or manure) mixture and different type soils (sand, loam and clay) overlain by COPW were subjected to leaching tests using acidic, neutral and alkaline influent water to determine Cr mass leaching efficiencies. Based on the TCLP analyses, COPW is classified as hazardous waste. As a result of comparing the leaching efficiency data from twelve leaching columns, the maximum removal of total Cr was achieved by leaching COPW/manure mixture using acidic (pH 4.78) influent water. The highest Cr(VI) leaching efficiency was achieved in the columns of plain COPW and COPW/manure mixture using highly alkaline (pH 12.0) influent water. The least effective leaching efficiency for both total Cr and Cr (VI) was obtained by leaching plain COPW with neutral (pH 7.0) influent water. Land-disposal of the treated COPW material by mixing

  19. Rare earth elements materials production from apatite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, A V; Buynovskiy, A S; Makaseev, Y N; Mazov, I N; Nefedov, R A; Sachkov, V I; Valkov, A V; Andrienko, O S; Stepanova, O B

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of processing apatite ores with nitric acid and extraction of the rare earth elements. The rare earth elements can be successfully separated and recovered by extraction from the nitrate- phosphate solution, being an tributyl phosphate as extraction agent. The developed scheme of the processing apatite concentrate provides obtaining rare earth concentrates with high qualitative characteristics. (paper)

  20. IN SITU LEAD STABILIZATION USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC APATITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kaluđerović Radoičić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mineral apatite was investigated for the remediation of lead contamination. Two different apatite minerals were used: synthetic apatite, Ca10(PO46(OH2 (hereafter denoted as HAP and natural apatite from Lisina, near Bosilegrad, Serbia (hereafter denoted as LA. Phosphate ore from Lisina deposit consists of 43.3 % apatite in the form of fluorapatite, Ca10(PO46(F2. Sorption properties of HAP and LA were investigated. The results show that both of these minerals are effective in lead removal from the water solution. Sorption capacity of HAP obtained in this experiment is 0.216 mmol Pb/g HAP, while the value for LA is 0.162 mmol Pb/g LA. Modeling of these systems was conducted using Visual Minteq computer program. The values obtained from the computer simulation were compared to experimental values.

  1. Co-variability of S 6+ , S 4+ , and S 2- in apatite as a function of oxidation state: Implications for a new oxybarometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konecke, Brian A.; Fiege, Adrian; Simon, Adam C.; Parat, Fleurice; Stechern, André

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we use micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structures (μ-XANES) spectroscopy at the S K-edge to investigate the oxidation state of S in natural magmatic-hydrothermal apatite (Durango, Mexico, and Mina Carmen, Chile) and experimental apatites crystallized from volatile-saturated lamproitic melts at 1000 °C and 300 MPa over a broad range of oxygen fugacities [( Embedded Image , FMQ+1.2, FMQ+3; FMQ = fayalite-magnetite-quartz solid buffer]. The data are used to test the hypothesis that S oxidation states other than S6+ may substitute into the apatite structure. Peak energies corresponding to sulfate S6+ (~2482 eV), sulfite S4+ (~2478 eV), and sulfide S2- (~2470 eV) were observed in apatite, and the integrated areas of the different sulfur peaks correspond to changes in Embedded Image and bulk S content. Here, multiple tests confirmed that the S oxidation state in apatite remains constant when exposed to the synchrotron beam, at least for up to 1 h exposure (i.e., no irradiation damages). To our knowledge, this observation makes apatite the first mineral to incorporate reduced (S2-), intermediate (S4+), and oxidized (S6+) S in variable proportions as a function of the prevailing Embedded Image of the system. Apatites crystallized under oxidizing conditions (FMQ+1.2 and FMQ+3), where the S6+/STotal peak area ratio in the coexisting glass (i.e., quenched melt) is ~1, are dominated by S6+ with a small contribution of S4+, whereas apatites crystallizing at reduced conditions (FMQ) contain predominantly S2-, lesser amounts of S6+, and possibly traces of S4+. A sulfur oxidation state vs. S concentration analytical line transect across hydrothermally altered apatite from the Mina Carmen iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit (Chile) demonstrates that apatite can become enriched in S4+ relative to S6+, indicating metasomatic overprinting via a SO2-bearing fluid or vapor phase. This XANES study demonstrates that as the Embedded Image increases from FQM to FMQ+1.2 to FMQ

  2. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  3. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, R. Matthew, E-mail: matthew.asmussen@pnnl.gov [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Tc-99 is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste and removal of Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization using tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl{sub 2}. Sn-A showed higher levels of Tc removal from both DIW and LAW simulant. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of reacted Sn-A in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI). - Highlights: • Sn(II)-Apatite shows high proficiency in removing Tc(VII) from neutral solutions. • The removal of the Tc(VII) by Sn(II)-apatite is done via reduction to Tc(IV)O{sub 2} × H{sub 2}O. • In LAW Sn(II)-apatite is less efficient in removing Tc(VII). • Interference in LAW due to a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI) and the high pH. • Sn(II)-apatite can remove Tc(VII) from LAW effectively through increasing material added.

  4. Hanford Site Annual Treatability Studies Report, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohs, Eugene L.

    2003-02-28

    This report provides information required to be reported annually by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-071 (3)(r)(ii)(F) and (3)(s)(ix) on the treatability studies conducted on the Hanford Site in 2002. These studies were conducted as required by WAC 173-303-071, “Excluded Categories of Waste,” sections (3)(r) and (s). Unless otherwise noted, the waste samples were provided by and the treatability studies were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identification number for these studies is WA7890008967.

  5. Pad A treatability study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This plan addresses the work to be accomplished by the Pad A Treatability Study Project. The purpose of this project is to investigate potential treatment and separation technologies, identify the best technologies, and to demonstrate by both lab- and pilot-scale demonstration, the most applicable remedial technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salts at the Pad A site located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) a the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The conduct of this project will be supported by other DOE laboratories, universities, and private industries, who will provide support for near-term demonstrations of treatment and separation technologies. The purpose of this long-range planning document is to present the detailed plan for the implementation of the Pad A Treatability Study Project

  6. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  7. Thermal desorption treatability test conducted with VAC*TRAX Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment standards. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, where off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed waste with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of mixed waste. DOE-AL manages nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment units (MTUs) to treat waste at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed wastes must remove the hazardous component (i.e., meet RCRA treatment standards) and contain the radioactive component in a form that will protect the worker, public, and environment. On the basis of the recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) include thermal desorption (TD), evaporative oxidation, and waste water evaporation

  8. UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Makiko; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yamada, Masahiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Lee, Masaichi Chang-Il; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Although biomimetic apatite coating is a promising way to provide titanium with osteoconductivity, the efficiency and quality of deposition is often poor. Most titanium implants have microscale surface morphology, and an addition of nanoscale features while preserving the micromorphology may provide further biological benefit. Here, we examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light treatment of titanium, or photofunctionalization, on the efficacy of biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium and its biological capability. Methods and results Micro-roughed titanium disks were prepared by acid-etching with sulfuric acid. Micro-roughened disks with or without photofunctionalization (20-minute exposure to UV light) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 or 5 days. Photofunctionalized titanium disks were superhydrophilic and did not form surface air bubbles when immersed in SBF, whereas non-photofunctionalized disks were hydrophobic and largely covered with air bubbles during immersion. An apatite-related signal was observed by X-ray diffraction on photofunctionalized titanium after 1 day of SBF immersion, which was equivalent to the one observed after 5 days of immersion of control titanium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nodular apatite deposition in the valleys and at the inclines of micro-roughened structures without affecting the existing micro-configuration. Micro-roughened titanium and apatite-deposited titanium surfaces had similar roughness values. The attachment, spreading, settling, proliferation, and alkaline phosphate activity of bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were promoted on apatite-coated titanium with photofunctionalization. Conclusion UV-photofunctionalization of titanium enabled faster deposition of nanoscale biomimetic apatite, resulting in the improved biological capability compared to the similarly prepared apatite-deposited titanium without photofunctionalization. Photofunctionalization-assisted biomimetic apatite

  9. Preparation of a non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with partially embedded apatite surface for bone tissue engineering applications by partial surface melting of poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a novel method for the preparation of a biodegradable non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially embedded apatite surface designed for application as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. The non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric was generated by the electro-spinning technique and then apatite was coated in simulated body fluid after coating the PVA solution containing CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O. The apatite crystals were partially embedded or fully embedded into the thermoplastic poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers by controlling the degree of poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber surface melting in a convection oven. Identical apatite-coated poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric that did not undergo heat-treatment was used as a control. The features of the embedded apatite crystals were evaluated by FE-SEM, AFM, EDS, and XRD. The adhesion strengths of the coated apatite layers and the tensile strengths of the apatite coated fabrics with and without heat-treatment were assessed by the tape-test and a universal testing machine, respectively. The degree of water absorbance was assessed by adding a DMEM droplet onto the fabrics. Moreover, cell penetrability was assessed by seeding preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells onto the fabrics and observing the degrees of cell penetration after 1 and 4 weeks by staining nuclei with DAPI. The non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially embedded apatite surface showed good water absorbance, cell penetrability, higher apatite adhesion strength, and higher tensile strength compared with the control fabric. These results show that the non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially embedded apatite surface is a potential candidate scaffold for bone tissue engineering due to its strong apatite adhesion strength and excellent cell penetrability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1973-1983, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. ID ICPMS Lu-Hf Geochronology of Apatite from Iron-Oxide Apatite (IOA) Deposits, Northern Chilean Iron Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Vervoort, J. D.; Barra, F.; Palma, G.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the age of mineralization of ore deposits is important for understanding the mechanisms and timing of ore formation. In many cases, however, conventional dateable mineral phases (e.g., zircon, monazite) are lacking in the ore mineral assemblages. For example, Iron Oxide Apatite (IOA) and Iron Oxide Gold Copper Gold (IOCG) deposits have the remaining fundamental question as to whether they have formed by hydrothermal or magmatic processes, or some combination of the two. In these deposits, the mineralization of iron oxide is often accompanied by the growth of apatites, which typically have REE concentrations of tens to several thousand ppm and which makes them potentially amenable to dating by the Lu-Hf isochron method. These apatites, however, also have very low concentrations of Hf, which makes determination of precise Hf isotope compositions challenging. In this study, we attempted to date these deposits using the apatite Lu-Hf isochron method, using procedures modified from that of Münker et al., 2001 and Barfod et al., 2003 and report the first Lu-Hf ages for apatites from Carmen, Fresia, and Mariela IOA deposits in northern Chilean Iron Belt. The concentration of Hf in analyzed apatite is 0.001 ppm. To ensure at least 0.5ng of Hf is collected for MS analysis, 0.5g apatite was dissolved for each sample. A single stage of Ln-spec resin chromatographic columns was used to separate Hf from REEs as multi stages of separation columns would decrease the Hf yield considerably. Using these procedures, we determined a Lu-Hf apatite age for the Carmen deposit of 130.0±1.7 Ma, which is in accordance with a previously published U-Pb apatite age of 131.0±1.0 Ma (Gelcich et al., 2005). The apatites from Fresia and Mariela yield Lu-Hf ages of 132.8±5.3 Ma and 117.3±0.4 Ma respectively. The lower points on the isochrons are either a low Lu/Hf phase (actinolite, magnetite) or bulk earth ratios. These are some of the first Lu-Hf ages of directly dating apatite

  11. Development of calcium phosphate based apatite from hen's eggshell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cowin et al 1987). The apatitic calcium phosphate of bone mineral consists of carbonate, small amount of sodium, magnesium and other trace ele- ments. The submicroscopic crystal of calcium phosphate in bone resembles the crystal structure ...

  12. Insight into Biological Apatite: Physiochemical Properties and Preparation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological apatite is an inorganic calcium phosphate salt in apatite form and nano size with a biological derivation. It is also the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bones and teeth of vertebrates. Consequently, biological apatite has a wide application in dentistry and orthopedics by using as dental fillers and bone substitutes for bone reconstruction and regeneration. Given this, it is of great significance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of its physiochemical and biological properties. However, upon the previous studies, inconsistent and inadequate data of such basic properties as the morphology, crystal size, chemical compositions, and solubility of biological apatite were reported. This may be ascribed to the differences in the source of raw materials that biological apatite are made from, as well as the effect of the preparation approaches. Hence, this paper is to provide some insights rather than a thorough review of the physiochemical properties as well as the advantages and drawbacks of various preparation methods of biological apatite.

  13. Insight into biological apatite: physiochemical properties and preparation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Huang, Shishu; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Chen, Zhuofan; Pan, Haobo

    2013-01-01

    Biological apatite is an inorganic calcium phosphate salt in apatite form and nano size with a biological derivation. It is also the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bones and teeth of vertebrates. Consequently, biological apatite has a wide application in dentistry and orthopedics by using as dental fillers and bone substitutes for bone reconstruction and regeneration. Given this, it is of great significance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of its physiochemical and biological properties. However, upon the previous studies, inconsistent and inadequate data of such basic properties as the morphology, crystal size, chemical compositions, and solubility of biological apatite were reported. This may be ascribed to the differences in the source of raw materials that biological apatite are made from, as well as the effect of the preparation approaches. Hence, this paper is to provide some insights rather than a thorough review of the physiochemical properties as well as the advantages and drawbacks of various preparation methods of biological apatite.

  14. 1994 Solid waste forecast summary: Waste characteristics and treatability groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Williams, N.C.; Armacost, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the low-level mixed solid waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU/TRUM) that will be received at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC). This waste will be generated over the next 30 years from operations, maintenance activities, deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. For the past 4 years, each onsite and offsite waste generator has provided an annual forecast of the waste volume that is scheduled to be shipped to Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) over the next 30 years. The generator's forecast includes the waste volumes, waste classes, physical waste forms, hazardous constituents, and container types. Certain waste generators had a difficult time predicting their future waste volumes. Therefore, special studies and interviews were conducted to obtain these volumes. This document, based primarily on the 1993 forecasts, describes the physical waste forms and hazardous constituents for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic/transuranic mixed waste (TRU/TRUM) that will be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. In addition, it illustrates how mixed waste is categorized into nationally established treatability groups. Defining the waste characteristics and categorizing the waste into treatability groups allows management and treatment planners to plan for future waste management activities and evaluate alternative treatment strategies

  15. Hydrated lime for metals immobilization and explosives transformation: Treatability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W Andy; Larson, S L; Nestler, C C; Fabian, G; O'Connor, G; Felt, D R

    2012-05-15

    Fragmentation grenades contain Composition B (RDX and TNT) within a steel shell casing. There is the potential for off-site migration of high explosives and metals from hand grenade training ranges by transport in surface water and subsurface transport in leachate. This treatability study used bench-scale columns and mesocosm-scale laboratory lysimeters to investigate the potential of hydrated lime as a soil amendment for in situ remediation of explosives and metals stabilization in hand grenade range soils. Compared to the unamended soil there was a 26-92% reduction of RDX in the leachate and runoff water from the lime treated soils and a 66-83% reduction of zinc in the leachate and runoff water samples; where the hand grenade range metals of concern were zinc, iron, and manganese. The amended soil was maintained at the target pH of greater than 10.5 for optimum explosives decomposition. The treatability study indicated a high potential of success for scale-up to an in situ field study. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Investigation of vacancy damage influence on He diffusion in apatite: implication for the (U-Th)/He thermochronometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautheron, Cécile; Gerin, Chloé; Bachelet, Cyril; Mbongo Djimbi, Duval; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Roques, Jérôme; Garrido, Frédérico

    2017-04-01

    Helium diffusion in minerals rich in actinides, especially apatite, is considered as strongly impacted by damage, even at low U-Th content. However, no direct evidence exists neither about such an impact nor the damage topology. To better understand the impact of damage on He diffusion, we conducted a study on vacancy damage in apatite, at nanometric to atomic scales, using several methodologies [1]. We investigate the role of vacancy damage that are the one created during alpha decay. Firstly, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to image the damage structure done by He implantation in the first 200 nm below the surface of apatite crystal. TEM images present no visible damage zone at nano-scale, implying that the created damage corresponds well to Frenkel defects (vacancies and interstitials). Secondly, to test the damage impact on diffusion and the trapping efficiency, we conduct both experimental and theoretical studies. Diffusion experiments were performed on He implanted samples by mapping He concentration vs. depth profiles using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). After measurement of implanted-He profiles and He concentrations, the samples were heated in order to diffuse the implanted profile. The obtained He vs. depth heated profiles and He concentrations reveal the impact of damage on He diffusivity. The results can only be explained by a model where diffusion depends on damage dose, taking into account He trapping in vacancies and damage interconnectivity at higher damage dose. Thirdly, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate a vacancy in a F-apatite crystal, and results are compared with an undamaged apatite cell [2]. The structure becomes slightly deformed by the vacancy and the insertion energy of a He atom in the vacancy is lower than for an usual insertion site. Accordingly, the additional energy for a He atom to jump out of the vacancy is in good agreement with published estimates. This calculation

  17. Effects of high treatability information on preventative intention of bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie; Dalley, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The information that indicates a disease is highly treatable is called ‘high treatability information’ (HTI). This HTI may decrease people’s preventative intention of the disease. The current study examined the effects of HTI on preventative intention of bowel cancer. Procedure of

  18. Effects of high treatability information on preventative intention of bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie; Dalley, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    The information that indicates a disease is highly treatable is called ‘high treatability information’ (HTI). This study examined the effects of HTI on preventative intention of bowel cancer. Self-affirmation was used to reduce the defensive responses to HTI. We employed a 3(control versus low

  19. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -4 curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095)

  20. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  1. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  2. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  3. Nanocrystalline carbonate-apatites: role of Ca/P ratio on the upload and release of anticancer platinum bisphosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafisco, Michele; Palazzo, Barbara; Martra, Gianmario; Margiotta, Nicola; Piccinonna, Sara; Natile, Giovanni; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Roveri, Norberto

    2011-12-01

    In the present study two nanocrystalline apatites have been investigated as bone-specific drug delivery devices to be used for treatment of bone tumors either by local implantation or by injection. In order to assess how the Ca/P ratio can influence the adsorption and release of anticancer platinum-bisphosphonate complexes, two kinds of apatite nanocrystals having different Ca/P ratios but similar morphologies, degree of crystallinity, and surface areas have been synthesized and characterized. The two platinum-bisphosphonate complexes considered were the bis-{ethylenediamineplatinum(ii)}-2-amino-1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diyl-bisphosphonate and the bis-{ethylenediamineplatinum(ii)}medronate. The Ca/P ratio plays an important role in the adsorption as well as in the release of the two drugs. In fact, the apatite with a higher Ca/P ratio showed greater affinity for both platinum complexes. Also the chemical structure of the two Pt complexes appreciably affects their affinity towards as well as their release from the two kinds of apatites. In particular, the platinum complex whose bisphosphonate contains a free aminic group showed greater upload and smaller release. The cytotoxicity of the Pt complexes released from the apatite was tested against human cervical, colon, and lung cancer cells as well as against osteosarcoma cells. In agreement with previous work, the Pt complexes released were found to be more cytotoxic than the unmodified complexes.In the present study two nanocrystalline apatites have been investigated as bone-specific drug delivery devices to be used for treatment of bone tumors either by local implantation or by injection. In order to assess how the Ca/P ratio can influence the adsorption and release of anticancer platinum-bisphosphonate complexes, two kinds of apatite nanocrystals having different Ca/P ratios but similar morphologies, degree of crystallinity, and surface areas have been synthesized and characterized. The two platinum

  4. UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saita M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Makiko Saita,1 Takayuki Ikeda,1,2 Masahiro Yamada,1,3 Katsuhiko Kimoto,4 Masaichi Chang-Il Lee,5 Takahiro Ogawa1 1Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan; 3Division of Molecular and Regenerative Prosthodontics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 4Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Rehabilitation, 5Yokosuka-Shonan Disaster Health Emergency Research Center and ESR Laboratories, Kanagawa Dental University Graduate School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan Background: Although biomimetic apatite coating is a promising way to provide titanium with osteoconductivity, the efficiency and quality of deposition is often poor. Most titanium implants have microscale surface morphology, and an addition of nanoscale features while preserving the micromorphology may provide further biological benefit. Here, we examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV light treatment of titanium, or photofunctionalization, on the efficacy of biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium and its biological capability.Methods and results: Micro-roughed titanium disks were prepared by acid-etching with sulfuric acid. Micro-roughened disks with or without photofunctionalization (20-minute exposure to UV light were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 1 or 5 days. Photofunctionalized titanium disks were superhydrophilic and did not form surface air bubbles when immersed in SBF, whereas non-photofunctionalized disks were hydrophobic and largely covered with air bubbles during immersion. An apatite-related signal was observed by X-ray diffraction on photofunctionalized titanium after 1 day of SBF immersion, which was equivalent to the one observed after 5 days of immersion of control titanium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nodular apatite deposition

  5. Study on apatite compounds; Apataitokei kagobutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-28

    To clarify the material properties of apatite compounds, the synthesis method, and the evaluation of physical properties of material and elementary technology were investigated. For the study on synthesis and crystal growth, a method of precipitating calcium phosphate on the surface of metal was investigated by means of relatively mild electrolytic method using liquid phase system. A new molding method of Ca defective apatite was established. Composite similar to vital bone was prepared by means of a new low-temperature sintering. For the study on chemical properties, from the model experiments, it was found that the self-organizing phenomenon, which is observed in the composite of apatite and collagen, happened between the organic single molecular film and crystal of apatite. For the study on evaluation of physical properties and elementary technology, the surface and interface of ceramics such as apatite were investigated by means of spectroscopy, the electronic state was analyzed by the quantum chemical calculation, and the crystalline structure was analyzed using X-ray equipment. 270 refs., 102 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. A comprehensive guide to experimental and predicted thermodynamic properties of phosphate apatite minerals in view of applicative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Experimental thermodynamic properties of phosphate apatites are reviewed and commented. Predictive methods are developed and tested here for apatite compounds, allowing reliable estimations of ΔH f °, ΔG f ° and S°, not only for end-members but also for solid solutions, non-stoichiometric and hydrated samples. A periodic table of recommended thermodynamic properties for 33 apatite systems is generated, and relative stabilities are pointed out. - Highlights: • Experimental thermodynamic properties of phosphate apatites are reviewed. • Predictive thermodynamic methods are investigated for estimating missing data. • An additive model is developed to estimate ΔH f °, ΔG f ° and S° for phosphate apatites. • End-members, solid solutions, nonstoichiometric and hydrated samples are considered. • A periodic table of recommended thermodynamic properties for 33 systems is proposed. - Abstract: Apatite minerals represent a major class of ionic compounds of interest to many disciplines including medical sciences, geology, anthropology, cosmology, environmental and nuclear sciences. Yet, these compounds have not received great attention from a thermodynamic viewpoint, and some diverging data – often drawn from molecular modeling assays – were reported. In this contribution, an extensive literature overview of available experimental-based data on M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 X 2 apatites with M = Ca, Ba, Sr, Mg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and X = OH, F, Cl or Br has first been made, on the basis of standard formation energetics (ΔH f ° and ΔG f °) as well as entropy S° and molar heat capacity C p,m °. The case of oxyapatite was also included. From this overview, it was then possible to identify general tendencies, evidencing in particular the primary role of electronegativity and secondarily of ionic size. Using the experimental data as reference, several predictive thermodynamic methods were then evaluated, including the volume-based-thermodynamics (VBT

  7. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested.

  8. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream number-sign 1, Stream number-sign 3, Stream number-sign 6, and Stream number-sign 7. Stream number-sign 1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream number-sign 3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream number-sign 6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft 3 wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream number-sign 7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network's mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable limits

  9. Apatite U-Pb thermochronolgy applied to complex geological settings - insights from geo/thermochronology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andre; Spikings, Richard; Ulyanov, Alexey; Chew, David

    2016-04-01

    Application of high temperature (>350oC) thermochronology is limited to the U-Pb system of accessory minerals, such as apatite, under the assumption that radiogenic lead is lost to thermally activated volume diffusion into an infinite reservoir. Cochrane et al. (2015) have demonstrated a working example from the northern Andes of South America. Predictions from volume diffusion theory were compared with measured single grain U-Pb date correlated to shortest diffusion radius and in-situ profiles measured by LA-ICP-MS. Results from both techniques were found to be in agreement with predictions from thermally activated, volume diffusion. However, outliers from the ID-TIMS data suggested some complexity, as grains were found to be too young relative to their diffusion radius. Interaction of multiple processes can be responsible for the alteration of apatite U-Pb dates such as: (1) metamorphic (over)growth, (2) fluid aided alteration/recrystallization and (3) metamictization and fracturing of the grain. Further, predictions from volume diffusion rely on the input parameters: (a) diffusivity, (b) activation energy and (c) shortest diffusion radius. Diffusivity and activation energy are potentially influenced by the chemical composition and subsequent changes in crystal structure. Currently there is one value for diffusion parameter and activation energy established for (Durango) apatite (Cherniak et al., 1991). Correlation between diffusivity/activation energy and composition has not been established. We investigate if correlations exist between diffusivity/activation energy and composition by obtaining single grain apatite U-Pb date and chemical compostion and correlating these to their diffusion radius. We test the consistency of apatite closure temperature, by comparing the apatite U-Pb dates with lower temperature thermochronometers such as white mica and K-feldspar Ar/Ar and by petrographic observations. We test if chemical information can be a proxy to identify

  10. Chemical, physical, and histologic studies on four commercial apatites used for alveolar ridge augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Ruyter, I E; Haanaes, H R

    1992-01-01

    characteristics obtained by chemical analysis and infrared spectrometry. None of the apatites caused osteoinduction or osteoconduction; fibrous encapsulation with multinuclear giant cells was observed around all four types. One of the apatites was fluorapatite and not hydroxylapatite, as claimed...

  11. Nano-apatite/polymer composites: mechanical and physicochemical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qing; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized acicular nano-apatite (Nap) was used as filler to make composites with a polyethylene glycol/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEG/PBT) block copolymer (Polyactive™70:30). The Nap had a particle diameter of 9–25 nm and a length of 80–200 nm. The mechanical properties and the

  12. Lead Speciation and Bioavailability in Apatite-Amended Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk G. Scheckel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in situ sequestration of lead (Pb in sediment with a phosphate amendment was investigated by Pb speciation and bioavailability. Sediment Pb in preamendment samples was identified as galena (PbS with trace amounts of absorbed Pb. Sediment exposed to atmospheric conditions underwent conversion to hydrocerussite and anglesite. Sediments mixed with apatite exhibited limited conversion to pyromorphite, the hypothesized end product. Conversion of PbS to pyromorphite is inhibited under reducing conditions, and pyromorphite formation appears limited to reaction with pore water Pb and PbS oxidation products. Porewater Pb values were decreased by 94% or more when sediment was amended with apatite. The acute toxicity of the sediment Pb was evaluated with Hyalella azteca and bioaccumulation of Pb with Lumbriculus variegatus. The growth of H. azteca may be mildly inhibited in contaminated sediment, with apatite-amended sediments exhibiting on average a higher growth weight by approximately 20%. The bioaccumulation of Pb in L. variegatus tissue decreased with increased phosphate loading in contaminated sediment. The study indicates limited effectiveness of apatite in sequestering Pb if present as PbS under reducing conditions, but sequestration of porewater Pb and stabilization of near-surface sediment may be a feasible and alternative approach to decreasing potential toxicity of Pb.

  13. Results of thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from wood treatment sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shealy, S.E.; Lin, W.C. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States); Richards, M.K. [EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Culp, J. [EA Engineering, San Pedro, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Thermal desorption is one of the most effective technologies for treatment of soils or wastes containing organic contaminants. This includes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol and dioxins/furans that are the typical contaminants of concern at wood treatment sites. This paper summarizes the results of bench-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from two wood treatment sites. The testing identified the time-temperature combination needed for contaminant removal and provided data on the composition of the treatment residuals from the thermal treatment process. This study included testing in static trays and in a small bench-scale rotary kiln. The static tray tests are a bench-scale method of readily evaluating the effect of various target temperatures and residence times on contaminant removal. These tests use 40--50 grams, of soil, which is aliquoted into a tray and placed into a muffle furnace at a pre-determined time and temperature. These tests are used to identify effective treatment conditions. The Rotary Thermal Apparatus (RTA) is also a bench-scale device that is used to treat 1 to 1.5 kilograms of soil in an indirectly heated rotary tube. This device simulates the heat and mass transfer in rotary kiln. The RTA is a batch device and can be purged with nitrogen, oxygen or other gases to simulate the atmosphere of various thermal treatment processes.

  14. Thermodynamic basis for evolution of apatite in calcified tissues (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, A.; Drouet, C.; Rollin-Martinet, S.; Champion, E.; Grossin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bone remodeling and tooth enamel maturation are biological processes which alter the physico-chemical features of biominerals with time. However, although the ubiquity of bone remodeling is clear, why is well crystallized bone mineral systematically replaced by immature nanocrystalline inorganic material? In enamel, a clear evolution is also seen from the first mineral formed during the secretory stage to its mature well crystalline form, which then changes little in the adult tooth. This contribution provides the thermodynamic basis underlying these biological processes. We determined the energetics of biomimetic apatites corresponding to an increasing degree of maturation. Our data point out the progressive evolution of the enthalpy (ΔHf°) and free energy (ΔGf°) of formation toward more negative values upon maturation. Entropy contributions to ΔGf° values are small compared to enthalpy contributions. ΔHf° varies from -12058.9 × 12.2 to -12771.0 × 21.4 kJ/mol for maturation times increasing from 20 min to 3 weeks, approaching the value for stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, -13431.0 × 22.7 kJ/mol. Apatite thermodynamic stability increases as its composition moved toward stoichiometry. These findings imply diminishing aqueous solubility of calcium and phosphate ions as well as decreased surface reactivity. Such thermodynamically-driven maturation is favorable for enamel maturation since this biomineral must resist external aggressions such as contact with acids. In contrast, maintaining a metastable highly reactive and soluble form of apatite is essential to the effective participation of bone as a source of calcium and phosphate for homeostasis. Therefore our data strongly suggest that, far from being trivial, the intrinsic thermodynamic properties of apatite represent a critical driving force for continuous bone remodeling, in contrast to current views favoring a purely biologically driven cycle. These thermodynamic data may prove helpful in other domains

  15. Treatability Study Report for In SITU Lead Immobilization Using Phosphate-Based Binders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bricka, R. M; Marwaha, Anirudha; Fabian, Gene L

    2008-01-01

    .... The treatability study described in this report was designed to develop the information necessary to support the immobilization of lead contaminants in soil by in situ treatment with phosphate-based binders...

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  19. Preparation of rare earth fluorides from apatite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyarchuk, I.F.; Voloshchenko, M.V.; Zen'kovich, E.G.; Sumenkova, V.V.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Lit'ya)

    1980-01-01

    The processes of preparation of the rare earths element sum from apatite concentrate of the Khibins, connected with preliminary extraction of rare earth phosphates from nitric acid extract using solvent extraction or direct precipitation from the extract by solution of potassium and ammonium fluorides. The sequence of the processes of the first variant is the following: solvent extraction of rare earths by tributylphosphate from clarified nitric acid extract of apatite with subsequent reextraction of rare earths with water and precipitation of rare earth phosphates from aqueous solution during neutralization by ammonia. In case of fluoride preparation from rare earth phosphate the main attention is paid to precipitation and filtration of fluorides. Technological scheme and cost price of industry for the production of 1800 t of rare earth trifluorides a year are calculated. When taking account of TBP losses according to its solubility the industry cost price is 1O times lower the modern cost of rare earth fluorides

  20. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ''blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste

  1. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  2. Beta transmutations in apatites with ferric iron as an electron acceptor - implication for nuclear waste form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ge; Zhang, Zelong; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-09-27

    Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series 137 Cs → 137 Ba and 90 Sr → 90 Y → 90 Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis. Apatites with compositions of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 and Ca 4 Y 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 were selected as model systems for the incorporation of radionuclides Cs and Sr, respectively. Ferric iron was introduced in the structure as an electron acceptor. Electron density of states, crystal and defect structures, and energies before and after beta decay were calculated. The calculated electron density of states suggests that the extra electron is localized at the ferric iron, which changes its oxidation state and becomes ferrous iron. The crystal and defect structures were analyzed based on the volume, lattice parameters, radial distribution functions, metal cation to coordinating oxygen distances, and the metaprism twist angle of the apatite crystal structure. The results show that there are minor changes in the crystal and defect structures of CsFeCa 8 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 with Cs + and Fe 3+ substitutions undergoing the Cs → Ba transmutation, and of Ca 3 SrY 4 Fe 2 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 with Sr 2+ and Fe 3+ substitutions undergoing the Sr → Y → Zr transmutations. The last decay change, from Y 3+ → Zr 4+ , causes relatively larger changes in the local defect structure around Zr involving the coordination environment but the change is not significant to the crystal structure. The results on calculated cohesive energy suggest that the transmutations Cs + → Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ → Y 3+ → Zr 4+ in both apatite compositions are energetically favorable

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of apatite-nepheline ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, E.I.; Bakhmatov, B.A.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Sotskov, Yu.P.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the technique for neutron activation determination of rare elements (cerium, samariu, europium, terbium, ytterbium et al.) in apatite-nepheline ores using Ge(Li)-spectrometer. The effect of interference is studied, the recognition threshold and accuracy of analysis of the above elements in this ores are estimated. The technique developed are recommended for the calculation of rare earth element reserves in phosphate raw products

  4. Self-cleaning effects of acrylic resin containing fluoridated apatite-coated titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomofumi; Sawada, Tomoji; Kumasaka, Tomonari; Hamada, Nobushiro; Shibata, Takeshi; Nonami, Toru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Specific materials when used in the manufacture of dentures can enhance the elimination of micro-organisms to promote oral hygiene. We used Candida albicans adhesion assays, methylene blue (MB)-decomposition tests and mechanical property tests to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of acrylic resin containing fluoridated apatite-coated titanium dioxide (FAp-TiO2 ) after treatment with ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. Conventional denture cleaning methods are unable to completely eliminate micro-organisms from dentures. Test specimens were prepared using acrylic resin containing three types of TiO2 powder [FAp-TiO2, titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) and hydroxyapatite-coated TiO2 (HAp-TiO2 )]; n = 96. In the adhesion assay, test specimens were incubated in a fungal suspension and subjected to UVA irradiation, and the number of attachments of C. albicans on the test specimens was counted. The MB-decomposition test and the three-point bending test were then performed to assess the photocatalytic effects of the FAp-TiO2 -containing acrylic resin. Fluoridated apatite-coated titanium dioxide-containing acrylic resin demonstrated superior effectiveness in inhibiting C. albicans adherence as well as in decomposing MB. In the three-point bending test, the resin showed a smaller decrease in flexural strength compared with TiO2 - or HAp-TiO2 -containing acrylic resin. Furthermore, UVA irradiation for 360 h did not significantly influence its flexural strength or elasticity modulus as compared with the control; this fulfils the requirements of International Organization for Standardization 1567:1999. Fluoridated apatite-coated titanium dioxide-containing acrylic resin is a clinically suitable material that promotes proper denture hygiene, particularly for elderly persons requiring nursing care or who have a decreased ability to perform normal activities of daily living. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In-situ Strontium Isotopes Analysis on Single Conodont Apatite by LA-MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Qiu, H.; Lv, Z.; Hu, Z.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Strontium isotope played an important role in stratigraphic chronology and sedimentary geochemistry research (McArthur et al., 2001). Conodonts is a kind of extinct species of marine animals and widely distributed in marine sediments all over the world. Rich in radiogenic Sr contents and difficulty to be affected during diagenesis alteration makes conodonts a good choice in seawater Sr isotope composition studies (John et al., 2008). Conodont samples were collected from 24th to 39th layer across Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan D section (GSSP), Zhejiang Province, South China (Yin et al., 2001). Conodonts was originated from fresh limestone and only conodont elements with CAIextinction events during the Permian-Triassic transition. Our study also makes is possible for high resolution 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio testing on the single conodont apatite and riched the in-situ studies on the conodont apatite, which of great significance for the future conodont Sr isotope research (Zhao et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2013). Keywords: Conodonts, Strontium isotope, LA-MC-ICP-MS, Permian-Triassic transition, Meishan D section [1] John et al., 2008 3P[2] McArthur et al., 2001 J. of Geology [3] Yin et al., 2001 Episodes [4] Zhao et al., 2009 Earth Science J. of CUG [5] Zhao et al., 2013 GPC.

  6. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  7. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator's approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  8. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  9. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment

  10. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC's Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings

  11. Trace-element and Nd-isotope systematics in detrital apatite of the Po river catchment: Implications for provenance discrimination and the lag-time approach to detrital thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Wang, Jiangang; Garzanti, Eduardo; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Villa, Igor M.; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-10-01

    Detrital thermochronology is often employed to assess the evolutionary stage of an entire orogenic belt using the lag-time approach, i.e., the difference between the cooling and depositional ages of detrital mineral grains preserved in a stratigraphic succession. The impact of different eroding sources to the final sediment sink is controlled by several factors, including the short-term erosion rate and the mineral fertility of eroded bedrock. Here, we use apatite fertility data and cosmogenic-derived erosion rates in the Po river catchment (Alps-Apennines) to calculate the expected percentage of apatite grains supplied to the modern Po delta from the major Alpine and Apenninic eroding sources. We test these predictions by using a cutting-edge dataset of trace-element and Nd-isotope signatures on 871 apatite grains from 14 modern sand samples, and we use apatite fission-track data to validate our geochemical approach to provenance discrimination. We found that apatite grains shed from different sources are geochemically distinct. Apatites from the Lepontine dome in the Central Alps show relative HREE enrichment, lower concentrations in Ce and U, and higher 147Sm/144Nd ratios compared to apatites derived from the External Massifs. Derived provenance budgets point to a dominant apatite contribution to the Po delta from the high-fertility Lepontine dome, consistent with the range independently predicted from cosmonuclide and mineral-fertility data. Our results demonstrate that the single-mineral record in the final sediment sink can be largely determined by high-fertility source rocks exposed in rapidly eroding areas within the drainage. This implies that the detrital thermochronology record may reflect processes affecting relatively small parts of the orogenic system under consideration. A reliable approach to lag-time analysis would thus benefit from an independent provenance discrimination of dated mineral grains, which may allow to proficiently reconsider many

  12. Apatite and sodalite based glass-bonded waste forms for immobilization of 129I and mixed halide radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Ashutosh [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McCloy, John S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-30

    The goal of the project was to utilize the knowledge accumulated by the team, in working with minerals for chloride wastes and biological apatites, toward the development of advanced waste forms for immobilizing 129I and mixed-halide wastes. Based on our knowledge, experience, and thorough literature review, we had selected two minerals with different crystal structures and potential for high chemical durability, sodalite and CaP/PbV-apatite, to form the basis of this project. The focus of the proposed effort was towards: (i) low temperature synthesis of proposed minerals (iodine containing sodalite and apatite) leading to the development of monolithic waste forms, (ii) development of a fundamental understanding of the atomic-scale to meso-scale mechanisms of radionuclide incorporation in them, and (iii) understanding of the mechanism of their chemical corrosion, alteration mechanism, and rates. The proposed work was divided into four broad sections. deliverables. 1. Synthesis of materials 2. Materials structural and thermal characterization 3. Design of glass compositions and synthesis glass-bonded minerals, and 4. Chemical durability testing of materials.

  13. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatite coatings synthesized by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visan, A. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Grossin, D. [CIRIMAT – Carnot Institute, University of Toulouse, ENSIACET, 4 Allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Miroiu, F.M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, RO-077125, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Sopronyi, M.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Freche, M.; Marsan, O.; Charvilat, C. [CIRIMAT – Carnot Institute, University of Toulouse, ENSIACET, 4 Allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Ciuca, S. [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We report the deposition by MAPLE of biomimetic apatite coatings on Ti substrates. • This is the first report of MAPLE deposition of hydrated biomimetic apatite films. • Biomimetic apatite powder was synthesized by double decomposition process. • Non-apatitic environments, of high surface reactivity, are preserved post-deposition. • We got the MAPLE complete transfer as thin film of a hydrated, delicate material. -- Abstract: We report the deposition by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatite coatings on titanium substrates, with potential application in tissue engineering. The targets were prepared from metastable, nanometric, poorly crystalline apatite powders, analogous to mineral bone, synthesized through a biomimetic approach by double decomposition process. For the deposition of thin films, a KrF* excimer laser source was used (λ = 248 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≤ 25 ns). The analyses revealed the existence, in synthesized powders, of labile non-apatitic mineral ions, associated with the formation of a hydrated layer at the surface of the nanocrystals. The thin film analyses showed that the structural and chemical nature of the nanocrystalline apatite was prevalently preserved. The perpetuation of the non-apatitic environments was also observed. The study indicated that MAPLE is a suitable technique for the congruent transfer of a delicate material, such as the biomimetic hydrated nanohydroxyapatite.

  14. Reproducibility of old apatite (U-Th)/He ages: an example from East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, C.; Swift, D. A.; Stuart, F. M.; Olive, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decade or so the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer has proved increasingly useful as a tool for quantifying rates of denudation and hence the timing and mechanisms of landscape evolution. This has required advances in analytical procedures, a better understanding of the effects of alpha-recoil and parent element distribution on He diffusivity gradients, and the introduction of new software that enables users to combine (U-Th)/He data with apatite fission track information to better constrain thermal histories. However, several recent studies have shown that AHe ages in excess of 50-100 Ma are often older than expected based on the fission track ages of apatite from the same rock, implying that the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer can be applied only to much ‘younger' landscapes. Here we present a statistically large number of replicate single-grain apatite (U-Th)/He age measurements from eighteen samples collected in the East Greenland fjord region in order to test the extent to which anomalously old AHe ages may reflect differences in crystal size and diffusion behaviour (as a result of radiation damage related to high [eU]). The samples constitute four topographic profiles, spanning elevations from sea-level to ~1100 m, collected in Devonian sandstone (1 profile) and Caledonian basement (3 profiles). Up to 20 transparent, euhedral crystals were analysed for each sample, resulting in a total of 214 (U-Th)/He determinations. Only one sample (He age: 31 ± 3 Ma; n = 6) reproduces within the 10% uncertainty that approaches the reproducibility (1 sigma) of the laboratory internal standard. Generally, reproducibility decreases with AHe age and samples with average ages older than ~ 50 Ma show particularly poor reproducibility, with standard deviations calculated over the arithmetic mean of the single-crystal corrected AHe ages of up to 40%. To explore the reasons for such poor reproducibility, we focus here on three samples from a single profile in

  15. Pap Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most treatable. Other names for a Pap smear: Pap test, cervical cytology, Papanicolaou test, Pap smear test, vaginal ... org/cancer/cervical-cancer/prevention-and-early-detection/pap-test.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. ...

  16. H-Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to estimates of Mars' bulk crust composition [1]. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the crustal composition of components that cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034.

  17. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of ... REE composition of the parent magma (Taylor .... Location of the iron-apatite deposits in the southern part of the Posht-e-Badam Block (Bafq region) on the satellite image. sandstones. Some iron-apatite ores of this block are.

  18. Heterotopic bone formation by nano-apatite containing poly (D,L-lactide) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, D.; Barbieri, D.; Renard, A.J.S.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Yuan, Huipin

    2010-01-01

    To render polymeric materials osteoinductive, nano-sized calcium phosphate apatite particles (CaP) were introduced into a low molecular weight poly(D,L-lactide). Homogenous composites were made with 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of apatite content while pure polylactide was used as control. Thereafter

  19. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE–NNW fault lines). A probable ... and McLennan 1985). Of crucial importance is the ..... at the Esfordi deposit, (c) the Zarigan phosphate deposit and (d) fine to coarse-grained euhedral apatite crystals within the magnetite at the ...

  20. Influence of local charge compensation on site occupation and luminescence of apatites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    The apatite structure contains two different sites for the larger cations. It is shown that the principle of local charge compensation can predict the site occupation. This is especially important for an interpretation of the luminescence properties of a number of apatites. The predictions are

  1. Effect of apatite cements on human osteoblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, T.; Miyamoto, Y.; Takechi, M.; Momota, Y.; Toh, T.; Nagayama, M. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). First Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Ishikawa, K.; Suzuki, K. [Okayama Univ. Dental School (Japan). Dept. of Biomaterials

    2001-07-01

    A conventional apatite cement (c-AC) used for reconstruction of bony defect takes 30 min to set and decays upon exposure to liquid before setting. Therefore, we have developed two types of new ACs; fast-setting AC and anti-washout type AC. The aims of this study are to investigate the effect of ACs on cultured osteoblasts and to compare effects of new ACs on osteoblasts with that of c-AC. Disc shape set ACs with almost same surface roughness were prepared and evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The clonal human osteoblasts were cultured on each specimens. Plastic dish and sintered hydroxyapatite (HAP) were used as control. ACs showed the same apatitic XRD patterns with poor crystallinity when compared with sintered HAP. There were no differences in proliferation of osteoblasts among ACs and sintered HAP. The alkaline phosphatase activity and protein levels for type I collagen and osteocalcin of ACs were greater than those of sintered HAP. There was no difference among ACs. In conclusion, it is suggested that ACs could promote the differentiation of osteoblasts as compared with sintered HAP and plastic. Also, it is suggested that two types of new ACs would show the same cell response as c-AC in vivo (orig.)

  2. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment

  4. Tooth apatite as a bone substitute: an experimental study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Seok Kim; Pill-Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of calcined teeth powder as biological apatite. The animal experiment was performed in 36 rabbits aging 6 weeks and weighing 1.6 kg. In experimental group, tooth apatite powder was implanted to 10 mm bony defects in diameter made on the cranial bone of the rabbits. As control groups, synthetic porous hydroxyapatite and resorbable type calcium carbonate were implanted to the defects of same size. Each group was sacrificed in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery. Specimens were prepared for decalcified samples and observed by a light microscope. And we also performed quantitative analysis of new bone formation through image analysis using computer. In clinical applications, we used tooth apatite alone or mixed with decalcified freeze-dried bone for reconstruction of bony defects in 15 patients undergone enucleation of cyst or ameloblastoma. The obtained results were as follows; 1) The powder of the calcined teeth was called as 'tooth apatite' and it seemed to have biocompatibility in rabbits and human. 2) In group of tooth apatite, after 4 weeks of operation, new bone directly bonded to the particles was observed. And in 12 weeks of it, new bone occupied most of the bony defects. In 6 weeks, resorption of the tooth apatite particles was observed. Thus the tooth apatite was regarded as one of resorbable apatite. 3) The group of tooth apatite showed new bone formation similar to the group of porous hydroxyapatite, but they were inferior to the group of resorbable calcium carbonate. 4) In clinical application, tooth apatite had biocompatibility and new bone formation was observed without any complication except for 1 case. So we think it is a useful bone substitute with osteoconductivity

  5. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles: Insights into the Abundances of Volatiles in the Moon from Lunar Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the time of publication of New Views of the Moon, it was thought that the Moon was bone dry with less than about 1 ppb H2O. However in 2007, initial reports at the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference speculated that H-species were present in both apatites and pyroclastic volcanic lunar glasses. These early reports were later confirmed through peer-review, which motivated many subsequent studies on magmatic volatiles in and on the Moon within the last decade. Some of these studies have cast into question the post-Apollo view of lunar formation, the distribution and sources of volatiles in the Earth-Moon system, and the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon. The mineral apatite has been one of the pillars of this new field of study, and it will be the primary focus of this abstract. Although apatite has been used both to understand the abundances of volatiles in lunar systems as well as the isotopic compositions of those volatiles, the focus here will be on the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O. This work demonstrates the utility of apatite in advancing our understanding of lunar volatiles, hence apatite should be among the topics covered in the endogenous lunar volatile chapter in NVM II. Truncated ternary plot of apatite X-site occupancy (mol%) from highlands apatite and mare basalt apatite plotted on the relative volatile abundance diagram from. The solid black lines delineate fields of relative abundances of F, Cl, and H2O (on a weight basis) in the melt from which the apatite crystallized. The diagram was constructed using available apatite/melt partitioning data for fluorine, chlorine, and hydroxyl.

  6. Inhibition of osteoblast mineralization by phosphorylated phage-derived apatite-specific peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Janani; Nam, Hwa Kyung; Ramaraju, Harsha; Hatch, Nan E.; Kohn, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Functionalization of biomaterials with material- and cell-specific peptide sequences allows for better control of their surface properties and communication with the surrounding environment. Using a combinatorial phage display approach, we previously identified the peptide VTKHLNQISQSY (VTK) with specific affinity to biomimetic apatite. Phosphorylation of the serine residues of the peptide (pVTK) caused a significant increase in binding to apatite, as well as a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoblast mineralization. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms behind pVTK mediated inhibition of mineralization using MC3T3 cells and testing the hypothesis that mineralization is inhibited via alteration of the Enpp1-TNAP-Ank axis. Inhibition of mineralization was not due to disruption of collagen deposition or calcium chelation by the negatively charged pVTK. The timing of peptide administration was important in inhibiting mineralization - pVTK had a greater effect at later stages of osteogenic differentiation (days 7–12 of culture corresponding to matrix maturation and mineralization), and could prevent progression of mineralization once it had started. pVTK treatment resulted in a significant decrease in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (Enpp1) enzyme activity and gene expression. The expression of ankylosis protein (Ank) and osteopontin (OPN) and Pit-1 genes was also significantly reduced with peptide treatment, while tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and Runx2 gene expression was significantly higher. The ability of pVTK to inhibit mineralization can potentially be translated into therapeutics against pathological calcification seen in cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis or craniosynostosis, or be used to prevent failure of biomaterials due to calcification, such as bioprosthetic heart valves. PMID:26406452

  7. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  8. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-21

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  9. Evaluation of the Ca ion release, pH and surface apatite formation of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Han, L; Noiri, Y; Okiji, T

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like surface precipitate-forming abilities of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement, which was mainly composed of synthetically prepared tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide radiopacifier. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement, white ProRoot MTA (WMTA) and TheraCal LC (a light-cured resin-modified calcium silicate-filled material) were examined. The chemical compositions were analysed with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyser with an image observation function (SEM-EPMA). The pH and Ca 2+ concentrations of water in which the set materials had been immersed were measured, and the latter was assessed with the EDTA titration method. The surface precipitates formed on the materials immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were analysed with SEM-EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). The prototype cement contained Ca, Si and Zr as major elemental constituents, whereas it did not contain some metal elements that were detected in the other materials. The Ca 2+ concentrations and pH of the immersion water samples exhibited the following order: WMTA = prototype cement > TheraCal LC (P prototype cement and WMTA. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement exhibited similar Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities to WMTA. The Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities of TheraCal LC were lower than those of the other materials. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of fluoridated apatites with pure hydroxyapatite as potential biomimetic alternatives to enamel for laboratory-based bond strength studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven P; Cheuk, Godwin C Y; Georgiou, George; Moles, David R

    2009-05-01

    To investigate whether fluoridated apatites have a shear bond strength which more closely equates to that of natural enamel than pure hydroxyapatite, making them potentially useful as biomimetic alternatives to natural enamel for ex vivo laboratory bonding studies. Discs of pure hydroxyapatite, pure fluorapatite and a 1:1 mixture of hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite were produced by cold uni-axial pressing. The discs were sintered at 1300 degrees C, embedded in epoxy resin, ground and polished. X-ray diffraction technique was used to analyse the purity of the apatites. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the etch patterns of the apatite specimens. Ninely-six upper left central incisor brackets were bonded to each of the three groups of discs. Shear bond strengths were determined by debonding the brackets using a loaded metal jig in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The sites of bond failure were recorded using the Adhesive Remnant Index. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons were used to determine statistical differences between the mean shear bond strengths of the three specimen groups. The mean shear bond strength of pure hydroxyapatite (20.44 MPa; SD: 8.03; 95% CI: 18.81, 22.07) was significantly higher than those of fluorapatite (13.13 MPa; SD: 6.76; 95% CI: 11.76, 14.50) and hydroxyapatitefluorapatite (13.62 MPa; SD: 7.03; 95% CI: 12.19, 15.04) (p hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite (p > 0.99), and both were below the normal range ascribed to enamel (15-20 MPa). More than 90 per cent of the fluorapatite and the hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite specimens demonstrated bond failure at the substrate-adhesive interface, while only one-third of the hydroxyapatite specimens exhibited bond failure at that interface. Pure fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite specimens offer no advantage over pure hydroxyapatite as a suitable artificial substrate for ex vivo bond strength testing.

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical studies on apatites and phosphate host rocks of Esfordi deposit, Yazd province, to determine the origin and geological setting of the apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron-apatite ore deposits well known as Kiruna iron type formed in association with calc-alkaline volcanism from Proterozoic to Tertiary (Hitzman et al., 1992. Liquid immiscibility in an igneous system was proposed to explain the formation of the iron oxides accompanying apatite in mineralized zones (Förster and Jafarzadeh, 1994; Daliran, 1999. The mode of ore formation however, is a matter in debate. Bafq region in Central Iran is one of the greatest iron mining regions in Iran with 750 million tons of reservoir. The majority of the iron deposits contains apatite as minor mineral and underwent metamorphism-alteration in varying degrees. The mode of formation and geological setting of Esfordi iron-apatite deposit in this region with an average of 13.9 wt% apatite are discussed using geochemical and mineralogical data along with field description. Materials and methods Fifty-three samples of mineralized zones and host rocks collected from 7 cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Seven representative samples were determined by XRD at Department of Physics, Shiraz University. Fifteen and six samples were also analyzed for major and trace elements using XRF at Binaloud Co. Iran, and ICP-MS at Labwest Minerals Analysis, Australia, respectively. Microprobe analyses were carried out on apatite in Geo Forschungs Zentrum Telegrafenberg at Potsdam University, Germany. Results Field observation shows that igneous host rocks in Esfordi were intensively altered by hydrothermal fluids. The ores are surrounded by wide altered halos. Petrographic investigation indicated that the most important alterations are of potassic, carbonatitic and silicification types. Magnetite and apatite occur as major minerals, accompanied by minor hematite and goethite in the mineralized zones. Rare Earth Element (REE minerals are present as minor phases in the ores. Three apatite mineralization types (vein, massive, and disseminated were

  12. High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Mohammed; Hill, Robert G; Bushby, Andrew J; Brauer, Delia S

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive glass-containing toothpastes for treating dentine hypersensitivity work by precipitating hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) onto the tooth surface, but concerns exist over the long-term durability of HCA in the mouth. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses form fluorapatite (FAp) in physiological solutions, which is more chemically stable against acid attack. The influence of phosphate content on apatite formation was investigated by producing a low-phosphate (about 1 mol% P(2)O(5)) and a high-phosphate (about 6 mol%) series of melt-derived bioactive glasses in the system SiO(2)P(2)O(5)CaONa(2)O; increasing amounts of CaF(2) were added by keeping the ratio of all other components constant. pH change, ion release and apatite formation during immersion in Tris buffer at 37°C over up to 7 days were investigated. Crystal phases formed in Tris buffer were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An increase in phosphate or fluoride content allowed for apatite formation at lower pH; fluoride enhanced apatite formation due to lower solubility of FAp compared to hydroxyapatite or HCA. High phosphate content glasses formed apatite significantly faster (within 6h) than low phosphate content glasses (within 3 days). In addition, an increase in phosphate content favoured apatite formation rather than fluorite (CaF(2)). (19)F magic angle spinning NMR showed the apatite formed by fluoride-containing glasses to be FAp, which makes these glasses of particular interest for dental applications. This study shows that by varying the phosphate content, the reactivity and apatite formation of bioactive glasses can be controlled successfully. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Study of the dissolution of three synthetic minerals: zirconolite, Y-britholite and mono-silicate fluor-apatite; Etude de la solubilite de trois mineraux synthetiques: la zirconolite, la britholite-Y et la fluorapatite monosilicatee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, N.E.H.; Telmoune, S.A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, Div. des Techniques Nucleaires, Alger (Algeria); Ait-Amar, H. [Unitersite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Dept. de Genie des Procedes, Alger (Algeria)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, we were interested in the synthesis by natural sintering of three minerals analogue of natural rocks: zirconolite, Y-britholite and mono-silicated fluor-apatite. Cerium was used as an actinide surrogate. A simple physical characterization of the materials was made by X-ray diffraction and by measuring both densities and hardnesses. A static leaching test allowed determining the cerium immobilization capacity of the minerals. The most stable mineral was mono-silicated fluor-apatite, with a maximum amount of released cerium less than 2 %. For zirconolite and Y-britholite, this amount reached 15 and 18 % of the total cerium in the minerals, respectively. For the latter compounds, the cerium content in the materials was too weak, and the chosen synthesis method gave less satisfactory physicochemical mineral properties compared to those obtained for mono-silicated fluor-apatite. (authors)

  15. Treatability of five Appalachian wood species with creosote and timbor®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Slahor; Curt C. Hassler; Rodney C. DeGroot; Douglas J. Gardner

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this paper culminates an investigation into the treatability of five Appalachian hardwood species. Previous papers have described work using the waterborne preservatives CCA-C and ACQ-B. This paper details the results of pressure treatment with creosote and Timbor®. Six-inch long nominal two-by-four samples of red maple, yellow-poplar, red oak,...

  16. Excessive parasympathetic responses to sympathetic challenges: a treatable, hidden, dynamic autonomic imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Bellin, David L.; DePace, Nicholas L.; Bulgarelli, Robert J.; Li, Peng; Colombo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common assumption with autonomic assessment is that one branch opposes the other. With independent measures of parasympathetic (P) and sympathetic (S) activity, based on concurrent time-frequency analysis of respiratory activity and heart rate variability, this assumption has been challenged. Clinical observations of unprovoked P-excess during S-stimulation have been associated with treatable, abnormal responses. Method: Serial autonomic profiling of 12,967 patients was perfo...

  17. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  18. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA.

  19. Treatability of inorganic arsenic and organoarsenicals in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmeier, P.D.; Sherwood, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A 2-year three-phase study into methods for treatment of mixed inorganic and organic arsenic species to drinking water levels was conducted at a former pesticide facility in Houston, Tex. The species present include monomethylarsinic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenate, and arsenite. Phase One studies reported here included the evaluation of four adsorbents using bottle roll and column flow through techniques, oxidation through the application of Fenton's reagent followed by coprecipitation, coprecipitation without oxidation, and ultraviolet (UV)/ozone tests. The four adsorbents tested were activated carbon, activated alumina, ferrous sulfide, and a strongly basic ion exchange resin. All adsorbents removed some arsenic, but none except ferrous sulfide was sufficiently effective to warrant follow-up studies. Two small ferrous sulfide column tests, run under different conditions, removed arsenic but not to the levels and loading capacities needed to make this method practical. Organic compound destruction was tested using Fenton's reagent (a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron) before coprecipitation. Arsenic was reduced to 170 ppb in the treated liquor. Coprecipitation without oxidative pretreatment produced a liquor containing 260 ppb arsenic. A two-stage Fenton-type coprecipitation procedure produced a supernatant containing 110 ppb total arsenic. Preliminary tests with a second-stage oxidative process, using ozone and UV radiation, showed approximately 80% destruction of an organic-arsenic surrogate (cacodylic acid) in 1 hour

  20. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  1. Aboveground Injection Sytem Construction and Mecahnical Integrity Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    An In-Situ Bioremediation (ISB) Pilot Test Treatability Study is planned at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Technical Area-V (TA-V) Groundwater Area of Concern. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater using an injection well. The constituents of concern (COCs) are nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE). The Pilot Test Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation and COC treatment over a prescribed period of time. Results of the pilot test will provide data that will be used to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of a fullscale system.

  2. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  3. Surface Enamel Remineralization: Biomimetic Apatite Nanocrystals and Fluoride Ions Different Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Roveri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for altered enamel surface remineralization has been proposed. To this aim carbonate-hydroxyapatite nanocrystals which mimic for composition, structure, nanodimensions, and morphology dentine apatite crystals and resemble closely natural apatite chemical-physical properties have been used. The results underline the differences induced by the use of fluoride ions and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in contrasting the mechanical abrasions and acid attacks to which tooth enamel is exposed. Fluoride ions generate a surface modification of the natural enamel apatite crystals increasing their crystallinity degree and relative mechanical and acid resistance. On the other hand, the remineralization produced by carbonate-hydroxyapatite consists in a deposition of a new apatitic mineral into the eroded enamel surface scratches. A new biomimetic mineral coating, which progressively fills and shadows surface scratches, covers and safeguards the enamel structure by contrasting the acid and bacteria attacks.

  4. Improvement of RVNRL film properties by adding fumed silica and hydroxy apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adul Thiangchanya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding fumed silica and hydroxy apatite to Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL for improving tear strength, aging properties, degradability and water-soluble protein content of rubber films has been investigated. The addition of fumed silica and hydroxy apatite in RVNRL improves tear strength and aging properties of rubber films, whereas tensile strength and degradability of rubber films were unchanged during storage at room temperature. The water-soluble protein content in rubber films was reduced by immobilization of the fumed silica and hydroxy apatite and enhanced by addition of ZnO. This may reduce allergy problems of natural rubber latex products caused by water-soluble protein. The MST of the RVNRL with fumed silica and hydroxy apatite indicated that the latex must be used within two months after mixing because of its stability.

  5. Geochemistry of Apatite in Climactic and Pre-Climactic Tephra from Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, C. W.; Langstaff, M.

    2007-12-01

    Apatite is a common accessory mineral in arc volcanic rocks that potentially records information about the dissolved volatile (S,Cl,F,OH) and trace-element concentrations (Sr, Ba, REEs) of the melt from which it crystallized. In a previous study of apatite from arc and convergent margin volcanic rocks, Peng et al. (1997) reported 0.63 wt.% SO3 in Mazama apatite grains with a corresponding SrO content of 0.18 wt.%, comprising some of the highest SO3 and SrO values in their data. Our electron microprobe study of apatite in climactic and pre-climactic Mazama tephra was done in order to assess possible correlation of apatite SO3 with Sr content of low-Sr and high-Sr recharge magmas identified based on whole-rock and matrix glass data (Bacon and Druitt, 1988) and Sr content of plagioclase (Druitt and Bacon 1989). Samples chosen represent all magmatic components erupted during the ca. 7700 year before present climactic eruption and precursor Llao Rock and Cleetwood eruptions. We compare the S, Cl, and F content of Mazama apatites with recent experimental data for S, Cl, and F partitioning between apatite and melt and with dissolved volatiles previously measured in melt inclusions from corresponding or similar Mazama samples. Our electron microprobe data confirm the presence of rare Mazama apatites with up to 0.78 wt.% SO3 and 0.12 wt.% SrO in Llao Rock, Cleetwood, and climactic scoria and pumice samples. However, high SO3 and SrO apatites are not restricted to high-Sr scoria hosts, but have been observed in low-Sr scoria, in Llao Rock rhyodacitic pumices and in Cleetwood rhyodacitic pumices, thus indicating significant magma mixing prior to the Llao Rock, Cleetwood and climactic eruptions. Most apatite SO3 and SrO data falls within the 0.06 to 0.36 wt.% and 0.04 to 0.12 wt.% range, respectively. Experimental data on SO3 partitioning between apatite and melt and maximum sulfur contents of 300 to 350 ppm measured in climactic and Cleetwood rhyodacitic melt inclusions

  6. Site-specific equilibrium isotopic fractionation of oxygen, carbon and calcium in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Blanchard, Marc; Balan, Etienne

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of biogenic apatite is an important geochemical marker that can record environmental parameters and is widely used to infer past climates, biomineralization processes, dietary preferences and habitat of vertebrates. In this study, theoretical equilibrium isotopic fractionation of oxygen, carbon and calcium in hydroxyapatite and carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite is investigated using first-principles methods based on density-functional theory and compared to the theoretical isotopic fractionation properties of calcite, CO2 and H2O. Considering the variability of apatite crystal-chemistry, special attention is given to specific contributions of crystal sites to isotopic fractionation. Significant internal fractionation is calculated for oxygen and carbon isotopes in CO3 between the different structural sites occupied by carbonate groups in apatite (typically 7‰ for both 18O/16O and 13C/12C fractionation at 37 °C). Compared with calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation, occurrence of A-type substitution in apatite structure, in addition to the main B-type substitution, could explain the larger temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation measured at low temperature between carbonate in apatite and water. Theoretical internal fractionation of oxygen isotopes between carbonate and phosphate in B-type carbonated apatite (∼8‰ at 37 °C) is consistent with experimental values obtained from modern and well-preserved fossil bio-apatites. Concerning calcium, theoretical results suggest a small fractionation between apatite and calcite (-0.17‰ at 37 °C). Internal fractionation reaching 0.8‰ at 37 °C occurs between the two Ca sites in hydroxyapatite. Furthermore, the Ca isotopic fractionation properties of apatite are affected by the occurrence of carbonate groups, which could contribute to the variability observed on natural samples. Owing to the complexity of apatite crystal-chemistry and in light of the theoretical

  7. Apatite formation on non-woven fabric of carboxymethylated chitin in SBF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Hanakawa, Masayuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Minoda, Masahiko; Beppu, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Takeaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2004-08-01

    Chitin fibres constituting a non-woven fabric were carboxymethylated in monochloro acetic acid and treated with saturated Ca(OH)(2) aqueous solution. Within 3 days in a simulated body fluid with pH value and ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma, a bonelike apatite layer formed on the surface of fibres of the treated fabric. The apatite-chitin fibre composite thus prepared is expected to be useful as a flexible bioactive bone-repairing material.

  8. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA is enhanced by fluoride incorporation into carbonate apatite carrier. → Fluoridated carbonate apatite promotes a robust increase in transgene expression. → Controlled dissolution of fluoridated carbonate apatite in endosomal acidic environment might buffer the endosomes and prevent degradation of the released DNA. -- Abstract: Intracellular delivery of a functional gene or a nucleic acid sequence to specifically knockdown a harmful gene is a potential approach to precisely treat a critical human disease. The intensive efforts in the last few decades led to the development of a number of viral and non-viral synthetic vectors. However, an ideal delivery tool in terms of the safety and efficacy has yet to be established. Recently, we have developed pH-sensing inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite for efficient and cell-targeted delivery of gene and gene-silencing RNA. Here we show that addition of very low level of fluoride to the particle-forming medium facilitates a robust increase in transgene expression following post-incubation of the particles with HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic observation and Southern blotting prove the cytoplasmic existence of plasmid DNA delivered by likely formed fluoridated carbonate apatite particles while degradation of plasmid DNA presumably by cytoplasmic nucleases was noticed following delivery with apatite particles alone. The beneficial role of fluoride in enhancing carbonate apatite-mediated gene expression might be due to the buffering potential of generated fluoridated apatite in endosomal acidic environment, thereby increasing the half-life of delivered plasmid DNA.

  9. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, E.H., E-mail: md.ezharul.hoque@med.monash.edu.my [Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA is enhanced by fluoride incorporation into carbonate apatite carrier. {yields} Fluoridated carbonate apatite promotes a robust increase in transgene expression. {yields} Controlled dissolution of fluoridated carbonate apatite in endosomal acidic environment might buffer the endosomes and prevent degradation of the released DNA. -- Abstract: Intracellular delivery of a functional gene or a nucleic acid sequence to specifically knockdown a harmful gene is a potential approach to precisely treat a critical human disease. The intensive efforts in the last few decades led to the development of a number of viral and non-viral synthetic vectors. However, an ideal delivery tool in terms of the safety and efficacy has yet to be established. Recently, we have developed pH-sensing inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite for efficient and cell-targeted delivery of gene and gene-silencing RNA. Here we show that addition of very low level of fluoride to the particle-forming medium facilitates a robust increase in transgene expression following post-incubation of the particles with HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic observation and Southern blotting prove the cytoplasmic existence of plasmid DNA delivered by likely formed fluoridated carbonate apatite particles while degradation of plasmid DNA presumably by cytoplasmic nucleases was noticed following delivery with apatite particles alone. The beneficial role of fluoride in enhancing carbonate apatite-mediated gene expression might be due to the buffering potential of generated fluoridated apatite in endosomal acidic environment, thereby increasing the half-life of delivered plasmid DNA.

  10. Revisiting carbonate quantification in apatite (bio)minerals: a validated FTIR methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Grunenwald, Anne; Keyser, Christine; Sautereau, Anne-Marie; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand; Drouet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Carbonated apatites represent an important class of compounds encountered in many fields including anthropology, archeology, geology, medicine and biomaterials engineering. They constitute, in particular, the mineral part of bones and teeth, are found in sedimentary settings, and are used as biomimetic compounds for the development of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Whether for assessing the degree of biomimetism of synthetic apatites or for better understanding dia...

  11. Apatite deposition on titanium surfaces--the role of albumin adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Fernandes, A C; Saramago, B; Lima, J; Barbosa, M A

    1997-07-01

    Titanium implant surfaces are known to spontaneously nucleate apatite layers when in contact with simulated body fluids. However, adsorption of proteins may influence the process of apatite layer formation. In this study the role of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption in the process of apatite deposition on titanium substrates is investigated. Deposition of calcium phosphate was induced by immersing titanium substrates in a Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for times ranging from 1 to 23 days. The resulting substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), wettability measurements and electrochemical impedance determinations. All these methods indicate the presence of a calcium phosphate layer. The same procedure was repeated substituting HBSS with a solution of BSA in HBSS. Although SEM, EDS and electrochemical impedance spectra do not reveal the presence of an apatite layer, XPS analysis strongly indicates that the inhibition of apatite formation by BSA is only partial. The competition between BSA adsorption and apatite deposition seems to lead to a mixed film where the protein co-exists with calcium phosphate. Wettability studies suggest that this surface film is heterogeneous and porous, similar to the thicker films formed in albumin-free HBSS.

  12. Incorporation of iodine into calcium phosphates with apatitic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the release of 129 I (long-lived intermediate-level waste) in the environment, we describe a novel material incorporating iodine under the form of iodate in a calcium phosphate based hydroxyapatite. This material is prepared by two synthetic processes: a wet precipitation route followed by a spark plasma sintering and a cementitious route. A high iodine content (with a maximum incorporation rate of 10 wt.%) is reached for both processes, by incorporation of the iodate in the apatitic structure. A monolith with relative density of 88.6% was obtained after shaping of the precipitated powders by spark plasma sintering. This material reveals satisfactory leaching properties, with an initial leaching rate in pure water at 50 C of 10 -2 g.m -2 .j -1 , and a residual leaching rate at 50 C of 10 -5 g.m -2 .j -1 in underground water of potential geological repositories. All in all, this material is a potential candidate for the conditioning of radioactive iodine. (author) [fr

  13. Lanthanum germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Diaz-Carrasco, P.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Germanate apatites with composition La{sub 10-x}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75-3x/2} have been evaluated for the first time as possible electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Different electrode materials have been considered in this study, i.e. manganite, ferrite, nickelates and cobaltite as cathode materials; and NiO-CGO composite and chromium-manganite as anodes. The chemical compatibility and electrochemical performance of these electrodes with La{sub 9.8}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.45} have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRPD analysis did not reveal appreciable bulk reactivity with the formation of reaction products between the germanate electrolyte and these electrodes up to 1,200 C. However, a significant cation interdiffusion was observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which leads to a significant decrease of the performance of these electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young’s Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young’s modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young’s modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank’s solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  15. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  16. The effect of TiO2 concentration on properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics for dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Hawa M; Johnson, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TiO2 concentration on the properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics namely strength and the chemical solubility to comply with the ISO standard recommendations for dental ceramics (BS EN ISO 6872-2008). Ten novel glass-ceramic materials were produced based on the general formula (4.5SiO2-3Al2O3-1.5P2O5-3CaO-CaF2-xTiO2) where x varied from 0.5 to 5 wt%. Glass with no TiO2 added (HG1T0.0) was used as a reference. Discs of 12 mm diameter and 1.6 mm (±0.2 mm) thickness were prepared for both biaxial flexural strength (BFS) and chemical solubility testing, in accordance with the BS EN ISO 6872-2008 for dental ceramics. All produced materials were investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) was also carried out on some samples to identify the element composition of samples. Increasing the concentration of TiO2 from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt% significantly (Pproperties of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic only up to 2.5 wt% concentration. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incorporation of cesium into phosphates of apatitic and rhabdophane lattices. Application to the conditioning of separated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campayo, L.

    2003-04-01

    Two phosphate-based materials were investigated for cesium immobilization after its partitioning from spent nuclear fuel: apatites and rhabdophanes. The incorporation of cesium into the apatitic lattice creates steric stresses. These stresses induce the formation of secondary phases which are rapidly leached. The effectiveness of the cesium immobilization in this material is not therefore validated. A second phosphate CsCaNd(PO 4 ) 2 was consistently found at the end of the leach test and its properties were further characterized. The structure of CsCaNd(PO 4 ) 2 , which is rhabdophane-like, is made of large channels which enable the incorporation of the largest alkaline cations. The synthesis involves two intermediates: the monazite, NdPO 4 , and a soluble phosphate, CsCaPO 4 . The study of a rhabdophane with 10 wt.% of cesium reveals satisfactory intrinsic properties: a thermal stability up to 1100 C and a leach rate of 10 -2 g/(m 2 .d). The next step will be to improve the reaction yield. (author)

  18. Catatonia in Down syndrome; a treatable cause of regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, Neera; Nassiri, Armin; Miles, Judith H

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this case series report is to alert physicians to the occurrence of catatonia in Down syndrome (DS). A second aim is to stimulate the study of regression in DS and of catatonia. A subset of individuals with DS is noted to experience unexplained regression in behavior, mood, activities of daily living, motor activities, and intellectual functioning during adolescence or young adulthood. Depression, early onset Alzheimer’s, or just “the Down syndrome” are often blamed after general medical causes have been ruled out. Clinicians are generally unaware that catatonia, which can cause these symptoms, may occur in DS. Study design: Four DS adolescents who experienced regression are reported. Laboratory tests intended to rule out causes of motor and cognitive regression were within normal limits. Based on the presence of multiple motor disturbances (slowing and/or increased motor activity, grimacing, posturing), the individuals were diagnosed with unspecified catatonia and treated with anti-catatonic treatments (benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy [ECT]). Results: All four cases were treated with a benzodiazepine combined with ECT and recovered their baseline functioning. Conclusion: We suspect catatonia is a common cause of unexplained deterioration in adolescents and young adults with DS. Moreover, pediatricians and others who care for individuals with DS are generally unfamiliar with the catatonia diagnosis outside schizophrenia, resulting in misdiagnosis and years of morbidity. Alerting physicians to catatonia in DS is essential to prompt diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and identification of the frequency and course of this disorder. PMID:25897230

  19. Anaerobic treatability of high oil and grease rendering wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, George; Al-Sabawi, Mustafa; Bassi, Amerjeet; Liu, Victor

    2003-08-29

    This study evaluated the use of a new biosurfactant, BOD-Balance, derived from cactus for the treatment of oil-and-grease-laden rendering wastewater anaerobically. Batch laboratory experimental results and preliminary full-scale data are presented. The biosurfactant affected a significant increase in the COD degradation rate for the raw wastewater. However, after reduction of the oil and grease (O&G) by dissolved air flotation, the biosurfactant did not exhibit any advantages. Modeling of the data indicated that various COD fractions, i.e. both soluble and particulate as well as total COD at various testing conditions conformed well to both zero-order and first-order models. The biosurfactant affected a 164-238 and 164-247% increase in COD and particulate COD biodegradation rate for the raw wastewater. The reduction of O&G concentration to <800 mg/l increased total and soluble COD degradation rates by 106%. Results from the full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digestion system indicated that the addition of the biosurfactant at doses of 130-200 mg/l decreased O&G concentrations from 66,300 to 10,200 mg/l over a 2-month-period.

  20. Improvement in crystallinity of apatite coating on titanium with the insertion of CaF2 buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Hae-Won

    2008-05-01

    In the apatite coatings on Ti the heat treatment process is necessary to crystallize the apatite structure for improved chemical stability and biological properties. However, the heat treatment normally degrades the mechanical strength of the coating layer associated with thermally induced stress. In this study, we aimed to improve the crystallization of apatite coating by using calcium fluoride (CaF2) as a buffer layer. The insertion of a thin layer of CaF2 (0.2-1 microm) between apatite and Ti significantly improved the crystallization behavior of apatite. Moreover, this crystallization was more enhanced as the thickness of CaF2 was increased. When a 1 microm-thick CaF2 was inserted, the crystallization of apatite initiated at a temperature as low as 320 degrees C, being a dramatic improvement in the crystallization when considering the crystallization initiation temperature of a bare apatite coating on Ti was approximately 450 degrees C. As a result of this crystallization enhancement, the dissolution behavior of CaF2-inserted apatite coatings was more stable than that of the bare apatite coating, showing much reduced initial-burst effect. Preliminary cellular assay showed the CaF2-inserted apatite coating provided a substrate for cells to spread and grow favorably, as being similar to the bare apatite coating. This novel way of apatite coating on Ti using CaF2 buffer layer may be useful in the coating systems particularly requiring low temperature processing and increased crystallinity with high chemical stability.

  1. Using U-Pb apatite thermochronology to track the structural evolution of granitoid-orthogneiss domes from the Archean Pilbara craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, S. A.; Schoene, B.

    2017-12-01

    Granitoid-orthogneiss domes are an important component of all Archean crustal terranes. The Eastern Pilbara craton contains well-preserved examples of Mesoarchean granitoid-orthogneiss domes whose formation has been interpreted by many within a non-plate tectonic paradigm that hinges upon hotter crustal geotherms that drive partial convective overturn of the crust. This model makes predictions for the temperature-time histories of the domes that can be tested by high-temperature thermochronometry. We use U-Pb thermochronmetry in apatite, which is sensitive to mid crustal temperatures ( 400°C), and thus can track exhumation of gneiss domes from the lower to upper crust. These processes are not recorded in geochronometers (e.g., U-Pb zircon) or low temperature thermochronometers (e.g., U/Th-He, apatite fission track). The convective overturn model for the development of these domes predicts that exhumation of the granitoid ( 3.25 Ga) -orthogneiss (3.45 Ga) domes into the upper crust occurred rapidly (100 Ma after emplacement, followed by exhumation. A craton-wide deformational episode occurs at 3.0 Ga, but is poorly resolved in the eastern Pilbara craton. Our ca. 3.0 Ga apatite dates indicate that this period also drove structural modification in this area. When combined, these data indicate that the eastern Pilbara craton experience a ca. 400 Myr history of intrusion, deformation, and exhumation that resulted in the present crustal architecture, and highlight the utility of U-Pb in apatite as a tool to resolve tectonic histories by constraining the timing of exhumation or emplacement of material into the upper crust, and has wide applications to cratonic or orogenic studies.

  2. Interrogating the Effects of Radiation Damage Annealing on Helium Diffusion Kinetics in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, C. D.; Fox, M.; Shuster, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology is commonly used to study landscape evolution and potential links between climate, erosion and tectonics. The technique relies on a quantitative understanding of (i) helium diffusion kinetics in apatite, (ii) an evolving 4He concentration, (iii) accumulating damage to the crystal lattice caused by radioactive decay[1], and (iv) the thermal annealing of such damage[2],[3], which are each functions of both time and temperature. Uncertainty in existing models of helium diffusion kinetics has resulted in conflicting conclusions, especially in settings involving burial heating through geologic time. The effects of alpha recoil damage annealing are currently assumed to follow the kinetics of fission track annealing (e.g., reference [3]), although this assumption is difficult to fully validate. Here, we present results of modeling exercises and a suite of experiments designed to interrogate the effects of damage annealing on He diffusivity in apatite that are independent of empirical calibrations of fission track annealing. We use the existing experimental results for Durango apatite[2] to develop and calibrate a new function that predicts the effects of annealing temperature and duration on measured diffusivity. We also present a suite of experiments conducted on apatite from Sierra Nevada, CA granite to establish whether apatites with different chemical compositions have the same behavior as Durango apatite. Crystals were heated under vacuum to temperatures between 250 and 500°C for 1, 10, or 100 hours. The samples were then irradiated with ~220 MeV protons to produce spallogenic 3He, the diffusant then used in step-heating diffusion experiments. We compare the results of these experiments and model calibrations to existing models. Citations: [1]Shuster, D., Flowers R., and Farley K., (2006), EPSL 249(3-4), 148-161; [2]Shuster, D. and Farley, K., (2009), GCA 73 (1), 6183-6196; [3]Flowers, R., Ketcham, R., Shuster, D. and Farley, K

  3. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  4. The Identification and Synthesis of Lead Apatite Minerals Formed in Lead Water Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Hopwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate is added to drinking water in the UK to minimise the release of lead from lead water pipes. The phosphate encourages the formation of insoluble lead apatites on the walls of the pipe. Hydroxylpyromorphite Pb5(PO43OH is the lead apatite that is most often used to model lead levels in tap water; however, its presence has not been confirmed. Our aims were to identify the lead pipe apatite and synthesise it. The synthetic mineral would then be used in future solubility studies to produce better predictions of lead levels in tap water. XRD and FTIR were used to characterise the minerals on a range of lead pipes. Pyromorphite and hydroxylpyromorphite were absent and instead a range of mixed calcium lead apatites were present. For every five lead ions in the general formula Pb5(PO43X between one and two ions were replaced with calcium and there was evidence of substitution of PO43- by either CO32- or HPO42-. Calcium lead apatites with similar unit cell dimensions to those found on lead water pipes were then synthesised. The calcium : lead ratio in these reaction mixtures was in excess of 500 : 1 and the resulting crystals were shown by TEM to be nanosized rods and flakes. The synthetic apatites that most closely resembled the unit cell dimensions of the apatites on lead water pipes were shown to be Pb3.4Ca1.3(PO43Cl0.03OH0.97, Pb3.6Ca1.2(PO43Cl0.07OH0.93, and Pb3.6Ca1.2(PO43Cl0.27OH0.73.

  5. Effect of surface silanol groups on the deposition of apatite onto silica surfaces: a computer simulation study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhonto, D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available that bio-active ceramics, including glasses and glass-ceramics, bond to living bone through a collagen-free apatite layer [4], and formation of such an apatite layer on the synthetic material before implantation in the body thus encourages intergrowth... biologically active apatite layer which provides the bonding interface with tissues, such as collagen and other proteins. The sequence of reactions leading to apatite layer formation on bio-active glasses, following immersion in tissue or body fluids is now...

  6. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  7. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  8. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G

  9. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  10. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare

  11. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  12. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order Btesting the stability of Ni(II ions sorbed by BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  13. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2016-11-01

    Technetium-99 is a radioactive contaminant of high concern at many nuclear waste storage sites. At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, 99Tc is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste, which are highly caustic, high ionic strength and have high concentrations of chromate. Removal of 99Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of 99Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant using two solid sorbents, tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl2 through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization. Sn-A showed higher levels of removal of Tc from both DIW and LAW simulant compared with the SnCl2. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) of Sn-A following batch experiments in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface with no incorporation into the lattice structure of Sn-A. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI) over Tc(VII).

  14. Long-term effect of apatite on ectomycorrhizal growth and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Christoffer; Johansson, Tomas; Wallander, Håkan

    2012-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are efficient at taking up phosphorus (P) from mineral sources, such as apatite, which are not easily available to the host trees. Since ECM fungal species differ in P uptake rates, it can be expected that the composition of the ECM fungal community will change upon exposure to apatite, provided that the P transfer is rewarded by more carbon being transferred to the fungal symbiont. Control and apatite-amended mesh bags were buried in pairs in the humus layer of a P-poor Norway spruce forest. The ECM fungal community that colonized these bags was analyzed by DNA extraction, PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, cloning, and random sequencing. Fungal biomass was estimated by ergosterol analysis. No change in the ECM fungal community structure was seen after 5 years of apatite exposure, although the fungal biomass increased threefold upon apatite amendment. Our results indicate that host trees enhance carbon allocation to ECM fungi colonizing P sources in P-poor forests but the lack of change in the composition of the ECM fungal community suggests that P transfer rates were similar among the species. Alternatively, higher P transfer among certain species was not rewarded with higher carbon transfer from the host.

  15. Synthesis and luminescence of Eu2+-doped alkaline-earth apatites for application in white LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Zhang Jilin; Huang Jinqing; Tang Xueping; Gong Menglian

    2010-01-01

    A series of Eu 2+ -doped alkaline-earth apatites (alkaline-earth=Ca, Sr and Ba) were synthesized by a solid state reaction method with excess chlorides, and the effect of the used excess chlorides on the luminescent property of the synthesized products was discussed. Photoluminescence measurements showed that Eu 2+ -doped calcium apatite exhibited intensely blue wide-band emission peaking at 457 nm under near UV excitation among the Eu 2+ -doped Ca, Sr and Ba apatites. Blue and white LEDs were successfully fabricated by pre-coating the calcium apatite phosphors onto ∼395 nm-emitting InGaN chips. The CIE coordinates, color temperature, luminous efficacy and rendering index value of the fabricated white LED are (0.3432, 0.3234), 4969 K, 8 lm/W and 80, respectively. The results indicate that the Eu 2+ -activated calcium apatite phosphor is a promising candidate as a blue component for fabrication of near UV-based white LEDs.

  16. Study of thermoluminescence properties of Eppawala apatite mineral and its suitability as a dosimetric material

    CERN Document Server

    Jayalath, A

    2000-01-01

    This study reports TL properties and the dosimetric properties of natural apatite mineral obtained from Eppawala Apatite ore in Sri Lanka. This mineral was used to study glow curve characteristics by using (a) the powder form of the raw mineral (b) sieved raw mineral and (c) the magnetically separated mineral. The glow curves of magnetically separated apatite showed two peaks. Low temperature peak at 120C, and a high temperature peak at 240C. The emission wavelength of the glow curve is 360 nm. The intensity of the 240C peak become stronger after annealing the mineral to about 180C. Apatite has glow peaks similar to other commonly used TL materials, such as synthetically prepared calcium sulphate:Dy and calcium sulphate:Tm show high intensity peak at 220C and low intensity peaks at 80C and 120C. However, the emission wavelengths of the main peaks are at 428nm and 452 nm for calcium sulphate:Dy and calcium sulphate: Tm respectively. Eppawala apatite mineral showed a linear response to both gamma and beta radia...

  17. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  18. Effect of landfill characteristics on leachate organic matter properties and coagulation treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah E H; Boyer, Treavor H; Graf, Katherine C; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-11-01

    This work spans landfill characteristics, leachate organic matter properties, and coagulation chemistry to provide new insights into the physical-chemical treatability of stabilized landfill leachate. Furthermore, leachate organic matter is viewed in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the natural environment, and coagulation chemistry is evaluated based on previous leachate and water treatment coagulation studies. Stabilized leachate was collected from four landfills for a total of seven leachate samples, and samples were coagulated using ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminum sulfate. Landfill characteristics, such as age, leachate recirculation, and cover material, influenced properties of DOM present in the leachate, as measured by specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The coagulation performance of the metal salts was ferric sulfate>aluminum sulfate>ferric chloride, and DOM removal followed the trend of color>UV254>dissolved organic carbon>chemical oxygen demand (COD). Finally, a strong association was found between increasing SUVA254 and increasing DOM removal for coagulation of both leachate and natural surface water. Thus, SUVA254 is expected to be a better predictor of leachate treatability, in particular DOM removal, than the traditionally used ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to COD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE "CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND / TOTAL VOLATILE ACIDS" RATIO AS AN ANAEROBIC TREATABILITY INDICATOR FOR LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Contrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR. The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a second stage of operation, the AnSBBR presented efficiency above 70%, in terms of COD removal, utilizing landfill leachate without water dilution, with an inlet COD of about 11,000 mg.L-1, a TVA/COD ratio of approximately 0.6 and reaction time equal to 7 days. To evaluate the landfill leachate biodegradability variation over time, temporal profiles of concentration were performed in the AnSBBR. The landfill leachate anaerobic biodegradability was verified to have a direct and strong relationship to the TVA/COD ratio. For a TVA/CODTotal ratio lower than 0.20, the biodegradability was considered low, for ratios between 0.20 and 0.40 it was considered medium, and above 0.40 it was considered high.

  20. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermany, Daniel S; Goldbaum, Michael; Cai, Wenjia; Valentim, Carolina C S; Liang, Huiying; Baxter, Sally L; McKeown, Alex; Yang, Ge; Wu, Xiaokang; Yan, Fangbing; Dong, Justin; Prasadha, Made K; Pei, Jacqueline; Ting, Magdalena; Zhu, Jie; Li, Christina; Hewett, Sierra; Dong, Jason; Ziyar, Ian; Shi, Alexander; Zhang, Runze; Zheng, Lianghong; Hou, Rui; Shi, William; Fu, Xin; Duan, Yaou; Huu, Viet A N; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Edward D; Zhang, Charlotte L; Li, Oulan; Wang, Xiaobo; Singer, Michael A; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Jie; Tafreshi, Ali; Lewis, M Anthony; Xia, Huimin; Zhang, Kang

    2018-02-22

    The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. We also provide a more transparent and interpretable diagnosis by highlighting the regions recognized by the neural network. We further demonstrate the general applicability of our AI system for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia using chest X-ray images. This tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-02

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary. Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing strontium-90 flux to the Columbia River. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  2. The relationship between fission track length and track density in apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Duddy, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    Fission track dating is based upon an age equation derived from a random line segment model for fission tracks. This equation contains the implicit assumption of a proportional relationship between the true mean length of fission tracks and their track density in an isotropic medium. Previous experimental investigation of this relationship for both spontaneous and induced tracks in apatite during progressive annealment model in an obvious fashion. Corrected equations relating track length and density for apatite, an anisotropic mineral, show that the proportionality in this case is between track density and a length factor which is a generalization of the mean track length combining the actual length and crystallographic orientation of the track. This relationship has been experimentally confirmed for induced tracks in Durango apatite, taking into account bias in sampling of the track lengths, and the effect of the bulk etching velocity. (author)

  3. Atomistic modelling study of lanthanide incorporation in the crystal lattice of an apatite; Etude par modelisation atomistique de l'incorporation de lanthanides dans le reseau cristallin d'une apatite phosphocalcique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis-Achille, V

    1999-07-01

    Studies of natural and synthetic apatites allow to propose such crystals as matrix for nuclear waste storage. The neodymium substituted britholite, Ca{sub 9}Nd(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}(SiO{sub 4})F{sub 2}. is a model for the trivalent actinide storage Neodymium can be substituted in two types of sites. The aim of this thesis is to compare the chemical nature of this two sites in fluoro-apatite Ca{sub 9}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} and then in britholite, using ab initio atomistic modeling. Two approaches are used: one considers the infinite crystals and the second considers clusters. The calculations of the electronic structure for both were performed using Kohn and Sham density functional theory in the local approximation. For solids, pseudopotentials were used, and wave functions are expanded in plane waves. For clusters, a frozen core approximation was used, and the wave functions are expanded in a linear combination of Slater type atomic orbitals. The pseudopotential is semi-relativistic for neodymium, and the Hamiltonian is scalar relativistic for the clusters. The validation of the solid approach is performed using two test cases: YPO{sub 4} and ScPO{sub 4}. Two numerical tools were developed to compute electronic deformation density map, and calculate partial density of stases. A full optimisation of the lattice parameters with a relaxation of the atomic coordinates leads to correct structural and thermodynamic properties for the fluoro-apatite, compared to experience. The electronic deformation density maps do not show any significant differences. between the two calcium sites. but Mulliken analysis on the solid and on the clusters point out the more ionic behavior of the calcium in site 2. A neodymium substituted britholite is then studied. Neodymium location only induces local modifications in; the crystalline structure and few changes in the formation enthalpy. The electronic study points out an increase of the covalent character the bonding involving neodymium

  4. Theoretical stability assessment of uranyl phosphates and apatites: Selection of amendments for in situ remediation of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raicevic, S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory, P.O.Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)]. E-mail: raich@beotel.yu; Wright, J.V. [PIMS NW, Inc., 201 North Edison, Suite 226, Richland, WA 99336 (United States); Veljkovic, V. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Center for Multidisciplinary Research and Engineering, P.O.Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Conca, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, 115 North Main Street, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    Addition of an amendment or reagent to soil/sediment is a technique that can decrease mobility and reduce bioavailability of uranium (U) and other heavy metals in the contaminated site. According to data from literature and results obtained in field studies, the general mineral class of apatites was selected as a most promising amendment for in situ immobilization/remediation of U. In this work we presented theoretical assessment of stability of U(VI) in four apatite systems (hydroxyapatite (HAP), North Carolina Apatite (NCA), Lisina Apatite (LA), and Apatite II) in order to determine an optimal apatite soil amendment which could be used for in situ remediation of uranium. In this analysis we used a theoretical criterion which is based on calculation of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy of the matrix/pollutant system. The presented results of this analysis indicate (i) that the mechanism of immobilization of U by natural apatites depends on their chemical composition and (ii) that all analyzed apatites represent, from the point of view of stability, promising materials which could be used in field remediation of U-contaminated sites.

  5. Theoretical stability assessment of uranyl phosphates and apatites: Selection of amendments for in situ remediation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Wright, J.V.; Veljkovic, V.; Conca, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Addition of an amendment or reagent to soil/sediment is a technique that can decrease mobility and reduce bioavailability of uranium (U) and other heavy metals in the contaminated site. According to data from literature and results obtained in field studies, the general mineral class of apatites was selected as a most promising amendment for in situ immobilization/remediation of U. In this work we presented theoretical assessment of stability of U(VI) in four apatite systems (hydroxyapatite (HAP), North Carolina Apatite (NCA), Lisina Apatite (LA), and Apatite II) in order to determine an optimal apatite soil amendment which could be used for in situ remediation of uranium. In this analysis we used a theoretical criterion which is based on calculation of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy of the matrix/pollutant system. The presented results of this analysis indicate (i) that the mechanism of immobilization of U by natural apatites depends on their chemical composition and (ii) that all analyzed apatites represent, from the point of view of stability, promising materials which could be used in field remediation of U-contaminated sites

  6. The study of geochemical behavior of rare earth elements in apatites from the Hormoz Island, Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rostami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located about 3 km southwest of the Hormoz Island in the Hormozgan province, in the Persian Gulf. The main rock units in the region consist of a highly altered acidic pluton cratophyre, which is responsible for apatite formation, diabasic dike, marl and altered basalt. Apatite is the only phosphate mineral in the Hormoz Island, which has accumulated REE in its crystal structure. The amount of Na2O and SiO2 oxides in apatite are high and the average content of the main elements Fe, Mg, Al, Ca are 7.5 ppm, 365 ppm, 2880 ppm and 27.8%, respectively. The Y, Mn, Rb contents increase and Sr decreases with increasing magmatic differentiation. It shows that a moderate magmatic differentiation occurred during the crystallization of apatite. The total REE content in the Hormoz apatite is high (1.22-2.25%. LREE/HREE ratio is also high. This means that Hormoz apatites are enriched in light rare earth elements. The REE normalized pattern shows a negative slope with a negative Eu anomaly. According to various diagrams based on apatite composition, it is deduced that the Hormoz apatites belong to mafic I-type granitoids with high oxidation state (Fe2O3/FeO>1.

  7. A new glance at ruthenium sorption mechanism on hydroxy, carbonate, and fluor apatites: Analytical and structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnsuaadu, K; Gruselle, M; Villain, F; Thouvenot, R; Peld, M; Mikli, V; Traksmaa, R; Gredin, P; Carrier, X; Salles, L

    2006-12-15

    The sorption mechanism of Ru3+ ions on hydroxy (HAp), carbonate (CO3HAp), and fluor apatites (FAp) has been studied in detail. Ru apatites were obtained by reaction of the apatites with RuCl3 in aqueous solution. The structure and composition of the ruthenium-modified apatites were studied by several techniques: elemental analysis, XRD, EXAFS, IR, NMR, SEM-EDS, TEM, and thermal analysis. The amount of Ru in the modified apatite varies from 7.8 to 10.5 wt% and is not related to the initial composition or the specific surface area of the apatite. The different characterization techniques show that in the Ru-modified apatites Ru is surrounded by six oxygen atoms and do not contain any chlorine. For Ru-HAp and Ru-CO3HAp the new phase is amorphous whereas it is crystalline for FAp. The catalytic oxidation ability is higher for Ru-HAp and Ru-CO3HAp compared to Ru-FAp apatite in the oxidation of benzylic alcohol.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  9. Chemical, physical, and histologic studies on four commercial apatites used for alveolar ridge augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Ruyter, I E; Haanaes, H R

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. Subperiosteal alveolar ridge augmentation was performed on the maxilla of rats by implantation of granules of two dense products and of two porous products, and the tissue response was compared with the material character......The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. Subperiosteal alveolar ridge augmentation was performed on the maxilla of rats by implantation of granules of two dense products and of two porous products, and the tissue response was compared with the material...

  10. Growth of apatite on chitosan-multiwall carbon nanotube composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Yao Zhiwen; Tang Changyu; Darvell, B.W.; Zhang Hualin; Pan Lingzhan; Liu Jingsong; Chen Zhiqing

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive membranes for guided tissue regeneration would be of value for periodontal therapy. Chitosan-multiwall carbon nanotube (CS-MWNT) composites were treated to deposit nanoscopic apatite for MWNT proportions of 0-4 mass%. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization. Apatite was formed on the CS-MWNT composites at low MWNT concentrations, but the dispersion of the MWNT affects the crystallite size and the Ca/P molar ratio of the composite. The smallest crystallite size was 9 nm at 1 mass% MWNT.

  11. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bsat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM, can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M and immersion times (6, 24 h of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  12. Apatite formation on bioactive calcium-silicate cements for dentistry affects surface topography and human marrow stromal cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Taddei, Paola; Perut, Francesca; Tinti, Anna; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Prati, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    The effect of ageing in phosphate-containing solution of bioactive calcium-silicate cements on the chemistry, morphology and topography of the surface, as well as on in vitro human marrow stromal cells viability and proliferation was investigated. A calcium-silicate cement (wTC) mainly based on dicalcium-silicate and tricalcium-silicate was prepared. Alpha-TCP was added to wTC to obtain wTC-TCP. Bismuth oxide was inserted in wTC to prepare a radiopaque cement (wTC-Bi). A commercial calcium-silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) was tested as control. Cement disks were aged in DPBS for 5 h ('fresh samples'), 14 and 28 days, and analyzed by ESEM/EDX, SEM/EDX, ATR-FTIR, micro-Raman techniques and scanning white-light interferometry. Proliferation, LDH release, ALP activity and collagen production of human marrow stromal cells (MSC) seeded for 1-28 days on the cements were evaluated. Fresh samples exposed a surface mainly composed of calcium-silicate hydrates CSH (from the hydration of belite and alite), calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and ettringite. Apatite nano-spherulites rapidly precipitated on cement surfaces within 5 h. On wTC-TCP the Ca-P deposits appeared thicker than on the other cements. Aged cements showed an irregular porous calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) coating, formed by aggregated apatite spherulites with interspersed calcite crystals. All the experimental cements exerted no acute toxicity in the cell assay system and allowed cell growth. Using biochemical results, the scores were: fresh cements>aged cements for cell proliferation and ALP activity (except for wTC-Bi), whereas fresh cementssynthesis. Summarizing (1) non-aged cements showed higher cell proliferation than aged cements, probably favoured by the presence of Si-OH gel and the early formation of apatite nano-spherulites; (2) the alpha-TCP doped cement aged for 28 days displayed the highest bioactivity and cell proliferation; (3) the deleterious effect of bismuth on cell proliferation was reduced by

  13. Simultaneous incorporation of carbonate and fluoride in synthetic apatites: Effect on crystallographic and physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; LeGeros, John P; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2009-07-01

    The mineral in bone is an impure hydroxyapatite, with carbonate as the chief minor substituent. Fluoride has been shown to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic resorption in vitro. CO(3)- and F-substituted apatite (CFA) has been considered as potential bone graft material for orthopedic and dental applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of simultaneously incorporated CO(3) and F on the crystallographic physico-chemical properties of apatite. The results showed that increasing CO(3) and Na content in apatites with relatively constant F concentration caused a decrease in crystallite size and an increase in the extent of calcium release; increasing F content in apatites with relatively constant CO(3) concentration caused an increase in crystallite size and a decrease in the extent of Ca release. These findings suggest that CFAs as bone graft materials of desired solubility can be prepared by manipulating the relative concentrations of CO(3) and F incorporated in the apatite.

  14. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  15. Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration at the Hanford Site 300 Area: Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In-Situ Stabilization of Uranium - 8070

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Richards, Emily L.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-01-01

    A groundwater plume containing uranium, originating from a combination of purposeful discharges of wastewater to cribs, trenches and ponds, along with some accidental leaks and spills during nuclear fuel fabrication activities, has persisted beneath the Hanford Site 300 Area for many years. Despite the cessation of uranium releases and the removal of shallow vadose zone source materials, the goal of less than 30 (micro)g/L has not been achieved within the anticipated 10-year time period. Polyphosphate technology has been demonstrated to delay the precipitation of phosphate phases for controlled in situ precipitation of stable phosphate phases to control the long-term fate of uranium. Precipitation occurs when polyphosphate compounds hydrolyze to yield the orthophosphate molecule. Based on the hydrolysis kinetics of the polyphosphate polymer, the amendment can be tailored to act as a time-released source of phosphate for lateral plume treatment, immediate and sustained remediation of dissolved uranium, and to preclude rapid precipitation which could result in a drastic change in hydraulic conductivity of the target aquifer. Critical to successful implementation of polyphosphate remediation technology is a site specific evaluation and optimization of multi-length polyphosphate amendment formulations. A multi-faceted approach has been taken to provide key fundamental science knowledge regarding optimization of the polyphosphate remedy through: (1) phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify the effects of Hanford groundwater and sediment on the degradation of inorganic phosphates, (2) static tests to quantify the kinetics, loading, and stability of apatite as a long-term sorbent for uranium, and (3) single-pass flow through testing to quantify the stability of autunite and apatite under relevant site conditions. Dynamic column tests were utilized to (1) optimize the composition of the polyphosphate formulation for the formation and emplacement of apatite and

  16. Syntheses and characterizations of rare earth doped phospho-silicated apatites: application to nuclear waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Apatite matrices have been developed for the conditioning of actinides from spent fuels of PWR reactors. Silicated apatites (britholites) containing actinides and lanthanides have been discovered in the natural environment. Synthetic analogues of these britholites can be obtained by solid-solid reaction at high temperature. The compounds of the solid solution of fluorinated britholites are synthesized by the double substitution of (Ca 2+ , PO 4 3- ) by (Ln 3+ , SiO 4 4- ). Trivalent lanthanides are chemical analogues of trivalent actinides. The synthesis was performed with La, Nd and Eu. This study allows to demonstrate that the chemical immobilization comes from the fixation of rare earths at the atomic scale, thanks to their participation to the mineral structure. In part 1, the criteria for the formulation of a matrix for the conditioning of separate radionuclides are given. The structure and the different methods of apatite preparation are shown. Part 2 treats of the study of the solid solution, of the elaboration of the Ca 9 Nd 1 (SiO 4 ) 5 F 2 ceramic and of its physico chemical characterization. The last part deals with the localization of rare earths in the apatite structure, determined by europium luminescence and X-ray diffraction on monocrystal. (J.S.) [fr

  17. Detrital zircon and apatite fission track data in the Liaoxi basins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vation events in the northern margin of the North. China Craton (figure 1a). In this paper, detrital zircon and apatite fission track (AFT and ZFT) ages of the sedimentary rocks from the Liaoxi basins are presented. The purposes of this study are: • to study the geothermal status of the basins to understand lithosphere evolution;.

  18. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Wang, Jiecheng; Liu, Xiaochen; Ma, Jian; Liu, Changsheng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H 3PO 4) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  19. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jie; Wang Jiecheng; Liu Xiaochen; Ma Jian; Liu Changsheng; Fang Jing; Wei Shicheng

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  20. Adsorption of Pb(II) present in aqueous solution on calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchis G, J.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation method, the obtained powders were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), semi-quantitative elemental analysis (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and N 2 physisorption studies, complementary to these analytical techniques, was determined the surface fractal dimension (Df), and the amount of surface active sites of the materials, in order to know application as ceramic for water remediation. The ability of Pb(II) ion adsorption present in aqueous solution on the hydroxy apatites synthesized by batch type experiments was studied as a function of contact time, concentration of the adsorbate and temperature. The maximum lead adsorption efficiencies obtained were 0.31, 0.32 and 0.26 mg/g for calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites respectively, achieved an equilibrium time of 20 minutes in the three solid-liquid systems studied. Experimental data were adequately adjusted at the adsorption kinetic model pseudo-second order, for the three cases. Moreover, experimental data of the strontium and calcium hydroxy apatites were adjusted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating that the adsorption was through a monolayer, whereas barium hydroxyapatite was adjusted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, indicating a multilayer adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters obtained during adsorption studies as a function of temperature showed physisorption, exothermic and spontaneous processes respectively. The results showed that the calcium hydroxyapatite, strontium and barium are an alternative for the Pb(II) ion adsorption present in wastewaters. (Author)

  1. Detrital zircon and apatite fission track data in the Liaoxi basins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AFT and ZFT ages were performed at Fission. Track Laboratory of Changsha Institute of Geo- tectonics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Fis- sion Track Laboratory of Institute of Geology,. Chinese Earthquake Administration, respectively. Glass slides with apatites mounted in epoxy resin were etched using 1% HNO3 at ...

  2. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jie [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang Jiecheng; Liu Xiaochen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma Jian [Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Liu Changsheng [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Fang Jing, E-mail: biomater2006@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: nic7505@263.net [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  3. COMPARISON OF APATITE II™ TREATMENT SYSTEM AT TWO MINES FOR METALS REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two abandoned lead-zinc mine sites, the Nevada Stewart Mine (NSM) and Success Mine, are located within the Coeur d'Alene Mining District, in northern Idaho. An Apatite II™ Treatment System (ATS) was implemented at each site to treat metal-laden water, mainly zinc. In the ATS, f...

  4. Rare earth distribution in Peruvian circons, fluorites, apatites, garnets and allanites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, M.J.; Mendoza A, A.

    1981-12-01

    Using spectrographic methods, the distribution of rare earths in different locations of Peru were determinated. La-Ce-Pr-Nd-Pm-Sm-Eu-Gd-Ts-Dy-Ho-Er-Tm-Ys-Lu and their compounds with Y-Sc-Tm in circon, fluorite, apatite, garnet and allanite. Their geochemistry and frequency as well as the economic aspects exploration and applications were analyzed.

  5. Solubilization of Pb-bearing apatite Pb5(PO4)3Cl by bacteria isolated from polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Łukasz; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Manecki, Maciej; Bajda, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test if microorganisms isolated from heavily polluted environments can enhance dissolution of Pb-apatite (pyromorphite) resulting in remobilization of lead. Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas isolated from underground mines in SW Poland were used in batch experiments of pyromorphite solubilization carried out in phosphate reach and phosphate poor media. Bacteria growth and evolution of Pb and phosphate concentrations as well as pH were determined. Additionally the concentration of bacterial siderophores in leaching solution was assayed. All bacterial strains were able to grow in both media in the presence of pyromorphite. The number of bacterial cells was from one to two orders of magnitude higher in the phosphate rich media. In the phosphate poor media the only source of P was the dissolving lead apatite. Bacteria enhanced the solubility of pyromorphite resulting in elevated Pb concentrations, up to 853 μg L -1 in phosphate-rich medium and 6112 μg L -1 in phosphate-poor medium, compared to less than 100 μg L -1 in an abiotic control sample. Production of siderophores was characteristic for each culture and was much lower (10-1000 fold) in the phosphate-poor medium. This study demonstrates for the first time that indigenous bacteria can directly and indirectly promote the mobilization of lead from pyromorphite. This phenomenon should be considered in long term risk assessment of Pb contaminated soils after reclamation processes because bacteria can play a significant role in the efficiency of clean-up efforts and overall geochemical cycling of Pb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes.

  7. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, –PO 4 H 2 , –COOH and –OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. - Highlights: • –PO 4 H 2 , –COOH and –OH groups were successfully introduced onto PEEK surface via tailored silanization layer technique. • Bone-like apatite formed uniformly on surface-functionalized PEEK after immersion in SBF, and tightly adhered to the PEEK. • SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and XRD results showed that apatite layer is composed of low-crystalline bone-like apatite. • Bone-like apatite coating remarkably enhanced pre

  9. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, –PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}, –COOH and –OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. - Highlights: • –PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}, –COOH and –OH groups were successfully introduced onto PEEK surface via tailored silanization layer technique. • Bone-like apatite formed uniformly on surface-functionalized PEEK after immersion in SBF, and tightly adhered to the PEEK. • SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and XRD results showed that apatite layer is composed of low-crystalline bone-like apatite. • Bone-like apatite coating

  10. Characterization and photocatalytic treatability of red water from Brazilian TNT industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwichk, Raquel [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Helferich, Oliver Karil; Kist, Cristiane Patrícia [Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lopes, Aline Chitto; Cavasotto, Thiago [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Silva, Davi Costa [Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio, E-mail: marciorodrigues@utfpr.edu.br [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The red water effluent has high levels of COD, color and acute toxicity. • The compounds 2-methyl-1, 3-dinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2, 4-dinitrobenzene and 1-methyl-3, 5-dinitrobenzene were identified. • A nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-borosilicate glass was obtained and characterized. • The photocatalytic treatment removes all color 32% of the organic matter content of the effluent. • The borosilicate-glass-TiO{sub 2} system degrades all content of identified nitroaromatic compounds. - Abstract: The current study aims to characterize and evaluate the photocatalytic treatability of the “red water” effluent from a Brazilian TNT production industry. Analyses were performed using physical, chemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic assays, which demonstrated that the effluent presented a significant pollution potential, mainly due to COD, BOD, solids and to the high concentration of nitroaromatic compounds such as 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 2-methyl-1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-3,5-dinitro-p-toluidine and 2-methyl-3,5-dinitro-benzoamine. By a modified sol-gel and a dip-coating technique, it was possible to obtain a TiO{sub 2} film on borosilicate glass substrate which functional composition and microstructure were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The evaluation of the photocatalytic treatability using borosilicate-glass-TiO{sub 2} demonstrated high degradation efficiency. In this context, a reduction of 32 and 100% for COD and nitroaromatic compounds, respectively, was observed. Although the proposed photocatalytic process has found difficulties in reducing the content of organic matter and effluent color in the red water, its potential for degrading refractory chemical compounds such as the nitroaromatic ones enables it to be used as tertiary treatment.

  11. Characteristics and treatability of oil-bearing wastes from aluminum alloy machining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke; Hsieh, Chueh-Chen; Wetherbee, John; Yang, Chen-Lu

    2008-04-15

    Enomoto Industry Co., exclusively uses water-based cutting fluids in its aluminum alloy machining operations. Since the cost of disposal can be much greater than the cost of purchase, the treatability of spent cutting fluids is becoming a major criterion for cutting fluid selection. Samples were collected from the machining lines at Enomoto's facility to determine their characteristics and evaluate their treatability with centrifugation, chemical coagulation and electrochemical coagulation. As expected, oil and grease (O&G) and total suspended solids (TSS) are the main reasons that spent cutting fluids are prohibited from being discharged into local swage systems. The average O&G found in the spent cutting fluids is 87,354 mg/L with TSS of more than 70,000 mg/L. Both O&G and TSS are the major contributors to the high turbidity of these waste effluents. A centrifuge with a relative centrifugal force of 1318 x g, was able to reduce 60% of the turbidity. By adding the coagulant aluminum chloride, the oil-water emulsion was destabilized, and the turbidity was reduced from 3249 Formazin Attenuation Units (FAU) to around 314 FAU. With freshly generated aluminum ions in the spent cutting fluid, the electrochemical process destabilized the oil-water emulsion system. The coalesced oil droplets were adsorbed onto the highly dispersed aluminum coagulant. The oil-rich sludge that was generated in the operation was then floated to the surface, forming a blanket that was removed by skimming. The electrochemical treatment was able to reduce the turbidity to less than 14 FAU, which is the detection limit of the Hach DR/4000 UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  12. Arsenic in hydrothermal apatite: Oxidation state, mechanism of uptake, and comparison between experiments and nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Mei, Yuan; Etschmann, Barbara; Brugger, Joël; Pearce, Mark; Ryan, Chris G.; Borg, Stacey; Wykes, Jeremey; Kappen, Peter; Paterson, David; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Garrevoet, Jan; Moorhead, Gareth; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Element substitution that occurs during fluid-rock interaction permits assessment of fluid composition and interaction conditions in ancient geological systems, and provides a way to fix contaminants from aqueous solutions. We conducted a series of hydrothermal mineral replacement experiments to determine whether a relationship can be established between arsenic (As) distribution in apatite and fluid chemistry. Calcite crystals were reacted with phosphate solutions spiked with As(V), As(III), and mixed As(III)/As(V) species at 250 °C and water-saturated pressure. Arsenic-bearing apatite rims formed in several hours, and within 48 h the calcite grains were fully replaced. X-ray Absorption Near-edge Spectroscopy (XANES) data show that As retained the trivalent oxidation state in the fully-reacted apatite grown from solutions containing only As(III). Extended X-ray Fine Spectroscopy (EXAFS) data reveal that these As(III) ions are surrounded by about three oxygen atoms at an Assbnd O bond length close to that of an arsenate group (AsO43-), indicating that they occupy tetrahedral phosphate sites. The three-coordinated As(III)-O3 structure, with three oxygen atoms and one lone electron pair around As(III), was confirmed by geometry optimization using ab initio molecular simulations. The micro-XANES imaging data show that apatite formed from solutions spiked with mixed As(III) and As(V) retained only As(V) after completion of the replacement reaction; in contrast, partially reacted samples revealed a complex distribution of As(V)/As(III) ratios, with As(V) concentrated in the center of the grain and As(III) towards the rim. Most natural apatites from the Ernest Henry iron oxide copper gold deposit, Australia, show predominantly As(V), but two grains retained some As(III) in their core. The As-anomalous amphibolite-facies gneiss from Binntal, Switzerland, only revealed As(V), despite the fact that these apatites in both cases formed under conditions where As(III) is

  13. Sulfur isotopic zoning in apatite crystals: A new record of dynamic sulfur behavior in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Rita; Boehnke, Patrick; Burgisser, Alain

    2017-10-01

    The mobility and geochemical behavior of sulfur in magmas is complex due to its multi-phase (solid, immiscible liquid, gaseous, dissolved ions) and multi-valent (from S2- to S6+) nature. Sulfur behavior is closely linked with the evolution of oxygen fugacity (fO2) in magmas; the record of fO2 evolution is often enigmatic to extract from rock records, particularly for intrusive systems. We apply a novel method of measuring S isotopic ratios in zoned apatite crystals that we interpret as a record of open-system magmatic processes. We interrogate the S concentration and isotopic variations preserved in multiple apatite crystals from single hand specimens from the Cadiz Valley Batholith, CA via electron microprobe and ion microprobe. Isotopic variations in single apatite crystals ranged from 0 to 3.8‰ δ34S and total variation within a single hand sample was 6.1‰ δ34S. High S concentration cores yielded high isotopic ratios while low S concentration rims yielded low isotopic ratios. We discuss a range of possible natural scenarios and favor an explanation of a combination of magma mixing and open-system, ascent-driven degassing under moderately reduced conditions: fO2 at or below NNO+1, although the synchronous crystallization of apatite and anhydrite is also a viable scenario. Our conclusions have implications for the coupled S and fO2 evolution of granitic plutons and suggest that in-situ apatite S isotopic measurements could be a powerful new tool for evaluating redox and S systematics in magmatic systems.

  14. Xe- and U-tracks in apatite and muscovite near the etching threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauschkuhn, Bastian, E-mail: wauschku@geo.tu-freiberg.de [Geologie, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Jonckheere, Raymond [Geologie, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Mineralogie en Petrologie, Geologie en Bodemkunde, Universiteit Gent (Belgium); Ratschbacher, Lothar [Geologie, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Ion irradiation of a wedge-shaped Durango apatite backed by a mica detector allows investigating ion track ranges and etching properties at different points along the tracks. Transmission profiles obtained by irradiation with 2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} 11.1 MeV/amu {sup 132}Xe and 2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} 11.1 MeV/amu {sup 238}U parallel to the apatite c-axis correspond to ranges calculated with SRIM (Xe: 76.3 μm; U: 81.1 μm). However, the measured profiles show much greater etchable track-length variations than the calculated longitudinal straggles. The probable cause is that the length deficit exhibits significant variation from track to track. The measured length deficit in muscovite is in agreement with most existing data. In contrast, the length deficit in apatite appears to be close to zero, which is in conflict with all earlier estimates. This probably results from the etching properties of the apatite basal face, which permit surface-assisted sub-threshold etching of track sections in the nuclear stopping regime. These sections are not accessible from the opposite direction, i.e. by etching towards the endpoint of the tracks or in the direction of the ion beam. This conclusion is supported by the fact that linear dislocations are revealed in apatite basal faces and by the observation of imperfect etch pits that are separated from the etched ion track channel by a section that appears unetched under the microscope.

  15. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of adenosine 5⿲ triphosphate (ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Khaled; El-Feki, Hafed; Marsan, Olivier; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    ATP is a well-known energy supplier in cells. The idea to associate ATP to pharmaceutical formulations/biotechnological devices to promote cells activity by potentially modulating their microenvironment thus appears as an appealing novel approach. Since biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites have shown great promise for biomedical applications (bone regeneration, cells diagnostics/therapeutics, ⿦), thanks to a high surface reactivity and an intrinsically high biocompatibility, the present contribution was aimed at exploring ATP/apatite interactions. ATP adsorption on a synthetic carbonated nanocrystalline apatite preliminarily characterized (by XRD, FTIR, Raman, TG-DTA and SEM-EDX) was investigated in detail, pointing out a good agreement with Sips isothermal features. Adsorption characteristics were compared to those previously obtained on monophosphate nucleotides (AMP, CMP), unveiling some specificities. ATP was found to adsorb effectively onto biomimetic apatite: despite smaller values of the affinity constant KS and the exponential factor m, larger adsorbed amounts were reached for ATP as compared to AMP for any given concentration in solution. m guided by direct surface bonding rather than through stabilizing intermolecular interactions. Although standard οGads ° was estimated to only ⿿4 kJ/mol, the large value of Nmax led to significantly negative effective οGads values down to ⿿33 kJ/mol, reflecting the spontaneous character of adsorption process. Vibrational spectroscopy data (FTIR and Raman) pointed out spectral modifications upon adsorption, confirming chemical-like interactions where both the triphosphate group of ATP and its nucleic base were involved. The present study is intended to serve as a basis for future research works involving ATP and apatite nanocrystals/nanoparticles in view of biomedical applications (e.g. bone tissue engineering, intracellular drug delivery, ⿦).

  16. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G. G.; Jessmore, J. J.; Sehn, A. L.; Miller, C. M.

    2002-02-27

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  17. Quantitative analysis from limited sampling: influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their resistance to irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribet, I.; Petit, J.C.; CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1998-01-01

    Apatites are investigated as possible high performance radioactive waste matrices for specific actinides. In this paper, we have quantified the influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their fission-track annealing behaviour. We aimed to evaluate the capability of apatites to self-anneal high densities of radiation damages produced during disposal. The thermal annealing kinetics, at 280 deg. C, of induced fission tracks has been determined for six different apatite compositions. We show that the chemical composition of apatites is a critical parameter with respect to their annealing behaviour. A mathematical treatment of the data, based upon the methodology of optimum design of experiments, allowed the quantification of the role of substitution for two major elements, of the apatite structure (Ca, P), for chlorine and for the two groups of minor elements, actinides (U+Th) and lanthanides (La+Ce+Y), which are relevant in the nuclear waste disposal context. A high actinide content enhances the annealing of fission-tracks in apatites, which is a very favourable feature of these minerals as radioactive waste matrices. This work also points to a new strategy for the best use of information provided by geological samples. In particular, the mathematical methodology proposed here allows, first, to evaluate the 'quality' of the information obtained and, second, to improve it by a proper choice of additional samples to investigate. (authors)

  18. Postmagmatic magnetite-apatite assemblage in mafic intrusions: a case study of dolerite at Olympic Dam, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apukhtina, Olga B.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; McPhie, Jocelyn; Maas, Roland; Meffre, Sebastien; Goemann, Karsten; Rodemann, Thomas; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of magnetite and apatite is common worldwide in different ore deposit types, including disparate members of the iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) clan. The Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite deposits, a subtype of the IOCG family, are recognized as economic targets as well. A wide range of competing genetic models exists for magnetite-apatite deposits, including magmatic, magmatic-hydrothermal, hydrothermal(-metasomatic), and sedimentary(-exhalative). The sources and mechanisms of transport and deposition of Fe and P remain highly debatable. This study reports petrographic and geochemical features of the magnetite-apatite-rich vein assemblages in the dolerite dykes of the Gairdner Dyke Swarm (~0.82 Ga) that intruded the Roxby Downs Granite (~0.59 Ga), the host of the supergiant Olympic Dam IOCG deposit. These symmetrical, only few mm narrow veins are prevalent in such dykes and comprise besides usually colloform magnetite and prismatic apatite also further minerals (e.g., calcite, quartz). The genetic relationships between the veins and host dolerite are implied based on alteration in the immediate vicinity (~4 mm) of the veins. In particular, Ti-magnetite-ilmenite is partially to completely transformed to titanite and magmatic apatite disappears. We conclude that the mafic dykes were a local source of Fe and P re-concentrated in the magnetite-apatite veins. Uranium-Pb ages for vein apatite and titanite associated with the vein in this case study suggest that alteration of the dolerite and healing of the fractures occurred shortly after dyke emplacement. We propose that in this particular case the origin of the magnetite-apatite assemblage is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration of the host mafic magmatic rocks.

  19. Biomimetic scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid with their corresponding apatite-forming capability and biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Nguyen Kim; Hoai, Tran Thanh; Viet, Pham Hung

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a facile synthesis of biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid (HAp/PDLLA) scaffolds with the use of solvent casting combined with a salt-leaching technique for bone-tissue engineering. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the morphologies, pore structures of synthesized scaffolds, interactions between hydroxyapatite nanorods and poly(D,L) lactic acid, as well as the compositions of the scaffolds, respectively. Porosity of the scaffolds was determined using the liquid substitution method. Moreover, the apatite-forming capability of the scaffolds was evaluated through simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation tests, whereas the viability, attachment, and distribution of human osteoblast cells (MG 63 cell line) on the scaffolds were determined through alamarBlue assay and confocal laser microscopy after nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and actin filaments of a cytoskeleton with Oregon Green 488 phalloidin. Results showed that hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid scaffolds that mimic the structure of natural bone were successfully produced. These scaffolds possessed macropore networks with high porosity (80-84%) and mean pore sizes ranging 117-183 μm. These scaffolds demonstrated excellent apatite-forming capabilities. The rapid formation of bone-like apatites with flower-like morphology was observed after 7 days of incubation in SBFs. The scaffolds that had a high percentage (30 wt.%) of hydroxyapatite demonstrated better cell adhesion, proliferation, and distribution than those with low percentages of hydroxyapatite as the days of culture increased. This work presented an efficient route for developing biomimetic composite scaffolds, which have potential applications in bone-tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of vacancy damage on He diffusion in apatite, investigated at atomic to mineralogical scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, Chloé; Gautheron, Cécile; Oliviero, Erwan; Bachelet, Cyril; Mbongo Djimbi, Duval; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Sarda, Philippe; Roques, Jérôme; Garrido, Frédérico

    2017-01-01

    Helium diffusion in U-Th-rich minerals, especially apatite, is considered as strongly impacted by damage, even at low U-Th content. To get direct evidence and better understand the impact of damage on He diffusion, we conducted a study on vacancy damage in apatite, at nanometric to atomic scales, using different methodologies. Firstly, damage was created on apatite crystals by He implantation at different He fluences ranging from 2 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 He/cm2, corresponding to atomic displacement ranging from 12 to more than 100% of the total structure in the first 200 nm below the surface. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to image the damage structure, for the lowest He fluence. TEM images present no visible damage zone at nano-scale, implying that the created damage corresponds well to Frenkel defects (vacancies and interstitials). Secondly, diffusion experiments were performed on those samples by mapping He concentration vs. depth profiles using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). After measurement of implanted-He profiles and He concentrations, the samples were heated in order to diffuse the implanted profile during 15-45 h at temperatures from 145 to 250 °C. The obtained He vs. depth heated profiles and He concentrations reveal the impact of damage on He diffusivity. The results can only be explained by a model where diffusion depends on damage dose, taking into account He trapping in vacancies and damage interconnectivity at higher damage dose. Thirdly, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate a vacancy in a F-apatite crystal. The structure becomes slightly deformed by the vacancy and the insertion energy of a He atom in the vacancy is lower than for an usual insertion site. Accordingly, the additional energy for a He atom to jump out of the vacancy is ΔEa ≈ 30-40 kJ/mol, in good agreement with published estimates. This calculation thus shows that small modifications of the structure due to the presence

  1. Human Dental Pulp Cells Responses to Apatite Precipitation from Dicalcium Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yun Lai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling the mechanisms behind the processes of cell attachment and the enhanced proliferation that occurs as a response to the presence of calcium silicate-based materials needs to be better understood so as to expand the applications of silicate-based materials. Ions in the environment may influence apatite precipitation and affect silicate ion release from silicate-based materials. Thus, the involvement of apatite precipitate in the regulation of cell behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs is also investigated in the present study, along with an investigation of the specific role of cell morphology and osteocalcin protein expression cultured on calcium silicate (CS with different Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM. The microstructure and component of CS cement immersion in DMEM and P-free DMEM are analyzed. In addition, when hDPCs are cultured on CS with two DMEMs, we evaluate fibronectin (FN and collagen type I (COL secretion during the cell attachment stage. The facilitation of cell adhesion on CS has been confirmed and observed both by scanning with an electron microscope and using immunofluorescence imaging. The results indicate that CS is completely covered by an apatite layer with tiny spherical shapes on the surface in the DMEM, but not in the P-free DMEM. Compared to the P-free DMEM, the lower Ca ion in the DMEM may be attributed to the formation of the apatite on the surfaces of specimens as a result of consumption of the Ca ion from the DMEM. Similarly, the lower Si ion in the CS-soaked DMEM is attributed to the shielding effect of the apatite layer. The P-free DMEM group releases more Si ion increased COL and FN secretion, which promotes cell attachment more effectively than DMEM. This study provides new and important clues regarding the major effects of Si-induced cell behavior as well as the precipitated apatite-inhibited hDPC behavior on these materials.

  2. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project

  3. Apatite fission track dating and thermal history of Qing-He region in Altay Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zengkuan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Gao Shaokai

    2005-01-01

    Fission track ages (FTA) and track lengths of apatite from Qing-He diorite intrusion in Altay Mountains are measured. Apatite fission track ages of three diorite samples is range from (78±5) Ma to (95 ± 5) Ma, and the lengths of horizontal confined spontaneous fission tracks are (13.2 ± 1.2)-(13.5 ±1.3) μm. The distribution of the track length is narrow and symmetrical with a mean length of approximately 13.3 μm and a standard deviation of around 0.1 μm. The inverse modeling results show that thermal history of this region has four stages, two rapid uplift of this region still existed magmatic intrusion and tectonic movements in Yanshanian. (authors)

  4. Characterization and potential application of pataua vegetable oil in apatite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.S. de; Mansur, H.S.; Peres, A.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The present research characterizes the Pataua palm (Oenocarpus bataua) oil regarding to its fatty acids profile and acidity index, and evaluates its use for apatite flotation. The Pataua oil evaluated is unsaturated e predominantly composed of cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid). The mineral sample characterization revealed a material composed by a fluoroapatite deficient in fluorine, a possibly result of isomorphic substitution, and with quartz and monazite inclusions. The analysis of the mineral after reagent conditioning, by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), pointed to the presence of characteristic bands of carbon chains and carboxylate group, suggesting the collector adsorption through the mechanisms of chemisorption and insoluble calcium salts precipitation. Thus, it is proposed the Pataua oil potential use in flotation systems aiming apatite recovery. (author)

  5. Damage morphology of Kr ion tracks in apatite: Dependence on dE/dX

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, F; Rebetez, M; Dubois, C; Chambaudet, A; Chevarier, A; Martin, P; Brossard, F; Blondiaux, G; Sauvage, T; Toulemonde, M

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of characterizing damage along nuclear tracks in apatite, Durango fluoroapatite monocrystals were irradiated under a high fluence sup 8 sup 6 Kr ion beam at the G.A.N.I.L. (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, Caen, France). The resulting irradiation damage was studied by associating CRBS spectrometry and chemical etching. By applying Poisson's law to the backscattering results, the nuclear track average effective radius R sub e was calculated for different steps along the ion path. On the other hand, the chemical etching experiments allowed us to deduce three different damaging morphologies in correspondence to the R sub e values. For the first time in apatite, it has been shown that a defect fragmentation produced along the ion paths may be detected by chemical etching. These results were also applied to fission tracks in order to quantify the damage rate and to describe the damage morphology evolution along fission fragment paths.

  6. In vitro biomimetic deposition of apatite on alkaline and heat treated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) treated in NaOH can form apa- tite after soaking in SBF. It was found that after soaking in SBF, the Ti–OH groups formed on the alloy via ex- change of Na. + ions with H3O. + ions which induced apatite formation indirectly by forming an amorphous sodium titanate layer on the Ti6Al4V surface.

  7. Neogene unroofing and incision of the Ethiopian Plateau constrained from apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, N. D.; Van Soest, M. C.; Gani, M. R.; Tadesse, K.; Neupane, P. C.; Falster, A.

    2011-12-01

    Ethiopian Plateau in East Africa, one of the large igneous provinces, has been deeply incised by the Blue Nile River. The plateau has experienced extensive volcanisms at ~30 Ma linked to outpouring of the Afar mantle plume that accumulated average 1 km thick flood basalt. This event, along with later repetitive volcanisms in the region, has complicated (e.g., partial resetting of mineral cooling ages, abnormal geothermal gradients) the application of thermochronological modeling to constrain the Cenozoic unroofing and incision history of the plateau. In this study, we used (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of apatite grains extracted from gneissic and granitic basement rocks and overlying sandstones in a 1.2 km vertical elevation profile within the Blue Nile Canyon to partition incision in geologic time. Our apatite cooling ages are comparatively older than that of previous thermochronological studies of the area. These cooling ages show wide range and random distribution with elevation but positively correlate with effective uranium (eU) concentration of apatite minerals. Thus we chose recently developed RDAAM (Radiation Damage Accumulation and Annealing model) inverse modeling in HeFTy that was demonstrated to be appropriate for regions with complex thermal history and variable eU concentration. Initial results of RDAAM model, guided by reasonable thermal history of the plateau, show gradual cooling and thus slow incision during Early Neogene after the rapid heating of the region linked to the accumulation of thick flood basalt around 30 Ma. Importantly, these simulations predict rapid cooling, thus fast incision, during Late Neogene. This incision history of the Ethiopian Plateau interpreted from apatite thermal modeling is consistent with the previous GIS-and-geochronology-based study that showed increased incision rates around 10 Ma and 6 Ma.

  8. Enhanced apatite formation on Ti metal heated in PO2-controlled nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masami; Hayashi, Kazumi; Kitaoka, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The oxynitridation of biomedical titanium metal under a precisely regulated oxygen partial pressure (PO2) of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K for 1 h strongly enhanced apatite formation compared with that on Ti heated in air. The factors governing the high apatite-forming ability are discussed from the viewpoint of the surface properties of Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. Nitrogen (N)-doped TiO2 (interstitial N) was formed on pure Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K. The XPS O1s main peak shifted toward a lower binding energy upon heating under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. This shift may be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. This Ti surface had a positive zeta potential of approximately 20 mV. According to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results, PO4(3-) ions were predominantly adsorbed on Ti soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) after heat treatment, followed by calcium ions. It was concluded that the apatite formation kinetics can be described using the Avrami-Erofeev equation with an Avrami index of n=2, which implies the instantaneous nucleation of apatite on the surface of Ti soaked in SBF after heat treatment at 973 K under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water: ESTCP ER 1213 Treatability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    similar to erosion control socks. Socks were constructed using a non - woven geotextile filled with well-graded sand, amended with five percent (weight...evaluation of the data, the socks for the field demonstration will be constructed using a non - woven geotextile filled with well-graded sand amended...Metals from Runoff Water ESTCP ER-1213 Treatability Study En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Steve L. Larson, W. Andy Martin, Mark S . Dortch

  10. Methotrexate- and cyclophosphamide-embedded pure and strontiumsubstituted carbonate apatite nanoparticles for augmentation of chemotherapeutic activities in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiash, Snigdha; Othman, Iekhsan; Rosli, Rosita; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2014-01-01

    Most of the classical drugs used today to destroy cancer cells lead to the development of acquired resistance in those cells by limiting cellular entry of the drugs or exporting them out by efflux pumps. As a result, higher doses of drugs are usually required to kill the cancer cells affecting normal cells and causing numerous side effects. Accumulation of the therapeutic level of drugs inside the cancer cells is thus required for an adequate period of time to get drugs' complete therapeutic efficacy minimizing the side effects on normal cells. In order to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, nanoparticles of carbonate apatite and its strontium (Sr(2+))-substituted derivative were used in this study to make complexes with three classical anticancer drugs, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-flurouracil. The binding affinities of these drugs to apatite were evaluated by absorbance and HPLC analysis and the therapeutic efficacy of drug-apatite complexes was determined by cell viability assay. Carbonate apatite demonstrated significant binding affinity towards methotrexate and cyclophosphamide leading to more cellular toxicity than free drugs in MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer cells. Moreover, Sr(2+) substitution in carbonate apatite with resulting tiny particles less than 100 nm in diameter further promoted binding of methotrexate to the nanocarriers indicating that Sr(2+)-substituted apatite nanoparticles have the high potential for loading substantial amount of anti-cancer drugs with eventual more therapeutic effectiveness.

  11. BMP4 Expression Following Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous and Carbonate Apatite Transplantation on Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Saskianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone defects in children still have a high incidence. Conventional bone graft technique that has been used as a defect therapy is still not effective, so new techniques with tissue engineering approach are needed. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 as one of the indicators of osteogenic differentiation has not been widely studied, especially in the transplantation with combination of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous (SHED and carbonate apatite. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the expression of BMP4 after SHED and carbonate apatite transplantation on Rattus norvegicus. Material and Methods: The combinations of SHED and carbonate apatite were transplanted on alveolar bone defects of 4 rats (Rattus norvegicus as the treatment groups and another 4 rats were transplanted with carbonate apatite as the control groups. After 21 days, staining with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE and Immunohistochemistry (IHC BMP4 was performed. Results: BMP4 expression in the treatment groups was significantly higher when compared to the control groups. Discussion: Carbonate apatite has low crystallization rate and high osteoconductivity that produce more osteoblasts and increased BMP4 expression. Conclusion: The transplantation of SHED and carbonate apatite increased BMP4 expression as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation in rats.

  12. Effect of ion species on apatite-forming ability of silicone elastomer substrates irradiated by cluster ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashita, Masakazu [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1306-1 Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)], E-mail: m-kawa@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Araki, Rei; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Indwelling catheters made of silicone elastomers sometimes cause serious infections owing to their poor biocompatibility. It is believed that these infections can be prevented by coating the silicone surface with apatite, which has excellent biocompatibility. If the surface of the silicone elastomer is in advance modified to have an apatite-forming ability, apatite can be coated on the modified silicone surface by soaking it in an aqueous solution such as a simulated body fluid (SBF) supersaturated with respect to apatite. In this study, silicone substrates were irradiated by four types of ion beams (Ar cluster, Ar cluster and monomer (Ar CM), O{sub 2} cluster, and O{sub 2} cluster and monomer (O{sub 2} CM) ion beams) at an acceleration voltage of 7 kV and a dose of 1 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, and subsequently soaked in CaCl{sub 2} solution. The apatite-forming abilities of the substrates were examined using a metastable calcium phosphate solution whose ion concentration was 1.5 times that of SBF (1.5 SBF). Silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) clusters were formed on the silicone surface and the hydrophilicity of the substrates was improved by the irradiation, irrespective of the ion species used. The irradiation with O{sub 2} CM ion beams resulted in the highest apatite-forming ability among the analyzed ion beams.

  13. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  14. Formation of Apatite Coatings on an Artificial Ligament Using a Plasma- and Precursor-Assisted Biomimetic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Oyane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A plasma- and precursor-assisted biomimetic process utilizing plasma and alternate dipping treatments was applied to a Leed-Keio artificial ligament to produce a thin coating of apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. Following plasma surface modification, the specimen was alternately dipped in calcium and phosphate ion solutions three times (alternate dipping treatment to create a precoating containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP which is an apatite precursor. To grow an apatite layer on the ACP precoating, the ACP-precoated specimen was immersed for 24 h in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations approximately equal to those in human blood plasma. The plasma surface modification was necessary to create an adequate apatite coating and to improve the coating adhesion depending on the plasma power density. The apatite coating prepared using the optimized conditions formed a thin-film that covered the entire surface of the artificial ligament. The resulting apatite-coated artificial ligament should exhibit improved osseointegration within the bone tunnel and possesses great potential for use in ligament reconstructions.

  15. Influence of strontium for calcium substitution in bioactive glasses on degradation, ion release and apatite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Yann C.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S.; Jones, Julian R.; Law, Robert V.; Hill, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through the formation of hydroxy-carbonate apatite in body fluids while strontium (Sr)-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for patients suffering from osteoporosis, as Sr was shown to increase bone formation both in vitro and in vivo. A melt-derived glass series (SiO2–P2O5–CaO–Na2O) with 0–100% of calcium (Ca) replaced by Sr on a molar base was prepared. pH change, ion release and apatite formation during immersion of glass powder in simulated body fluid and Tris buffer at 37°C over up to 8 h were investigated and showed that substituting Sr for Ca increased glass dissolution and ion release, an effect owing to an expansion of the glass network caused by the larger ionic radius of Sr ions compared with Ca. Sr release increased linearly with Sr substitution, and apatite formation was enhanced significantly in the fully Sr-substituted glass, which allowed for enhanced osteoblast attachment as well as proliferation and control of osteoblast and osteoclast activity as shown previously. Studying the composition–structure–property relationship in bioactive glasses enables us to successfully design next-generation biomaterials that combine the bone regenerative properties of bioactive glasses with the release of therapeutically active Sr ions. PMID:21993007

  16. In vivo bioactivity of titanium and fluorinated apatite coatings for orthopaedic implants: a vibrational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Paola; Tinti, Anna; Reggiani, Matteo; Monti, Patrizia; Fagnano, Concezio

    2003-06-01

    The bone integration of implants is a complex process which depends on chemical composition and surface morphology. To accelerate osteointegration, metal implants are coated with porous metal or apatites which have been reported to increase mineralisation, improving prosthesis fixation. To study the influence of composition and morphology on the in vivo bioactivity, titanium screws coated by Plasma Flame Spraying (PFS) with titanium or fluorinated apatite (K690) were implanted in sheep tibia and femur for 10 weeks and studied by micro-Raman and IR spectroscopy. The same techniques, together with thermogravimetry, were used for characterising the pre-coating K690 powder. Contrary to the manufacturer report, the K690 pre-coating revealed to be composed of a partially fluorinated apatite containing impurities of Ca(OH) 2 and CaCO 3. By effect of PFS, the impurities were decomposed and the crystallinity degree of the coating was found to decrease. The vibrational spectra recorded on the implanted screws revealed the presence of newly formed bone; for the K690-coated screws at least, a high level of osteointegration was evidenced.

  17. Influence of fluoride in poly(d,l-lactide)/apatite composites on bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Barbieri, D; Passanisi, G; Yuan, H; de Bruijn, J D

    2015-05-01

    The influence of fluoride in poly(d,l-lactide)/apatite composites on ectopic bone formation was evaluated in sheep. Nano-apatite powders with different replacement levels of OH groups by fluoride (F) (0% (F0), 50% (F50), 100% (F100), and excessive (F200)) were co-extruded with poly (d,l-lactide) at a weight ratio of 1:1. Fluoride release from the composites (CF0, CF50, CF100, and CF200) was evaluated in vitro and bone formation was assessed after intramuscular implantation in sheep. After 24 weeks in simulated physiological solution, CF0 and CF50 showed negligible fluoride release, whereas it was considerable from the CF100 and CF200 composites. Histology showed that the incidence of de novo bone formation decreased in implants with increasing fluoride content indicating a negative influence of fluoride on ectopic bone formation. Furthermore, a significant decrease in resorption of the high fluoride-content composites and a reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells were seen. These results show that instead of promoting, the presence of fluoride in poly(d,l-lactide)/apatite composites seemed to suppresses their resorption and osteoinductive potential in non-osseous sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seiji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2017-09-24

    Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al and Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone.

  19. A new hydrometallurgical process for extracting rare earths from apatite using solvent extraction with P35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongfei; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Zhifeng; Li Deqian; Wang Zhonghuai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new process is proposed to recover rare earths from nitric acid leaching of apatite without interfering with the normal route for fertilizer production using solvent extraction with dimethyl heptyl methyl phosphonate CH 3 P(O)(OC 8 H 17 ) 2 (P 35 , B). In the present work, the leaching conditions are studied. In selected condition, apatite was dissolved in 20% (v/v) nitric acid solution at 60-70 deg. C while agitating. The most suitable acidity for extraction is 0.4 M HNO 3 . More than 98% of rare earths in apatite can be recovered using countercurrent extraction process with six stages when phase ratio = 0.5, and defluorination is unnecessary. The influences of phase ratio, stage number, acidity and salting-out agent on extractabilities of P 35 are studied. The results show that rare earths can be separated with P 35 from Ca, P, Fe and other impurities. Mixed rare earth oxides (REO) of which purity is more than 95% with yield over 98% can be obtained

  20. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-07-01

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

  1. Diagenesis does not invent anything new: Precise replication of conodont structures by secondary apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Annalisa; Malferrari, Daniele; Medici, Luca; Savioli, Martina

    2017-05-09

    Conodont elements are important archives of sea/pore water chemistry yet they often exhibit evidence of diagenetic mineral overgrowth which may be biasing measurents. We decided to investigate this phenomenon by characterising chemically and crystallographically, the original biomineral tissue and the diagenetic mineral nature of conodont elements from the Ordovician of Normandy. Diagenetic apatite crystals observed on the surface of conodont elements show distinctive large columnar, blocky or web-like microtextures. We demonstrate that these apatite neo-crystals exhibit the same chemical composition as the original fossil structure. X-ray microdiffraction has been applied herein for the first time to conodont structural investigation. Analyses of the entire conodont element surface of a variety of species have revealed the existence of a clear pattern of crystal preferred orientation. No significant difference in unit cell parameters was documented between the newly formed apatite crystals and those of the smooth conodont surfaces, thus it emerges from our research that diagenesis has strictly replicated the unit cell signature of the older crystals.

  2. Search for stable energy levels in materials exhibiting strong anomalous fading: The case of apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S.; Giannoulatou, Valeria; Sfampa, Ioanna K.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2014-01-01

    The thermally assisted OSL signal resulting from very deep traps was studied in the case of three fluorapatite samples, one chlorapatite as well as one collophanite cryptocrystalline carbonite phosphorite sample of various origins. Intense thermally assisted OSL signal was monitored while stimulating at 200 °C in all samples subjected to the present study, indicating the prevalence of the existence of these very deep traps. Anomalous fading effect is ubiquitous for all TL and OSL signals of all apatite samples subjected to the present study. The anomalous fading of the thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps is strongly differentiated from the anomalous fading of electron trap excited at temperatures below 500 °C. The thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps was found to clearly be more stable, showing much less anomalous fading over time. The possible implications of this finding in dating of both apatites and feldspars are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: • All apatite samples of the present study yield strong thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) signal. • In all cases, TA-OSL signal is much more stable compared to TL and conventional OSL, based on the corresponding anomalous fading rates. • This experimental feature could be extremely beneficial for luminescence dating

  3. Bioactive coatings on Portland cement substrates: Surface precipitation of apatite-like crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Daniel; Higuita, Natalia; Garcia, Felipe; Ferrell, Nicholas; Hansford, Derek J.

    2008-01-01

    We report a method for depositing bioactive coatings onto cement materials for bone tissue engineering applications. White Portland cement substrates were hydrated under a 20% CO 2 atmosphere, allowing the formation of CaCO 3 . The substrates were incubated in a calcium phosphate solution for 1, 3, and 6 days (CPI, CPII, and CPIII respectively) at 37 deg. C to induce the formation of carbonated apatite. Cement controls were prepared and hydrated with and without CO 2 atmosphere (C+ and C- respectively). The presence of apatite-like crystals was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The substrate cytocompatibility was evaluated via SEM after 24 hour cell cultures. SEM revealed the presence Ca(OH) 2 on C-, and CaCO 3 on C+. Apatite-like crystals were detected only on CPIII, confirmed by phosphorus EDS peaks only for CPIII. Cells attached and proliferated similarly well on all the substrates except C-. These results prove the feasibility of obtaining biocompatible and bioactive coatings on Portland cement for bone tissue engineering applications

  4. Formation of Porous Apatite Layer during In Vitro Study of Hydroxyapatite-AW Based Glass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Sooksaen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed the fabrication, characterization, and in vitro study of composites based on the mixture of hydroxyapatite powder and apatite-wollastonite (AW based glass. AW based glass was prepared from the SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5-CaF2 glass system. This study focuses on the effect of composition and sintering temperature that influences the properties of these composites. Microstructural study revealed the formation of apatite layer on the composite surfaces when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF solution at 37°C. Composites containing ≥50 wt% AW based glass showed good bioactivity after 7 days of immersion in the SBF. A porous calcium phosphate (potentially hydroxycarbonate apatite, HCA layer formed at the SBF-composite interface and the layer became denser at longer soaking period, for periods ranging from 7 to 28 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES analysis showed that early stage of soaking occurred with the release of Ca and Si ions from the composites and the decrease of P ions with slow exchange rate.

  5. Composition Determination and Cathodoluminescence of Natural Apatite from Different Phosphate Deposits in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liao, Libing; Xia, Zhiguo; Liu, Haikun

    2014-06-01

    Two kinds of natural apatite minerals were obtained from two different phosphate deposits in northern China, FanShan, Hebei province and HeiYingShan, Inner Mongolia province. Their chemical compositions, phase structure, and cathodoluminescence (CL) have been comparatively investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the raw phosphate minerals from FanShan mainly are composed of FanShan apatite (FA) and FanShan mica, respectively, while the ore sample from HeiYingShan contained HeiYingshan apatite (HA) and HeiYingshan magnetite. The mineralogical characteristics and crystal structure of FA and HA were further determined by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively. These results indicate that FA belongs to fluorapatite, while the HA belongs to hydroxyapatite. The existence of some trace elements has also been verified by the measured CL spectrum. The origin of the observed CL peaks has been discussed, and the relationship of the CL and the chemical composition has also been investigated.

  6. Effects of liquid phase on basic properties of alpha-tricalcium phosphate-based apatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Makoto; Takeuchi, Akari; Lin, Xin; Matsuya, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    Effects of liquid phase on the basic properties of alpha-tricalcuim phosphate (alpha-TCP)-based cement, BIOPEX, were investigated by employing three liquid phases: distilled water, neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution, and succinic acid disodium salt solution containing sodium salt of chondroitin sulfate. When mixed with neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate or succinic acid disodium salt solution, the initial setting times of the cement were 19.4 +/- 0.55 and 11.8 +/- 0.45 minutes respectively. These setting times were much shorter than that of distilled water, 88.4 +/- 0.55 minutes. Formation of needle-like crystals typical of apatite was much faster when neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was used, as compared to distilled water or succinic acid disodium salt solution. Moreover, at 24 hours after mixing, the largest amount of apatite was formed when neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was used, whereas use of succinic acid resulted in the least. On the final mechanical strength of the cement, that yielded with neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was the highest. In contrast, lower mechanical strength was observed--especially at the initial stage--when succinic acid sodium salt was used. It was thus concluded that alpha-TCP-based cement allowed accelerated transformation to apatite, and that higher mechanical strength since the initial stage was achieved when neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was used as the liquid phase.

  7. About the Genetic Mechanisms of Apatites: A Survey on the Methodological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pastero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatites are properly considered as a strategic material owing to the broad range of their practical uses, primarily biomedical but chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental and geological as well. The apatite group of minerals has been the subject of a huge number of papers, mainly devoted to the mass crystallization of nanosized hydroxyapatite (or carboapatite as a scaffold for osteoinduction purposes. Many wet and dry methods of synthesis have been proposed. The products have been characterized using various techniques, from the transmission electron microscopy to many spectroscopic methods like IR and Raman. The experimental approach usually found in literature allows getting tailor made micro- and nano- crystals ready to be used in a wide variety of fields. Despite the wide interest in synthesis and characterization, little attention has been paid to the relationships between bulk structure and corresponding surfaces and to the role plaid by surfaces on the mechanisms involved during the early stages of growth of apatites. In order to improve the understanding of their structure and chemical variability, close attention will be focused on the structural complexity of hydroxyapatite (HAp, on the richness of its surfaces and their role in the interaction with the precursor phases, and in growth kinetics and morphology.

  8. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  9. Intra-abdominal hypertension in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection--an under-recognized treatable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2010-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults, with recent reports of increased severity and case fatality. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are increasingly recognized and treatable complications of severe illness in medical patients, and are independent predictors of mortality. Patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at increased risk for IAH and ACS. However, ACS has been only rarely described in this population. We report a case of a 61 year-old morbidly obese, chronically ill, ventilator dependent patient, who developed fulminant CDI, including progressive colonic distension, acute renal failure and intra-abdominal fluid sequestration. Her clinical course worsened abruptly, with new shock, worsening hypoxic respiratory failure, increased peak airway pressures and reduced tidal volumes. Intra-abdominal pressure was 30 mm Hg. The patient was not considered a surgical candidate, was refractory to escalating non-surgical support, and died following withdrawal of life support. Although patients with fulminant CDI share many risk factors for IAH and ACS, these conditions were rarely reported in this population and are likely under recognized, as was the case with the present patient. Increased vigilance for IAH is needed in this at-risk population.

  10. Impact of paint shop decanter effluents on biological treatability of automotive industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Hanhan, Oytun; Aksoy, Elif Ceren; Insel, Güçlü; Çokgör, Emine

    2017-05-15

    A lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was implemented to investigate biological treatability and kinetic characteristics of paint shop wastewater (PSW) together with main stream wastewater (MSW) of a bus production factory. Readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD fractions of MWS were determined by respirometric analysis: 4.2% (S S ), 10.4% (S H ) and 59.3% (X S ). Carbon and nitrogen removal performance of the SBR feeding with MSW alone were obtained as 89% and 58%, respectively. When PSW was introduced to MSW, both carbon and nitrogen removal were deteriorated. Model simulation indicated that maximum heterotrophic growth rate decreased from 7.2 to 5.7day -1 , maximum hydrolysis rates were reduced from 6 to 4day -1 (k hS ) and 4 to 1day -1 (k hX ). Based on the dynamic model simulation for the evaluation of nitrogen removal, a maximum specific nitrifier growth rate was obtained as 0.45day -1 for MSW feeding alone. When PSW was introduced, nitrification was completely inhibited and following the termination of PSW addition, nitrogen removal performance was recovered in about 100 days, however with a much lower nitrifier growth rate (0.1day -1 ), possibly due to accumulation of toxic compounds in the sludge. Obviously, a longer recovery period is required to ensure an active nitrifier community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193) and a retrospective validation (n = 567) cohort. Clinically related baseline characteristics were grouped into three composite variables, each independently associated with a set of predefined urgent treatable causes. We subsequently derived a risk score classifying patients into low (0 composite variables present) or high (≥ 1 composite variables present) risk for an urgent treatable cause. The sensitivity of the risk score was determined in the validation cohort and in a prospective case series of 214 adults with CSF-culture proven bacterial meningitis, CSF pleocytosis and a negative Gram stain. A total of 41 of 193 patients (21%) in the derivation cohort and 71 of 567 (13%) in the validation cohort had an urgent treatable cause. Sensitivity of the dichotomized risk score to detect an urgent treatable cause was 100.0% (95% CI 93.9-100.0%) in the validation cohort and 100.0% (95% CI 97.8-100.0%) in bacterial meningitis patients. The risk score can be used to identify adults with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  13. On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of the putty were measured using a Vicat type apparatus and the compressive strength was determined with a. Universal Testing Machine. The nature of the precipitated cement was analyzed through X-ray diffraction. (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and energy dispersive electron microprobe (EDAX).

  14. On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The setting times of the putty were measured using a Vicat type apparatus and the compressive strength was determined with a Universal Testing Machine. The nature of the precipitated cement was analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and energy dispersive electron ...

  15. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. He, U, and Th Depth Profiling of Apatite and Zircon Using Laser Ablation Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry and SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K. V.; Hervig, R.; Boyce, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional (U-Th)/He thermochronology utilizes single or multiple grain analyses of U- and Th-bearing minerals such as apatite and zircon and does not allow for assessment of spatial variation in concentration of He, U, or Th within individual crystals. As such, age calculation and interpretation require assumptions regarding 4He loss through alpha ejection, diffusive redistribution of 4He, and U and Th distribution as an initial condition for these processes. Although models have been developed to predict 4He diffusion parameters, correct for the effect of alpha ejection on calculated cooling ages, and account for the effect of U and Th zonation within apatite and zircon, measurements of 4He, U, and Th distribution have not been combined within a single crystal. We apply ArF excimer laser ablation, combined with noble gas mass spectrometry, to obtain depth profiles within apatite and zircon crystals in order to assess variations in 4He concentration with depth. Our initial results from pre-cut, pre-heated slabs of Durango apatite, each subjected to different T-t schedules, suggest a general agreement of 4He profiles with those predicted by theoretical diffusion models (Farley, 2000). Depth profiles through unpolished grains give reproducible alpha ejection profiles in Durango apatite that deviate from alpha ejection profiles predicted for ideal, homogenous crystals. SIMS depth profiling utilizes an O2 primary beam capable of sputtering tens of microns and measuring sub-micron resolution variation in [U], [Th], and [Sm]. Preliminary results suggest that sufficient [U] and [Th] zonation is present in Durango apatite to influence the form of the 4He alpha ejection profile. Future work will assess the influence of measured [U] and [Th] zonation on previously measured 4He depth profiles. Farley, K.A., 2000. Helium diffusion from apatite; general behavior as illustrated by Durango fluorapatite. J. Geophys. Res., B Solid Earth Planets 105 (2), 2903-2914.

  17. Treatability and scale-up protocols for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation of manufactured-gas-plant soils. Final report, September 1987-July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sanseverino, J.

    1991-07-01

    The report describes activities to develop a framework to reliably scale-up and apply challenging bioremediation processes to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils. It includes: a discussion of the accuracy needed for competitive application of bioremediation; a framework and examples for treatability and scale-up protocols for selection, design and application of these processes; both batch and continuous testing protocols for developing predictive rate data; and special predictive relationships that may be used in process selection/scale-up. The work, coupled with subsequent work (as recommended) to develop an MGP soil desorption/diffusion protocol and new scale-up methods, and with subsequent scale-up testing should lead to the capability for improved selection of MGP sites for bioremediation and improved performance, success, and reliability of field applications. With this greater predictive reliability, bioremediation will be used more often in the field on the most favorable applications and its cost advantages over other remediation options will be realized

  18. Tuned apatitic materials: Synthesis, characterization and potential antimicrobial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierascu, Irina; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Somoghi, Raluca; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Moanta, Adriana; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Damian, Celina Maria; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic antimicrobial materials can be viable for multiple applications (related to its use for new buildings with special requirements related to microbiological loading, such as hospital buildings and for consolidation of cultural heritage constructions); also the use of substituted hydroxyapatites for protection of stone artefacts against environmental factors (acidic rain) and biodeterioration it's an option to no longer use of toxic substances. This paper presents methods of synthesis and characterization of the material from the point of view of the obtained structures and final applications. The materials were characterized in terms of composition and morphology (using X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Surface area and pore size determination). Antimicrobial activity was tested against filamentous fungi strains and pathogenic bacteria strains, using both spot on lawn qualitative method (on agar medium) and serial microdilution quantitative method (in broth medium). Further, it was evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of the tested samples toward the most important microbial strains implicated in biofilm development, using crystal violet stained biofilms microtiter assay, followed by spectrophotometric quantitative evaluation.

  19. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  20. The Thermal Evolution of the Southeast Baffin Island Continental Margin: An Integrated Apatite Fission Track and Apatite (U-Th)/He Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, S.; Stephenson, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The elevated continental margins of the North Atlantic continue to be a focus of considerable geological and geomorphological debate, as the timing of major tectonic events and the age of topographic relief remain controversial. The West Greenland margin, on the eastern flank of Baffin Bay, is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonic rejuvenation and uplift during the Neogene. However, the opposing flank, Baffin Island, is considered to have experienced a protracted erosional regime with little tectonic activity since the Cretaceous. This work examines the thermal evolution of the Cumberland Peninsula, SE Baffin Island, using published apatite fission track (AFT) data with the addition of 103 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages. This expansion of available thermochronological data introduces a higher resolution of thermal modelling, whilst the application of the newly developed `Broken Crystals' technique provides a greater number of thermal constraints for an area dominated by AHe age dispersion. Results of joint thermal modelling of the AFT and AHe data exhibit two significant periods of cooling across the Cumberland Peninsula: Devonian/Carboniferous to the Triassic and Late Cretaceous to present. The earliest phase of cooling is interpreted as the result of major fluvial systems present throughout the Paleozoic that flowed across the Canadian Shield to basins in the north and south. The later stage of cooling is believed to result from rift controlled fluvial systems that flowed into Baffin Bay during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic during the early stages and culmination of rifting along the Labrador-Baffin margins. Glaciation in the Late Cenozoic has likely overprinted these later river systems creating a complex fjordal distribution that has shaped the modern elevated topography. This work demonstrates how surface processes, and not tectonism, can explain the formation of elevated continental margins and that recent methodological developments in the field of

  1. Novel Osteointegrative Sr-Substituted Apatitic Cements Enriched with Alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sprio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of novel injectable, self-setting bone cements made of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA, obtained by single-phase calcium phosphate precursors doped with different amounts of strontium and enriched with alginate. The addition of alginate improved the injectability, cohesion, and compression strength of the cements, without affecting the hardening process. A Sr-HA cement exhibiting adequate hardening times and mechanical strength for clinical applications was further tested in vivo in a rabbit model, in comparison with a commercial calcium phosphate cement, revealing the maintenance of biomimetic composition and porous microstructure even after one month in vivo, as well as enhanced ability to induce new bone formation and penetration.

  2. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING Ca ION RELEASE FROM SOL-GEL DERIVED IN SITU APATITE-SILICA NANOCOMPOSITE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Latifi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ca ion release from bioactive biomaterials could play an important role in their bioactivity and osteoconductivity properties. In order to improve hydroxyapatite (HA dissolution rate, in situ apatite-silica nanocomposite powders with various silica contents were synthesized via sol-gel method and mechanisms controlling the Ca ion release from them were investigated. Obtained powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM techniques, acid dissolution test, and spectroscopy by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results indicated the possible incorporation of (SiO44- into the HA structure and tendency of amorphous silica to cover the surface of HA particles. However, 20 wt. % silica was the lowest amount that fully covered HA particles. All of the nanocomposite powders showed more Ca ion release compared with pure HA, and HA - 10 wt. % silica had the highest Ca ion release. The crystallinity, the crystallite size, and the content of HA, along with the integrity, thickness, and ion diffusion possibility through the amorphous silica layer on the surface of HA, were factors that varied due to changes in the silica content and were affected the Ca ion release from nanocomposite powders.

  3. Sulfur concentration and isotopic variation in apatites from granitic to granodioritic plutons of a Cretaceous Cordilleran Batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Apatite is a common igneous accessory mineral with a high saturation temperature which can therefore crystallize over a significant portion of magmatic compositional space. Sulfur presents an opportunity to identify zoning in apatites. Unlike other trace elements, sulfur is relatively immobile in the apatite crystal structure and can be present in typical concentrations up to 1500 - 2000 ppm (or 0.5 to 1 wt% SO3). Sulfur concentration zoning in igneous apatites from ore producing magmatic systems has been identified (Streck and Dilles, 1998), but the interpretation of the cause of this zoning remains an open question. δ34S isotopic ratios of whole apatites have been used to track isotopic evolution associated with changes in magma fO2 and eruptive degassing (Rye, 2005). The presented work combines sulfur concentration mapping in zoned apatite crystals with in-situ SIMS 34S and 32S isotope measurements. Apatites were extracted from granite to granodiorite samples from the Cadiz Valley Batholith in the central Mojave Desert. This batholith is related to the pulse of Cretaceous Cordilleran magmatism that generated large batholiths in the Sierra Nevada and the Penninsular Ranges. The Mojave segment of the Cretaceous arc is unique in their construction into a full thickness of continental crust which exerted a strong influence on magmatic compositions. Apatite grains were mounted parallel to C axes, ground until grains were approximately bisected, and analyzed by Electron Microprobe at UCLA, for CaO, P2O5, SO3 and SiO2. Grains were surveyed and those yielding anomalous SO3 contents were investigated by micron-scale concentration mapping. Typical SO3 concentrations of apatites from all samples were ~0.2 wt%, while 8 to 10% of apatite grains from two samples contained cores with concentrations ranging up to 0.5 wt%. The sulfur zoning in these samples is oscillatory, in some grains representing 5 to 6 repetitions of high and low concentrations. Based on these textures

  4. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  5. Apatite fission-track analysis of the tectonic effects of the Arabia-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, I.; Cavazza, W.; Zattin, M.; Okay, A. I.; Adamia, S.; Sadradze, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene collision between Arabia and Eurasia led to the development of (i) the Bitlis-Zagros orogenic belt, (ii) the North and East Anatolian fault systems, (iii) the structural inversion of the Caucasian basins, and (iv) widespread deformation in the Turkish-Armenian-Iranian plateau. Despite the importance of the event, the exact age of the collision is poorly constrained. The integration of new apatite fission-track (AFT) data from the eastern Pontides, the Lesser Caucasus (Adjara-Trialeti zone), and the eastern part of the Anatolian plateau with preexisting data from the Bitlis suture has provided insights on the syn-and post-collisional evolution not only of eastern Anatolia but also of the entire Eastern Mediterranean area. The AFT samples have a wide spatial distribution and include different types of rocks: Paleogene sandstones and magmatic rocks with Cretaceous-to-Eocene intrusion ages. Despite the disparate lithologies and large distance, apatite fission-track ages from the easternmost Pontides, the Georgian Lesser Caucasus, the eastern Anatolian Plateau, and the Bitlis collision zone show a distinct geographic pattern. Exhumation along the Black Sea coast occurred in the Middle Miocene, mirroring the age of collision between the Eurasian and Arabian plates along the 2,400-km long Bitlis-Zagros suture zone some 200 km to the south. Exhumation in the Anatolian Plateau occurred in the Paleogene (with a cluster of ages in the Middle-Late Eocene), coevally with the development of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture. Successive development of the Anatolian Plateau did not exhume a new partial annealing zone and thus is not recorded by the apatite fission tracks.

  6. Apatite grown in niobium by two-step plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruno Leandro; Lepienski, Carlos Maurício; Mazzaro, Irineu; Kuromoto, Neide Kazue

    2017-08-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of niobium plates were done electrochemically in two steps with electrolytes containing phosphorous and calcium being observed the formation of crystalline apatite. All samples were submitted to a first step of PEO using an electrolyte containing phosphate ions. The second oxidization step was made using three different electrolytes. Some samples were oxidized by PEO in electrolyte containing calcium, while in other samples it was used two mixtures of phosphoric acid and calcium acetate monohydrate solutions. Three different surface layers were obtained. The morphology and chemical composition of the films were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) respectively. It was observed that all samples submitted to two-step oxidation shown porous surface and a calcium and phosphorus rich layer. Average surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a profilometer remaining in the sub-micrometric range. The contact angle by sessile drop technique, using 1μL of distilled water was performed with an optical goniometer. It was verified a higher hydrophilicity in all surfaces compared to the polished niobium. Orthorhombic Nb 2 O 5 was identified by XRD in the oxide layer. Crystalline apatite was identified by XRD in surfaces after the second oxidation made with the Ca-rich electrolyte and a mixture of an electrolyte richer in Ca compared to P. These results indicate that a two-step oxidized niobium surface present great features for applications in the osseointegration processes: favorable chemical composition that increase the biocompatibility, the formation of crystalline niobium pentoxide (orthorhombic), high hydrophilicity and formation of crystalline calcium phosphate (apatite) under adequate electrolyte composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  8. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H ampersand S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H ampersand S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H ampersand S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated

  9. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the treatability study of in situ vitrification of Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) establishes the quality assurance procedures and requirements to be implemented for the control of quality-related activities for Phase 3 of the Treatability Study (TS) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) of Seepage Pit 1, ORNL Waste Area Grouping 7. This QAPjP supplements the Quality Assurance Plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program by providing information specific to the ISV-TS. Phase 3 of the TS involves the actual ISV melt operations and posttest monitoring of Pit 1 and vicinity. Previously, Phase 1 activities were completed, which involved determining the boundaries of Pit 1, using driven rods and pipes and mapping the distribution of radioactivity using logging tools within the pipes. Phase 2 involved sampling the contents, both liquid and solids, in and around seepage Pit 1 to determine their chemical and radionuclide composition and the spatial distribution of these attributes. A separate QAPjP was developed for each phase of the project. A readiness review of the Phase 3 activities presented QAPjP will be conducted prior to initiating field activities, and an Operational Acceptance, Test (OAT) will also be conducted with no contamination involved. After, the OAT is complete, the ISV process will be restarted, and the melt will be allowed to increase with depth and incorporate the radionuclide contamination at the bottom of Pit 1. Upon completion of melt 1, the equipment will be shut down and mobilized to an adjacent location at which melt 2 will commence

  10. Work plan for the treatability study for PCB dehalogenation by Agent 313 in Waste Area Grouping 11 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This work Plan describes the treatability study for Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) debalogenation by Agent 313 (a registered trademark of the A.L. Sandpiper Corporation of Columbus, ohio) to be conducted at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The study will be conducted at WAG 11 as a result of the contamination of several small areas of soil by leaking capacitors. The primary purpose of this treatability study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Agent 313 in remediating PCB-contaminated soil. However, the WAG 11 soils to be treated may also contain radionuclides and metals. In addition to providing the procedures to be followed during the treatability study, the work plan briefly describes the project background and technology, lists applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for the project, and delineates project goals and objectives. This document also follows the general suggested outline for treatability study work plans shown in the 1992 report Guide for conducting Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Final, EPA;540/R-92-071a, published by the US Environmental Protection Agency

  11. High spatial resolution U-Pb geochronology and Pb isotope geochemistry of magnetite-apatite ore from the Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite deposit, St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Pietruszka, Aaron; Aleinikoff, John N.; Fanning, C. Mark; Pillers, Renee M.; Moscati, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit is one of the major rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposits of the St. Francois Mountains terrane, which is located within the Mesoproterozoic (1.5–1.3 Ga) Granite-Rhyolite province in the U.S. Midcontinent. Precise and accurate determination of the timing and duration of oreforming processes in this deposit is crucial for understanding its origin and placing it within a deposit-scale and regional geologic context. Apatite and monazite, well-established U-Pb mineral geochronometers, are abundant in the Pea Ridge orebody. However, the potential presence of multiple generations of dateable minerals, processes of dissolution-reprecipitation, and occurrence of micrometer-sized intergrowths and inclusions complicate measurements and interpretations of the geochronological results. Here, we employ a combination of several techniques, including ID-TIMS and high spatial resolution geochronology of apatite and monazite using LA-SC-ICPMS and SHRIMP, and Pb isotope geochemistry of pyrite and magnetite to obtain the first direct age constraints on the formation and alteration history of the Pea Ridge IOA deposit. The oldest apatite TIMS 207Pb*/206Pb* dates are 1471 ± 1 and 1468 ± 1 Ma, slightly younger than (but within error of) the ~1474 to ~1473 Ma U-Pb zircon ages of the host rhyolites. Dating of apatite and monazite inclusions within apatite provides evidence for at least one younger metasomatic event at ~1.44 Ga, and possibly multiple superimposed metasomatic events between 1.47 and 1.44 Ga. Lead isotop analyses of pyrite show extremely radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~80 unsupported by in situ U decay. This excess radiogenic Pb in pyrite may have been derived from the spatially associated apatite as apatite recrystallized several tens of million years after its formation. The low initial 206Pb/204Pb ratio of ~16.5 and 207Pb/204Pb ratio of ~15.4 for individual magnetite grains indicate closed U-Pb system behavior in

  12. Bile Acid Malabsorption After Pelvic and Prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: An Uncommon but Treatable Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Victoria [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Benton, Barbara [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam [Department of Radiology, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Andreyev, H. Jervoise N., E-mail: j@andreyev.demon.co.uk [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a significant therapeutic advance in prostate cancer, allowing increased tumor dose delivery and increased sparing of normal tissues. IMRT planning uses strict dose constraints to nearby organs to limit toxicity. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a treatable disorder of the terminal ileum (TI) that presents with symptoms similar to radiation therapy toxicity. It has not been described in patients receiving RT for prostate cancer in the contemporary era. We describe new-onset BAM in men after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Diagnosis of new-onset BAM was established after typical symptoms developed, selenium-75 homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) scanning showed 7-day retention of <15%, and patients' symptoms unequivocally responded to a bile acid sequestrant. The TI was identified on the original radiation therapy plan, and the radiation dose delivered was calculated and compared with accepted dose-volume constraints. Results: Five of 423 men treated in a prospective series of high-dose prostate and pelvic IMRT were identified with new onset BAM (median age, 65 years old). All reported having normal bowel habits before RT. The volume of TI ranged from 26-141 cc. The radiation dose received by the TI varied between 11.4 Gy and 62.1 Gy (uncorrected). Three of 5 patients had TI treated in excess of 45 Gy (equivalent dose calculated in 2-Gy fractions, using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3) with volumes ranging from 1.6 cc-49.0 cc. One patient had mild BAM (SeHCAT retention, 10%-15%), 2 had moderate BAM (SeHCAT retention, 5%-10%), and 2 had severe BAM (SeHCAT retention, <5%). The 3 patients whose TI received {>=}45 Gy developed moderate to severe BAM, whereas those whose TI received <45 Gy had only mild to moderate BAM. Conclusions: Radiation delivered to the TI during IMRT may cause BAM. Identification of the TI from unenhanced RT planning computed tomography scans is difficult and may impede

  13. Comparative behavior of sol gel derived 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system for the growth of hydroxyl apatite layer from XRD and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive samples of 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5- SiO2 compositions have been prepared in the laboratory. XRD and Raman techniques have been employed to infer the structural information of the samples before and after in vitro test. In vitro tests have been undertaken by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Formation of hydroxyl apatite layer on the surface of samples indicates that all the prepared samples are bioactive in nature. Reported investigations are important to improve the antibacterial properties of the future bioactive implant materials.

  14. The evaluation of hydroxyl ions as a nucleating agent for apatite on electrospun non-woven poly( ϵ -caprolactone) fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Sup; Um, Seung-Hoon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of hydroxyl ions when used as a nucleating agent to form apatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. A 25 wt% poly(ϵ-caprolactone) solution was prepared using 1,1,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol as a solvent and was electrospun under an electric field of 1 kV/cm. Subsequently, non-woven poly(ϵ-caprolactone) fabrics were dipped into 4 M NaOH solution and the experimental group was then directly air-dried (NaOH coated), while the control group was washed with deionized water and air-dried (NaOH treated) under ambient conditions. The non-woven poly(ϵ-caprolactone) fabrics that were coated and treated with NaOH were exposed to SBF for 1 week, which resulted in the deposition of a layer of apatite crystals on the non-woven poly(ϵ-caprolactone) fabric coated with NaOH only. On the other hand, when the non-woven poly(ϵ-caprolactone) fabrics were dipped into 0.05, 0.1, 1 and 4 M NaOH solutions, respectively, air-dried, and then soaked in SBF, the apatite forming capacity was gradually increased according to the concentration of NaOH solution. These results were explained in terms of the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF induced by the release of hydroxyl ions from the coated NaOH because hydroxyl ions are one of the constituent elements of apatite. These results suggest that hydroxyl ions have a good potential for use as a nucleating agent for apatite on a previously non-bioactive polymer surface.

  15. The role of the counter-ions present in syntheses on the thermal stabilization of strontium and/or calcium apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo da Silva, Leila; Santos Menezes, Daniela dos; Almeida, Luis Eduardo [Laboratório de Biomateriais – P" 2CEM, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, São Cristóvão, 49100-000 Sergipe (Brazil); Anselme, Karine; Dentzer, Joseph [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS UMR7361, Université de Haute-Alsace, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Araujo dos Santos, Euler, E-mail: euler@ufs.br [Laboratório de Biomateriais – P" 2CEM, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, São Cristóvão, 49100-000 Sergipe (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Counter-ions present in syntheses can affect thermal stabilization of apatites. • Ions with different charges and sizes can stabilize the apatite structure. • Co-substitution is an important way to design biomimetic hydroxyapatites. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to study the thermal stabilization of calcium apatites in which the Ca{sup 2+} ions were substituted for Sr{sup 2+} in increasing concentrations via ionic co-substitutions. Two distinct standard syntheses were proposed for comparative purposes: one using counter-ions that were not easily incorporated into the apatite structure (NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup −}) and one using counter-ions that can be easily incorporated into the structure (Na{sup +}/Cl{sup −}). After calcination, only the apatites synthesized in the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup −} presented phase transformation. In contrast, the apatites synthesized in the presence of Na{sup +}/Cl{sup −} formed a solid solution after calcination, with Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sharing the same apatite lattice. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques showed that the counter-ions present during the syntheses that are associated with CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} play an important role in the thermal stabilization of the apatites.

  16. Calibration of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the calibration of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS instrument, initiated

  17. Geodynamic risk magnitude as an objective indicator of rockburst prevention effectiveness (in terms of apatite mines in Khibiny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova Panin, YuV, VI

    2018-03-01

    The results of the statistical retrospective analysis of the officially recorded geodynamic events in mines of Apatit Company within the Khibiny Massif are presented. The risks and aftereffects of geodynamic events have been calculated. Under discussion are the results of three calculation variants taking into account the scale of human impact on rock mass. The analysis shows that the main damage due to geodynamic events is different-degree destruction of mine workings while the remaining aftereffects account for less than ten percent. That is, the geodynamic risk in apatite mines can be identified as technological.

  18. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Mihailova, B.; Heidrich, S.; Bismayer, U.; Wang, X.; Klocke, A.; Klocke, A.

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  19. Highly porous polymer-derived wollastonite-hydroxycarbonate apatite ceramics for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Li, S; Bernardo, E; Stevens, M M; Jones, J R

    2016-04-12

    A novel strategy was employed to synthesize highly porous wollastonite-hydroxycarbonate apatite ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration. A commercial liquid preceramic polymer filled with micro-CaCO3 powders was foamed at low temperature (at 350 °C), using the decomposition of a hydrazine additive, and then converted into ceramic by a treatment at 700 °C. Hydroxycarbonate apatite was later developed by a phosphatization treatment of ceramized foams, in a P-rich solution, while wollastonite was obtained by a second firing, at 900 °C. The effectiveness of the method was proven by x-ray diffraction analysis, showing the presence of the two expected crystalline phases. Porosity, interconnect size distribution and mechanical strength were in the range that is thought to be suitable for bone regeneration in non-load bearing sites (compressive strength ≈ 3 MPa, porosity ≈ 90%, modal interconnect diameter ≈ 130-160 μm). In addition, bioactivity and ion release rate were assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF). MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells were able to colonize the material in vitro through the pore architecture and expressed osteogenic markers.

  20. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Ye Xiaojian; Li Jiashun

    2009-01-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  1. Remediation of lead, cadmium and uranium contaminated water and soil by apatite amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Kaludjerovic, T.

    2002-01-01

    During the past years as a consequence of war and some accidents in neighboring countries large areas in Serbia were contaminated by toxic heavy metals, including lead, cadmium and uranium. For example, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr have been doubled above the allowed maximum value in the Romanian part of the Danube while sediments near the border in Bulgaria have higher concentrations of Pb 3 times, Cu 1400 times and Cd 30 times more than the average long-standing levels. Furthermore, an estimated 10 tons of depleted uranium (DU) was spread mainly throughout the territory of Kosovo. This contamination is a potential source of different chronic diseases including malignant diseases and represents a long-term threat for the population living in the affected areas. For this reason, remediation of contaminated sites represents an urgent need and priority. The standard remediation procedure which includes soil removal, treatment (washing, chelating), conditioning etc. is costly, disruptive and not sustainable. This study was carried out to evaluate apatite from the Lisina deposit as soil amendment for in situ stabilization of toxic heavy metals. Preliminary theoretical and experimentally results presented here point out this natural apatite as an ecological, nontoxic material which can be used for efficient and cost-effective remediation of large areas contaminated with Pb, Cd and U. (author)

  2. Apatite weathering as a geological driver of high uranium concentrations in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, Andre; Rüde, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High groundwater U concentrations occur in a Triassic aquifer of northern Bavaria. • U is hosted by carbonate fluorapatite phases (francolite) in aquifer inclusions. • Distribution of uraniferous facies is congruent with spatial groundwater U pattern. • Carbonate substitution and α-recoil damage from U decay enhance mineral solubility. • Mobilization of U to groundwater occurs during francolite weathering. - Abstract: Uranium is a heavy metal with potential adverse human health effects when consumed via drinking water. Although associated quality regulations have been implemented, geological sources and hydrogeochemical behavior of uranium in groundwater used for drinking water supply remain little understood. This study presents a hydrogeochemical and mineralogical characterization of a Triassic sandstone aquifer on a macro- and micro-scale, and an evaluation of uranium remobilization into groundwater, also considering the paleoenvironment and the distribution of the affected aquifer itself. Syndiagenetic uraniferous carbonate fluorapatite inclusions within the aquifer sandstones (“active arkoses”) were found to show structurally (chemical substitution in the crystal structure) and radiatively (α-recoil damage from uranium decay) enhanced mineral solubility. Extraction experiments indicated that these inclusions release uranium to groundwater during weathering. In conclusion, apatite alteration was identified as the responsible mechanism for widespread groundwater uranium concentrations >10 μg L −1 in the region representing Germany’s most significant problem area in this respect. Therefore, results indicate that the studied sedimentary apatite deposits cause the regional geogenic groundwater uranium problem, and must be considered as potential uranium sources in comparable areas worldwide

  3. Mechanism and Kinetics for the Dissolution of Apatitic Materials in Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmanovici C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This work concerns the study of the digestion step in the production process of phosphoric acid. Some qualitative experiments indicate that the difference between the pH at the surface of the phosphate and that in the bulk of the solution is negligible and that the dissolution is controlled by diffusion of products away from the phosphate particle. In further experiments, to isolate the dissolution phenomenon from the formation of calcium sulfate, the sulfuric acid normally used industrially is replaced by hydrochloric acid. The phosphate material used in our experiments is a model apatitic material: synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP. The dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite was studied with increasing amounts of calcium and phosphate at different temperatures. A simple method was developed for this observation based on the time required for complete dissolution of the HAP powder. The results confirm that the dissolution is controlled by a diffusional process through an interface of calcium and phosphate ions released from the solid surface. A kinetic model for the dissolution of apatitic materials is proposed which assumes a shrinking particle behaviour controlled by diffusion of calcium ions. The experimental results are fitted to this model to determine the mass transfer constant for HAP dissolution in acid solutions. The activation energy of the reaction is about 14kJ/mol. This study was carried on in conditions similar to the industrial ones for the production of phosphoric acid by the dihydrate-process

  4. Apatite metaprism twist angle ( φ) as a tool for crystallochemical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. C.; Baikie, Tom; Pramana, Stevin S.; Smith, Ron; White, T. J.

    2011-11-01

    [ AI] 4[ AII] 6( BO 4) 6X2 apatites can flexibly accommodate numerous cationic, metalloid and anionic substitutions. Using a combination of new refinements and published structures, this paper reviews correlations between substituent type and framework adaptation through adjustment of the AIO 6 metaprism twist angle, φ. These systematics are illustrated through powder neutron diffraction refinement of the crystal chemistry of A10(PO 4) 6F 2 ( A=Ca, Sr) fluorapatites. Variations in φ reflect changes in the relative size of the AI4( BO 4) 6 framework and AII6X2 tunnel content and can be used to quantitatively assess the reliability of AI/ AII cation partitioning coefficients determined by Rietveld analysis. In the simplest cases of bi-ionic substitution, the metaprism twist systematics conform to three principle trends For A-type divalent substitution, the larger A2 + species preferentially enters the channel before partitioning to the framework. This leads to parabolic modification in φ across the compositional series; For B-type pentavalent compounds, the φ variation will be linear in accord with the relative B5+ ionic size; and For X-type substitution of halide anions, φ will be reduced as the average size increases. Departures from these trends may indicate polymorphism, compositional anomalies, AI/AII order disequilibrium, or poor structure refinement, and may be extended to chemically complex apatites with simultaneous substitutions over the A, B and X sites.

  5. Manufacture of nanosized apatite coatings on titanium with different surface treatments using a supersaturated calcification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Paz Ramos

    Full Text Available The biomimetic method is used for the deposition of calcium phosphate coatings (Ca - P on the surface of different biomaterials. However, the application of this method requires long exposure times in order to obtain a suitable layer thickness for its use in medical devices. In this paper, we present a fast approach to obtain apatite coatings on titanium, using a combination of supersaturated calcification solution (SCS with chemical modification of the titanium surface. Also, it was evaluated the effect of four different surface treatments on the apatite deposition rate. Commercially pure titanium plates were activated by chemical or thermochemical treatments. Then, the activated samples were immersed in a solution with high content of calcium and phosphate ions at 37 ºC for 24 h, mimicking the physiological conditions. The coatings were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The use of SCS solutions allowed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite coatings within a period of 24 h with a thickness between 1 and 5.3 µm. Besides, precipitates of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a globular configuration, forming aggregates with submicrometer size, were found in SCS solutions.

  6. Cellular Adaptation: Culture conditions of R. opacus and bioflotation of apatite and quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Merma

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the culture conditions of microorganisms may affect their surface properties, zeta potential and hydrophobicity via the modification of the cell wall functional groups or metabolic products. The R. opacus bacteria strain was separately adapted to the presence of apatite and quartz, after which a cellular adaptation procedure was developed by repeated sub-culturing with a successive increase in the mineral content. Zeta potential, surface tension, FTIR and microflotation studies were used to evaluate the behavior of the cells that were developed under defined culture conditions. The cellular adaptation induced a modification of the bacterial surface charge. The FTIR results showed a modification of its functional groups. The surface tension results suggested that longer growing time promoted a higher production of metabolites. The use of mineral-adapted cells promoted an improvement in the flotability of both minerals, but it was more significant for apatite flotation. Additionally, the mineral flotability remained unchanged when the cells developed under a longer culture time. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the surface tension.

  7. Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates in Biomedical Engineering, Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in biomineralization have already demonstrated that nanosized particles play an important role in the formation of hard tissues of animals. Namely, the basic inorganic building blocks of bones and teeth of mammals are nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates (in the form of apatites of a biological origin. In mammals, tens to hundreds nanocrystals of a biological apatite were found to be combined into self-assembled structures under the control of various bioorganic matrixes. In addition, the structures of both dental enamel and bones could be mimicked by an oriented aggregation of nanosized calcium orthophosphates, determined by the biomolecules. The application and prospective use of nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates for a clinical repair of damaged bones and teeth are also known. For example, a greater viability and a better proliferation of various types of cells were detected on smaller crystals of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, the nanodimensional and nanocrystalline forms of calcium orthophosphates have a great potential to revolutionize the field of hard tissue engineering starting from bone repair and augmentation to the controlled drug delivery devices. This paper reviews current state of knowledge and recent developments of this subject starting from the synthesis and characterization to biomedical and clinical applications. More to the point, this review provides possible directions of future research and development.

  8. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P–O–Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a pH value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  9. Sorption behavior of Zn(II) ions on synthetic apatitic calcium phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Haroun; Pham Minh, Doan; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis, characterization and the reactivity of apatitic calcium phosphates (Ca-HA, chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is reported. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH2PO4) were selected as economical starting materials for the synthesis of Ca-HA under atmospheric conditions. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and octacalcium phosphate pentahydrate (OCP) were identified as the main intermediates of the synthesis reaction. The product obtained after 48 h of reaction contains mainly low-crystalline Ca-HA and small amounts of other calcium phosphates such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP), B-type carbonate apatite (CAP), as well as unreacted calcium carbonate. This Ca-HA was found to be active for the removal of Zn2+ from an aqueous solution. Its sorption capacity reached up to 120 mg of Zn2+ per g of Ca-HA powder after 24 h of reaction. The monitoring of soluble Zn, Ca and P during the sorption experiment allowed characterizing the mechanism of Zn uptake. Dissolution-precipitation, ionic exchange and surface complexation are the three main mechanisms involved in the sorption processes. The contribution of these mechanisms is discussed in detail.

  10. Protein release parameters estimated with a flow system on zinc-containing apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, M; Kanno, T; Tada, K; Horiuchi, J [Department Biotechnology and Environmental Chemistry, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami 090-8507, Hokkaido Pref. (Japan); Akazawa, T; Itabashi, K, E-mail: kannotr@mail.kitami-it.ac.jp [Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute, Nishi-11 Kita-19, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819, Hokkaido Pref. (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Adsorption and desorption properties of proteins on zinc-containing apatite were successively monitored with a newly-developed flow system, and sustained-release ability of the apatite with different zinc contents was evaluated using protein release parameters we suggested. Three sustained-release parameters; initial desorption rate (r{sub init}), time of desorption-completed (T{sub des}), and desorption constant (k{sub d}) were estimated with graphical analysis of dynamic desorption curves in a flow of 20 mM phosphate-buffered solution (PBS). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) of isoelectric point (pI) 4.8 and egg white lysozyme (LSZ) of pI 11.2 were employed as model protein drugs. Incorporation of zinc into hydroxyapatite changed desorption responses of the proteins. Zn(0.15), where the number in parentheses denoted the preparing molar ratio of Zn/Ca, showed the most sustained-release ability: less r{sub init}, longer T{sub des}, and smaller k{sub d}. Furthermore, the adsorbed amounts of the proteins for Zn(0.15) were 1.5 {approx} 4 times larger than Zn(0), which suggested that Zn(0.15) would be promising as a sustained-release carrier of protein drugs.

  11. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  12. Preparation and properties of calcium-silicate filled resins for dental restoration. Part I: chemical-physical characterization and apatite-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure dimensional changes due to hygroscopic expansion and the bioactivity of two experimental methacrylate-based dental adhesives either incorporating Bioglass 45S5 (3-E&RA/BG) or MTA (3-E&RA/WMTA). 3-E&RA/BG, 3-E&RA/WMTA and a control filler-free resin blend (3-E&RA) were formulated from commercially available monomers. Water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) behaviour were evaluated by weighing material disks at noted intervals; the relationship between degree of hydration and the glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro apatite-forming ability as a function of soaking time in phosphate-containing solutions was also determined. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups for maximum WS, SL, net water uptake and the percentage change in Tg values. Post-ANOVA pair-wise comparisons were conducted using Mann-Whitney-U tests. 3-E&RA/BG and 3-E&RA/WMTA exhibited values of maximum WS and net water uptake that were significantly higher when compared to 3-E&RA. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in terms of SL between all the adhesives. The addition of the Bioglass 45S5 and MTA to the 3-E&RA showed no reduction of the Tg after 60 days of storage in deionized water. ATR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of the filled resin disks soaked in DPBS for 60 days showed the presence of carbonate ions in different chemical phases. Dentine bonding agents comprising calcium-silicates are not inert materials in a simulated oral environment and apatite formation may occur in the intra-oral conditions. A bioactive dental material which forms apatite on the surface would have several benefits including closure of gaps forming at the resin-dentine interface and potentially better bond strength over time (less degradation of bond).

  13. Age of hydrothermal processes in the central iberian zone (Spain according TO U-Pb dating of cassiterite and apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Ризванова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of isotope-geochemical studies by PbLS step-leaching method of cassiterite from greisens located in Logrosán granite massif (Central Iberian Zone, Spain and apatite from hydrothermal quartz-apatite vein on its exocontact indicate that in both cases a hydrothermal event is recorded in the interval of 114-126 Ma, which has been accompanied by lead supply. Within the limits of estimation error, the same age around 120 Ma corresponds to crystallization of hydrothermal apatite, formation of sticks and micro-inclusions in cassiterite from greisens and is suggested for Au-As-Sb-Pb ore mineralization, which calls for further confirmation. Xenogenous zircon from quartz-apatite vein does not react to this relatively low-temperature hydrothermal event either with building up new generations (sticks, areas of recrystallization or with rebalancing of U-Pb isotope system. The age of greisen formation has been confirmed to be around 305 Ma by PbLS method on final phases of cassiterite leaching. Earlier it was estimated with 40Ar/39Ar method on muscovite.

  14. Rate of erosion and exhumation of crystalline rocks in the Hunza Karakoram defined by apatite fission track analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínková, Dagmar; Svojtka, Martin; Kalvoda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2014), s. 235-253 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : apatite fission-track analysis * erosion * exhumation of rocks * Karakoram Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2014

  15. Post late Paleozoic tectonism in the Southern Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain), assessed by apatite fission tracks analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juez-Larré, J.; Andriessen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report the first apatite fission-track thermochronologic data for 17 samples from the southern Catalan Coastal Ranges of NE Spain. Thermal histories of Carboniferous metasediments, Late Hercynian intrusions and Lower-Triassic Buntsandstein sediments from three tectonics blocks, Miramar, Prades

  16. The geology, geochemistry and magnetite-apatite mineralization of the Avnik area, Genç-Bingöl, SE Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aral, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of a study on the geology, geochemistry and magnetite-apatite mineralization of the Avnik area, southeast Turkey, are presented. Conclusions are drawn with respect to the origin and the way of emplacement of the mineralization. The study area is part of the Bitlis

  17. The geology, geochemistry and magnetite-apatite mineralization of the Avnik area, Genç-Bingöl, SE Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aral, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of a study on the geology, geochemistry and magnetite-apatite mineralization of the Avnik area, southeast Turkey, are presented. Conclusions are drawn with respect to the origin and the way of emplacement of the mineralization. The study area is part of the Bitlis Massif

  18. Thermal and exhumation history of Sakhalin Island (Russia) constrained by apatite U-Pb and fission track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorie, Stijn; Alexandrov, Igor; Nixon, Angus; Jepson, Gilby; Gillespie, Jack; Jahn, Bor-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Sakhalin Island represents a key locality to study the tectonic evolution of the western Pacific. The island is located at the Amur-Okhotsk plate margin and records a complex thermotectonic history. Apatite double dating (U-Pb and fission track) and thermal history modelling were applied to three late Eocene granitoid massifs within central and southern Sakhalin: the Aniva, Okhotsk and Langeri complexes. Apatite U-Pb results yield consistent late Eocene (∼40-37 Ma) ages, suggesting rapid post-magmatic cooling. Apatite fission track results reveal bimodal age distributions with late Eocene - early Oligocene (∼38-33 Ma) and early Miocene (∼20-17 Ma) age populations that can be correlated with variations in Uranium and Chlorine concentrations. Thermal history modelling translates the AFT age bimodality into two-phase cooling histories. The timing of the early cooling phase (∼38-33 Ma) corresponds with the apatite U-Pb ages, indicating rapid cooling to at least ∼100 °C during the late Oligocene. The second cooling phase at ∼20-17 Ma cooled the samples to near-surface temperatures. Both cooling phases correspond with regional unconformities and subsequent accelerations in sedimentation rate, suggesting that cooling was a response to rapid exhumation. In addition, our data suggests that the studied terranes record differential exhumation with respect to the structural architecture. The Miocene exhumation pulse is coeval with the timing of transpressional fault displacement and the subsequent opening of the Kuril Basin.

  19. Apatite fission-track evidence of widespread Eocene heating and exhumation in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Murphy, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We present an apatite fission-track (AFT) study of five plutonic rocks and seven metamorphic rocks across 310 km of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska. Samples yielding ???40 Ma AFT ages and mean confined track lengths > 14 ??m with low standard deviations cooled rapidly from >120??C to 40 Ma suggest partial annealing and, therefore, lower maximum temperatures (???90-105??C). A few samples with single-grain ages of ???20 Ma apparently remained above ???50??C after initial cooling. Although the present geothermal gradient in the western Yukon-Tanana Upland is ???32??C/km, it could have been as high as 45??C/km during a widespread Eocene intraplate magmatic episode. Prior to rapid exhumation, samples with ???40 Ma AFT ages were >3.8-2.7 km deep and samples with >50 Ma AFT ages were >3.3-2.0 km deep. We calculate a 440-320 m/Ma minimum rate for exhumation of all samples during rapid cooling. Our AFT data, and data from rocks north of Fairbanks and from the Eielson deep test hole, indicate up to 3 km of post-40 Ma vertical displacement along known and inferred northeast-trending high-angle faults. The predominance of 40-50 Ma AFT ages throughout the Yukon-Tanana Upland indicates that, prior to the post-40 Ma relative uplift along some northeast-trending faults, rapid regional cooling and exhumation closely followed the Eocene extensional magmatism. We propose that Eocene magmatism and exhumation were somehow related to plate movements that produced regional-scale oroclinal rotation, northward translation of outboard terranes, major dextral strike-slip faulting, and subduction of an oceanic spreading ridge along the southern margin of Alaska.

  20. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  1. Long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive" continental margin in Eastern Argentina using apatite fission-track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Sabrina; Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    spontaneous fission-tracks and were used to test geological t-T models against the AFT data set. These models will lead to a more detailed insight on the cooling history and tectonic activities in the research area. In addition there will be an outlook on further models including AFT, ZrFT and ZrHe data, which show that the Sierras Septentrionales seems to be influenced by the folding and wrenching of the neighboring Sierras Australes (Rosello et al. 1997). References Cingolani, C. A. The Tandilia System of Argentina as a southern extension of the Río de la Plata craton: an overview. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 221-242 (2011). Demoulin, A., Zarate, M., Rabassa, J. Longterm landscape development: a perspective from the southern Buenos Aires ranges of east central Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 19, 193-204 (2005). Ketcham, R. A. Forward and inverse modeling of low-temperature thermochronometry data, in Low-Temperature Thermochronology: Techniques, Interpretations, and Applications (eds. by Reiners, P. W. & Ehlers, T. A.) 275-314 (Mineralogical Society of America/Geochemical Society Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Chantilly, Virginia, 2005). Ketcham, R. A., et al. Improved modeling of fission-track annealing in apatite. American Mineralogist, 92, 789-798 (2007). Ketcham, R. A., Donelick, R. A., Balestrieri, M. L., Zattin, M. Reproducibility of apatite fission-track length data and thermal history reconstruction, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 284, 504-515 (2009). Rossello, E.A.; Massabie, C.; Lopez- Gamundi, O.R.; Cobbold, P.R.; Gapais, d.; 1997: Late Paleozoic transpression in Buenos Aires and northeast Patagonia ranges, Argentina Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 10 (5-6), pp.389-402. Zalba, P. E., Manassero, M., La Verret, E., Beaufort, D., Meunier, A., Morosi, M., Segovia, L. Middle Permian telodiagenetic processes in Neoproterozoic sequences, Tandilia System, Argentina. Int. J. of Sed. Res. 77, 525-538 (2007).

  2. Monomer conversion, dimensional stability, strength, modulus, surface apatite precipitation and wear of novel, reactive calcium phosphate and polylysine-containing dental composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokrat Kangwankai

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess monomer conversion, dimensional stability, flexural strength / modulus, surface apatite precipitation and wear of mono / tri calcium phosphate (CaP and polylysine (PLS-containing dental composites. These were formulated using a new, high molecular weight, fluid monomer phase that requires no polymerisation activator.Urethane and Polypropylene Glycol Dimethacrylates were combined with low levels of an adhesion promoting monomer and a light activated initiator. This liquid was mixed with a hybrid glass containing either 10 wt% CaP and 1 wt% PLS (F1 or 20 wt% CaP and 2 wt% PLS (F2. Powder to liquid mass ratio was 5:1. Commercial controls included Gradia Direct Posterior (GD and Filtek Z250 (FZ. Monomer conversion and polymerisation shrinkage were calculated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Subsequent volume increases in water over 7 weeks were determined using gravimetric studies. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS / modulus (BFM reduction and surface apatite precipitation upon 1 and 4 weeks immersion in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF were assessed using a mechanical testing frame and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mass / volume loss and surface roughness (Ra following 7 weeks water immersion and subsequent accelerated tooth-brush abrasion were examined using gravimetric studies and profilometer.F1 and F2 exhibited much higher monomer conversion (72% than FZ (54% and low calculated polymerization shrinkage (2.2 vol%. Final hygroscopic expansions decreased in the order; F2 (3.5 vol% > F1 (1.8 vol% ~ Z250 (1.6 vol% > Gradia (1.0 vol%. BFS and BFM were unaffected by storage medium type. Average BFS / BFM upon 4 weeks immersion reduced from 144 MPa / 8 GPa to 107 MPa / 5 GPa for F1 and 105 MPa / 6 GPa to 82 MPa / 4 GPa for F2. Much of this change was observed in the first week of immersion when water sorption rate was high. Surface apatite layers were incomplete at 1 week, but around 2 and 15 micron thick for F1 and

  3. Combination of Slag, Limestone and Sedimentary Apatite in Columns for Phosphorus Removal from Sludge Fish Farm Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs. However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the high pH of treated water and clogging. We hypothesized that the addition of sedimentary rocks to slag would preserve P-removal properties while reducing the pH of treated water. Four 2.5 L-columns were filled with 100% apatite (column A; a 50% weight each mixture of limestone with apatite (column B; 10% steel slag located at the inlet, plus 45% limestone mixed with 45% apatite (column C; and a mixture of steel slag (10%, limestone (45% apatite (45% (column D. A synthetic effluent (26 mg P/L and a reconstituted sludge fish farm effluent containing 97 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS, 220 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD and 23.5 mg P/L phosphorus (P were applied sequentially during 373 and 176 days, under saturated flow conditions and 12–24 hours hydraulic residence time (HRT, respectively. Treatment performance, P-removal, pH and calcium (Ca2+ were monitored. Results indicated that columns that contained 10% weight steel slag resulted in a higher P retention capacity than the columns without steel slag. The highest P removal was achieved in column C, containing a layer of slag in the inlet zone, 45% apatite and 45% limestone. Feeding the columns with a reconstituted fish farm effluent led to biofilm development, but this had little effect on the P-removal. A combination of slag and sedimentary rocks represents a promising filtration material that could be useful downstream of CWs to further increase P-removal.

  4. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}ν{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ν{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

  5. Effects of UV-irradiation on in vitro apatite-forming ability of TiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuki, Keita, E-mail: dns20353@s.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Nakashima Medical Co., Ltd., Joto-Kitagata, Higashi-ku, Okayama-shi 709-0625 (Japan); Kaneda, Haruki [Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Shirosaki, Yuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Hayakawa, Satoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Osaka, Akiyoshi, E-mail: a-osaka@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Titanium and its alloys are employed as artificial joints, bone plates, wires, screws and bone prostheses in orthopedic and dental fields, because of their high corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, and biocompatibility. Since they cannot directly bond to living bone-tissue through stable chemical interactions, a few surface modification techniques have been proposed for giving materials apatite-forming ability that secures bone-tissue bonding, such as chemical treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or NaOH, electrochemical oxidation, electrophoretic apatite particle deposition, and UV-irradiation of surface titanium oxide layer. This study examined how the combination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} chemical treatment and UV-irradiation affected in vitro apatite-formation on TiO{sub 2} (anatase phase) layers as UV was irradiated under a few different conditions. TiO{sub 2} layer was prepared by the chemical treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution and subsequent heat-treatment (CHT). CHT samples were irradiated with UV-light for 1 h in air or in ultra-pure water. They were then soaked in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF; pH 7.4) at 36.5 deg. C for 1 day. Their surface structure and morphology were examined by using a thin film X-ray diffractometer (TF-XRD), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-irradiation of CHT in air reduced the number of active sites for apatite nucleation. On the contrary, however, the UV-irradiation in water increased them. These opposite results indicate that environmental factors of the UV-irradiation are important for controlling the in vitro apatite-forming ability of anatase layer.

  6. The influence of parameters of A-type carbonated apatites synthesis on radiation dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Liana Macedo de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is the investigation of dose response of A-type carbonated apatites prepared in different conditions. Irradiated samples prepared with carbonate content of 1.45 to 4.84% are studied by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The EPR spectra are mainly constituted of lines associated to axial CO 2 - species (g perp = 2.0028 and g // = 1.9973) and CO 3 - species (g 1 = 2,0170, g 2 = 2,0090 e g 3 = 2,0041). The production of CO 2 - species on gamma irradiation depends on the carbonate concentration and the hydroxyapatite stoichiometry. The lowest dose detection limit was achieved with stoichiometric samples and carbonate content around of 3.7%. (author)

  7. Effects of added ZnTCP on mechanical and biological properties of apatite cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K.; Suzuki, K. [Okayama Univ. Dental School (Japan). Dept. of Biomaterials; Miyamoto, Y.; Toh, T.; Yuasa, T.; Nagayama, M. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). First Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Ito, A. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, MITT, Ibaragi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Effects of added Zn doped {beta}-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) on mechanical and biological properties of apatite cement (AC) was studied. Powder X-ray diffractometer revealed that ZnTCP shows no reactivity with AC. The mechanical strength of AC decreased increasing amounts of added ZnTCP. We observed no effect on the setting time of AC when the amount of ZnTCP was 10% or less. Proliferation of the osteoblastic cells was significantly increased on the surface of AC containing 5% ZnTCP when compared with that containing no ZnTCP. In contrast, proliferation of the cells decreased on the surface of AC containing 10% ZnTCP when compared with that free from ZnTCP; indicating cytotoxity. We concluded therefore, that addition of ZnTCP to AC might be useful to enhance the osteoconductivity of AC when release of Zn{sup 2+} can be carefully regulated. (orig.)

  8. The Kovdor apatite-francolite deposit as a prospective source of phosphate ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, A. V.; Lyagushkin, A. P.

    2014-02-01

    The mineral and chemical composition of phosphate ore, its texture and structure, and the distribution of trace elements are considered based on the results of geological exploration of the Kovdor apatitefrancolite deposit carried out in 2010-2012. The compositions of major, minor, and accessory minerals are reported. The ore varieties are typified depending on their composition, quality, texture, structure, and concentrating ability. The apatite-francolite ore occupies a certain position in the lateritic profile of carbonatite weathering and is of residual-infiltration origin as a zone of secondary phosphate enrichment. The outlook of the Kovdor deposit for this type of ore as a whole is considered in the context of phosphorus ore potential enhancement.

  9. Crystallographic and spectroscopic investigations on nine metal-rare-earth silicates with the apatite structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria; Goeckeritz, Martin; Kolitsch, Uwe; Lenz, Christoph; Giester, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Nine silicates with the apatite structure type (space group P6 3 /m) containing both rare-earth elements (REEs: Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Ho and Er) and various metals (K, Sr, Ba and Cd) were synthesised by high-temperature flux-growth techniques and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced photoluminescence spectroscopy. In all of the compounds, the 6h Wyckoff position is predominantly or solely occupied by REE 3+ cations, whereas the cations shows a mixed occupancy at the larger, nine-coordinate 4f site with 55-75 % of REE 3+ cations and 45-25 % of other metal cations. The O4 (''free'' oxygen) site is fully occupied by O 2- anions, except for a Ba-Pr member with full occupancy by F - anions. The refined formulas are Cd 2 Er 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Cd 2 Tb 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KHo 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KTb 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KSm 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Sr 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Ba 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Ba 2 Sm 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 and Ba 4 Pr 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 . Changes in the metaprism twist angle (φ) and correlations between the unit-cell parameters, average cationic radii (of M + /M 2+ -REE 3+ pairs) and the chemistry of both the synthesised M + /M 2+ -REE 3+ silicate apatites and those reported previously are evaluated. Photoluminescence measurements of undoped samples yielded emission bands in the visible region from green to red; therefore, these compounds are potential candidates for luminescent materials. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Understanding the influence of alendronate on the morphology and phase transformation of apatitic precursor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiling; Huang, Rong; Li, Zhicheng; Yang, Xianyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xia, Wei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2012-08-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of synthetic pyrophosphate analogs that can prevent the loss of bone mass, given orally to treat postmenopuasal osteoporosis. It is not clear yet if the benefits of BPs include the possibility of affecting bone apatitic precursors transition for bone consolidation except for encouraging osteoclasts to undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, the complexity of the in vivo system makes it difficult to isolate and study such extracellular topographical cues that trigger bone turnover response. Herein, we proposed a wet-chemical approach employing alendronate sodium (AS) as a guide of hydroxyapatite (HA) precursor growth and conversion which was initiated from the nucleantion of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in a cell membrane-mimicking surfactant micelle aqueous system. The nanocrystal clusters of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and OCP nanocryatals were readily precipitated within a relatively narrow AS concentration range (2-8 μM). However, such low concentrations of AS seemed to stabilize the more acidic phases, and to delay the transformation into HA, to an extent which increased on increasing AS concentration. In contrast, at a slight higher concentrations (16-32 μM), AS promoted HA precipitation after ageing for 1h. It was found that the effect of AS on the phase selectivity of apatitic precursors was concentration-dependent within a prolonged ageing time stage (0.5-168 h). The AS-assisted reactions in vitro offer an expedient way to understand the underlying implementarity between bone and BPs for bone consolidation, and to improve our understanding of benefit of BP dosages on bone turnover and trauma healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pullar, R.C. [Dept. Engenharia de Materiais e Ceramica/CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Braga da Cruz, I. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Jorge, R. [WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pintado, M.M.E. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Castro, P.M.L., E-mail: plcastro@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 Degree-Sign C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}) and fluorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}) were obtained using CaCl{sub 2} and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications.

  12. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F.; Pullar, R.C.; Braga da Cruz, I.; Jorge, R.; Pintado, M.M.E.; Castro, P.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 and β-Ca(PO 4 ) 3 ) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 ) and fluorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 ) were obtained using CaCl 2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: ► Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones ► Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production ► Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. ► Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. ► Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications

  13. Solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate-bearing solutions at 0.7-3.0 GPa, 800° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignano, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Apatite is a major reservoir for the rare-earth elements (REE) in the earth's crust. However, little is known about its solubility in metamorphic fluids. We measured the solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate bearing fluids at 800° C and 1.0-2.0 GPa using a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl-graphite furnaces. A single Durango fluor-apatite crystal was loaded into a 1.6 mm OD Pt inner capsule, which was crimped and then placed in a 3.5 OD Pt outer capsule with ultra pure H2O and NaCl or powdered albite. Solubility was determined by the weight loss of the apatite grain after 24 hrs. In the H2O-NaCl experiments, total dissolved solids (TDS) were initially below detection (0.4 millimolal) between XNaCl= 0 and XNaCl= 0.025. At XNaCl= 0.035, solubility was 3.3(0.2) millimolal (errors are 1s), and it increased to 57.5(0.4) millimolal at XNaCl= 0.526. Our results show that there is an enhancement in apatite solubility with increasing pressure in pure H2O. Solubility is initially below detection at bearing solutions. This probably explains textures in which monazite mantles apatite, which are common in granulite metamorphic terranes, such as the Kiirunavaara magnetite-apatite ore.

  14. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M.; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193)

  15. Treatability study work plan for in situ vitrification of seepage pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1994-07-01

    A treatability study is described that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage pit 1 by the end of fiscal year 1995. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlapping melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused melt segments; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. The initial step of this treatability study will be to gather the required site characterization data about pit 1 so that the in situ vitrification can be effectively and safely planned. The second phase will be the field ISV operations at pit 1 employing at least two settings to achieve overlapping and fused melts. Such field operations are likely to require 6 to 8 weeks. Following termination of ISV melting operations at pit 1 and demobilization of portable ISV equipment and the off-gas hood, posttest characterization activities will begin

  16. Erosion, transport and deposition along the South-Central Chilean margin: the detrital apatite fission track perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, B.; Behrmann, J. H.; Rahn, M.

    2009-04-01

    Detrital fission track analysis has become a powerful tool for the study of sediment provenance and exhumation of orogens. Many studies focus on zones of continental collision with no or little volcanic activity, but there are less examples from active arc-trench systems. This type of orogen has a strong magmatic signature, and upper plate tectonothermal histories that are distinct from collisional mountain belts. Uplift and denudation histories are different, and may comprise long periods of relative upper plate stability, which can be identified by thermochronological methods. In this study, we apply apatite fission track (AFT) single-grain age dating and sediment provenance analysis to modern and Pleistocene turbiditic sediments from the Chilean trench system (trench fans, trench fill, continental slope) complemented by a study of modern sediment samples from large Chilean rivers. The study area covers a ca. 1200 km long north to south transect (29°S to 47°S) encompassing areas of strongly variable characteristics, such as large latitudinal gradients in climate and terrigenous sediment input into the trench. This approach allows us (1) to trace sediment pathways on- and offshore focusing on all parts of the system, i.e. the bedrock sequences of the source, the fluvial transport system, and finally the sink within the trench, (2) to label those units that are under- and overrepresented, respectively, in the sink, making use of drainage system modeling and comparisons of grain age distributions to the cooling age pattern of the bedrocks of the feeder area, and (3) to test thermochronological concepts, such as a negligible transport time within the lag-time concept. We find that AFT dating and sediment analysis point to opposing major sediment sources in the Chilean margin: Whereas sediment petrography mirrors the evacuation of large volumes of volcanic detritus, reflecting the high rate of erosion of volcanic edifices, no such young volcanic signal is seen in

  17. Glycine receptor antibody mediated Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus (PERM): a rare but treatable neurological syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, W M; Howard, R; Chalmers, R M; Woodhall, M R; Waters, P; Vincent, A; Wickremaratchi, M M

    2014-04-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with respiratory compromise and was intubated. After tracheostomy, he was found to have ophthalmoplegia, severe limb rigidity, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and autonomic dysfunction. For 1 week before admission, there had been a prodromal illness with low mood, hallucinations and limb myoclonus. Serum glycine receptor antibodies were strongly positive: we diagnosed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Despite a relapse, he has done well following immunotherapies. The clinical syndrome of encephalomyelitis with rigidity, described in 1976, often has a severe progressive course. A minority of patients have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. The association with glycine receptor antibody was first reported in 2008, and we briefly review subsequent case reports to illustrate the range of clinical features. The antibody is likely to be disease mediating, although this remains unproven. The spectrum of diagnosable and treatable antibody mediated neurological syndromes is expanding. It is vital to recognise these conditions early to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  18. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9

  19. Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in the system apatite melt fluid. II: Felsic silicate systems at 200 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, James D.; Tappen, Christine M.; Mandeville, Charles W.

    2009-02-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to determine the partitioning of Cl between rhyolitic to rhyodacitic melts, apatite, and aqueous fluid(s) and the partitioning of F between apatite and these melts at ca. 200 MPa and 900-924 °C. The number of fluid phases in our experiments is unknown; they may have involved a single fluid or vapor plus saline liquid. The partitioning behavior of Cl between apatite and melt is non-Nernstian and is a complex function of melt composition and the Cl concentration of the system. Values of DClapat/melt (wt. fraction of: Cl in apatite/Cl in melt) vary from 1 to 4.5 and are largest when the Cl concentrations of the melt are at or near the Cl-saturation value of the melt. The Cl-saturation concentrations of silicate melts are lowest in evolved, silica-rich melts, so with elevated Cl concentrations in a system and with all else equal, the maximum values of DClapat/melt occur with the most felsic melt. In contrast, values of DFapat/melt range from 11 to 40 for these felsic melts, and many of these are an order of magnitude greater than those applying to basaltic melts at 200 MPa and 1066-1150 °C. The Cl concentration of apatite is a simple and linear function of the concentration of Cl in fluid. Values of DClfluid/apat for these experiments range from 9 to 43, and some values are an order of magnitude greater than those determined in 200-MPa experiments involving basaltic melts at 1066-1150 °C. In order to determine the concentrations and interpret the behavior of volatile components in magmas, the experimental data have been applied to the halogen concentrations of apatite grains from chemically evolved rocks of Augustine volcano, Alaska; Krakatau volcano, Indonesia; Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines; Mt. St. Helens, Washington; Mt. Mazama, Oregon; Lascar volcano, Chile; Santorini volcano, Greece, and the Bishop Tuff, California. The F concentrations of these magmas estimated from apatite-melt equilibria range from 0.06 to 0.12 wt% and are

  20. A hardenability test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, N.V.S.N. [Ingersoll-Rand (I) Ltd., Bangalore (India)

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for hardenability evaluation and its application to heat treatable steels will be discussed. This will include an overview and deficiencies of the current methods and discussion on the necessity for a new approach. Hardenability terminology will be expanded to avoid ambiguity and over-simplification as encountered with the current system. A new hardenability definition is proposed. Hardenability specification methods are simplified and rationalized. The new hardenability evaluation system proposed here utilizes a test specimen with varying diameter as an alternative to the cylindrical Jominy hardenability test specimen and is readily applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of steels with different cross-section sizes.

  1. Experimental study of kinetic and mechanism of dissolution of apatite structured minerals. Application to the prediction of the long term behavior of an actinides storage host matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, C.

    2005-11-01

    The motivation for this study is to assess the potential of using apatite structured ceramics as long-lived actinide storage hosts. To assess their ability to resist aqueous corrosion, the dissolution of natural fluoro-apatite and synthetic Nd-britholite (neodymium is a proxy for the trivalent actinides) was studied. Mineral surfaces were characterized using a combined spectrometric, electrokinetic and potentiometric approach and dissolution rates were measured in closed and open system reactors as a function of solution composition. Experimental results suggest apatitic minerals dissolve via distinct step sequence: 1) fluoride release, 2) release of the calcium situated in the M1, and 3) the simultaneous removal of phosphate and calcium II via the breaking of only Ca-O bonds. TST based rate equations based in this mechanism accurately describe fluoro-apatite and synthetic britholite dissolution rates as a function of solution composition. Nd release rates are limited by precipitation of Nd-rhabdophane. (author)

  2. The effect of chemical treatment on apatite-forming ability of the macroporous zirconia films formed by micro-arc oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yuanyuan; Han Yong; Lu Chunguo

    2008-01-01

    Macroporous and nano-crystalline zirconia film was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of zirconium, and the effect of chemical treatment in H 2 SO 4 or NaOH aqueous solutions on the microstructure and apatite-forming ability of the film was investigated. Compared with the MAO film, the chemically treated films do not exhibit apparent changes in phase component, morphology and grain size, however, have more abundant basic Zr-OH groups. The films treated with H 2 SO 4 and NaOH solutions can induce apatite formation on their surfaces in simulated body fluids (SBF) within 1 day, whereas no apatite was detected on the untreated ZrO 2 surface by 30 days. It is believed that the enhanced apatite-forming ability of the chemically treated ZrO 2 films is related to the abundant basic Zr-OH groups on their surface

  3. Raman spectral, elemental, crystallinity, and oxygen-isotope variations in conodont apatite during diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Laishi; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Li, Zhihong; Lv, Zhengyi; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-08-01

    Conodont apatite has long been used in paleoenvironmental studies, often with minimal evaluation of the influence of diagenesis on measured elemental and isotopic signals. In this study, we evaluate diagenetic influences on conodonts using an integrated set of analytical techniques. A total of 92 points in 19 coniform conodonts from Ordovician marine units of South China were analyzed by micro-laser Raman spectroscopy (M-LRS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), high-resolution X-ray microdiffraction (HXRD), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Each conodont element was analyzed along its full length, including the albid crown, hyaline crown, and basal body, in either a whole specimen (i.e., reflecting the composition of its outer layer) or a split specimen (i.e., reflecting the composition of its interior). In the conodonts of this study, the outer surfaces consist of hydroxyfluorapatite and the interiors of strontian hydroxyfluorapatite. Ionic substitutions resulted in characteristic Raman spectral shifts in the position (SS1) and width (SS2) of the ν1-PO43- stretching band. Although multiple elements were enriched (Sr2+, Mg2+) and depleted (Fe3+, Mn2+, Ca2+) during diagenesis, geochemical modeling constraints and known Raman spectral patterns suggest that Sr uptake was the dominant influence on diagenetic redshifts of SS1. All study specimens show lower SS2 values than modern bioapatite and synthetic apatite, suggesting that band width decreases with time in ancient bioapatite, possibly through an annealing process that produces larger, more uniform crystal domains. Most specimens consist mainly of amorphous or poorly crystalline apatite, which is inferred to represent the original microstructure of conodonts. In a subset of specimens, some tissues (especially albid crown) exhibit an increased degree of crystallinity developed through aggrading neomorphism. However, no systematic relationship was observed between

  4. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    of conducting screening laboratory and pilot tests prior to onset of full scale treatment of a contaminated site with a given technology. For this purpose, Ramboll has developed a mobile test unit in co-operation with universities and technology suppliers. The unit includes equipment for both standard and more...... the assessor ends up with 3 or 4 applicable techniques. In stead of selecting a full scale technique solely based on information collected during a literature research, it is best practice to supplement the remediation screening phase with laboratory and in situ pilot treatability tests. As well...... as establishing the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, kinetics etc. Drawing up field studies and laboratory data, this poster will discus the importance...

  5. Thermal history of the Tiereketi batholith in Altay Mountains, northern Xinjiang: evidence from apatite fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Tang Yunhui; Bao Zengkuan

    2003-01-01

    The result of fission track analysis of 4 apatite samples collected from Tiereketi granite-batholith in Altay Mountains, northern Xinjiang, shows a three stages of thermal history. First, before 120 Ma the temperature was 105-130∼90-120; second, the temperature quite ranged from 90-120 to 20-65 during 60-120 Ma and third, it was 20-65∼12-18 since 60 Ma. The 60~90 Ma was a rapid cooling and uplift stage, with cooling rate of 2.5-3.23/Ma and uplift rate of 3.3-107.7 m/Ma. The rapid uplift during the 60-120 Ma and the apatite fission track age of 80.4-91.9 Ma indicate that there was a intracontinental press-orogeny in about 60-120 Ma, which is a new understand. (authors)

  6. Vacuum-sintered body of a novel apatite for artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kenichi; Fujita, Tatsushi; Morisaki, Yuriko

    2013-12-01

    We produced regenerative artificial bone material and bone parts using vacuum-sintered bodies of a novel apatite called "Titanium medical apatite (TMA®)" for biomedical applications. TMA was formed by chemically connecting a Ti oxide molecule with the reactive [Ca10(PO4)6] group of Hydroxyapatite (HAp). The TMA powders were kneaded with distilled water, and solid cylinders of compacted TMA were made by compression molding at 10 MPa using a stainless-steel vessel. The TMA compacts were dried and then sintered in vacuum (about 10-3 Pa) or in air using a resistance heating furnace in the temperature range 1073-1773 K. TMA compacts were sintered at temperatures greater than 1073 K, thus resulting in recrystallization. The TMA compact bodies sintered in the range 1273-1773 K were converted into mixtures composed of three crystalline materials: α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), β-TCP, and Perovskite-CaTiO3. The Perovskite crystals were stable and hard. In vacuum-sintering, the Perovskite crystals were transformed into fibers (approximately 1 µm in diameter × 8 µm in length), and the fiber distribution was uniform in various directions. We refer to the TMA vacuum-sintered bodies as a "reinforced composite material with Perovskite crystal fibers." However, in atmospheric sintering, the Perovskite crystals were of various sizes and were irregularly distributed as a result of the effect of oxygen. After sintering temperature at 1573 K, the following results were obtained: the obtained TMA vacuum-sintered bodies (1) were white, (2) had a density of approximately 2300 kg/m3 (corresponding to that of a compact bone or a tooth), and had a thermal conductivity of approximately 31.3 W/(m·K) (corresponding to those of metal or ceramic implants). Further, it was possible to cut the TMA bodies into various forms with a cutting machine. An implant made of TMA and inserted into a rabbit jaw bone was covered by new bone tissues after just one month because of the high

  7. Low-Temperature Thermochronology Investigation in Uruguay and Southernmost Brazil: Apatite (U-Th)/He Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, J. P.; Bicca, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology has successfully allowed one to reveal exhumation histories of many orogenic belts across the Earth, and lately these techniques have been applied in cratonic regions. The present study aims to constrain thermal history and exhumation of the South Atlantic Passive Margin, between Uruguay and Southernmost Brazil, a region scarce of thermochronological data. This location has become relatively stable after the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Orogeny, being more intensely disturbed by tectonics during the Gondwana Breakup and consequent opening of the Atlantic Ocean (Jurassic - Cretaceous). Both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He methods are being applied on basement rocks, and since those have a long cooling history, radiation damage is expected to play an important role in crystal ages. A total of 25 samples were analyzed, and preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He results reveals unweighted sample ages ranging from Permian to Lower-Cretaceous in Southernmost Brazil, with a couple of outliers with Devonian - Carboniferous ages. In Uruguay results can be grouped in two different clusters: one of samples with Jurassic to Lower-Cretaceous ages, and another of Devonian to Permian ages. This wide range of results can be assign to variations in the uranium content of the grains, due the presence of inclusions, compositional zonation or substantial radiation damage of the crystalline lattice. In most cases, ages tend to increase with crystal eU content. No clear relationship between ages and tectonic terranes has been found so far, neither between ages and elevation, since the region does not have significant topographic variations. Younger ages are commonly found closer to the coastal region, possibly in response to the rift shoulders uplift during Gondwana breakup and further exhumation and denudation at higher rates. An anomalous concentration of older ages in the southern region of the Pelotas Batholith, close to the Brazil - Uruguay border, suggests a

  8. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Distribution of Carbonated Apatite as a Function of Solution Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhettry; Wang; Hsu; Fox; Baig; Barry; Zhuang; Otsuka; Higuchi

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that carbonated apatites (CAPs) exhibit the phenomenon of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) in weak acid media. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine two questions: first, whether the MES concept is applicable to a broader range of solution conditions and, second, whether a driving force function associated with a surface complex having a constant stoichiometry governs the dissolution of CAP and, if so, what is this stoichiometry. CAP preparations with carbonate contents of 1.8-5.7 wt% (synthesized by hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate in solutions of varying bicarbonate levels or by direct precipitation from supersaturated calcium/phosphate/carbonate solutions) were studied as follows. MES distributions for each of the CAP preparations were determined by equilibrating the CAP under stirred conditions in a series of acetate buffers (0.10 M) containing various levels of calcium and phosphate in the pH range 4.5-6.5 and a solution calcium/phosphate ratio in the range 0.1-10. The amount dissolved in each instance was regarded as the fraction of the CAP possessing an MES value greater than that corresponding to the ion activity product (IAP) of the equilibrating solution. The solution IAPs were calculated from the solution compositions using plausible calcium phosphate stoichiometries, viz., dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, carbonated apatite (based on the bulk composition of the particular CAP involved in the experiment), and tetracalcium phosphate. The fraction of CAP dissolved was plotted against the solution IAPs for each experimental set using each of the six assumed stoichiometries for the surface complex. The results demonstrated that the MES concept was applicable to all of the CAP preparations in media of various solution compositions and different pH levels. The most important new outcome of this study was that MES profiles for each of the

  9. Apatite fission track implications for timing of hydrothermal fluid flow in Tertiary volcanics of the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Ulrych, Jaromír; Adamovič, Jiří; Balogh, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2007), s. 211-220 ISSN 0449-2560 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013403 Grant - others:OTKA(HU) T060965; OTKA(HU) M41434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * fission track s * apatite * K-Ar dating * volcanic rocks * thermal events * stress field Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Development of hafnium metal and titanium-hafnium alloys having apatite-forming ability by chemical surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sueoka, Masaya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Shinozaki, Nobuya; Shiraishi, Takanobu

    2017-12-23

    Hafnium (Hf) has attracted considerable attention as a component of biomedical titanium (Ti) alloys with low Young's moduli and/or shape-memory functionalities, because its cytotoxicity is as low as that of Ti. The drawback of metals is that their bone-bonding ability is generally low. It is known that apatite formation in the body is a prerequisite for bone-bonding. Although several chemical treatments have been proposed for preparing Ti for bone-bonding, there have been no similar investigations for Hf. In the present study, NaOH- and heat-treatments were applied to pure Hf and Ti-Hf alloys and their bone-bonding ability was assessed in vitro with the use of simulated body fluid (SBF). After NaOH- and heat-treatments, anatase formed on alloys with low Hf content (20-40% (atom%) Hf); mixtures of sodium titanate and hafnium titanate formed on alloys with similar Ti and Hf content (60% Hf); and hafnium oxide formed on alloys with high Hf content (80% Hf and pure Hf). Precipitates of apatite were observed on all the metals in SBF, except for the alloy with 60% Hf. We speculated that the hafnium titanate formed on this alloy had a low apatite-forming ability owing to its high negative surface charge, which inhibited P adsorption. The apatite-forming abilities of the Ti-Hf alloys strongly depended on their Hf content. The present results indicate that Hf-based materials have good potential for bone-bonding. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A helium-based model for the effects of radiation damage annealing on helium diffusion kinetics in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Chelsea D.; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Widely used to study surface processes and the development of topography through geologic time, (U-Th)/He thermochronometry in apatite depends on a quantitative description of the kinetics of 4He diffusion across a range of temperatures, timescales, and geologic scenarios. Empirical observations demonstrate that He diffusivity in apatite is not solely a function of temperature, but also depends on damage to the crystal structure from radioactive decay processes. Commonly-used models accounting for the influence of thermal annealing of radiation damage on He diffusivity assume the net effects evolve in proportion to the rate of fission track annealing, although the majority of radiation damage results from α-recoil. While existing models adequately quantify the net effects of damage annealing in many geologic scenarios, experimental work suggests different annealing rates for the two damage types. Here, we introduce an alpha-damage annealing model (ADAM) that is independent of fission track annealing kinetics, and directly quantifies the influence of thermal annealing on He diffusivity in apatite. We present an empirical fit to diffusion kinetics data and incorporate this fit into a model that tracks the competing effects of radiation damage accumulation and annealing on He diffusivity in apatite through geologic time. Using time-temperature paths to illustrate differences between models, we highlight the influence of damage annealing on data interpretation. In certain, but not all, geologic scenarios, the interpretation of low-temperature thermochronometric data can be strongly influenced by which model of radiation damage annealing is assumed. In particular, geologic scenarios involving 1-2 km of sedimentary burial are especially sensitive to the assumed rate of annealing and its influence on He diffusivity. In cases such as basement rocks in Grand Canyon and the Canadian Shield, (U-Th)/He ages predicted from the ADAM can differ by hundreds of Ma from those

  12. Reconstructing Post-Carboniferous History of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin Using Detrital Apatite Fission-Track Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, K.; Svojtka, Martin; Filip, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2006), s. 91-92 ISSN 1210-9606. [Meeting of the Central European Tectonic Studies Group /4./. Zakopane, 19.04.2006-22.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fission-track * Krkonoše * apatite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume20/G20-091b.pdf

  13. Trace Element Geochemistry of Magnetite and Accesory Phases from El Romeral Iron Oxide-Apatite Deposit, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, F.; Rojas, P.; Reich, M.; Deditius, A.; Simon, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) or "Kiruna-type" deposits are an important source of Fe, P, REE, among other essential elements for society. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genesis of these controversial deposits, which invoke liquid immiscibility, hydrothermal replacement or a magmatic-hydrothermal origin driven by flotation of magnetite-bubble pairs. Here we focus on the El Romeral, one of the largest IOA deposits located in the southernmost part of the Cretaceous Chilean Iron Belt. We combined SEM observations and EMPA analyses of magnetite, actinolite, pyrite, and apatite, with micro-Raman determinations of mineral inclusions within magnetite grains. Two textural types of magnetite were identified at El Romeral: (i) inclusion-rich magnetite (Mag I), and (ii) inclusion-poor magnetite (Mag II) that are commonly surrounding the inclusion-rich Mag I grains. Mag I is characterized by high V ( 2500-2800 ppm) and Ti (300-1000 ppm) contents with high-temperature mineral inclusions such as ilmenite, Ti-pargasite and clinochlore at depth, and quartz and phlogopite inclusions in shallower samples. These characteristics are consistent with a magmatic origin for Mag I. Inclusion-poor magnetite (Mag II) have high V (2400-2600 ppm) and lower Ti (70-200 ppm) contents than Mag I, which point to chemical changes of the mineralizing fluid(s). An increase in thermal gradient with depth is evidenced by the presence of high-temperature (low #Fe) actinolite, as well as F-rich apatite and pyrite with high Co:Ni (>1) in the deep zones. In contrast, lower Co:Ni ratios (<0.5) in pyrite and higher Cl contents in OH-rich apatite are detected in samples from shallower levels. This vertical chemical variation supports a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the El Romeral deposit, and point to compositional changes driven by decompression of a magnetite-fluid suspension.

  14. Erosional history of the Prydz Bay sector of East Antarctica from detrital apatite and zircon geo- and thermochronology multidating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochilin, Clare J.; Reiners, Peter W.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Gehrels, George E.; Hemming, Sidney R.; Pierce, Elizabeth L.

    2012-11-01

    Approximately 98% of East Antarctica is covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), which has covered parts of the continent since the early Oligocene (34 Ma) and obscures evidence about the region's tectonic and erosional history. To better constrain the subglacial record, we analyzed geo- and thermochronologic dates of Oligocene-Quaternary sediments from Prydz Bay, which drains ˜16% of the EAIS. We used multidating techniques, measuring U-Pb, fission track, and (U-Th)/He dates on apatite and zircon grains and40Ar/39Ar dates on hornblende grains to determine crystallization and cooling ages. Apatite and zircon U-Pb dates and hornblende40Ar/39Ar dates are dominantly ˜500 Ma, recording Pan-African metamorphism and magmatism. Zircon fission track dates record cooling at ˜250-300 Ma and ˜120 Ma from Permian-Triassic (300-201 Ma) rifting and Cretaceous (120 Ma) magmatic resetting. Mean apatite fission track dates decrease from ˜280-210 Ma in early Oligocene samples, with lag times decreasing from ˜250-180 My, indicating increasing erosion rates. Miocene-Quaternary (10.7-0 Ma) samples show a smaller range from ˜180 to ˜150 Ma. Youngest measured apatite He ages also decrease from ˜100 Ma to ˜25 Ma in Oligocene-Miocene samples. These results indicate increasing erosion rates (0.2 km/My) in catchments draining to Prydz Bay in the early Oligocene, with slower erosion since the late Miocene. This erosion was likely achieved by glacial incision into pre-existing valleys, reaching depths of ˜2.8-3.0 km by the late Miocene. This is consistent with EAIS models showing a transition to less erosive, cold-based conditions following the mid-Miocene climatic optimum.

  15. Multiple Stage Ore Formation in the Chadormalu Iron Deposit, Bafq Metallogenic Province, Central Iran: Evidence from BSE Imaging and Apatite EPMA and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Heidarian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chadormalu magnetite-apatite deposit in Bafq metallogenic province, Central Iran, is hosted in the late Precambrian-lower Cambrian volcano-sedimentary rocks with sodic, calcic, and potassic alterations characteristic of iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG and iron oxide-apatite (IOA ore systems. Apatite occurs as scattered irregular veinlets and disseminated grains, respectively, within and in the marginal parts of the main ore-body, as well as apatite-magnetite veins in altered wall rocks. Textural evidence (SEM-BSE images of these apatites shows primary bright, and secondary dark areas with inclusions of monazite/xenotime. The primary, monazite-free fluorapatite contains higher concentrations of Na, Si, S, and light rare earth elements (LREE. The apatite was altered by hydrothermal events that led to leaching of Na, Si, and REE + Y, and development of the dark apatite. The bright apatite yielded two U-Pb age populations, an older dominant age of 490 ± 21 Ma, similar to other iron deposits in the Bafq district and associated intrusions, and a younger age of 246 ± 17 Ma. The dark apatite yielded a U-Pb age of 437 ± 12 Ma. Our data suggest that hydrothermal magmatic fluids contributed to formation of the primary fluorapatite, and sodic and calcic alterations. The primary apatite reequilibrated with basinal brines in at least two regional extensions and basin developments in Silurian and Triassic in Central Iran.

  16. Effect of metallographic structure and machining process on the apatite-forming ability of sodium hydroxide- and heat-treated titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sasaki, Takashi; Shirosaki, Yuki; Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Kawashita, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Although titanium (Ti) is clinically used for hard tissue reconstruction, it has low bone-bonding ability, i.e. bioactivity. Materials able to deposit apatite on their surfaces within the body is considered to exhibit bioactivity. Effects of the metallographic structure and machining process of Ti on its apatite-forming ability remains unclear. In this study, Ti substrates subjected to various preheating and machining processes were then subjected to NaOH and heat treatments. The apatite-forming abilities of resulting Ti were examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). Preheating of the Ti decreased its reactivity with NaOH solution. When quenched or annealed Ti was subjected to NaOH and heat treatments, the induction period for apatite formation in SBF slightly increased. This was attributed to a decrease in sodium titanate and increase in rutile on the Ti surface after the treatments. Substrates subjected to wire-electrical-discharge machining did not form apatite. This was attributed to the inhibition of PO43- adsorption on their surfaces following Ca2+ adsorption, which is an essential process for apatite nucleation. Contamination of Ti surface by components of the brass wire used in the machining contributed to the inhibition. The bioactivity of surface-modified Ti was therefore significantly affected by its thermal treatment and machining process.

  17. Revisiting the localization of Zn2+ cations sorbed on pathological apatite calcifications made through X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D.; Carpentier, X.; Brocheriou, I.; Dorfmuller, P.; Aubert, S.; Chappard, C.; Thiaudiere, D.; Reguer, S.; Waychunas, G.; Jungers, P.; Daudon, M.

    2009-04-01

    The role of oligo-elements such as Zn in the genesis of pathological calcifications is widely debated in the literature. An essential element of discussion is given by their localization either at the surface or within the Ca apatite crystalline network. To determine the localization, X-ray absorption experiments have been performed at SOLEIL. The Exafs results suggest that Zn atoms, present in the Zn{sup 2+} form, are bound to about 4 O atoms at a distance of 2.00{angstrom}, while the interatomic distance R{sub CaO} ranges between 2.35 {angstrom} and 2.71 {angstrom}. Taking into account the content of Zn (around 1000 ppm) and the difference in ionic radius between Zn{sup 2+} (0.074 nm) and Ca{sup 2+} (0.099 nm), a significant longer interatomic distance would be expected in the case of Zn replacing Ca within the apatite crystalline network. We thus conclude that Zn atoms are localized at the surface and not in the apatite nanocrystal structure. Such structural result has essential biological implications for at least two reasons. Some oligoelements have a marked effect on the transformation of chemical phases, and may modify the morphology of crystals. These are both major issues because, in the case of kidney stones, the medical treatment depends strongly on the precise chemical phase and on the morphology of the biological entities at both macroscopic and mesoscopic scales.

  18. Iron and oxygen isotope signatures of the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Tristan; Simon, Adam C.; Day, Warren C.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2016-01-01

    New O and Fe stable isotope ratios are reported for magnetite samples from high-grade massive magnetite of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite ore deposits and these results are compared with data for other iron oxide-apatite deposits to shed light on the origin of the southeast Missouri deposits. The δ18O values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 12) and Pilot Knob (n = 3) range from 1.0 to 7.0 and 3.3 to 6.7‰, respectively. The δ56Fe values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 10) and Pilot Knob (n = 6) are 0.03 to 0.35 and 0.06 to 0.27‰, respectively. These δ18O and the δ56Fe values suggest that magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt (typical igneous δ56Fe ranges 0.06–0.49‰) and grew in equilibrium with a magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. We propose that the δ18O and δ56Fe data for the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits are consistent with the flotation model recently proposed by Knipping et al. (2015a), which invokes flotation of a magmatic magnetite-fluid suspension and offers a plausible explanation for the igneous (i.e., up to ~15.9 wt % TiO2 in magnetite) and hydrothermal features of the deposits.

  19. Citrate- and Succinate-Modified Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mehbuba Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells. Citrate- or succinate-modified CA particles were synthesized with different concentrations of sodium citrate or sodium succinate, respectively, in the absence or presence of doxorubicin. The drug loading efficiency of the particles and their cellular uptake were observed by quantifying fluorescence intensity. The average diameter and surface charge of the particles were determined using Zetasizer. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA exhibited the highest (31.38% binding affinity for doxorubicin and promoted rapid cellular uptake of the drug, leading to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration 1000 times less than that of the free drug in MCF-7 cells. Hence, CMCA nanoparticles with greater surface area enhance cytotoxicity in different breast cancer cells by enabling higher loading and more efficient cellular uptake of the drug.

  20. Quantitative Identification of the Annealing Degree of Apatite Fission Tracks Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Wu, Shixiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Chang, Jian; Bao, Rima; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Nian; Liu, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis, a widely used low-temperature thermochronology method, can provide details of the hydrocarbon generation history of source rocks for use in hydrocarbon exploration. The AFT method is based on the annealing behavior of fission tracks generated by 238 U fission in apatite particles during geological history. Due to the cumbersome experimental steps and high expense, it is imperative to find an efficient and inexpensive technique to determinate the annealing degree of AFT. In this study, on the basis of the ellipsoid configuration of tracks, the track volume fraction model (TVFM) is established and the fission-track volume index is proposed. Furthermore, terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used for the first time to identify the variation of the AFT annealing degree of Durango apatite particles heated at 20, 275, 300, 325, 450, and 500 ℃ for 10 h. The THz absorbance of the sample increases with the degree of annealing. In addition, the THz absorption index is exponentially related to annealing temperature and can be used to characterize the fission-track volume index. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy can be an ancillary technique for AFT thermochronological research. More work is urgently needed to extrapolate experimental data to geological conditions.

  1. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougrou, I M; Katsikini, M; Brzhezinskaya, M; Pinakidou, F; Papadopoulou, L; Tsoukala, E; Paloura, E C

    2016-08-01

    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  2. Apatite formation on active nanostructured coating based on functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, Eugeniu [METAV Research and Development (Romania); Serafim, Andrada; Dragusin, Diana-Maria; Petrea, Celina; Iovu, Horia; Stancu, Izabela-Cristina, E-mail: stancu.c.i@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Advanced Polymer Materials Group (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, we developed a simple method of surface functionalization of polymer substrates to provide them with the ability to form biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) when incubated in synthetic body fluids (SBF). In a first step, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as surface nanostructuring units for a biocompatible polymer, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), known to not promote biomineralization in SBF, and under physiological conditions. The treatment of AuNPs-modified substrate with mercaptosuccinic acid leads to brushes of carboxyl-ended chains self-assembled onto the gold-polymer hybrid nanosurface. The main aim of this work was to demonstrate that these multianionic nanosurfaces would induce HA formation when incubated in solutions mimicking physiologic conditions. The formation of apatite and its morphology and composition were successfully investigated by means of high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Emphasis was put on the nucleation of HA in areas with agglomerated carboxyl-ended functionalized nanoparticles. The results obtained in this study may unlock new applications for smart active coatings based on functionalized AuNPs, such as the induction of biomineralization.

  3. Pb10V6O25: A new lead vanadate with apatite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhaohui; Shi, Yunjing; Jing, Qun

    2018-01-01

    The apatite-type crystal Pb10V6O25 has been grown from high temperature solution by spontaneous crystallization. It crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P63/m with lattice parameters a = 10.1045(6) Å, c = 7.3503(6) Å and Z = 1. The structure of Pb10V6O25 is composed of Pb(1)O9 polyhedra and VO4 tetrahedra, which form infinite Pb(1)V6O24 three-dimension (3D) framework with hexagonal star tunnels along the c axis, where Pb(2)3O(4) groups are filled. The band gap for Pb10V6O25 is calculated to be 2.86 eV, from the UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum. First-principles calculations are performed to elucidate the electronic structure and optical properties. Thermal behavior and vibration spectroscopy of Pb10V6O25 are also reported in this work.

  4. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Hara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam.

  5. Novel development of carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds based on lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural biopolymer chitosan (Ch is currently regarded as a candidate for bone tissue engineering. However, Ch is poor for cell adhesion and low bone formation ability. In order to enhance cell adhesion and bone formation ability, combination of Ch with carbonate apatite (CA was developed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to make carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds (CAChSs and evaluate its osteoconductivity in terms of cell proliferation. Methods: Chitosan scaffolds (ChSs were made by the following procedure. Twenty-five, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Ch was dissolved into 5 ml of 2% acetic acid (CH3COOH, shaked for 15 min and neutralized with 15 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution. After centrifugation, Ch gel was packed into the molds then frozen at -80°C for 2h and dried in a freeze dry machine for 24h. The sponges were subjected to UV radiation for 2h. To make CA-ChSs, 200 mg Ch was selected. After neutralization, 50 mg of 0.06 M CA were added into the 200 mg Ch gel. The structure of CA-ChSs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 proliferation in these scaffolds was investigated at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Results: Three dimensional porous structures of CA-ChSs were clearly observed by SEM. Proliferated cell numbers in CA-ChSs was significantly higher than those in ChSs (control at each stage (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that newly developed CA-ChSs had three-dimensional interconnected porous structure, good handling property and supporting ability of proliferation of osteoblasts. It is suggested that newly developed CA-ChSs could be considered as a scaffolds material for bone tissue enginearing.Latar belakang: Kitosan yang merupakan biopolimer alami dianggap sebagai salah satu kandidat untuk rekayasa jaringan tulang. Namun, kitosan memiliki kelemahan terhadap adhesi sel dan kurang mampu membentuk tulang yang cukup. Untuk meningkatkan adhesi sel dan kemampuan

  6. Apatite fission track analysis on tectonic activities and paleotopography in southern Altai region, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenju; Yuan Wanming; Liu Haotao; Song Gao

    2013-01-01

    This work engages apatite fission track evidences on thermotectonic history, rock uplift rate, denudation extent southeastern Altai region. Fission track ages of 14 samples range from (59.4±5.8) Ma to (109.7±8.1) Ma and the length is between (12.0±2.5) μm and (13.7±1.5) μm. Thermal modeling reveals that the samples have a three-stage of uplift-cooling history. The first stage is in an overall initial uplift before 108 Ma, the second stage from 108 Ma to 28 Ma experiences a slow cooling phase, and the last stage through a rapid-cooling process since 28 Ma with a cooling rate 1.25 1.61 ℃/Ma and denudation amount 1.17-1.50 km, the fast exhumation period in the area. The sample ages could be divided into 4 age groups, reflecting multiple tectonic events with different uplift rates. The paleotopography altitude changes from 3895 m to 821 m, 2250 m to 762 m etc., and the amplitude of changes reaches to 3300-1400 m since 90 Ma. The phenomenon of Alpine turning to valley and valley uplifting is visible in the studied area, indicating various stages of paleotopography. Based on inversion of ancient landforms and equilibrium correction, the equilibrium rebound would play an important role in the rock uplift during the Altai post-orogenic period. (authors)

  7. REE partitioning between apatite and melt in a peralkaline volcanic suite, Kenya Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R.; Baginski, B.; Belkin, H.E.; Dzierzanowski, P.; Jezak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for fluorapatite phenocrysts from a benmoreite-peralkaline rhyolite volcanic suite from the Kenya Rift Valley. The rocks have previously been well characterized petrographically and their crystallization conditions are reasonably well known. The REE contents in the M site increase towards the rhyolites, with a maximum britholite component of ~35 mol.%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are rather flat between La and Sm and then decrease towards Yb. Sodium and Fe occupy up to 1% and 4%, respectively, of the M site. The major coupled substitution is REE3+ + Si4+ ??? Ca2+ + P5+. The substitution REE3+ + Na+ ??? 2Ca2+ has been of minor importance. The relatively large Fe contents were perhaps facilitated by the low fo2 conditions of crystallization. Zoning is ubiquitous and resulted from both fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Apatites in some rhyolites are relatively Y-depleted, perhaps reflecting crystallization from melts which had precipitated zircon. Mineral/glass (melt) ratios for two rhyolites are unusually high, with maxima at Sm (762, 1123). ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  8. Apatite fission track data from central Anatolian granitoids (Turkey): Constraints on Neo-Tethyan closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztuǧ, Durmuş; Jonckheere, Raymond C.

    2007-06-01

    Apatite fission track age versus elevation profiles and temperature-time-path modeling indicate an early to middle Paleocene (57-62 Ma) rapid exhumation of the Middle to Late Cretaceous granitoids in central Anatolia and an Oligocene (28-30 Ma) rapid exhumation of the Eocene Kösedaǧ batholith in the NE Sivas region, part of eastern central Pontides. The early to middle Paleocene rapid exhumation is thought to result from a regional compressional regime following the collision of the Eurasian Plate and the Tauride-Anatolide Platform at the closure of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan branch of the northern Neo-Tethys. The Oligocene accelerated exhumation of the Kösedaǧ batholith is contemporaneous with the Oligo-Miocene closure of the southern Neo-Tethys which juxtaposed the amalgamated Eurasian and Tauride-Anatolide Platform and the African-Arabian Plate along the Bitlis-Zagros suture in southeast Anatolia. The compressional regime due to this collision affected a large area between the Greater Caucasus in the north and northern African-Arabian Plate in the south.

  9. Preferential orientation of biological apatite in normal and osteoporotic human vertebral trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, S.; Ishimoto, T.; Nakano, T.

    2009-05-01

    The preferential orientation of biological apatite (BAp) is a possible bone quality parameter for the comparison of the bone mechanical property. The preferential BAp orientation undergoes sensitive changes according to the change in the in vivo stress distribution, bone turnover rate etc., resulting in a variation of bone function. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. The effect of osteoporosis on the preferential BAp orientation is however unknown. In this study, a microbeam-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) study was carried out on a trabecula extracted from osteoporotic and normal human vertebral bones and the degree of orientation for the BAp c-axis along its craniocaudal axis was analysed based on our previous report. A micro-computed tomography (μCT) measurement was also performed to analyze trabecular density and structure. In osteoporotic human vertebra, the trabecular number is markedly lower than that in normal vertebra. To sustain increased stress because of bone loss, the primary trabeculae, which are aligned parallel to the craniocaudal axis, tend to selectively remain while the secondary trabeculae, which are perpendicular to the craniocaudal axis, mostly disappear. Moreover, the primary trabecula from osteoporotic vertebra showed a significantly higher degree of BAp preferential orientation than the normal bone. This suggests that the remaining primary trabecula in osteoporotic vertebra is further reinforced by an increase in applied stress in vivo by enhancing the preferred BAp c-axis orientation along the trabecular direction.

  10. Preferential orientation of biological apatite in normal and osteoporotic human vertebral trabeculae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, S; Ishimoto, T; Nakano, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    The preferential orientation of biological apatite (BAp) is a possible bone quality parameter for the comparison of the bone mechanical property. The preferential BAp orientation undergoes sensitive changes according to the change in the in vivo stress distribution, bone turnover rate etc., resulting in a variation of bone function. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. The effect of osteoporosis on the preferential BAp orientation is however unknown. In this study, a microbeam-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) study was carried out on a trabecula extracted from osteoporotic and normal human vertebral bones and the degree of orientation for the BAp c-axis along its craniocaudal axis was analysed based on our previous report. A micro-computed tomography ({mu}CT) measurement was also performed to analyze trabecular density and structure. In osteoporotic human vertebra, the trabecular number is markedly lower than that in normal vertebra. To sustain increased stress because of bone loss, the primary trabeculae, which are aligned parallel to the craniocaudal axis, tend to selectively remain while the secondary trabeculae, which are perpendicular to the craniocaudal axis, mostly disappear. Moreover, the primary trabecula from osteoporotic vertebra showed a significantly higher degree of BAp preferential orientation than the normal bone. This suggests that the remaining primary trabecula in osteoporotic vertebra is further reinforced by an increase in applied stress in vivo by enhancing the preferred BAp c-axis orientation along the trabecular direction.

  11. Carbonate-derivative centers in x-ray irradiated carbonate-containing apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yutaka; Aoba, Takaaki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Junzo; Moriwaki, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    13 C-enriched carbonate-containing apatites were X-ray irradiated at room temperature or at liquid nirogen temperature and investigated by means of electron spin responance (ESR) spectroscopy. Two sets of 13 C doublet were observed from 13 C-enriched samples when the samples were irradiated at room temperature, whereas no signal due to 13 C was observed when irradiated at -196 0 C. These new sets of the 13 C doublet have been interpreted in terms of two distinct carbonate-derivative centers I and II. The asymmetric signal appeared at the center of the X-band ESR spectrum has been interpreted in terms of three paramagnetic centers. One of them is assigned to an electron-trapped center, though the exact site of the trapped electron is unknown, and two of them are the carbonate-I center and carbonate-II center of 12 C sub(I) and 12 C sub(II). From the Q-band (about 33 x 10 9 s -1 ) analysis it is found that the carbonate-I center gives an isotropic signal at g = 2.0002, whereas the carbonate-II center shows g tensor anisotropy and gives two peaks at g = 2.0017 and 1.9972. Possible explanations for assignment of the carbonate centers to CO 3 3- and CO 2 - have been made. (author)

  12. Effect of fluoride pretreatment on the solubility of synthetic carbonated apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, A B; Zhuang, H; Baig, A A; Higuchi, W I

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the following question: How is the solubility of fluoride-pretreated carbonated apatite (CAP) in aqueous acidic media related to the equilibrium solution fluoride and/or the CAP adsorbed fluoride levels? A CAP sample prepared by a precipitation method at 70 degrees C containing approximately 6% carbonate was fluoride-treated (F adsorption from neutral aqueous solutions) to yield a approximately 1000 ppm F CAP and a approximately 3300 ppm F CAP. Metastable equilibrium solubility distributions were determined in acetate buffers at pH 5.0. Solution fluoride, calcium, phosphate, and pH were determined from the equilibrated solutions. The equilibrium solution fluoride levels were extremely low, e.g., as low as approximately 0.10 ppb to approximately 0.30 ppb at 50% dissolved for the two CAP preparations. The approximately 3300 ppm F CAP yielded a lower solubility than the approximately 1000 ppm F CAP (shift in the mean pKHAP value of 1.5-2 units). This can be attributed to the lower solution F(-) for the sample containing approximately 1000 ppm fluoride compared with the approximately 3300 ppm fluoride-containing CAP. These important findings suggest that a fluoride treatment simply may provide an adsorption fluoride depot for subsequent release, providing a solution fluoride effect upon the CAP solubility and not necessarily any intrinsic alteration of the mineral solubility.

  13. Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Franzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous calcifications can lead to complications, including pain, inflammation, ulceration and immobilization. Studies on the pathophysiology of mineral compositions and effective treatment modalities are limited. We therefore studied 14 patients with subcutaneous calcifications. Mineral material was collected and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Blood analyses were run to evaluate systemic alterations of mineral metabolism. Carbonate apatite (CAP was found to be the single constituent in the majority of patients (n = 9, 64.3%, 3 cases (21.4% had a composition of CAP and calcium oxalate dihydrate and one case had a combination of CAP and magnesium ammonium phosphate, whereas CAP was the major component in all 4 cases. Only one case showed predominantly calcium oxalate. Thus, CAP was found to be the only or predominant component in most cases of subcutaneous calcifications. Chemical analyses of the mineral compositions may aid in the development of new treatment regimes to improve the solubility of mineral components and to decrease extraosseous calcifications.

  14. Surface Structure Study of Crystal Hydroxy-Apatite from Fluorosis Enamels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdillah Imron Nasution

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is a condition due to ingestion of excessive amounts of fluor which can cause the change in tooth structure and strength. However, there is still lack of explanation on the surface structure of crystal hydroxyapatite that influences the microscopic characteristic of fluorosis enamel. Objectives: To investigate the surface structure of crystal hydroxy-apatite in fluorosis enamel. Materials and Methods: Determination of fluor concentration and the surface structure of normal and fluorosis enamel specimen were carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Disperse X-Ray (SEM/EDX. Results: Fluor concentration of fluorosis enamel was significantly higher with increased surface roughness and porosity than normal enamel. SEM observation also showed gaps areas between enamel rods and visible aprismatic zone in some regions. Conclusion: High level of fluor concentration on fluorosis enamel indicated the subtitution of OH- by F- increasing the surface roughness of enamel surface.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.100

  15. Flotation of Magnetite Crystals upon Decompression - A Formation Model for Kiruna-type Iron Oxide-Apatite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, J. L.; Simon, A. C.; Fiege, A.; Webster, J. D.; Reich, M.; Barra, F.; Holtz, F.; Oeser-Rabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Trace-element characteristics of magnetite from Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a magmatic origin. A possible scenario currently considered for the magmatic formation, apart from melt immiscibility, is related to degassing of volatile-rich magmas. Decompression, e.g., induced by magma ascent, results in volatile exsolution and the formation of a magmatic volatile phase. Volatile bubbles are expected to nucleate preferentially on the surface of oxides like magnetite which is due to a relatively low surface tension of oxide-bubble interfaces [1]. The "bulk" density of these magnetite-bubble pairs is typically lower than the surrounding magma and thus, they are expected to migrate upwards. Considering that magnetite is often the liquidus phase in fluid-saturated, oxidized andesitic arc magmas, this process may lead to the formation of a rising magnetite-bubble suspension [2]. To test this hypothesis, complementary geochemical analyses and high pressure experimental studies are in progress. The core to rim Fe isotopic signature of magnetite grains from the Los Colorados deposit in the Chilean Iron Belt was determined by Laser Ablation-MC-ICP-MS. The δ56Fe data reveal a systematic zonation from isotopically heavy Fe (δ56Fe: 0.25 ±0.07 ‰) in the core of magnetite grains to relatively light Fe (δ56Fe: 0.15 ±0.05 ‰) toward grain rims. This variation indicates crystallization of the magnetite cores at early magmatic stages from a silicate melt and subsequent growth of magnetite rims at late magmatic - hydrothermal stages from a free volatile phase. These signatures agree with the core to rim trace-element signatures of the same magnetite grains. The presence of Cl in the exsolved volatile phase and the formation of FeCl2 complexes is expected to enhance the transport of Fe in fluids and the formation of magmatic-hydrothermal magnetite [3]. First experiments (975 °C, 350 to 100 MPa, 0.025 MPa/s) show certain magnetite accumulation only 15 minutes

  16. Incorporation of cesium into phosphates of apatitic and rhabdophane lattices. Application to the conditioning of separated radionuclides; Incorporation du cesium dans des phosphates de structure apatitique et rhabdophane. Application au conditionnement des radionucleides separes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, L

    2003-04-01

    Two phosphate-based materials were investigated for cesium immobilization after its partitioning from spent nuclear fuel: apatites and rhabdophanes. The incorporation of cesium into the apatitic lattice creates steric stresses. These stresses induce the formation of secondary phases which are rapidly leached. The effectiveness of the cesium immobilization in this material is not therefore validated. A second phosphate CsCaNd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was consistently found at the end of the leach test and its properties were further characterized. The structure of CsCaNd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which is rhabdophane-like, is made of large channels which enable the incorporation of the largest alkaline cations. The synthesis involves two intermediates: the monazite, NdPO{sub 4}, and a soluble phosphate, CsCaPO{sub 4}. The study of a rhabdophane with 10 wt.% of cesium reveals satisfactory intrinsic properties: a thermal stability up to 1100 C and a leach rate of 10{sup -2} g/(m{sup 2}.d). The next step will be to improve the reaction yield. (author)

  17. An ab-initio study of the energetics and geometry of sulfide, sulfite and sulfate incorporation into apatite: The thermodynamic basis for using this system as an oxybarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Konecke, B.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.; Becker, U.

    2017-12-01

    We use ab-initio calculations to investigate the energetics and geometry of incorporation of S with its oxidation states S6+, S4+, and S2- into the apatite end-members fluor-, chlor-, and hydroxylapatite, [Ca10(PO4)6(F,Cl,OH)2]. The reaction energy of the balanced equation indicates the stability of the modeled S-incorporated apatite relative to the host apatite, the source, and sink phases. One possible coupled substitution mechanism involves the replacement of La3+ + PO43- ↔ Ca2+ + SO42-. Our results show that the incorporation of SO42- into La- and Na-bearing apatite, Ca8NaLa(PO4)6(F,Cl,OH)2, is energetically favored over the incorporation into La- and Si-bearing apatite, Ca9La(PO4)5(SiO4)(F,Cl,OH)2. Co-incorporation of SO42- and SO32- is energetically favored when the lone pair electrons of SO32- face towards the anion column site, compared to facing away from it. Full or partial incorporation of S2- is favored on the column anion site in the form of [Ca10(PO4)6S] and [Ca20(PO4)12SX2)], where X = F, Cl, or OH. Upon full incorporation (i.e., replacing all column ions by sulfide ions), S2- is positioned in the anion column at z = 0.5 (half way between the mirror planes at z = 1/4 and z = 3/4) in the energy-optimized structure. The calculated energies for partial incorporation of S2- demonstrate that in an energy-optimized structure, S2- is displaced from the mirror plane at z = 1/4 or 3/4, by 1.0 to 1.6 Å, depending on the surrounding species (F-, Cl- or OH-); however, the probability for S2- to be incorporated into the apatite structure is highest for chlorapatite end-members. Our results describe energetically feasible incorporation mechanisms for all three oxidations states of S (S6+, S4+, S2-) in apatite, along with structural distortion and concurring electronic structure changes. These observations are consistent with recently published experimental results (Konecke et al. 2017) that demonstrate S6+, S4+ and S2- incorporation into apatite, where the

  18. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel.

  19. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel

  20. Metallurgical Laboratory (MetLab) Treatability Study: An Analysis of Passive Soil Vapor Extraction Wells (PSVE) FY1999 Update; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The results to date on the treatability study of the PSVE system at the MetLab of the Savannah River Site (SRS) indicate the technology is performing well. Well concentrations are decreasing and contour maps of the vadose zone soil gas plume show a decrease in the extent of the plume. In the 18 months of operation approximately 200 pounds of chlorinated organic contaminants have been removed by natural barometric pumping of wells fitted with BaroBall valves (low pressure check valves). The mass removal estimates are approximate since the flow rates are estimated, the concentration data is based on exponential fits of a limited data set, and the concentration data is normalized to the average CO2.The concentration values presented in this report should be taken as the general trend or order of magnitude of concentration until longer-term data is collected. These trends are of exponentially decreasing concentration showing the same characteristics as the concentration trends at the SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin after three years of PSVE (Riha et. al., 1999)

  1. Seasonal variation of organic matter concentration and characteristics in the Maji ya Chai River (Tanzania): Impact on treatability by ultrafiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aschermann, Geert

    2016-05-07

    Many waters in Tanzania exhibit high concentrations of organic matter and dissolved contaminants such as fluoride. Due to bacteria and virus removal, ultrafiltration (UF) is an attractive option for drinking water treatment, and when coupled with adsorbents, may compete with other established processes like nanofiltration (NF) for lower contaminant concentrations. The results presented here examine the characteristics and treatability of tropical natural organic matter (NOM) by UF as a function of seasonal variation. The Tanzanian river Maji ya Chai was sampled monthly during one year. The composition of NOM in Maji ya Chai River is influenced strongly by precipitation. Total organic carbon (TOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and concentration of allochthonous organics substances (such as humic substances (HS)) are elevated in periods following high precipitation, while TOC is lower and contains more biopolymers in the dry seasons. UF experiments with two regenerated cellulose membranes of different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, 5 and 10 kDa) were conducted. UF is able to remove 50–95% of TOC with a seasonal variability of 10–20%. Due to the remaining NOM in the water that would contribute to disinfection by-product formation and bacterial regrowth, the physically disinfected water is more applicable for point of use systems than distribution or storage.

  2. Treatable renal disease in children with silent lupus nephritis detected by baseline biopsy: association with serum C3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Takei, Syuji; Kubota, Tomohiro; Miyazono, Akinori; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-02-01

    Lupus nephritis is identified in up to 75% of patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and may present with abnormal urinary findings (overt lupus nephritis) or be apparent only upon renal biopsy (silent lupus nephritis). We investigated whether serum complement levels correlate with renal pathology in pediatric patients with silent lupus nephritis. We performed baseline renal biopsy in 45 children diagnosed with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus who were admitted to Kagoshima University Hospital between January 2000 and June 2015. Patients were classified as having overt or silent lupus nephritis based on urinary findings at renal biopsy. Silent lupus nephritis was identified in 55.5% (25/45) of cases. Of these, 6 (13.3%) were classified as class III nephritis, according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society criteria. Decreased serum C3 levels were associated with the renal pathology classification for patients with silent but not with overt lupus nephritis. No differences in serum C4 levels were identified between cases of silent and overt lupus nephritis. Baseline renal biopsy is a critical component of the work-up of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus as treatable renal pathology may be present in the absence of urinary signs. Serum C3 may be an important marker of the progression of silent lupus nephritis.

  3. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  4. Test plan for ISV laboratory-pyrolysis testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAtee, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the laboratory-pyrolysis studies is to obtain information on the high temperature (< 1200{degree}C) degradation and alteration of organic chemicals and materials similar to those found in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Pit 9. This test plan describes experimental procedures, sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, sample control, and document management. It addresses safety issues in the experimental apparatus and procedures, personal training, and hazardous waste disposal. Finally, it describes the data quality objectives using the EPA tiered approach to treatability studies to define where research/scoping tests fit into these studies and the EPA analytical levels required for the tests.

  5. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  7. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prywer, Jolanta, E-mail: jolanta.prywer@p.lodz.pl [Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 219, 93-005 Łódź (Poland); Olszynski, Marcin [Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 219, 93-005 Łódź (Poland); Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa [Institute of Chemistry, Environment Protection and Biotechnology, Jan Długosz University of Częstochowa, ul. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions and causes the formation of CaCit{sup −} and Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}CO{sub 3} complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed. - Highlights: • Trisodium citrate (TC) increases induction time of carbonate apatite (CA) formation. • TC decreases the efficiency of CA precipitation. • The inhibitory effect of TC is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. • The inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions. • TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which CA is formed.

  8. Metastable equilibrium solubility behavior of carbonated apatite in the presence of solution strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, D D; Bi, Y; Baig, A A; Higuchi, W I

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the concept of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) to describe the anomalous solubility behavior of carbonated apatite (CAP) in the presence of solution strontium. A CAP sample (4.8 wt% CO(3), synthesized at 70 degrees C) was prepared by precipitation. Baseline MES distributions were determined in a series of 0.1 M acetate buffers containing only calcium and phosphate (no strontium) over a broad range of solution conditions. In order to assess the influence of strontium, MES profiles were then determined in a similar fashion with 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of the solution calcium being replaced on an equal molar basis by solution strontium. From the compositions of the equilibrating buffer solutions, ion activity products (IAPs) of the form Ca(10-n)Sr(n)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (n = 0-10) were calculated in an attempt to determine the correct function governing the dissolution of the CAP preparation. The results demonstrate the following important findings: (a) at high solution strontium/calcium ratios (i.e., when 60% or more of the solution calcium was replaced by strontium), the MES profiles in all the experiments were found to be essentially superimposable when the solution IAPs were calculated using the stoichiometry of Ca(6)Sr(4)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), and (b), at low solution strontium/calcium ratios (i.e., when 40% or less of the solution calcium was replaced by strontium), the stoichiometry yielding MES data superpositioning was found to be that of hydroxyapatite. When other stoichiometries were assumed, good superpositioning of the data was not possible.

  9. Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D

    2013-03-01

    Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced β-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple cerebral infarcts and intravascular central nervous system lymphoma: a rare but potentially treatable association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruto, Catarina; Taipa, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cecília; Moreira, Isabel; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Correia, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by massive intravascular growth of lymphoma cells with a predilection for the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis is generally delayed by variable clinical presentation and nonspecific laboratory findings. Brain biopsy is the gold standard diagnostic test. Prognosis is poor with a high mortality rate. We report a case of "in vivo" diagnosis of IVLBCL presenting with rapidly progressive encephalopathy secondary to multiple cerebral infarcts. This case highlights IVLBCL as a possible cause of unexplained multifocal and recurrent strokes. Earlier diagnosis and consequent earlier treatment may be associated with better prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the auto-irradiation effects in apatites structure materials; Etude des effets d'auto-irradiation dans des materiaux a structure apatitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulet, St

    2000-11-15

    The incorporation of an actinide in a material puts it to the action of an alpha particle, of some MeV always followed by the recoil of the residual nucleus. This last ones, with an energy of about a hundred of keV produces the greatest part of the irradiation damages. The study of the natural analogues has allowed to identify the fluoro-apatites which have a high amount of phosphates groups, as potential actinides conditioning matrices. Former works, simulating the alpha decay in the monocrystalline phospho-calcic fluoro-apatite have revealed an exfoliation phenomenon and an annealing of the defects which are formed by the recoil nuclei by the helium ions. This work has shown that the exfoliation can not be produced on polycrystalline apatitic materials (phospho-calcic fluoro-apatite and fluoro-apatite with one silicate) probably on account of the removal of helium outside the grains and by the diffusion of helium inside the grain boundaries. On the other hand, these helium removal ways decrease the chemical resistance of the fluoro-apatite. In the same way, the dissolution velocity of the apatite is strongly increased above the damage threshold corresponding to the percolation of the isolated defects and especially in the case of total amorphization. Concerning the effect of the recoil and annealing nuclei by the alpha particles, an original study method including the use of a transmission electron microscope coupled with a ions implanter has been carried out. This device has allowed to make irradiations simulating the alpha decay and to follow in situ the evolution of polycrystalline samples disorder. It has been shown that for all the solid solution of phospho-silicated fluoro-apatites, the amorphization is produced directly in series. In the same way, on account of this technique, the efficiency of the annealing by alpha has been measured on different apatite compositions. The main result shows that the efficiency of the annealing by alpha in the fluoro-apatite

  12. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi

    2016-06-01

    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  13. Project Work Plan: Sequestration of Strontium-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of an Apatite Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, Jim E.

    2006-04-30

    We propose to develop an infiltration strategy that defines the precipitation rate of an apatite-forming solution and Sr-90 sequestration processes under variably saturated (low water content) conditions. We will develop this understanding through small-scale column studies, intermediate-scale two-dimensional (2-D) experiments, and numerical modeling to quantify individual and coupled processes associated with apatite formation and Sr-90 transport during and after infiltration of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution. Development of capabilities to simulate these coupled biogeochemical processes during both injection and infiltration will be used to determine the most cost-effective means to emplace an in situ apatite barrier with a longevity of 300 years to permanently sequester Sr-90 until it decays. Biogeochemical processes that will be investigated are citrate biodegradation and apatite precipitation rates at varying water contents as a function of water content. Coupled processes that will be investigated include the influence of apatite precipitation (which occupies pore space) on the hydraulic and transport properties of the porous media during infiltration.

  14. Carbonate substitution in the mineral component of bone: Discriminating the structural changes, simultaneously imposed by carbonate in A and B sites of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madupalli, Honey; Pavan, Barbara; Tecklenburg, Mary M. J.

    2017-11-01

    The mineral component of bone and other biological calcifications is primarily a carbonate substituted calcium apatite. Integration of carbonate into two sites, substitution for phosphate (B-type carbonate) and substitution for hydroxide (A-type carbonate), influences the crystal properties which relate to the functional properties of bone. In the present work, a series of AB-type carbonated apatites (AB-CAp) having varying A-type and B-type carbonate weight fractions were prepared and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and carbonate analysis. A detailed characterization of A-site and B-site carbonate assignment in the FTIR ν3 region is proposed. The mass fractions of carbonate in A-site and B-site of AB-CAp correlate differently with crystal axis length and crystallite domain size. In this series of samples reduction in crystal domain size correlates only with A-type carbonate which indicates that carbonate in the A-site is more disruptive to the apatite structure than carbonate in the B-site. High temperature methods were required to produce significant A-type carbonation of apatite, indicating a higher energy barrier for the formation of A-type carbonate than for B-type carbonate. This is consistent with the dominance of B-type carbonate substitution in low temperature synthetic and biological apatites.

  15. Iliopsoas myofascial dysfunction: a treatable cause of "failed" low back syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, R S

    1989-05-01

    Most patients with low back pain experience loss of spinal and hip extension range of motion. The limitation appears to involve significant iliopsoas myofascial dysfunction manifested in tenderness, as shown by deep abdominal palpation of the psoas muscle, hip flexor contracture, pain elicited by the stretch maneuver of the spine and hip, and relative weakness of the psoas muscle when tested manually. These signs assisted in identifying the source of low back pain in six patients who had failed to respond to prior treatment. Therapy consisted of iliopsoas trigger point treatment using a dry needling technique, followed by self-administered postisometric relaxation exercise of the iliopsoas. In all cases, marked improvement of hip and spine extension, dramatic reduction of pain, and return to normal activity resulted. Given the low risk-to-benefit ratio, trigger point treatment is indicated in "failed back syndrome" and chronic low back pain after conservative therapy or surgery have been tried without success.

  16. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S., E-mail: para_kanna@yahoo.com

    2015-11-15

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg{sup 2+} at the crystal lattice of β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The concentration of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg{sup 2+} precipitates as Mg(OH){sub 2} and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} is discarded from the investigation. - Highlights: • Aqueous co-precipitation of calcium deficient apatites with excess magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) additions. • Heat treatments beyond 800 °C results in the formation of biphasic apatite mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} gets accommodated at the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice of biphasic mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} additions exceeding stoichiometric value (Ca/P>1.67) results in its formation as MgO. • Mg{sup 2+} occupancy at β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice delays its allotropic conversion α-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} till 1350 °C.

  17. Surface-Modification of Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles Enhances Delivery and Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine and Anastrozole in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitya Syarifa Mozar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available pH sensitive nanoparticles of carbonate apatite (CA have been proven to be effective delivery vehicles for DNA, siRNAs and proteins. More recently, conventional anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide have been successfully incorporated into CA for intracellular delivery to breast cancer cells. However, physical and chemical properties of drug molecules appeared to affect their interactions with CA, with hydrophillic drug so far exhibiting better binding affinity and cellular uptakes compared to hydrophobic drugs. In this study, anastrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor which is largely hydrophobic, and gemcitabine, a hydrophilic nucleoside inhibitor were used as solubility models of chemotherapy drug. Aggregation tendency of poorly soluble drugs resulting in larger particle-drug complex size might be the main factor hindering their delivery effectiveness. For the first time, surface modification of CA with poly(ethylene glycol (PEG has shown promising result to drastically reduce anastrozole- loaded CA particle size, from approximately 1000 to 500 nm based on zeta sizer analysis. Besides PEG, a cell specific ligand, in this case fibronectin, was attached to the particles in order to facilitate receptor mediated endocytosis based on fibronectin–integrin interaction. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was performed to measure uptake of the drugs by breast cancer cells, revealing that surface modification increased the drug uptake, especially for the hydrophobic drug, compared to the uncoated particles and the free drug. In vitro chemosensitivity assay and in vivo tumor regression study also showed that coated apatite/drug nanoparticle complexes presented higher cytotoxicity and tumor regression effects than uncoated apatite/drug nanoparticles and free drugs, indicating that surface modification successfully created optimum particles size with the consequence of more effective uptake along with

  18. Surface-Modification of Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles Enhances Delivery and Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine and Anastrozole in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozar, Fitya Syarifa; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2017-06-07

    pH sensitive nanoparticles of carbonate apatite (CA) have been proven to be effective delivery vehicles for DNA, siRNAs and proteins. More recently, conventional anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide have been successfully incorporated into CA for intracellular delivery to breast cancer cells. However, physical and chemical properties of drug molecules appeared to affect their interactions with CA, with hydrophillic drug so far exhibiting better binding affinity and cellular uptakes compared to hydrophobic drugs. In this study, anastrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor which is largely hydrophobic, and gemcitabine, a hydrophilic nucleoside inhibitor were used as solubility models of chemotherapy drug. Aggregation tendency of poorly soluble drugs resulting in larger particle-drug complex size might be the main factor hindering their delivery effectiveness. For the first time, surface modification of CA with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has shown promising result to drastically reduce anastrozole- loaded CA particle size, from approximately 1000 to 500 nm based on zeta sizer analysis. Besides PEG, a cell specific ligand, in this case fibronectin, was attached to the particles in order to facilitate receptor mediated endocytosis based on fibronectin-integrin interaction. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to measure uptake of the drugs by breast cancer cells, revealing that surface modification increased the drug uptake, especially for the hydrophobic drug, compared to the uncoated particles and the free drug. In vitro chemosensitivity assay and in vivo tumor regression study also showed that coated apatite/drug nanoparticle complexes presented higher cytotoxicity and tumor regression effects than uncoated apatite/drug nanoparticles and free drugs, indicating that surface modification successfully created optimum particles size with the consequence of more effective uptake along with favorable

  19. Fingerprinting young ignimbrites in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): Constraints from bulk REEs, apatite chemistry, and U-Th zircon chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Manon, M. R.; Brehm, S.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple methods of fingerprinting tephra deposits enable distinction of separate magma batches beneath the island of Dominica. Previous studies have invoked a single large batholith but apatite REE chemistry is inconsistent with generation of multiple ignimbrites by fractional crystallization. The crystal-rich, andesite-dacite (58-66 wt% SiO2) ignimbrites comprise the largest explosive eruption in the Caribbean in the last 200 kyr, erupting a magma volume >58 km3 (Carey and Sigurdsson, 1980). Although the ignimbrites appear to emanate from several vents, their broad similarity in bulk chemistry, phase assemblage (pl + opx + cpx + hbl + ilm + mag + zrn + ap), and mineral composition, has led previous workers to suggest that Dominica is underlain by a single large batholith eruptions younging from north to south. However, bulk REE chemistry, solution ICP-MS chemistry of individual apatite grains, and ion microprobe U-Th dating of zircon rims from pumice clasts suggest a more complex plumbing system. More than 150 pumice clasts from northernmost (Morne aux Diables), northern (Wesley, Pointe Ronde, Grand Savanne), central (Layou, Roseau, Rosalie), and southern (Grand Bay, Grand Fonde) ignimbrites were analyzed for bulk chemistry. Geographically controlled differences exist in the concavity of the middle-heavy REE (Dy*). In central Dominica, apatites from the more evolved Layou Ignimbrite are depleted in middle REE compared to the nearby Roseau Ignimbrite, belying a genetic relationship via fractional crystallization. U-Th zircon rim ages in the northernmost and northern deposits were in secular equilibrium (>350 ka), whereas the central and southern ignimbrites yielded several populations of crystallization ages: Layou (99±12 ka), Roseau (139±12 ka; 65±17 ka), and Grand Bay (107±15 ka; 211±61 ka). Collectively, these observations are consistent with partial melting of magma batches prior to eruption rather than fractional crystallization of a single magma chamber.

  20. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  2. Using Apatite to Model Chlorine Contents of High SiO2 Magmas: An Enhanced Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, R.; Webster, J. D.; Nadeau, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted on high-silica (73-75 wt% SiO2), fluid-saturated melts at 844-862°C and ca. 50 MPa using crushed glass of the Los Posos rhyolite. Water and salts including NaCl, KCl, Ca(OH)2, and CaHPO4 and HCl were added proportionally to the experiments to restrict the variability of the aluminosity of the melt. The Durango apatite, which contains 3.53 wt% F and 0.41% Cl, was added as "seeds"bearing magmatic systems.

  3. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  4. Carrier screening for Gaucher disease: lessons for low-penetrance, treatable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Shachar; Lahad, Amnon; Shmueli, Amir; Zimran, Ari; Peleg, Leah; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Sagi, Michal

    2007-09-19

    The aim of carrier screening is to prevent severe, untreatable genetic disease by identifying couples at risk before the birth of an affected child, and providing such couples with options for reproductive outcomes for affected pregnancies. Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, relatively frequent in Ashkenazi Jews. Carrier screening for GD is controversial because common type 1 GD is often asymptomatic and effective treatment exists. However, screening is offered to Ashkenazi Jews worldwide and has been offered in Israel since 1995. To examine the scope and outcomes of nationwide GD screening. All Israeli genetic centers provided data on the number of individuals screened for GD, the number of carriers identified, the number of carrier couples identified, and the mutations identified in these couples between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2003. Carrier couples were interviewed via telephone between January 21, 2003, and August 31, 2004, using a structured questionnaire for relevant outcome measures. Screening scope (number of testing centers, tested individuals, and carrier couples), screening process (type of pretest and posttest consultations), and screening outcomes (utilization of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy terminations). Between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2003, 10 of 12 Israeli genetic centers (83.3%) offered carrier screening. Carrier frequency was 5.7%, and 83 carrier couples were identified among an estimated 28,893 individuals screened. There were 82 couples at risk for offspring with type 1 GD. Seventy of 82 couples (85%) were at risk for asymptomatic or mildly affected offspring and 12 of 82 couples (15%) were at risk for moderately affected offspring. At postscreening, 65 interviewed couples had 90 pregnancies, and prenatal diagnosis was performed in 68 pregnancies (76%), detecting 16 fetuses with GD (24%). Pregnancies were terminated in 2 of 13 fetuses (15%) predicted to be asymptomatic or mildly affected and 2 of

  5. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, J.W.; KALB, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft(sup 3) pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containingandgt; 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containingandlt; 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product

  6. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.

    2001-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing > 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing < 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.

  7. Anaerobic treatability of a phenolic coal conversion wastewater after diisopropyl ether extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in semicontinuous methogenic cultures. Selective pH adjustment of H-coal wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction was used to control the phenolic concentration fed to the serum bottle cultures. This pretreatment did not completely remove the unidentified inhibitory compounds(s) from the wastewater. Thus the addition of activated carbon to the cultures and a reduced feed rate were required to stabilize their activity. However, by the end of the 250-day test period, the cultures were maintained with a 12.5-day hydraulic retention time and were fed approx. 9 parts pH 9-extracted H-coal wastewater and 1 part inorganic nutrient solution. The influent phenol concentration was near 900 mg/l, whereas the effluent concentration was {lt} mg/l. Residual dissolved diisopropyl ether did not inhibit the anaerobic process nor was it biodegraded to methane. 26 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B. J.; Arbon, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated

  9. Catatonia in Down syndrome; a treatable cause of regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaziuddin N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neera Ghaziuddin,1 Armin Nassiri,2 Judith H Miles3 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2Community Psychiatry, San Jose, California, 3Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Department of Child Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA Objective: The main aim of this case series report is to alert physicians to the occurrence of catatonia in Down syndrome (DS. A second aim is to stimulate the study of regression in DS and of catatonia. A subset of individuals with DS is noted to experience unexplained regression in behavior, mood, activities of daily living, motor activities, and intellectual functioning during adolescence or young adulthood. Depression, early onset Alzheimer’s, or just “the Down syndrome” are often blamed after general medical causes have been ruled out. Clinicians are generally unaware that catatonia, which can cause these symptoms, may occur in DS.Study design: Four DS adolescents who experienced regression are reported. Laboratory tests intended to rule out causes of motor and cognitive regression were within normal limits. Based on the presence of multiple motor disturbances (slowing and/or increased motor activity, grimacing, posturing, the individuals were diagnosed with unspecified catatonia and treated with anti-catatonic treatments (benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy [ECT].Results: All four cases were treated with a benzodiazepine combined with ECT and recovered their baseline functioning.Conclusion: We suspect catatonia is a common cause of unexplained deterioration in adolescents and young adults with DS. Moreover, pediatricians and others who care for individuals with DS are generally unfamiliar with the catatonia diagnosis outside schizophrenia, resulting in misdiagnosis and years of morbidity. Alerting physicians to catatonia in DS is essential to prompt diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and identification of the frequency

  10. Study of damage and helium diffusion in fluoro-apatites; Etude de l'endommagement et de la diffusion de l'helium dans des fluoroapatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, S

    2004-12-15

    This work lies within the scope of the study of the radionuclides containment matrices. The choice of the fluoro-apatites as potential matrices of containment was suggested by the notable properties of these latter (thermal and chemical stability even under radioactive radiation). By irradiations with heavy ions and a helium implantation we simulated the effects related to the alpha radioactivity and to the spontaneous nuclear fission of the radionuclides. Thanks to the study of Durango fluoro-apatite single crystals and fluoro-apatite sintered ceramics, we evidenced that the damage fraction as well as the unit cell deformations increase with the electronic energy loss and with the substitution. These effects are followed at high fluences by a phenomenon of re-crystallization. The study of the helium diffusion points out that the thermal diffusion process improves with the substitution and strongly increases with heavy ions irradiation. (author)

  11. Apatite fission track dating of the Northern Western Shield, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, U.D.; Kohn, B.P.; Gleadow, A.J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text:The investigation of the thermotectonic evolution of the northern part of the Precambrian Western Shield of Western Australia using apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology is the main focus of this study. The study area encompasses Precambrian rocks of the Pilbara Craton and the northern part of the Yilgarn Craton including the Narryer Gneiss Complex. AFT data, mostly from the Archaean cratons reveal cooling ages ranging between 260±8 Ma and 400±20 Ma. Mean confined horizontal track lengths fall between ∼12 and 13 μm with standard deviations ranging from 1.1-2.2 μm. Forward modelling of time-temperature history paths for representative samples reveals a period of regional cooling of at least ∼50 deg C in the late Palaeozoic. Most paths also show a second period of cooling of 25 deg C from temperatures of ∼80-85 deg C. This later cooling episode occurred in the Mesozoic but its timing is less well constrained. Assuming that the average present day geothermal gradient of ∼18±2 deg C per km - 1 was prevalent since the late Palaeozoic, then the minimum of ∼75 deg C of cooling predicted by the fission track modelling suggests overall denudation of at least ∼ 3.7-4.6 km of section since that time. Phanerozoic basins (Perth, Carnarvon and Canning) adjacent to the north and west of the northern Western Shield mostly continue offshore and form complex structures containing up to ∼ 15 km of predominantly clastic sediments of early Ordovician to late Cretaceous age. The basins are likely to have been depocentres for much of the detritus derived from the denudation inferred from the cooling recorded by the AFT. Possible causative events which could be linked to the observed late Palaeozoic cooling are tectonism related to the collision of Gondwanaland with Laurussia in Carboniferous time forming the supercontinent Pangea or a possible far-field effect related to the Alice Springs Orogeny. Further low temperature thermochronological studies

  12. The thermal history of the Miocene Ibar Basin (Southern Serbia: new constraints from apatite and zircon fission track and vitrinite reflectance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Nevena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ibar Basin was formed during Miocene large scale extension in the NE Dinaride segment of the Alpine- Carpathian-Dinaride system. The Miocene extension led to exhumation of deep seated core-complexes (e.g. Studenica and Kopaonik core-complex as well as to the formation of extensional basins in the hanging wall (Ibar Basin. Sediments of the Ibar Basin were studied by apatite and zircon fission track and vitrinite reflectance in order to define thermal events during basin evolution. Vitrinite reflectance (VR data (0.63-0.90 %Rr indicate a bituminous stage for the organic matter that experienced maximal temperatures of around 120-130 °C. Zircon fission track (ZFT ages indicate provenance ages. The apatite fission track (AFT single grain ages (45-6.7 Ma and bimodal track lengths distribution indicate partial annealing of the detrital apatites. Both vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track data of the studied sediments imply post-depositional thermal overprint in the Ibar Basin. Thermal history models of the detritial apatites reveal a heating episode prior to cooling that began at around 10 Ma. The heating episode started around 17 Ma and lasted 10-8 Ma reaching the maximum temperatures between 100-130 °C. We correlate this event with the domal uplift of the Studenica and Kopaonik cores where heat was transferred from the rising warm footwall to the adjacent colder hanging wall. The cooling episode is related to basin inversion and erosion. The apatite fission track data indicate local thermal perturbations, detected in the SE part of the Ibar basin (Piskanja deposit with the time frame ~7.1 Ma, which may correspond to the youngest volcanic phase in the region.

  13. Study of retention properties of fluoro-apatite carbonate relative to Ni(II), Am(III) and Th(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Apatite minerals and particularly the carbonated species (francolites), are characterized by their chemical and geological stability and also by their capacity to retain durably a large number of elements. Therefore, they should be able to improve the retention properties of the engineered barriers of a deep geological nuclear waste repository. But there is a wide variety of francolites, so we focused our study on a synthetic carbonate fluoro-apatite of formula: Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 5 (CO 3 )(F,OH) 3 and on a natural apatite. We first studied their solubility which is an important criterion for the choice of the materials. A particular attention was also paid to the determination of their surface characteristics and to the study of the radionuclide/solution interactions. Sorption experiments have been performed for the three radionuclides and the influence of various parameters has been investigated. The modelling of the sorption isotherms with surface complexation models leads us to estimate the values of the constants associated to the equilibria under consideration. We have also demonstrated that the phosphate ions of the solution participate to the immobilization of americium as the AmPO 4 ,xH 2 O compound. Both apatites show high retention levels for the actinides: the sorption is quite total over all the pH range studied and the Kd values are close to 10 4 m 3 kg -1 . Consequently, the use of apatites could be considered as a specific solution for the immobilisation of heavy elements, specially actinides. Moreover, the results indicate that high amounts of carbonates and impurities do not alter the retention properties of francolites. This bears out the feasibility of the use of natural apatites as additives for the engineered barrier materials. (author)

  14. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2016-06-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  15. Fission track ages on apatite of Bergell rocks from central Alps and Bergell boulders in Oligocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.A.; Miller, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Previous radiometric dating studies indicated that the Bergell region, in contrast to other regions of the Central Alps, experienced an early, rapid uplift, but with decreasing rate. Furthermore, there is also a geological record of the early uplift history of the Bergell granite by the existence of boulders which were derived from this granite and which occur in the Late Oligocene sediments of the Po plain. In this work the uplift history of the Bergell is studied in more detail by fission track dating of additional apatites from the Bergell region. Secondly, by determining apatite fission track ages the granitic boulders of the Po plain can be re-assigned to their original vertical position within the Bergell intrusive before erosion removed them in Late Oligocene time. A rather conservative estimate replaces them 6 km above the present morphology of the Bergell massif. Thus, the thickness of the Bergell granite must have been at least 8 km. Generally, fission track studies on boulders may become an important tool to study the vertical extent of mountain chains during the geological past. (Auth.)

  16. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Novel Apatite-Wollastonite Ceramic Cage Design for Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Finite Element Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Celal; Şenköylü, Alpaslan; Aktaş, Erdem; Sarıkaya, Baran; Sipahioğlu, Serkan; Gürbüz, Rıza; Timuçin, Muharrem

    2018-01-01

    Cage design and material properties play a crucial role in the long-term results, since interbody fusions using intervertebral cages have become one of the basic procedures in spinal surgery. Our aim is to design a novel Apatite-Wollastonite interbody fusion cage and evaluate its biomechanical behavior in silico in a segmental spinal model. Mechanical properties for the Apatite-Wollastonite bioceramic cages were obtained by fitting finite element results to the experimental compression behavior of a cage prototype. The prototype was made from hydroxyapatite, pseudowollastonite, and frit by sintering. The elastic modulus of the material was found to be 32 GPa. Three intact lumbar vertebral segments were modelled with the ANSYS 12.0.1 software and this model was modified to simulate a Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Four cage designs in different geometries were analyzed in silico under axial loading, flexion, extension, and lateral bending. The K2 design had the best overall biomechanical performance for the loads considered. Maximum cage stress recorded was 36.7 MPa in compression after a flexion load, which was within the biomechanical limits of the cage. Biomechanical analyses suggest that K2 bioceramic cage is an optimal design and reveals essential material properties for a stable interbody fusion.

  17. In-Situ U–Pb Dating of Apatite by Hiroshima-SHRIMP: Contributions to Earth and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) is the first ion microprobe dedicated to geological isotopic analyses, especially in-situ analyses related to the geochronology of zircon. Such a sophisticated ion probe, which can attain a high sensitivity at a high mass resolution, based on a double focusing high mass-resolution spectrometer, designed by Matsuda (1974), was constructed at the Australian National University. In 1996, such an instrument was installed at Hiroshima University and was the first SHRIMP to be installed in Japan. Since its installation, our focus has been on the in-situ U–Pb dating of the mineral apatite, as well as zircon, which is a more common U-bearing mineral. This provides the possibility for extending the use of in-situ U–Pb dating from determining the age of formation of volcanic, granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic minerals to the direct determination of the diagenetic age of fossils and/or the crystallization age of various meteorites, which can provide new insights into the thermal history on the Earth and/or the Solar System. In this paper, we review the methodology associated with in-situ apatite dating and our contribution to Earth and Planetary Science over the past 16 years. PMID:24349912

  18. In-Situ U-Pb Dating of Apatite by Hiroshima-SHRIMP: Contributions to Earth and Planetary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) is the first ion microprobe dedicated to geological isotopic analyses, especially in-situ analyses related to the geochronology of zircon. Such a sophisticated ion probe, which can attain a high sensitivity at a high mass resolution, based on a double focusing high mass-resolution spectrometer, designed by Matsuda (1974), was constructed at the Australian National University. In 1996, such an instrument was installed at Hiroshima University and was the first SHRIMP to be installed in Japan. Since its installation, our focus has been on the in-situ U-Pb dating of the mineral apatite, as well as zircon, which is a more common U-bearing mineral. This provides the possibility for extending the use of in-situ U-Pb dating from determining the age of formation of volcanic, granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic minerals to the direct determination of the diagenetic age of fossils and/or the crystallization age of various meteorites, which can provide new insights into the thermal history on the Earth and/or the Solar System. In this paper, we review the methodology associated with in-situ apatite dating and our contribution to Earth and Planetary Science over the past 16 years.

  19. Protein-free formation of bone-like apatite: New insights into the key role of carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, Alix C; Nair, Arun K; Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Arcot, Kashyap; Drouet, Christophe; Yoder, Claude H; Buehler, Markus J; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M; Pasteris, Jill D

    2017-05-01

    The nanometer-sized plate-like morphology of bone mineral is necessary for proper bone mechanics and physiology. However, mechanisms regulating the morphology of these mineral nanocrystals remain unclear. The dominant hypothesis attributes the size and shape regulation to organic-mineral interactions. Here, we present data supporting the hypothesis that physicochemical effects of carbonate integration within the apatite lattice control the morphology, size, and mechanics of bioapatite mineral crystals. Carbonated apatites synthesized in the absence of organic molecules presented plate-like morphologies and nanoscale crystallite dimensions. Experimentally-determined crystallite size, lattice spacing, solubility and atomic order were modified by carbonate concentration. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicted changes in surface energy and elastic moduli with carbonate concentration. Combining these results with a scaling law predicted the experimentally observed scaling of size and energetics with carbonate concentration. The experiments and models describe a clear mechanism by which crystal dimensions are controlled by carbonate substitution. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that carbonate substitution is sufficient to drive the formation of bone-like crystallites. This new understanding points to pathways for biomimetic synthesis of novel, nanostructured biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluoro-apatite surface composition in aqueous solution deduced from potentiometric, electrokinetic, and solubility measurements, and spectroscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, C.; Oelkers, E.H.; Schott, J.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The surface chemistry of fluoro-apatite in aqueous solution was investigated using electrokinetic techniques, potentiometric titrations, solubility measurements, and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. All methods indicate the formation of Ca/F depleted, P enriched altered layer via exchange reactions between H + and Ca 2+ , and OH - and F - at the fluoro-apatite (FAP) surface. Observations suggest that this leached layer has a di-calcium phosphate (CaHPO 4 ) composition and that it controls the apparent solubility of FAP. Electrokinetic measurements yield an iso-electric point value of 1 ± 0.5 consistent with a negatively charged FAP surface at pH ≥ 1. In contrast, surface titrations give an apparent pH of point of zero charge of similar to 7.7, consistent with a positively charged surface at pH ≤ 7.7. These differences are shown to stem from proton consumption by both proton exchange and dissolution reactions at the FAP surface. After taking account for these effects, FAP surface charge is shown to be negative to at least pH 4 by surface titration analysis. (authors)

  1. Full-Scale Incineration System Demonstration Verification Test Burns at the Naval Battalion Construction Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 3. Treatability Tests. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Resolution Mass Spectometry (HGGC/HRMS) ............................................ 714 Exhibit b SOP IP.5 Total PCDD and PCDF Congener (Cl4 - ClR...1.0 Revision No.: 0 Date : 11/7186 Page: I of S 1.0 PROJECT OESCRIPTION This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) presents, In specific terms, the...this QAPP. 523 Section No.: 1.0 Revision Mo.: 0 Date : 11/7/86 Page: 2 of S The technology to be sampled is ENSCO’s MWP-Z000 (Mobile Waste Processor

  2. Apatite fission track thermochronology and south east Australian landscape evolution: can exaggerated denudation rates be reconciled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, I.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Apatite fission track thermo chronology (AFTT) is a double-edged sword that can be used to both identify the absolute timing of major landscape-forming events and to estimate the amount of denudation that has occurred in a landscape. This powerful tool has added much to the debate of eastern Australian landscape evolution, particularly the origin and evolution of the Eastern Highlands. However, many authors can not reconcile estimates of the amount of denudation derived from AFTT with their own knowledge of the apparent stability of eastern Australian landscapes. Thus they regard the calculated denudation rates as being exaggerated. This difference in opinion comes about principally from the insistence of applying an upper crustal palaeogeotherm of 25-30 deg C km blanket-wise to all AFTT results. Recent thematic papers in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences (Volume 46/2) related to eastern Australian landscape evolution highlight the differences of opinion. Kohn et al. (1999), in a paper relating to an AFTT study of the Kosciuszko massif, concluded that the landscape was controlled by two periods of accelerated denudation, one in the Late Permian-Early Triassic and the other in the mid-Cretaceous. They calculated that 2-2.5 km of material had been denuded from the massif since the mid-Cretaceous. Hill (1999) expressed an opposite viewpoint, describing residual landscapes of Mesozoic age existing in the same massif, indicating a much reduced denudation rate. van der Beek et al. (1999) discussed the need for more realistic models that compensate for the 'extreme temporal and spatial variability in denudation rates' possible within their own model. Particularly, they concluded that Late Mesozoic-Early Tertiary palaeogeotherms must have been higher than present. This knowledge is crucial to understanding Eastern Australian landscape evolution. A suite of mantle and lower crustal xenoliths has yielded a new palaeogeotherm for the Eocene-Oligocene Monaro

  3. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP)

  4. A genetic link between magnetite mineralization and diorite intrusion at the El Romeral iron oxide-apatite deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Paula A.; Barra, Fernando; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur; Simon, Adam; Uribe, Francisco; Romero, Rurik; Rojo, Mario

    2018-01-01

    El Romeral is one of the largest iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile. The Cerro Principal magnetite ore body at El Romeral comprises massive magnetite intergrown with actinolite, with minor apatite, scapolite, and sulfides (pyrite ± chalcopyrite). Several generations of magnetite were identified by using a combination of optical and electron microscopy techniques. The main mineralization event is represented by zoned magnetite grains with inclusion-rich cores and inclusion-poor rims, which form the massive magnetite ore body. This main magnetite stage was followed by two late hydrothermal events that are represented by magnetite veinlets that crosscut the massive ore body and by disseminated magnetite in the andesite host rock and in the Romeral diorite. The sulfur stable isotope signature of the late hydrothermal sulfides indicates a magmatic origin for sulfur (δ34S between - 0.8 and 2.9‰), in agreement with previous δ34S data reported for other Chilean IOA and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits. New 40Ar/39Ar dating of actinolite associated with the main magnetite ore stage yielded ages of ca. 128 Ma, concordant within error with a U-Pb zircon age for the Romeral diorite (129.0 ± 0.9 Ma; mean square weighted deviation = 1.9, n = 28). The late hydrothermal magnetite-biotite mineralization is constrained at ca. 118 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar dating of secondary biotite. This potassic alteration is about 10 Ma younger than the main mineralization episode, and it may be related to post-mineralization dikes that crosscut and remobilize Fe from the main magnetite ore body. These data reveal a clear genetic association between magnetite ore formation, sulfide mineralization, and the diorite intrusion at El Romeral (at 129 Ma), followed by a late and more restricted stage of hydrothermal alteration associated with the emplacement of post-ore dikes at ca. 118 Ma. Therefore, this new evidence supports a magmatic-hydrothermal model for the

  5. Phosphorus burial in sediments of the sulfidic deep Black Sea: Key roles for adsorption by calcium carbonate and apatite authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary burial of the essential nutrient phosphorus (P) under anoxic and sulfidic conditions is incompletely understood. Here, we use chemical and micro-scale spectroscopic methods to characterize sedimentary P burial along a water column redox transect (six stations, 78-2107 m water depth) in the Black Sea from the shelf with its oxygenated waters to the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin. Organic P is an important P pool under all redox regimes, accounting for up to 60% of P burial. We find a general down-core increase in the relative importance of organic P, especially on the shelf where P bound to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (oxyhydr)oxides is abundant in the uppermost sediment but rapidly declines in concentration with sediment depth. Our chemical and spectroscopic data indicate that the carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I, ∼3000 years, ∼0-30 cm depth) of the sulfidic deep Black Sea contain three major P pools: calcium phosphate (apatite), organic P and P that is strongly associated with CaCO3 and possibly clay surfaces. Apatite concentrations increase from 5% to 25% of total P in the uppermost centimeters of the deep basin sediments, highlighting the importance of apatite formation for long-term P burial. Iron(II)-associated P (ludlamite) was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy but was shown to be a minor P pool (∼5%), indicating that lateral Fe-P transport from the shelf ("shuttling") likely occurs but does not impact the P burial budget of the deep Black Sea. The CaCO3-P pool was relatively constant throughout the Unit I sediment interval and accounted for up to 55% of total P. Our results highlight that carbonate-bound P can be an important sink for P in CaCO3-rich sediments of anoxic, sulfidic basins and should also be considered as a potential P sink (and P source in case of CaCO3 dissolution) when reconstructing past ocean P dynamics from geological records.

  6. Hydrothermal assemblage of Cl-, F- and OH-bearing apatite-group minerals from Maglovec, near Prešov, Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Povondra, P.; Skála, Roman; Chapman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2007), s. 1355-1366 ISSN 0008-4476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : apatite * crystal structure * rare - earth elements * Rietveld refinement * Maglovec (Slovakia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2007

  7. Multiphase cooling and exhumation of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin during Mesozoic - Cenozoic basin inversion based on apatite fission track analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, K.; Svojtka, Martin; Filip, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1353003-1353003 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo ] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB3111305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fission track * apatite * Krkonoše Piedmont basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. A simple and general route for the preparation of pure and high crystalline nanosized lanthanide silicates with the structure of apatite at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdov, Stanislav; Rauwel, Protima; Lin, Zhi; Ferreira, Rute A. Sa; Lopes, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite are attracting considerable interest since they show oxygen ion conductivities higher than that of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) at moderate temperature. Based on the hydrothermal synthesis we presented a simple one step process for the direct preparation of the pure and the high crystalline nanosized rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite under a mild condition (230 o C). Since the preparation of the high crystalline silicon based rare earth apatites is performed at high temperature previously and accompanied by subsequent process of grinding, results of this work provide a promising alternative of the existing methodology. Furthermore, due to the relatively low temperature of the preparation of these materials, high doping of monovalent cation can be done, which was not achieved before. -- Graphical abstract: A simple one step process for the preparation of the rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite under a mild condition (230 o C) is presented. The process is based on the hydrothermal synthesis and the obtained powder materials are pure, high crystalline and with nanosize. Display Omitted

  9. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, M.

    2002-11-01

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  10. Cytotoxicity Enhancement in Breast Cancer Cells with Carbonate Apatite-Facilitated Intracellular Delivery of Anti-Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemian, Tahereh; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy as the mainstay in the management of breast cancer has demonstrated various drawbacks, including non-targeted bio distribution and narrow therapeutic and safety windows. Thus, enhancements in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of the classical anti-cancer drugs could lead to improved efficacy against cancer cells. Therefore, inorganic pH-dependent carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were utilized to efficiently deliver various drugs into cancer cells. Following characterization and various modifications in the structure of CA complexes with different drugs, lifted outcomes were achieved. Markedly, complexing paclitaxel with CA resulted in 20.71 ± 4.34% loading efficiency together with 24.14 ± 2.21% enhancement in cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells plus superior in vivo anti-tumour efficacy compared to free paclitaxel. PMID:29401738

  11. Cytotoxicity Enhancement in Breast Cancer Cells with Carbonate Apatite-Facilitated Intracellular Delivery of Anti-Cancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Fatemian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacotherapy as the mainstay in the management of breast cancer has demonstrated various drawbacks, including non-targeted bio distribution and narrow therapeutic and safety windows. Thus, enhancements in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of the classical anti-cancer drugs could lead to improved efficacy against cancer cells. Therefore, inorganic pH-dependent carbonate apatite (CA nanoparticles were utilized to efficiently deliver various drugs into cancer cells. Following characterization and various modifications in the structure of CA complexes with different drugs, lifted outcomes were achieved. Markedly, complexing paclitaxel with CA resulted in 20.71 ± 4.34% loading efficiency together with 24.14 ± 2.21% enhancement in cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells plus superior in vivo anti-tumour efficacy compared to free paclitaxel.

  12. Elemental analysis by neutronic radioactivation for biocoral resorption and apatite formation versus time studies after implantation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Oudadesse, H.; Sauvage, T.; Lefaivre, J.; Barlet, J.P.; Terver, S.; Tixier, H.

    1994-01-01

    Previous works carried out on coral show the advantages presented by this bio material used in bony surgery. Its resorbability is due to its bio compatibility and chemical properties. In our laboratory, we have studied the physico-chemical properties, the ossification kinetics and the calcification mechanism of the bio coral. By nuclear radioactivation, we have determined the amounts of Ca, P, Mg, Sr in natural coral, and their variations versus time after implantation in the metaphysis femur. The analysis of these atomic elements allows the study of coral resorption and apatite formation kinetics in coral, in cortical and in spongy bone with two different animal species. (authors). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Study pf apatite accurrence from Gaviao and Serra de Jacabina gold deposit by scintillometry and gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, P.T.

    1974-01-01

    This work presents the results of radiogeologic reconnaissance in the Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Pre-Cambrian formations, localized between Salvador and Miguel Calmon, and of the radiogeologic detail study from areas of the radioactive anomalies: Gaviao in the Riacho do Lacuipe and Canavieira Mine, in the Jacobina, Bahia States Scintilometry and gamma spectrometry results make possible to conclude by the association, in the Gaviao's apatite mineralization with throrium and the gold of the Serra de Corrego's conglamerate with uranium, make possible in the both case, orient the Search and the mining by scintilometry. The petrographic study and the radiactivity elements dispersion, suggest a sedimentary primary origin to the regional metamorphic rocks. In the Canavieiras mine was evident the stratigraphic control of the gold, associated to uranium and pirite in the conglomerates. (C.D.G.) [pt

  14. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  15. Stable isotope (C, O) and monovalent cation fractionation upon synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyl apatite (CHAP) via calcite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Wacker, Ulrike; Conrad, Anika C.; Grathoff, Georg; Schmidt, Burkhard; Bahlo, Rainer; Gehlken, Peer-L.; Fiebig, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing hydroxyl-apatite (CHAP) is of fundamental and applied interest to the (bio)geochemical, paleontological, medical and material science communities, since it forms the basic mineral phase in human and animal teeth and bones. In addition, it is found in non-biogenic phosphate deposits. The stable isotope and foreign element composition of biogenic CHAP is widely used to estimate the formation conditions. This requires careful experimental calibration under well-defined boundary conditions. Within the DFG project EXCALIBOR, synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite was conducted via the transformation of synthetic calcite powder in aqueous solution as a function of time, pH, and temperature using batch-type experiments. The aqueous solution was analyzed for the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbonate (gas irmMS), the oxygen isotope composition of water (LCRDS), and the cationic composition. The solid was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, micro Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, elemental analysis (EA, ICP-OES) and gas irmMS. Temperature was found to significantly impact the transformation rate of calcite to CHAP. Upon complete transformation, CHAP was found to contain up to 5% dwt carbonate, depending on the solution composition (e.g., pH), both incorporated on the A and B type position of the crystal lattice. The oxygen isotope fractionation between water and CHAP decreased with increasing temperature with a tentative slope shallower than those reported in the literature for apatite, calcite or aragonite. In addition, the presence of dissolved NH4+, K+ or Na+ in aqueous solution led to partial incorporation into the CHAP lattice. How these distortions of the crystal lattice may impact stable isotope discrimination is subject of future investigations.

  16. Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (Sergipe-Alagoas basins. Samples from the Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

  17. Phanerozoic polycyclic evolution of the southwestern Angola margin: New insights for apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio da Silva, Bruno; Hackspacher, Peter; Carina Siqueira Ribeiro, Marli; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2016-04-01

    The low-temperature thermochronology has been an important tool to quantify geological process in passive continental margins. In this context, the Angolan margin shows evidence of a polycyclic post-rift evolution marked by different events of uplift, basin inversion and changes in sedimentation rates to the marginal basins, which have controlled the salt tectonics and the hydrocarbon deposits (1,2,3,4). To understand the post break-up evolution of the southwestern Angola margin, it were collected outcrop samples for apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He analysis ranging in elevation from 79 m to 1675 m from the coast toward the interior plateau in a profile between Namibe and Lubango cities. The area lies on the edge of Central and Southern Atlantic segments a few kilometers northward the Walvis ridge and encompasses the Archean and Proterozoic basement rocks of the Congo craton. The AFT ages ranging from 120.6 ± 8.9 Ma to 328.8 ± 28.5 Ma and they show a trend of increasing age toward the Great Escarpment with some exceptions. The partial mean track lengths (MTLs) vary between 11.77 ± 1.82 μm to 12.34 ± 1.13 μm with unimodal track length distributions (TDLs). The partial (U-Th)/He ages ranging from 104.85 ± 3.15 Ma to 146.95 ± 4.41 Ma and show the same trend of increasing ages landward, little younger than the AFT ages, which could be interpreted as a fast exhumation episode in Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous times. The thermal histories modelling has been constrained with the kinetic parameters Dpar (5) and c-axis angle (6) by the software Hefty (7). Both AFT and (U-Th)/He thermal histories modelling indicate three episodes of denudation/uplift driven cooling: (a) from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, (b) a smallest one in the Late Cretaceous and (c) from Oligocene-Miocene to recent, which are compatible with geophysical data of the offshore Namibe basin that estimate the greater thickness of sediments formed in the first and third episodes

  18. Experimental Study into the Partitioning Behavior of Fluorine, Chlorine, Hydroxyl, and Sulfur (S2-) Between Apatite and a Synthetic Kreep Basalt Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Amber; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen; McCubbin, Francis; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    The mineral apatite (Ca5 (PO4)3(F, Cl, OH)) is known for its ability to constrain the petrogenesis of the rock in which it is hosted and for its ubiquity throughout the Solar System, as it is found in lunar, martian, and terrestrial rocks alike (McCubbin et. al, 2015). The abundance of volatile elements, and for this particular study, the elevated abundance of sulfur (S2-) in high-Al basalt samples bearing apatite, could provide more insight for inquiries posed about the behavior of volatiles in lunar and martian magmatic systems (Boyce et. al, 2010). Oxygen fugacity will be an important parameter for these experiments, as the Moon, Mars, and Earth have different redox states (Herd, 2008). The objective of this experimental endeavor is to determine apatite-melt partition coefficients for the volatile elements (F-, Cl-, OH-, S2-) that make up the X-site (i.e., the typically monovalent anion site) in the mineral apatite in a lunar melt composition under lunar oxygen fugacity conditions approx.1-2 log units below the iron-wüstite buffer). All experiments will be conducted at NASA, Johnson Space Center in the High Pressure Experimental Petrology Laboratory. In order to conduct apatite-melt partition experiments with oxygen fugacity as an additional parameter, we will create a synthetic mix of the lunar KREEP basalt 15386, a sample retrieved during Apollo 15 that is believed to represent an indigenous volcanic melt derived from the lunar interior (Rhodes, J.M et. al, 2006). Other geochemically significant elements including C, Co, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements will be included in the mix at trace abundances in order to assess their partitioning behavior without effecting the overall behavior of the system. The synthetic mix will then be loaded into a piston cylinder, an apparatus used to simulate high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of planetary interiors, and exposed to 0.5 GPa of pressure, the pressure observed in the upper mantle of the Moon, and heated to

  19. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  20. Implications of land disturbance on drinking water treatability in a changing climate: demonstrating the need for "source water supply and protection" strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin D; Stone, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    Forests form the critical source water areas for downstream drinking water supplies in many parts of the world, including the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Large scale natural disturbances from wildfire and severe insect infestation are more likely because of warming climate and can significantly impact water quality downstream of forested headwaters regions. To investigate potential implications of changing climate and wildfire on drinking water treatment, the 2003 Lost Creek Wildfire in Alberta, Canada was studied. Four years of comprehensive hydrology and water quality data from seven watersheds were evaluated and synthesized to assess the implications of wildfire and post-fire intervention (salvage-logging) on downstream drinking water treatment. The 95th percentile turbidity and DOC remained low in streams draining unburned watersheds (5.1 NTU, 3.8 mg/L), even during periods of potential treatment challenge (e.g., stormflows, spring freshet); in contrast, they were elevated in streams draining burned (15.3 NTU, 4.6 mg/L) and salvage-logged (18.8 NTU, 9.9 mg/L) watersheds. Persistent increases in these parameters and observed increases in other contaminants such as nutrients, heavy metals, and chlorophyll-a in discharge from burned and salvage-logged watersheds present important economic and operational challenges for water treatment; most notably, a potential increased dependence on solids and DOC removal processes. Many traditional source water protection strategies would fail to adequately identify and evaluate many of the significant wildfire- and post-fire management-associated implications to drinking water "treatability"; accordingly, it is proposed that "source water supply and protection strategies" should be developed to consider a suppliers' ability to provide adequate quantities of potable water to meet demand by addressing all aspects of drinking water "supply" (i.e., quantity, timing of availability, and quality) and their relationship

  1. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  2. Multistage tectonic block movements in the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain) since late Paleozoic assed by apatite and zircon fission-track, and (U-Th)/He. 27th assembly of the European Geophysical Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juez-Larré, J.; Andriessen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Multistage tectonic block movements in the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain) since late Paleozoic assed by apatite and zircon fission-track, and (U-Th)/He. 27th assembly of the European Geophysical Society

  3. On Grounds of the Memory Effect in Amorphous and Crystalline Apatite: Kinetics of Crystallization and Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskoković, Vuk; Tang, Sean; Wu, Victoria M

    2018-04-17

    Memory effects, despite being intrinsic to biological systems, are rarely potentiated in biomaterials. By exploring the transition between amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) from different empirical angles, here, we attempt to set the basis for elicitation of structural memory effects in CPs. Two CPs precipitated under different degrees of saturation (DS), yielding HAp at a low DS and ACP at a high DS, were shown to evolve into structures with a high level of crystallographic similarity after their prolonged aging in the solution and served as the basis for this study. Amorphous-to-crystalline transition was abrupt in both precipitates, indicating an autocatalytic process preceded by considerable nucleation lag times, but it was more dynamic and proceeded in multiple stages in the precipitate formed at a higher DS, involving a greater degree of lattice rearrangements. ACP was found to exist in one of the two stoichiometrically and crystallographically different forms, one of which, amounting to ≥60 wt %, resembled tricalcium phosphate and transformed to HAp through the surface dissolution/reprecipitation mechanism and the other one, amounting to ≤20 wt %, was apatitic, enabling the transformation of ACP to HAp via martensitic, bulk lattice reordering phenomena. Large density of stacking faults was responsible for the comparatively high lattice strain, the property to which biogenic apatite owes its ability to accommodate foreign ions and act as a mineral reservoir for the body. Being the precursor for biogenic apatite during biomineralization and a thermodynamically logical intermediate in the ripening of HAp per the Ostwald law of stages, ACP proved to be more prone to structural transformation than the final and the most stable of the CP phases in this sequence of events: HAp. Amorphized upon gelation, two CPs transformed into HAp, albeit at different rates, which were higher for the material that had been crystalline prior to

  4. Comparison of two bond strength testing methodologies for bilayered all-ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dundar, Mine; Ozcan, Mutlu; Gokce, Bulent; Comlekoglu, Erhan; Leite, Fabiola; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    Objectives. This study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) and microtensile (MTBS) testing methodologies for core and veneering ceramics in four types of all-ceramic systems. Methods. Four different ceramic veneer/core combinations, three of which were feldspathic and the other a fluor-apatite to

  5. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  6. Uplift along the Salt Lake sediment of the Wasatch fault from apatite and zircon fission track dating in the Little Cottonwood stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowallis, B.J.; Ferguson, J.; Jorgensen, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Apatite from granite samples out of the Little Cottonwood stock of north-central Utah range in age from about 7 Ma at 1500 m elevation to about 11 Ma at 3500 m elevation and give an uplift rate of 0.68 mm yr -1 during this time period. Zircons from some of the same samples range in age from about 9 Ma at 1500 m elevation to 20 Ma at 3500 m, and probably represent an uplifted partial annealing zone. The uplift is associated with movement along the Wasatch fault which borders the stock on its western margin. The calculated uplift rates from the apatite ages in this study agree well with rates found by other workers along the central segments of the Wasatch fault using a variety of methods. (author)

  7. Characterization and potential application of pataua vegetable oil in apatite flotation; Caracterizacao e potencial aplicacao do oleo vegetal de pataua na floracao de apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, P.S. de; Mansur, H.S.; Peres, A.E.C., E-mail: eng.priscila.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The present research characterizes the Pataua palm (Oenocarpus bataua) oil regarding to its fatty acids profile and acidity index, and evaluates its use for apatite flotation. The Pataua oil evaluated is unsaturated e predominantly composed of cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid). The mineral sample characterization revealed a material composed by a fluoroapatite deficient in fluorine, a possibly result of isomorphic substitution, and with quartz and monazite inclusions. The analysis of the mineral after reagent conditioning, by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), pointed to the presence of characteristic bands of carbon chains and carboxylate group, suggesting the collector adsorption through the mechanisms of chemisorption and insoluble calcium salts precipitation. Thus, it is proposed the Pataua oil potential use in flotation systems aiming apatite recovery. (author)

  8. Mesozoic exhumation in the coastal region of NW Iberia: Preliminary constraints from apatite fission-track cooling ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Barbero, Luis; Menéndez-Duarte, Rosana; Fernández, Susana

    2013-04-01

    Apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Iberian Massif, along the northern coastal region in Galicia are presented. The study aims at unravelling the exhumation history of this higher topography coastal region, the so-called Rías Altas region, next to the northern Iberian margin. The rough topography region is bound to the south by the WNW-ESE trending As Pontes dextral strike-slip fault zone. This fault was active since ca. 30 Ma (Rupelian) up to ca. 21 Ma (Aquitanian). The area comprises mainly Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks from the hinterland of the Variscan orogen. A N-S AFT ages profile from the coast to the southern block of the As Pontes fault reveal progressively younger ages toward the south with the oldest ages (242 ± 12 Ma) located near the coast and the youngest age being 124 ± 7 Ma. The AFT ages at both sides of the As Pontes fault in samples taken at the same elevation are similar within error (124 ± 7and 127 ± 7 Ma) indicating that this strike-slip fault did not cause significant differential exhumation during Oligocene-Early Miocene times. Another important feature shown by these data is that the age-elevation relationship (AER) is negative, the youngest ages being located at the highest elevation (ca. 1000 m. a. s. l). This agrees with recent published data from the easternmost part of the present study area and is an indication of Post-Early Cretaceous long residence time within the upper 2 or 3 km of the crust at temperatures lower than those of the apatite partial annealing zone (60 to 120°C). We interpret the registered exhumation history as mostly related to rifting processes in Pre-Early Cretaceous times. Possibly recording surface processes associated to the two stage rifting episodes in the Triassic and in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous that culminated with formation of the north Iberian Margin. The negative AER suggests that since Early Cretaceous times the whole area underwent topographic changes

  9. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied

  10. Low Temperature Paleogene Thermal Evolution of the British Mountains using Apatite U-Th/He Dating, Northern Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, J. E.; Guest, B.; Schneider, D. A.; Lane, L.

    2014-12-01

    The age and rate of exhumation of the British Mountains is tied to the timing of deformation in the Beaufort Sea, an active site for hydrocarbon exploration. This region contains a large portion of North America's oil and gas reserves. The British Mountains, the eastern extent of the Brooks Range in Alaska, include Paleogene structures that are the onshore portion of the Beaufort fold belt. In the Beaufort Sea, deformation is dominated by thin-skinned folding and thrusting of Paleocene to